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Thyroid gland volume in children

Sudha Rathna Prabhu, Shriraam Mahadevan, Sujatha Jagadeesh, Dharani Dharan, Chandra Ganesh, Seshadri Suresh, Indrani Suresh
OBJECTIVE: To establish normative ultrasound data for thyroid gland volume in South Indian neonates and infants and compare with abnormal sonological features of thyroid in congenital hypothyroidism (CH) to explore thyroid ultrasound utility as a supportive screening tool to newborn screening programs for early detection of CH. METHODS: In view of impact of geo ethnic factors, varying growth velocities and body mass indices of human population worldwide, specific regional, age and gender related reference data for thyroid gland size and volume are vital...
February 9, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Meliksah Keskin, Elvan Bayramoglu, Zehra Aycan
BACKGROUND: There are different opinions about the effects of growth hormone replacement therapy (GHRT) on thyroid function and volume. This study aimed to assess the effects of GHRT on thyroid volume and function in the children and adolescents with growth hormone (GH) deficiency. METHODS: A total of 29 patients diagnosed with GH deficiency were enrolled in the study. The control group consisted of 29 cases matched for age, gender and pubertal period with the patients...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Satoru Suzuki, Sanae Midorikawa, Takashi Matsuzuka, Toshihiko Fukushima, Yuko Ito, Hiroki Shimura, Hideto Takahashi, Tetsuya Ohira, Akira Ohtsuru, Masafumi Abe, Shinichi Suzuki, Shunichi Yamashita
BACKGROUND: Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare congenital variant characterized by the lack of development of one thyroid lobe with no clinical manifestations. METHODS: This study was performed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of thyroid hemiagenesis in a normal Japanese population. This cross-sectional study was performed from October 9, 2011, to April 30, 2015. In total, 299,908 children and young adults in the Fukushima Health Management Survey were examined to determine the presence of thyroid agenesis or hemiagenesis...
August 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
R Heyes, A G Aulakh, R K Lingam, T Tatla
BACKGROUND: Pyriform fossa sinus tracts classically present with neck abscess, recurrent infections and suppurative thyroiditis in children; acute presentation in a geriatric patient is rare. METHODS: Case report and Medline literature review. CASE REPORT: A 79-year-old female presented with a left-sided neck mass and severe odynophagia of 3 days' duration. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large-volume, loculated fluid collection extending throughout the deep spaces of the neck on the left, within and around the thyroid gland capsule...
October 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Arkadiusz Zygmunt, Zbigniew Adamczewski, Agnieszka Zygmunt, Malgorzata Karbownik-Lewinska, Andrzej Lewinski
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Goitre incidence in school-aged children evaluated using ultrasonography is one of the essential indicators of iodine intake in a given area. The aim of the study was to examine what the difference is between the volume of the thyroid gland measured in the supine and sitting position and to determine the intra-observer, inter-observer, and inter-position variations. METHODS: The survey was conducted among 87 children (56 girls and 31 boys aged 7-13 years, mean age 10...
2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
K Kudabayeva, G Batyrova, Y Bazargaliyev, R Agzamova, A Nuftieva
Aim of research - analysis of content of microelements in hair of children with thyromegaly living in the West Kazakhstan region. 159 school children of 6-12 years constantly living in this region were studied. Thyroid volume was measured by ultrasonography using an ultrasound scanner and evaluated according to body surface area and the gender in accordance with the WHO recommendations (2007). Microelements were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on NexION 300D (PerkinElmer Inc., USA)...
February 2017: Georgian Medical News
Meltem Ceyhan Bilgici, Dilek Sağlam, Semra Delibalta, Serap Yücel, Leman Tomak, Muzaffer Elmalı
PURPOSE: Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging is a kind of shear wave elastography that can be used in children for differentiating thyroid pathologies. Possible changes in the healthy thyroid gland in children may create difficulties in the use of shear wave velocities (SWV) in thyroid pathologies. The aim of this study was to define the normal values of SWV for the healthy thyroid gland in children, elucidate the correlation of the SWV values with potential influencing factors, and evaluate intra-operator reproducibility of the SWV...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
Saeed Kalantari, Masrur Vahabi Moghadam
BACKGROUND: Few studies have shown the limitation of the World Health Organization (WHO)/ International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency (ICCIDD)-adopted thyroid gland volume references as universal normative values for thyroid gland volume. So we decided to measure thyroid gland volume by sonography in schoolchildren in Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran - Rasht is a metropolitan city on the Caspian Sea coast - and compare them to WHO normative values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 2,522 schoolchildren, aged 6-13 years, in Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran were selected by multistage random sampling...
