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bone tumour

Apeksha Chaturvedi, R A C Dilhani Ranasinghe, Abhishek Chaturvedi, Steven P Meyers
BACKGROUND: Lesions involving the outer cortical surface of the bone occur quite often among children. Broadly, these include benign cortical, juxtacortical and periarticular lesions, dysplasias affecting the cortical bone, regional and diffuse periosteal pathology and malignant tumours. Some of these lesions are unique to the paediatric population; others are more frequently seen among children than adults - yet others have an adult predilection but can occasionally be seen in children...
October 19, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Caroline Wilson
The spread of breast cancer cells to bone and survival in this new metastatic environment is influenced not only by the genetic signature of the cells, but also multiple host cells and soluble factors produced locally (paracrine) or from distant sites (endocrine). Disrupting this metastatic process has been evaluated in clinical trials of the bone targeted agents bisphosphonates and denosumab and have shown that these agents reduce the recurrence of breast cancer in postmenopausal women only, suggesting the efficacy of the drugs are influenced by levels of reproductive endocrine hormones...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Sofia Sousa, Jorma Määttä
This overview addresses the recent research developments in the role of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) in bone metastasis biology and management of breast and prostate cancer as well as in primary and lung metastatic osteosarcoma. Immunosuppressive M2-type TAMs have been shown to associate with poor prognosis. Throughout their life cycle, macrophages (Macs) can adapt to environmental cues and influence the surroundings by secreting different cytokines and enzymes crucial to matrix remodelling, infection fighting, immune regulation and/or inflammation...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Penelope D Ottewell
The primary role of osteoblasts is to lay down new bone during skeletal development and remodelling. Throughout this process osteoblasts directly interact with other cell types within bone, including osteocytes and haematopoietic stem cells. Osteoblastic cells also signal indirectly to bone-resorbing osteoclasts via the secretion of RANKL. Through these mechanisms, cells of the osteoblast lineage help retain the homeostatic balance between bone formation and bone resorption. When tumour cells disseminate in the bone microenvironment, they hijack these mechanisms, homing to osteoblasts and disrupting bone homeostasis...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Emma V Morris, Claire M Edwards
Adipocytes are a significant component of the bone marrow microenvironment. Although bone marrow adipocytes were first identified more than 100 years ago, it is only in recent years that an understanding of their complex physiological role is emerging. Bone marrow adipocytes act as local regulators of skeletal biology and homeostasis, with recent studies suggesting that marrow adipose tissue is metabolically active, and can function as an endocrine organ. As such, bone marrow adipocytes have the potential to interact with tumour cells, influencing both tumour growth and bone disease...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Anjali P Kusumbe
The vasculature of the skeletal system regulates osteogenesis and hematopoiesis, in addition to its primary function as a transportation network. Recent studies suggest that the vasculature in bone regulates multiple steps involved in the metastatic cascade. Matrix and growth factor abundant vascular microenvironments in bone not only provide a fertile soil for the metastatic growth but also support the dormancy of Disseminated Tumour Cells (DTCs). Interestingly, vasculature also seems to direct the reactivation of dormant DTCs...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Alison Gartland, Janine T Erler, Thomas R Cox
Most deaths from solid cancers occur as a result of secondary metastasis to distant sites. Bone is the most frequent metastatic site for many cancer types and can account for up to 80% of cancer-related deaths in certain tumours. The progression from a discrete solid primary tumour to devastating and painful bone metastases is a complex process involving multiple cell types and steps. There is increasing evidence that modulation of the extracellular matrix plays an important role in the lethal transition from a primary to disseminated metastatic bone tumour...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
François Le Pape, Geoffrey Vargas, Philippe Clézardin
Breast cancer frequently metastasises to the skeleton, interfering with the normal bone remodelling process and inducing bone degradation. Bone degradation is caused by osteoclasts, the normal bone-resorbing cells. Osteoclast-mediated bone degradation subsequently leads to the release of bone-derived factors that promote skeletal tumour growth. Osteoclasts themselves stimulate tumour growth. This Review describes the molecular mechanisms through which osteoclasts and breast cancer cells collaborate with each other, triggering the formation of osteolytic bone metastasis...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Aharon M Feldman, Ziying Zhang, Thomas Buekers, Mohamed A Elshaikh
In contrast to multiple myeloma (MM) which exhibits diffuse bone marrow and other organ involvement, solitary plasmacytomas carry a favourable prognosis. Extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMP) are a unique form of plasma cell neoplasms. These tumours are rare in the female reproductive tract. Only 24 cases of gynaecologic plasmacytomas were reported to date (7 cases were solitary plasmacytomas and 17 cases were either part of disseminated MM with involvement of a gynaecologic organ or were lacking complete work-up to rule out MM)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Christian H Roux, Violaine Foltz, Emmanuel Maheu, Gabriel Baron, Frederique Gandjbakhch, Cédric Lukas, Daniel Wendling, Damien Loeuille, Pierre Lafforgue, Liana Euler-Ziegler, Pascal Richette, Xavier Chevalier
OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between clinical findings, biologic biomarkers, conventional radiography and MRI in patients with painful hand OA. METHODS: The following patient baseline data from the DORA study (evaluating anti-TNF-α agents against painful hand OA) were used: clinical assessment (pain, swelling, stiffness and function: Dreiser functional hand index [FIHOA] and Cochin hand functional scale [CHFS]); measurement of biomarkers (cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), type IIA collagen N-propeptid (PIINP), hyaluronic acid (HA), ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (usCRP), tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and urinary CTXII); radiological staging (Verbruggen, Kallman, Kellgren-Lawrence); anatomical evaluation by contrast-enhanced MRI of proximal and distal interphalangeal joints of dominant hand...
