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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933280/bone-imaging-in-prostate-cancer-the-evolving-roles-of-nuclear-medicine-and-radiology
#1
REVIEW
Gary J R Cook, Gurdip Azad, Anwar R Padhani
The bone scan continues to be recommended for both the staging and therapy response assessment of skeletal metastases from prostate cancer. However, it is widely recognised that bone scans have limited sensitivity for disease detection and is both insensitive and non-specific for determining treatment response, at an early enough time point to be clinically useful. We, therefore, review the evolving roles of nuclear medicine and radiology for this application. We have reviewed the published literature reporting recent developments in imaging bone metastases in prostate cancer, and provide a balanced synopsis of the state of the art...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933212/spontaneous-destructive-periodontitis-and-skeletal-bone-damage-in-transgenic-mice-carrying-a-human-shared-epitope-coding-hla-drb1-allele
#2
Prashasnika Gehlot, Sarah L Volk, Hector F Rios, Karl J Jepsen, Joseph Holoshitz
OBJECTIVE: Shared epitope (SE)-coding DRB1 alleles are associated with bone erosion in several diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontal disease (PD), but the underlying mechanism is unknown. We have recently identified the SE as an osteoclast-activating ligand. To better understand the biological effects of the SE in vivo, here we sought to determine whether it can facilitate spontaneous bone damage in naïve mice. METHODS: 3-month old naïve transgenic mice that carry the human SE-coding allele DRB1*04:01, or a SE-negative allele DRB1*04:02 were studied...
2016: RMD Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925188/a-human-3d-in-vitro-model-to-assess-the-relationship-between-osteoporosis-and-dissemination-to-bone-of-breast-cancer-tumour-cells
#3
F Salamanna, V Borsari, S Brogini, P Torricelli, S Cepollaro, M Cadossi, M Fini
Despite consistent improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for breast cancer, up to 40% of patients will develop bone metastases. To reduce the morbidity and complications related with bone metastases, it is imperative to reduce their etiological factors. Osteoporosis, being characterized by a sudden estrogen deficiency, may provide a favorable condition for bone metastasis. This work, using a humanized 3D in vitro model, aims at evaluating the relationship between osteoporosis and breast cancer-derived bone metastases...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923534/rapid-prototyped-patient-specific-guiding-implants-in-critical-mandibular-reconstruction
#4
Patricia Stoor, Anni Suomalainen, Karri Mesimäki, Risto Kontio
Large tumours of the mandible need immediate reconstruction to provide continuity of the mandible, satisfactory function of the jaw, as well as an acceptable aesthetic outcome. In this prospective study we described the immediate reconstruction of the mandible using computer aided design and 15 rapid prototyped patient specific implants (PSI) in 14 patients suffering from benign or malignant tumours demanding continuity resection of the mandible. The scaffold PSI was filled with β-tricalcium phosphate granules and autologous bone...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922432/mir-21-predicts-poor-prognosis-in-patients-with-osteosarcoma
#5
Xianfeng Ren, Yuqin Shen, Shuyun Zheng, JianYong Liu, Xin Jiang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: miR-21 has been demonstrated to play an important role in tumour progression. The aim of the present study was to analyse the correlation between miR-21 expression level and clinicopathologic features, as well as to assess the prognostic significance of miR-21 in osteosarcoma. METHODS: Eighty-four pairs of osteosarcoma and corresponding non-cancerous bone tissues were obtained, and miR-21 expression levels were detected using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
October 2016: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910829/optimization-of-photon-beam-energies-in-gold-nanoparticle-enhanced-arc-radiation-therapy-using-monte-carlo-methods
#6
B Koger, C Kirkby
As a recent area of development in radiation therapy, gold nanoparticle (GNP) enhanced radiation therapy has shown potential to increase tumour dose while maintaining acceptable levels of healthy tissue toxicity. In this study, the effect of varying photon beam energy in GNP enhanced arc radiation therapy (GEART) is quantified through the introduction of a dose scoring metric, and GEART is compared to a conventional radiotherapy treatment. The PENELOPE Monte Carlo code was used to model several simple phantoms consisting of a spherical tumour containing GNPs (concentration: 15 mg Au g(-1) tumour, 0...
December 2, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909132/myxofibrosarcoma-of-the-extremity-and-trunk-a-multidisciplinary-approach-leads-to-good-local-rates-of-local-control
#7
C G Ghazala, N R Agni, M Ragbir, P Dildey, D Lee, K S Rankin, T B Beckingsale, C H Gerrand
AIMS: Myxofibrosarcomas (MFSs) are malignant soft-tissue sarcomas characteristically presenting as painless slowly growing masses in the extremities. Locally infiltrative growth means that the risk of local recurrence is high. We reviewed our experience to make recommendations about resection strategies and the role of the multidisciplinary team in the management of these tumours. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with a primary or recurrent MFS who were treated surgically in our unit between 1997 and 2012 were included in the study...