November 2015: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
S D Joustra, C A Heinen, N Schoenmakers, M Bonomi, B E P B Ballieux, M-O Turgeon, D J Bernard, E Fliers, A S P van Trotsenburg, M Losekoot, L Persani, J M Wit, N R Biermasz, A M Pereira, W Oostdijk
Clinical and biochemical characteristics of 69 male patients and 56 female IGSF1 mutation carriers were collected, providing recommendations for mutational analysis, endocrine work-up, and long-term care.
April 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Lakshminarasimhan Sindhuja, Devi Dayal, Kushaljit Singh Sodhi, Naresh Sachdeva, Anish Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: Familial clustering in patients with permanent congenital hypothyroidism (CH) caused by thyroid dysgenesis (TD) has been reported in developed countries. There is no information on familial TD from developing countries. METHODS: A total of 312 first degree relatives belonging to 80 families of children with TD (group 1) and 40 families of age-matched normal children (group 2) were screened by thyroid ultrasonography, serum total thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)...
May 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
André Lollert, Christina Gies, Katharina Laudemann, Jörg Faber, Dorothee Jacob-Heutmann, Jochem König, Christoph Düber, Gundula Staatz
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate correlations between treatment of malignancy by radiation therapy during childhood and the occurrence of thyroid gland pathologies detected by ultrasonography in follow-up examinations. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Reductions of thyroid gland volume below 2 standard deviations of the weight-specific mean value, occurrence of ultrasonographically detectable thyroid gland pathologies, and hypothyroidism were retrospectively assessed in 103 children and adolescents 7 months to 20 years of age (median: 7 years of age) at baseline (1997-2013) treated with chemoradiation therapy (with the thyroid gland dose assessable) or with chemotherapy alone and followed by ultrasonography and laboratory examinations through 2014 (median follow-up time: 48 months)...
January 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Tim I M Korevaar, Ryan Muetzel, Marco Medici, Layal Chaker, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Yolanda B de Rijke, Eric A P Steegers, Theo J Visser, Tonya White, Henning Tiemeier, Robin P Peeters
BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormone is involved in the regulation of early brain development. Since the fetal thyroid gland is not fully functional until week 18-20 of pregnancy, neuronal migration and other crucial early stages of intrauterine brain development largely depend on the supply of maternal thyroid hormone. Current clinical practice mostly focuses on preventing the negative consequences of low thyroid hormone concentrations, but data from animal studies have shown that both low and high concentrations of thyroid hormone have negative effects on offspring brain development...
January 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Anelise de Almeida Sedassari, Luis Ronan Marquez Ferreira de Souza, Nathalie de Almeida Sedassari, Maria de Fátima Borges, Heloisa Marcelina da Cunha Palhares, Genésio Borges de Andrade Neto
OBJECTIVE: To establish benchmarks and study some sonographic characteristics of the thyroid gland in a group of euthyroid children aged up to 5 years as compared with age-matched children with congenital hypothyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six children (17 female and 19 male) aged between 2 months and 5 years were divided into two groups - 23 euthyroid children and 13 children with congenital hypothyroidism - and were called to undergo ultrasonography...
