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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454162/three-dimensional-electromagnetic-gaussian-schell-model-sources
#1
Olga Korotkova, Lutful Ahad, Tero Setälä
We introduce three-dimensional (3D) stationary, electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) sources in the space-frequency domain and derive the realizability conditions that the source parameters must obey. In particular, we extend to 3D GSM sources two approaches to the realizability conditions presented previously for beam-like GSM sources. The results are of interest in the analysis and synthesis of tunable non-paraxial, partially coherent, partially polarized light fields.
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454137/dynamic-stark-shift-induced-by-a-single-photon-packet
#2
D Valente, F Brito, T Werlang
The dynamic Stark shift results from the interaction of an atom with the electromagnetic field. We show how a propagating single-photon wave packet can induce a time-dependent dynamical Stark shift on a two-level system (TLS). A non-perturbative fully quantum treatment is employed, where the quantum dynamics of both the field and the TLS are analyzed. We also provide the means to experimentally access such time-dependent frequency by measuring the interference pattern in the electromagnetic field inside a 1D waveguide...
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454038/long-term-variations-measurement-of-electromagnetic-field-exposures-in-alcal%C3%A3-de-henares-spain
#3
R Sánchez-Montero, C Alén-Cordero, P L López-Espí, J M Rigelsford, F Aguilera-Benavente, J Alpuente-Hermosilla
Electromagnetic radiowave exposure is a major concern in most countries due to possible adverse health effects. Over the last 10years, many technological changes (digital television, mobile technologies, wireless networks…) have led to variations in the electromagnetic field (EMF) levels. A large number of studies devoted to the analysis of EMF levels with personal dosimeters or computer models of the exposure of mobile stations have been conducted. However, the study of the exposure values, taking into account all the existing sources, and their evolution in a wide area, using measurements, has rarely been performed...
April 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454013/mri-related-magnetic-field-exposures-and-risk-of-commuting-accidents-a-cross-sectional-survey-among-dutch-imaging-technicians
#4
Anke Huss, Kristel Schaap, Hans Kromhout
BACKGROUND: Imaging technicians working with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may experience acute effects such as vertigo or dizziness when being exposed. A previous study also reported an increased risk of accidents in MRI exposed staff. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at evaluating commuting accident risk in Dutch imaging technicians. METHODS: Of invited imaging technicians, 490 (29%) filled in a questionnaire pertaining to (near) accidents when driving or riding a bike, health, lifestyle and work practices...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449489/electromagnetic-navigational-bronchoscopy-with-dye-marking-for-identification-of-small-peripheral-lung-nodules-during-minimally-invasive-surgical-resection
#5
Juan A Muñoz-Largacha, Michael I Ebright, Virginia R Litle, Hiran C Fernando
BACKGROUND: Identification of small peripheral lung nodules during minimally invasive resection can be challenging. Electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB) with injection of dye to identify nodules can be performed by the surgeon immediately prior to resection. We evaluated the effectiveness of ENB with dye marking to aid minimally invasive resection. METHODS: Patients with peripheral pulmonary nodules underwent ENB before planned thoracoscopic or robotic-assisted thoracoscopic resection...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448969/synthetic-switchable-enzymes
#6
Vic Norris, Sergey N Krylov, Pratul K Agarwal, Glenn J White
The construction of switchable, radiation-controlled, aptameric enzymes - "swenzymes" - is, in principle, feasible. We propose a strategy to make such catalysts from 2 (or more) aptamers each selected to bind specifically to one of the substrates in, for example, a 2-substrate reaction. Construction of a combinatorial library of candidate swenzymes entails selecting a set of a million aptamers that bind one substrate and a second set of a million aptamers that bind the second substrate; the aptamers in these sets are then linked pairwise by a linker, thus bringing together the substrates...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448445/horizontal-directional-drilling-length-detection-technology-while-drilling-based-on-bi-electro-magnetic-sensing
#7
Yudan Wang, Guojun Wen, Han Chen
The drilling length is an important parameter in the process of horizontal directional drilling (HDD) exploration and recovery, but there has been a lack of accurate, automatically obtained statistics regarding this parameter. Herein, a technique for real-time HDD length detection and a management system based on the electromagnetic detection method with a microprocessor and two magnetoresistive sensors employing the software LabVIEW are proposed. The basic principle is to detect the change in the magnetic-field strength near a current coil while the drill stem and drill-stem joint successively pass through the current coil forward or backward...
April 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448431/a-type-2-block-component-decomposition-based-2d-aoa-estimation-algorithm-for-an-electromagnetic-vector-sensor-array
#8
Yu-Fei Gao, Guan Gui, Wei Xie, Yan-Bin Zou, Yue Yang, Qun Wan
This paper investigates a two-dimensional angle of arrival (2D AOA) estimation algorithm for the electromagnetic vector sensor (EMVS) array based on Type-2 block component decomposition (BCD) tensor modeling. Such a tensor decomposition method can take full advantage of the multidimensional structural information of electromagnetic signals to accomplish blind estimation for array parameters with higher resolution. However, existing tensor decomposition methods encounter many restrictions in applications of the EMVS array, such as the strict requirement for uniqueness conditions of decomposition, the inability to handle partially-polarized signals, etc...
April 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447698/anisotropic-metal-nanoparticles-for-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering
#9
Javier Reguera, Judith Langer, Dorleta Jiménez de Aberasturi, Luis M Liz-Marzán
The optimization of the enhancement of Raman scattering by plasmonic effects is largely determined by the properties of the enhancing substrates. The main parameters behind this effect are related to the morphology of plasmonic nanoparticles and their relative distribution within the substrate. We focus this tutorial review on the effects of nanoparticle morphology, for the particular case of anisotropic metal nanoparticles. Anisotropy in silver and gold nanoparticles offers the possibility to tailor their plasmonic properties and intrinsic electromagnetic "hotspots"...
