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Thyroid gland volume in children

Saeed Kalantari, Masrur Vahabi Moghadam
BACKGROUND: Few studies have shown the limitation of the World Health Organization (WHO)/ International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency (ICCIDD)-adopted thyroid gland volume references as universal normative values for thyroid gland volume. So we decided to measure thyroid gland volume by sonography in schoolchildren in Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran - Rasht is a metropolitan city on the Caspian Sea coast - and compare them to WHO normative values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 2,522 schoolchildren, aged 6-13 years, in Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran were selected by multistage random sampling...
November 2015: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
S D Joustra, C A Heinen, N Schoenmakers, M Bonomi, B E P B Ballieux, M-O Turgeon, D J Bernard, E Fliers, A S P van Trotsenburg, M Losekoot, L Persani, J M Wit, N R Biermasz, A M Pereira, W Oostdijk
Clinical and biochemical characteristics of 69 male patients and 56 female IGSF1 mutation carriers were collected, providing recommendations for mutational analysis, endocrine work-up, and long-term care.
April 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Lakshminarasimhan Sindhuja, Devi Dayal, Kushaljit Singh Sodhi, Naresh Sachdeva, Anish Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: Familial clustering in patients with permanent congenital hypothyroidism (CH) caused by thyroid dysgenesis (TD) has been reported in developed countries. There is no information on familial TD from developing countries. METHODS: A total of 312 first degree relatives belonging to 80 families of children with TD (group 1) and 40 families of age-matched normal children (group 2) were screened by thyroid ultrasonography, serum total thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)...
May 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
André Lollert, Christina Gies, Katharina Laudemann, Jörg Faber, Dorothee Jacob-Heutmann, Jochem König, Christoph Düber, Gundula Staatz
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate correlations between treatment of malignancy by radiation therapy during childhood and the occurrence of thyroid gland pathologies detected by ultrasonography in follow-up examinations. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Reductions of thyroid gland volume below 2 standard deviations of the weight-specific mean value, occurrence of ultrasonographically detectable thyroid gland pathologies, and hypothyroidism were retrospectively assessed in 103 children and adolescents 7 months to 20 years of age (median: 7 years of age) at baseline (1997-2013) treated with chemoradiation therapy (with the thyroid gland dose assessable) or with chemotherapy alone and followed by ultrasonography and laboratory examinations through 2014 (median follow-up time: 48 months)...
January 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Tim I M Korevaar, Ryan Muetzel, Marco Medici, Layal Chaker, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Yolanda B de Rijke, Eric A P Steegers, Theo J Visser, Tonya White, Henning Tiemeier, Robin P Peeters
BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormone is involved in the regulation of early brain development. Since the fetal thyroid gland is not fully functional until week 18-20 of pregnancy, neuronal migration and other crucial early stages of intrauterine brain development largely depend on the supply of maternal thyroid hormone. Current clinical practice mostly focuses on preventing the negative consequences of low thyroid hormone concentrations, but data from animal studies have shown that both low and high concentrations of thyroid hormone have negative effects on offspring brain development...
January 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Anelise de Almeida Sedassari, Luis Ronan Marquez Ferreira de Souza, Nathalie de Almeida Sedassari, Maria de Fátima Borges, Heloisa Marcelina da Cunha Palhares, Genésio Borges de Andrade Neto
OBJECTIVE: To establish benchmarks and study some sonographic characteristics of the thyroid gland in a group of euthyroid children aged up to 5 years as compared with age-matched children with congenital hypothyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six children (17 female and 19 male) aged between 2 months and 5 years were divided into two groups - 23 euthyroid children and 13 children with congenital hypothyroidism - and were called to undergo ultrasonography...