December 2016: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909131/mri-appearances-of-atypical-cartilaginous-tumour-grade-i-chondrosarcoma-after-treatment-by-curettage-phenolisation-and-allografting-recommendations-for-follow-up
#8
S H M Verdegaal, C S van Rijswijk, H F C Brouwers, P D S Dijkstra, M A J van de Sande, P C W Hogendoorn, A H M Taminiau
AIMS: The purpose of this retrospective study was to differentiate between the MRI features of normal post-operative change and those of residual or recurrent disease after intralesional treatment of an atypical cartilage tumour (ACT)/grade I chondrosarcoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the case notes, radiology and histology of 75 patients, who had been treated for an ACT/grade I chondrosarcoma by curettage, phenolisation and bone allografting between 1994 and 2005...
December 2016: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907940/ct-guided-percutaneous-spine-biopsy-in-suspected-infection-or-malignancy-a-study-of-214-patients
#9
J Rehm, S Veith, M Akbar, H U Kauczor, M A Weber
Purpose: To retrospectively determine the effectiveness and accuracy of CT-guided percutaneous biopsy of malignant and inflammatory bone lesions of the spine and to assess the reliability of pre-biopsy CT and MRI. Materials and Methods: 214 patients with lesions of the spine, which were suspicious either for being malignant or inflammatory, underwent CT-guided biopsy for pathological and/or microbiological detection. Biopsy samples were sent for histological examination in 128/214 patients, for microbiological analysis in 17/214 patients and for both analyses in 69/214 patients...
December 2016: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907211/characterization-and-immunomodulatory-effects-of-canine-adipose-tissue-and-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#10
Keith A Russell, Natalie H C Chow, David Dukoff, Thomas W G Gibson, Jonathan LaMarre, Dean H Betts, Thomas G Koch
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) hold promise for both cell replacement and immune modulation strategies owing to their progenitor and non-progenitor functions, respectively. Characterization of MSC from different sources is an important and necessary step before clinical use of these cells is widely adopted. Little is known about the biology and function of canine MSC compared to their mouse or human counterparts. This knowledge-gap impedes development of canine evidence-based MSC technologies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906175/impaired-haematopoietic-stem-cell-differentiation-and-enhanced-skewing-towards-myeloid-progenitors-in-aged-caspase-2-deficient-mice
#11
Swati Dawar, Nur Hezrin Shahrin, Nikolina Sladojevic, Richard J D'Andrea, Loretta Dorstyn, Devendra K Hiwase, Sharad Kumar
The apoptotic cysteine protease caspase-2 has been shown to suppress tumourigenesis in mice and its reduced expression correlates with poor prognosis in some human malignancies. Caspase-2-deficient mice develop normally but show ageing-related traits and, when challenged by oncogenic stimuli or certain stress, show enhanced tumour development, often accompanied by extensive aneuploidy. As stem cells are susceptible to acquiring age-related functional defects because of their self-renewal and proliferative capacity, we examined whether loss of caspase-2 promotes such defects with age...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901051/mycobacterium-avium-mav2054-protein-induces-macrophage-apoptosis-by-targeting-mitochondria-and-reduces-intracellular-bacterial-growth
#12
Kang-In Lee, Jake Whang, Han-Gyu Choi, Yeo-Jin Son, Haet Sal Jeon, Yong Woo Back, Hye-Soo Park, Seungwha Paik, Jeong-Kyu Park, Chul Hee Choi, Hwa-Jung Kim
Mycobacterium avium complex induces macrophage apoptosis. However, the M. avium components that inhibit or trigger apoptosis and their regulating mechanisms remain unclear. We recently identified the immunodominant MAV2054 protein by fractionating M. avium culture filtrate protein by multistep chromatography; this protein showed strong immuno-reactivity in M. avium complex pulmonary disease and in patients with tuberculosis. Here, we investigated the biological effects of MAV2054 on murine macrophages. Recombinant MAV2054 induced caspase-dependent macrophage apoptosis...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900230/giant-cell-tumour-of-proximal-phalanx-of-ring-finger-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#13
Rishit Soni, Chirag Kapoor, Malkesh Shah, Amit Patel, Paresh Golwala
Giant cell tumour (GCT) of bone arising from a phalanx of a finger is extremely rare. Only two percent of all reported GCTs are found in the hand, which show a higher rate of recurrence as compared to those occurring at a more proximal location. Here we report a rare case of giant cell tumour of proximal phalanx of the ring finger in a 20-year-old male, which was treated with extended curettage and bone grafting. After two years of follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic with complete functional recovery and no signs of recurrence...
