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Physical education

Erika Obikane, Tomohiro Shinozaki, Daisuke Takagi, Norito Kawakami
BACKGROUND: Childhood abuse is associated with adult suicidal behaviors, partially mediated by mental disorders. However, the direct effect of childhood abuse not mediated by mental disorders is uncertain because the same risk factors serve as mediators and confounders of mental disorders and suicidal behaviors. The aim of the study was to estimate the direct effect of childhood abuse not mediated by mental disorders on suicidal behaviors using marginal structural models. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data of Japanese adults in Tokyo and neighboring prefectures (The Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Chen Zhu, Xiaohui Zhang, Qiran Zhao, Qihui Chen
In genetics, heterosis refers to the phenomenon that cross-breeding within species leads to offspring that are genetically fitter than their parents and exhibit improved phenotypic characteristics. Based on the theory of heterosis and existing genetic evidence, offspring of "hybrid" marriages (spouses originating from different states/provinces/countries/areas), though relatively rare due to physical boundaries, may exhibit greater genetic fitness in terms of intelligence, height, or physical attractiveness (the "distance-performance" hypothesis)...
February 19, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
Waqas Hameed, Bilal Iqbal Avan
INTRODUCTION: Respectful and dignified healthcare is a fundamental right for every woman. However, many women seeking childbirth services, especially those in low-income countries such as Pakistan, are mistreated by their birth attendants. The aim of this epidemiological study was to estimate the prevalence of mistreatment and types of mistreatment among women giving birth in facility- and home-based settings in Pakistan in order to address the lack of empirical evidence on this topic...
2018: PloS One
Lois D Hedman, Lori Quinn, Kathleen Gill-Body, David A Brown, Myla Quiben, Nora Riley, Patricia L Scheets
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The APTA recently established a vision for physical therapists to transform society by optimizing movement to promote health and wellness, mitigate impairments, and prevent disability. An important element of this vision entails the integration of the movement system into the profession, and necessitates the development of movement system diagnoses by physical therapists. At this point in time, the profession as a whole has not agreed upon diagnostic classifications or guidelines to assist in developing movement system diagnoses that will consistently capture an individual's movement problems...
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Robert W Irwin, Jeffrey Smith, S Barry Issenberg
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the American Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (ABPMR) developed milestones for evaluation of resident physicians that include proper musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) examination of major joints. To date, there have been no published data demonstrating acquisition and retention of these skills and correlation with the milestone evaluation. The investigators developed and implemented a curriculum in musculoskeletal ultrasound examination for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) residents at a large academic medical center...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Romina Torres, Claudia Zajer, Marcela Menéndez, María José Canessa, Jaime Cerda, María Angélica Wietstruck, Pamela Zúñiga
INTRODUCTION: Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) occurs in 37% of adolescents and compromise their quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To measure the magnitude of the impact of the SME on the quality of life in adolescents. PATIENTS AND METHOD: We interviewed adolescents diagnosed with HMB between 10 and 18 years old and one of their guardians. PedsQL 4.0 generic core scale was applied to measure quality of life, its Proxy PedsQL 4.0 version was applied to the guardian and 3 more questions to adolescents about limitation of daily activities...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Shu-Ching Chen, Bing-Shen Huang, Chia-Yin Chung, Chien-Yu Lin, Kang-Hsing Fan, Joseph Tung-Chien Chang, Shu-Chen Wu
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a swallowing exercise education program (SEEP) on swallowing ability, depression, and dysphagia-specific health-related quality of life (QOL) in oral cavity cancer (OCC) patients. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized controlled study with two groups using a pre- and post-repeated measures design. A total of 76 participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 38) and a control group (n = 38)...
March 15, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Edward W Gregg, Ji Lin, Barbara Bardenheier, Haiying Chen, W Jack Rejeski, Xiaohui Zhuo, Andrea L Hergenroeder, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Anne L Peters, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Edward H Ip, Mark A Espeland
OBJECTIVE: The impact of weight loss intervention on disability-free life expectancy in adults with diabetes is unknown. We examined the impact of a long-term weight loss intervention on years spent with and without physical disability. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes age 45-76 years ( n = 5,145) were randomly assigned to a 10-year intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or diabetes support and education (DSE). Physical function was assessed annually for 12 years using the SF-36...
March 15, 2018: Diabetes Care
Briana L Moreland, Laura L Durbin, Judith D Kasper, Thelma J Mielenz
OBJECTIVES: To determine the characteristics of community-dwelling older adults receiving fall-related rehabilitation. Injurious falls cost billions of dollars each year in the United States and these costs are expected to rise. Fall-related rehabilitation can presumably decrease this burden. More needs to be known about the characteristics of older adults utilizing fall-related rehabilitation services. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of the fifth round (2015) of the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS)...
March 12, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Claire de Brie, Emmanuelle Piet, Patrick Chariot
BACKGROUND: Violence for educational purpose refers to a modality of education that includes threats, verbal abuse, physical abuse and humiliations. Twenty European countries, not including France, have abolished corporal punishment through explicit laws and regulations. The position of general practitioners in the screening and care of violence for educational purpose in France is unknown. In this study, we aimed to assess the representations of this form of violence among general practitioners...