July 2015: Radiologia Brasileira
Sana El-Fadeli, Sabir Bouhouch, Anatoly V Skalny, Yassir Barkouch, Alain Pineau, Mohamed Cherkaoui, Azeddine Sedki
The major environmental factor that determines goiter prevalence is iodine status. However, other trace elements like selenium and zinc can influence the thyroid function. Hair samples (n = 68) were collected from goitrous and non-goitrous children aged 8-12 years living in the area of Al Haouz Marrakech-(Morocco). Trace element concentrations (Cr, Fe, Mg, Zn, Se, I) in hair were measured using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
April 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Helmuth G Dörr, Markus Bettendorf, Gerhard Binder, Beate Karges, Carolin Kneppo, Heinrich Schmidt, Egbert Voss, Martin Wabitsch, Jörg Dötsch
BACKGROUND: Levothyroxine (L-T4) treatment of euthyroid children with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is a controversial issue. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Out of 79 identified euthyroid patients, 59 started the study; 25 patients (21 female, 4 male; age: 11.8 ± 2.3 years) received L-T4 at a mean dose of 1.6 µg/kg (SD, 0.8) daily, and 34 (27 female, 7 male; age: 12.6 ± 1.2 years) were not treated. Patients developing subclinical hypothyroidism during follow-up (n = 13) were treated with L-T4 and removed from the observation group...
2015: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Shengmin Lu, Dong Xu, Yuchun Wang, Yonggui Du, Lihui Jia, Suoli Liang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the changes of goiter prevalence of children living in areas with high iodine in drinking water after removing iodized salt from their diet. METHODS: Three towns with median water iodine of 150 - 300 μg/L were selected randomly in Hengshui city of Hebei province of China. A total of 452 and 459 children in the 3 towns were randomly selected to measure thyroid volume by ultrasound before and after removing iodized salt, respectively. Their goiter status was judged using the criteria of age-specific thyroid volume recommended by the WHO...
May 2015: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Arkadiusz Zygmunt, Agnieszka Zygmunt, Małgorzata Karbownik-Lewińska, Andrzej Lewiński
INTRODUCTION: It has always been very difficult to precisely define a goitre. For years, the borderline values have been sought which could be universally used in such evaluations. However, presented reference values were very often disappointing as they proved to be either too restrictive or too liberal. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the two methods of goitre evaluation: 1) traditional, based on ultrasound reference ranges for the thyroid size, 2) based on the analysis of thyroid volume (V) referred to the body surface area (BSA)...
2015: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Na Wang, Pu Liu, Qi Zhao, Yanping Zhao, Feng Jiang, Hong Fang, Chaowei Fu, Huilin Xu, Hexing Wang, Yujie Yan, Ying Zhou, Qingwu Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between thyroid volume and physical growth of school-age children, and to compare volume indexes of individual thyroids for reference of selection of assessment indicators. METHODS: All the students of the 12 classes of grades 3-5 at a primary school in Minhang district, Shanghai were rounded up with a multi-stage cluster sampling, for physical examinations to measure their height, weight, Body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA), followed by B-ultrasonography to measure their thyroid volume...
March 2015: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Satoru Suzuki, Sanae Midorikawa, Toshihiko Fukushima, Hiroki Shimura, Tetsuya Ohira, Akira Ohtsuru, Masafumi Abe, Yoshisada Shibata, Shunichi Yamashita, Shinichi Suzuki
Although several reports have defined normal thyroid volume depending on either age or body surface, there are no sequential reference values on childhood thyroid volume evaluated by using ultrasonography and epidemiological analysis in Japan. The aim of the present study was to establish updated reference values for thyroid volume by ultrasound examination and epidemiological analysis in 0-19 year-old Japanese children. It is based on a cross-sectional study conducted from October 9, 2011 to March 31, 2012...
2015: Endocrine Journal
S C Clement, R R van Rijn, B L F van Eck-Smit, A S P van Trotsenburg, H N Caron, G A M Tytgat, H M van Santen
PURPOSE: Treatment with (131)I-MIBG is associated with significant thyroid damage. This study was undertaken to investigate the long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis, to explore the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and thyroid volume after exposure to (131)I-MIBG and to evaluate the possible negative effects of (131)I(-) on the parathyroid glands. METHODS: Of 81 long-term surviving patients with neuroblastoma treated with (131)I-MIBG during the period 1999-2012, 24 were finally evaluated...