October 18, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899805/circulating-tumour-dna-analysis-demonstrates-spatial-mutational-heterogeneity-that-coincides-with-disease-relapse-in-myeloma
#14
S Mithraprabhu, T Khong, M Ramachandran, A Chow, D Klarica, L Mai, S Walsh, D Broemeling, A Marziali, M Wiggin, J Hocking, A Kalff, B Durie, A Spencer
Mutational characterisation in multiple myeloma (MM) currently relies on bone marrow (BM) biopsy, which fails to capture the putative spatial and genetic heterogeneity of this multi-focal disease. Analysis of plasma (PL)-derived circulating free tumour DNA (ctDNA) as an adjunct to BM biopsy, for mutational characterisation and tracking disease progression, was evaluated. Paired BM MM cell DNA and ctDNA from 33 relapsed [RR] and 15 newly diagnosed [ND] patients were analysed for KRAS, NRAS, BRAF and TP53 mutations using the OnTarget™ Mutation Detection (OMD) platform...
November 30, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896639/seom-clinical-guideline-for-bone-metastases-from-solid-tumours-2016
#15
C Grávalos, C Rodríguez, A Sabino, M Á Seguí, J A Virizuela, A Carmona, J Cassinello, D Isla, C Jara, M Martín
Bone metastases are common in many advanced solid tumours, being breast, prostate, thyroid, lung, and renal cancer the most prevalent. Bone metastases can produce skeletal-related events (SREs), defined as pathological fracture, spinal cord compression, need of bone irradiation or need of bone surgery, and hypercalcaemia. Patients with bone metastases experience pain, functional impairment and have a negative impact on their quality of life. Several imaging techniques are available for diagnosis of this disease...
December 2016: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895949/primary-ewing-s-sarcoma-of-the-spine-in-a-two-year-old-boy
#16
Ali J Electricwala, Jaffer T Electricwala
Ewing's Sarcoma (ES) is a highly malignant bone tumour. It may involve any part of the skeleton but the most frequent parts are the ilium and diaphysis of femur and tibia (Alfeeli et al., 2005; Zhu et al., 2012). Primary ES of the spine is extremely rare (Yan et al., 2011). It accounts for only 3.5 to 14.9 percent of all primary bone sarcomas. The age of presentation ranges from 12 to 24 years (median 21 years) (Ferguson, 1999; Sharafuddin et al., 1992; Klimo Jr. et al., 2009). We report an unusual case of primary ES of the spine in a two-year-old boy, who presented to us with paraparesis and features of cauda equina syndrome...
2016: Case Reports in Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895787/runx2-expression-a-mesenchymal-stem-marker-for-cancer
#17
Maria Teresa Valenti, Paola Serafini, Giulio Innamorati, Anna Gili, Samuele Cheri, Claudio Bassi, Luca Dalle Carbonare
The transcription factor runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) is a master gene implicated in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, and thus serves a determinant function in bone remodelling and skeletal integrity. Various signalling pathways regulate Runx2 abundance, which requires a number of molecules to finely modulate its expression. Furthermore, this gene may be ectopically-expressed in cancer cells. Recent studies have reported the involvement of Runx2 in cell proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, apoptosis and metastatic processes, suggesting it may represent a useful therapeutic target in cancer treatment...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894960/cancer-stem-cells-in-osteosarcoma
#18
Hannah K Brown, Marta Tellez-Gabriel, Dominique Heymann
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumour in children and adolescents and advanced osteosarcoma patients with evidence of metastasis share a poor prognosis. Osteosarcoma frequently gains resistance to standard therapies highlighting the need for improved treatment regimens and identification of novel therapeutic targets. Cancer stem cells (CSC) represent a sub-type of tumour cells attributed to critical steps in cancer including tumour propagation, therapy resistance, recurrence and in some cases metastasis...
November 25, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894859/brown-tumour-in-phalanx-of-the-ring-finger-due-to-chronic-kidney-failure-a-case-report
#19
J E Forigua V, R A Brunicardi H, C A Morales V, M Del P Archila, D M Chaparro Rivera
Brown tumours are highly vascular lytic bone lesions found in primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. The brown term is given due to the red-brown colour of the tissue, which is due to the accumulation of hemosiderin. The case is presented of a 29 year-old male with chronic renal failure, who had a mass in the tip of the ring finger after a trauma of 4 months onset, which had increased progressively in size and pain. He was treated surgically, by amputation, with no recurrence 10 months after the surgery...
November 25, 2016: Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891485/ameloblastic-carcinoma-a-report-of-three-cases
#20
Sravya Kodati, Sumit Majumdar, Divya Uppala, Madhurya Namana
Malignant odontogenic tumours are rare and represent approximately 1% of all oral malignancies. Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare odontogenic tumour, which is aggressive in nature with extensive local bone destruction that has retained the features of ameloblastic differentiation and also exhibits cytological features of malignancy. It occurs primarily in the mandible in a wide range of age groups. It may arise de-novo or in pre-existing ameloblastoma or odontogenic cyst. The purpose of this report is to present three cases of ameloblastic carcinoma with varying presentations as central and peripheral entities...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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