March 12, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Lili Fan, Long Tan, Yanting Chen, Cong Du, Mei Zhu, Kunling Wang, Hongyan Wei, Wei Wang, Min Gao, Yixin Zhang, Tingkai Cui, Wen Chen, Jun Shen, Wanqi Zhang
Studies have shown that prevalence of thyroid nodules (TNs) has been increasing recently. However, the factors that may influence TN prevalence is not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to understand the prevalence of TNs and identify possible factors that are associated with the prevalence of TNs in Tianjin, China. Subjects aged 18 years or older were randomly collected and all subjects received thyroid ultrasonography, physical examination and questionnaires. Subjects (n = 2647) were divided into the case group in which the subjects had TNs and the control group in which the subjects did not have TNs...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Gesine Meyer, Klaus Badenhoop
An adrenal crisis (Addisonian crisis) is an acute life-threatening complication of adrenal insufficiency. It occurs when hydrocortisone demand is not met by supplementation in the context of an infection - often gastrointestinal, fever, trauma, acute psychological or physical stress. Symptoms of weakness, nausea, muscle/joint pain and drowsiness may develop out of robust health within few hours. If overlooked, treated too late, with insufficient dose or route of application, there exists a considerable risk of mortality...
March 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
E M Murtagh, A T Barnes, J McMullen, P J Morgan
OBJECTIVES: The majority of adolescent girls fail to meet public health guidelines for physical activity. Engaging mothers in the promotion of physical activity for their daughters may be an important strategy to facilitate behaviour change. The aim of this study was to use the behaviour change wheel (BCW) framework to design the components of an intervention to improve adolescent girls' physical activity. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study to inform intervention development...
March 12, 2018: Public Health
Linda D Cameron, Paul Carroll, W Kyle Hamilton
This phase II trial evaluated psychosocial and health outcomes of an intervention designed to improve emotion regulation skills in adults suffering from Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). The study utilized a pretest-posttest design in which 92 adults enrolled in the community-based program completed pretest measures, attended either a faith-based or secular version of the 12-week ACE Overcomers program, and then completed posttest measures. The theory-guided program involved group sessions providing education and skills training to improve emotion regulation, self-awareness, resilience, and social functioning...
March 12, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Kamil E Barbour, Susan Moss, Janet B Croft, Charles G Helmick, Kristina A Theis, Teresa J Brady, Louise B Murphy, Jennifer M Hootman, Kurt J Greenlund, Hua Lu, Yan Wang
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Doctor-diagnosed arthritis is a common chronic condition affecting an estimated 23% (54 million) of adults in the United States, greatly influencing quality of life and costing approximately $300 billion annually. The geographic variations in arthritis prevalence, health-related characteristics, and management among states and territories are unknown. Therefore, public health professionals need to understand arthritis in their areas to target dissemination of evidence-based interventions that reduce arthritis morbidity...
March 16, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
Jiyoung Hwang, Lisa Wang, Jodi Siever, Talia Del Medico, Charlotte A Jones
OBJECTIVES: Loneliness and social isolation (L&SI) are associated with physical and cognitive decline in older adults. Walk 'n' Talk for your Life (WTL) is a community-based program of socialization, health education, falls prevention exercise and walking for community-dwelling older adults. This qualitative study was done to gain further insight into the experience and impacts of the WTL on seniors' L&SI. METHODS: One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen participants who had completed the WTL ...
March 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
L Vincze, M E Rollo, M J Hutchesson, R Callister, C E Collins
BACKGROUND: A tailored approach to nutrition and physical activity advice can support women following childbirth in managing barriers (i.e. time and childcare) to making healthy lifestyle changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the implementation, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a personally tailored nutrition and exercise programme for postpartum women delivered via video-consultations by an accredited practising dietitian (APD) and accredited exercise physiologist (AEP)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
André O Werneck, Edilson S Cyrino, Paul J Collings, Enio R V Ronque, Célia L Szwarcwald, Luís B Sardinha, Danilo R Silva
BACKGROUND: This study describes the levels and patterns of television (TV) viewing in Brazilian adults and investigates associations of TV viewing with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. METHODS: Data from the Brazilian Health Survey, a nationally representative survey that was conducted in 2013 (N = 60,202 men and women aged ≥18 y), were used. Information regarding TV viewing, physician diagnoses of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease was collected via interview-administered questionnaire...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Kelley Newlin Lew, Julie Wagner, Omar Braizat
OBJECTIVE: The study's objective is to examine differences in mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanics adults with diabetes. DESIGN: A secondary analysis of 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data was conducted. A total of 26 states participated in the 2014 BRFSS core and optional diabetes models (n = 17,923). HRQOL was measured by the number of mentally and physically unhealthy days during the past month, respectively...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Futoshi Matsushita, Hirotaka Kida, Ken-Ichi Tabei, Chizuru Nakano, Keita Matsuura, Yuichiro Ii, Ryogen Sasaki, Akira Taniguchi, Yugo Narita, Masayuki Maeda, Masayuki Satoh, Hidekazu Tomimoto
Introduction: This study aims to investigate the association between the presence and frequency of cortical lesions (CLs), and the clinical and psychological features of multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: A total of 19 patients with MS were examined using double inversion recovery (DIR) sequences with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and classified into two groups: CL and non-CL. In-house software was used to quantitatively determine the atrophy of each brain region...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
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