July 2015: Radiologia Brasileira
Sana El-Fadeli, Sabir Bouhouch, Anatoly V Skalny, Yassir Barkouch, Alain Pineau, Mohamed Cherkaoui, Azeddine Sedki
The major environmental factor that determines goiter prevalence is iodine status. However, other trace elements like selenium and zinc can influence the thyroid function. Hair samples (n = 68) were collected from goitrous and non-goitrous children aged 8-12 years living in the area of Al Haouz Marrakech-(Morocco). Trace element concentrations (Cr, Fe, Mg, Zn, Se, I) in hair were measured using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
April 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Helmuth G Dörr, Markus Bettendorf, Gerhard Binder, Beate Karges, Carolin Kneppo, Heinrich Schmidt, Egbert Voss, Martin Wabitsch, Jörg Dötsch
BACKGROUND: Levothyroxine (L-T4) treatment of euthyroid children with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is a controversial issue. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Out of 79 identified euthyroid patients, 59 started the study; 25 patients (21 female, 4 male; age: 11.8 ± 2.3 years) received L-T4 at a mean dose of 1.6 µg/kg (SD, 0.8) daily, and 34 (27 female, 7 male; age: 12.6 ± 1.2 years) were not treated. Patients developing subclinical hypothyroidism during follow-up (n = 13) were treated with L-T4 and removed from the observation group...
2015: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Shengmin Lu, Dong Xu, Yuchun Wang, Yonggui Du, Lihui Jia, Suoli Liang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the changes of goiter prevalence of children living in areas with high iodine in drinking water after removing iodized salt from their diet. METHODS: Three towns with median water iodine of 150 - 300 μg/L were selected randomly in Hengshui city of Hebei province of China. A total of 452 and 459 children in the 3 towns were randomly selected to measure thyroid volume by ultrasound before and after removing iodized salt, respectively. Their goiter status was judged using the criteria of age-specific thyroid volume recommended by the WHO...
May 2015: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Arkadiusz Zygmunt, Agnieszka Zygmunt, Małgorzata Karbownik-Lewińska, Andrzej Lewiński
INTRODUCTION: It has always been very difficult to precisely define a goitre. For years, the borderline values have been sought which could be universally used in such evaluations. However, presented reference values were very often disappointing as they proved to be either too restrictive or too liberal. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the two methods of goitre evaluation: 1) traditional, based on ultrasound reference ranges for the thyroid size, 2) based on the analysis of thyroid volume (V) referred to the body surface area (BSA)...
2015: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Na Wang, Pu Liu, Qi Zhao, Yanping Zhao, Feng Jiang, Hong Fang, Chaowei Fu, Huilin Xu, Hexing Wang, Yujie Yan, Ying Zhou, Qingwu Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between thyroid volume and physical growth of school-age children, and to compare volume indexes of individual thyroids for reference of selection of assessment indicators. METHODS: All the students of the 12 classes of grades 3-5 at a primary school in Minhang district, Shanghai were rounded up with a multi-stage cluster sampling, for physical examinations to measure their height, weight, Body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA), followed by B-ultrasonography to measure their thyroid volume...
March 2015: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Satoru Suzuki, Sanae Midorikawa, Toshihiko Fukushima, Hiroki Shimura, Tetsuya Ohira, Akira Ohtsuru, Masafumi Abe, Yoshisada Shibata, Shunichi Yamashita, Shinichi Suzuki
Although several reports have defined normal thyroid volume depending on either age or body surface, there are no sequential reference values on childhood thyroid volume evaluated by using ultrasonography and epidemiological analysis in Japan. The aim of the present study was to establish updated reference values for thyroid volume by ultrasound examination and epidemiological analysis in 0-19 year-old Japanese children. It is based on a cross-sectional study conducted from October 9, 2011 to March 31, 2012...
2015: Endocrine Journal
S C Clement, R R van Rijn, B L F van Eck-Smit, A S P van Trotsenburg, H N Caron, G A M Tytgat, H M van Santen
PURPOSE: Treatment with (131)I-MIBG is associated with significant thyroid damage. This study was undertaken to investigate the long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis, to explore the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and thyroid volume after exposure to (131)I-MIBG and to evaluate the possible negative effects of (131)I(-) on the parathyroid glands. METHODS: Of 81 long-term surviving patients with neuroblastoma treated with (131)I-MIBG during the period 1999-2012, 24 were finally evaluated...
April 2015: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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