April 2015: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Johannes Boos, Patric Kröpil, Dirk Klee, Philipp Heusch, Lars Schimmöller, Jörg Schaper, Gerald Antoch, Rotem S Lanzman
BACKGROUND: Organ-specific dose reduction significantly reduces the radiation exposure of radiosensitive organs. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a novel organ-specific dose reduction algorithm on image quality of pediatric chest CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 28 children (mean age 10.9 ± 4.8 years, range 3-18 years) who had contrast-enhanced chest CT on a 128-row scanner. CT was performed at 100 kV using automated tube current modulation and a novel organ-specific dose-reduction algorithm (XCare™; Siemens, Forchheim, Germany)...
September 2014: Pediatric Radiology
Nidhi Jaiswal, Alida Melse-Boonstra, Surjeet Kaur Sharma, Krishnamachari Srinivasan, Michael B Zimmermann
OBJECTIVE: To compare the iodine status of pregnant women and their children who were sharing all meals in Bangalore, India. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study evaluating demographic characteristics, household salt iodine concentration and salt usage patterns, urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in women and children, and maternal thyroid volume (ultrasound). SETTING: Antenatal clinic of an urban tertiary-care hospital, which serves a low-income population...
February 2015: Public Health Nutrition
Maryam Moradi, Mahin Hashemipour, Shirin Akbari, Zahra Kor, Sayed Ali Mirbod, Mohammad Reza Kooshanmehr
BACKGROUND: Local reference data are needed in the screening of children for thyroid enlargement. We determined the thyroid gland volume using the ultrasonography (US) in schoolchildren of Isfahan, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 360 schoolchildren (59% girls) aged 8-15 years who met the study criteria were entered the study. Clinical grading of goiter was performed by an endocrinologist according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. Then, a single expert radiologist performed thyroid volume measurement using a portable ultrasound device...
2014: Advanced Biomedical Research
Yang Liu, Hui Huang, Jing Zeng, Chengjun Sun
BACKGROUND: Selenium (Se) is a necessary element for the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. We investigated the relationship between selenium status, thyroid volume, and goiter in a cross-sectional study in an iodine-sufficient area. METHODS: We selected residents of Chengdu (over 18 years old and living in the city for more than 5 years) using a stratified cluster sampling technique. Fifteen hundred subjects were selected for the study, which involved a questionnaire survey, physical examination, thyroid ultrasound, serum thyroid function test, and determination of serum selenium level...
December 10, 2013: BMC Public Health
Rasha T Hamza, Doaa H Hewedi, Mahmoud T Sallam
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Because autism may be a disease of early fetal brain development, maternal hypothyroxinemia (HT) in early pregnancy secondary to iodine deficiency (ID) may be related to etiology of autism. The aim of the study was to assess the iodine nutritional status in Egyptian autistic children and their mothers and its relationship with disease characteristics. METHODS: Fifty autistic children and their mothers were studied in comparison to 50 controls...
October 2013: Archives of Medical Research
Peter N Taylor, Onyebuchi E Okosieme, Colin M Dayan, John H Lazarus
BACKGROUND: Although the detrimental effects of severe iodine deficiency are well recognised, the benefits of correcting mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency are uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We undertook a systematic review of the impact of iodine supplementation in populations with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. METHODS: We searched Medline and the Cochrane library for relevant articles published between January 1966 and April 2013, which investigated the effect of iodine supplementation on maternal and newborn thyroid function, infant neurodevelopment and cognitive performance in school-age children...
January 2014: European Journal of Endocrinology
Y Zou, G Ding, X Lou, W Zhu, G Mao, J Zhou, Z Mo
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to compare children's thyroid volume (Tvol) by age and gender in Zhejiang province in order to explore the factors influencing Tvol in this area. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This survey was a cross-sectional survey of a provincial representative sample of Zhejiang province children aged 6-12 years. The children were asked to provide a urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and thyroid ultrasonography was performed for the determination of Tvol...
November 2013: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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