September 18, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Sumer N Shikhare, Wilfred Cg Peh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
Tuula M Eriksson, Richard M Day, Stefano Fedele, Vehid M Salih
Ameloblastoma is a rare, odontogenic neoplasm with benign histopathology, but extensive, local infiltrative capacity through the bone tissue it originates in. While the mechanisms of ameloblastoma invasion through the bone and bone absorption are largely unknown, recent investigations have indicated a role of the osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand regulatory mechanisms. Here, we present results obtained using a novel in vitro organotypic tumour model, which we have developed using tissue engineering techniques...
January 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering
Hannes A Rüdiger, Krzystof Piasecki, Fabio Becce, Stéphane Cherix
BACKGROUND: Surgical access to benign neoplastic lesions of the femoral head are associated with significant morbidity, including contamination of intra-osseous access tracks, articular cartilage lesions, avascular bone necrosis or tumour recurrence due to incomplete curettage. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 20-year-old female with a giant cell tumour in the femoral head, which was treated with curettage through a trans-foveal approach and bone grafting...
September 22, 2016: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
Zeeshan Khan, Adam M Gerrish, Robert J Grimer
INTRODUCTION: The scapula is not an uncommon site for bone and soft tissue tumours and can be difficult to delineate on examination. Furthermore, these lesions can be potentially challenging to biopsy due to its close anatomical relationship with important structures. We present an epidemiological survey of all the scapular and periscapular lesions presenting to our institution. METHODOLOGY: This was a retrospective study with data obtained from a prospectively held electronic database over a 30-year period...
2016: SICOT-J
R P Piggott, P S Waters, M J Kerin
BACKGROUND: Tumour metastatic disease reflects a complex interplay between tumour characteristics and local host factors. This complex relationship may have an influence on the development of metastatic disease and patient survival. Multiple factors of the primary tumour influence the development of metastases and survival in patients. Breast cancer subtype has been shown to influence patient prognosis and response to therapy. AIM: The aim of our study was to correlate breast cancer subtype with bony metastatic disease and patient survival...
October 12, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Pia Rantakari, Norma Jäppinen, Emmi Lokka, Elias Mokkala, Heidi Gerke, Emilia Peuhu, Johanna Ivaska, Kati Elima, Kaisa Auvinen, Marko Salmi
Macrophages are required for normal embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis and immunity against microorganisms and tumours. Adult tissue-resident macrophages largely originate from long-lived, self-renewing embryonic precursors and not from haematopoietic stem-cell activity in the bone marrow. Although fate-mapping studies have uncovered a great amount of detail on the origin and kinetics of fetal macrophage development in the yolk sac and liver, the molecules that govern the tissue-specific migration of these cells remain completely unknown...
October 12, 2016: Nature
Eyituoyo Okoturo
INTRODUCTION: Mandibular defect reconstruction is extremely important to achieving an improved quality of life of patients as this bony defect influences facial harmony and aesthetics. Reconstruction of mandibular defects at our centre comprises use of reconstruction plate, non-vascularised anterior iliac crest graft and vascularised fibula flap. Despite the large mandibular defect recorded in our developing environment, non-vascularised iliac crest graft continues to play a role in its exclusive use for lateral mandibular defects...
October 10, 2016: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Sira Carrasco García de León, José Manuel Flores Barragán, Natalia Villasanti Rivas
Sacrococcygeal chordoma is a malignant tumour originating from remnants of the notochord. Chordomas are slow-growing tumours whose symptoms develop insidiously. We present the case of a 72-year-old woman with a 6-month history of genital pain radiating to the perianal area and exacerbating when she was in a sitting position. MRI and PET studies revealed a large mass in the sacrococcygeal region causing bone destruction and invasion of neurovascular structures. The immunohistochemical study of the surgical specimen determined it to be chordoma...
May 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
N-X Bonne, F Dubrulle, M Risoud, C Vincent
The surgical management of skull base lesions is difficult due to the complex anatomy of the region and the intimate relations between the lesion and adjacent nerves and vessels. Minimally invasive approaches are increasingly used in skull base surgery to ensure an optimal functional prognosis. Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) reconstruction facilitates surgical planning by visualizing the anatomical relations of the lesions in all planes (arteries, veins, nerves, inner ear) and simulation of the surgical approach in the operating position...
October 5, 2016: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
André Struglics, Marcin Okroj, Per Swärd, Richard Frobell, Tore Saxne, L Stefan Lohmander, Anna M Blom
BACKGROUND: The complement system is suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA), and proinflammatory cytokines may play a role in OA development by inducing proteases. The association between complement factors, cytokines and OA has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to explore the involvement of the complement system after knee trauma and in OA. METHODS: C4d, C3bBbP and soluble terminal complement complex (sTCC) resulting from complement activation were immunoassayed in synovial fluid from subjects with healthy knees (reference), OA, rheumatoid arthritis (RA; positive control), pyrophosphate arthritis (PPA; positive control) and knee injury; other biomarkers were previously assessed...
October 6, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
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