April 27, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447616/high-order-harmonics-measured-by-the-photon-statistics-of-the-infrared-driving-field-exiting-the-atomic-medium
#10
N Tsatrafyllis, I K Kominis, I A Gonoskov, P Tzallas
High-order harmonics in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral range, resulting from the strong-field laser-atom interaction, have been used in a broad range of fascinating applications in all states of matter. In the majority of these studies the harmonic generation process is described using semi-classical theories which treat the electromagnetic field of the driving laser pulse classically without taking into account its quantum nature. In addition, for the measurement of the generated harmonics, all the experiments require diagnostics in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral region...
April 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447135/-environmental-medical-syndromes
#11
REVIEW
Gerhard A Wiesmüller, Claudia Hornberg
Environmental medical syndromes comprise sick building syndrome (SBS), multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS)/idiopathic environmental intolerances (IEI), electromagnetic hypersensitivity, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), burnout, fibromyalgia, and the candida syndrome. There is also some overlap described in the literature. There is still no established knowledge of etiology, pathology, pathophysiology, diagnostics, therapy, prevention and prognosis. These syndromes are thought to result from a complex interaction of physical, chemical and/or (micro)biological environmental stresses, individual dispositions, psychological influencing factors, perceptual and processing processes, variants of somatization disorders, culturally or socially caused distress, or simply iatrogenic causation...
April 26, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446971/navigation-bronchoscopy-for-diagnosis-and-small-nodule-location
#12
REVIEW
Juan A Muñoz-Largacha, Virginia R Litle, Hiran C Fernando
Lung cancer continues to be the most common cause of cancer death. Screening programs for high risk patients with the use of low-dose computed tomography (CT) has led to the identification of small lung lesions that were difficult to identify using previous imaging modalities. Electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB) is a novel technique that has shown to be of great utility during the evaluation of small, peripheral lesions, that would otherwise be challenging to evaluate with conventional bronchoscopy...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445164/simple-and-scalable-preparation-of-master-mold-for-nanoimprint-lithography
#13
Yuri Yamada, Kota Ito, Atsushi Miura, Hideo Iizuka, Hiroaki Wakayama
Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is one of the most prominent bottom-up techniques for duplicating nanostructures with a high throughput. However, fabrication of starting master mold commonly requires expensive equipment of top-down techniques, or additional steps to transfer the fabricated patterns from bottom-up methods. Here we demonstrate that a SiO2 nanostructure manufactured from a self-assembled block copolymer, polystyrene-b-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-b-PDMS), directly serves as a master mold for NIL without further modification...
May 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442741/polarization-conversion-when-focusing-cylindrically-polarized-vortex-beams
#14
Alexey P Porfirev, Andrey V Ustinov, Svetlana N Khonina
Currently, cylindrical beams with radial or azimuthal polarization are being used successfully for the optical manipulation of micro- and nano-particles as well as in microscopy, lithography, nonlinear optics, materials processing, and telecommunication applications. The creation of these laser beams is carried out using segmented polarizing plates, subwavelength gratings, interference, or light modulators. Here, we demonstrate the conversion of cylindrically polarized laser beams from a radial to an azimuthal polarization, or vice versa, by introducing a higher-order vortex phase singularity...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442705/model-of-electrical-activity-in-cardiac-tissue-under-electromagnetic-induction
#15
Fuqiang Wu, Chunni Wang, Ying Xu, Jun Ma
Complex electrical activities in cardiac tissue can set up time-varying electromagnetic field. Magnetic flux is introduced into the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model to describe the effect of electromagnetic induction, and then memristor is used to realize the feedback of magnetic flux on the membrane potential in cardiac tissue. It is found that a spiral wave can be triggered and developed by setting specific initials in the media, that is to say, the media still support the survival of standing spiral waves under electromagnetic induction...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441751/implementation-issues-of-adaptive-energy-detection-in-heterogeneous-wireless-networks
#16
Iker Sobron, Iñaki Eizmendi, Wallace A Martins, Paulo S R Diniz, Juan Luis Ordiales, Manuel Velez
Spectrum sensing (SS) enables the coexistence of non-coordinated heterogeneous wireless systems operating in the same band. Due to its computational simplicity, energy detection (ED) technique has been widespread employed in SS applications; nonetheless, the conventional ED may be unreliable under environmental impairments, justifying the use of ED-based variants. Assessing ED algorithms from theoretical and simulation viewpoints relies on several assumptions and simplifications which, eventually, lead to conclusions that do not necessarily meet the requirements imposed by real propagation environments...
April 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441722/experimental-demonstration-and-circuitry-for-a-very-compact-coil-only-pulse-echo-emat
#17
Dirk Rueter
This experimental study demonstrates for the first time a solid-state circuitry and design for a simple compact copper coil (without an additional bulky permanent magnet or bulky electromagnet) as a contactless electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) for pulse echo operation at MHz frequencies. A pulsed ultrasound emission into a metallic test object is electromagnetically excited by an intense MHz burst at up to 500 A through the 0.15 mm filaments of the transducer. Immediately thereafter, a smoother and quasi "DC-like" current of 100 A is applied for about 1 ms and allows an echo detection...
April 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441605/biological-effects-and-medical-applications-of-infrared-radiation
#18
Shang-Ru Tsai, Michael R Hamblin
Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 760nm and 100,000nm. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy generally employs light at red and near-infrared wavelengths (600-100nm) to modulate biological activity. Many factors, conditions, and parameters influence the therapeutic effects of IR, including fluence, irradiance, treatment timing and repetition, pulsing, and wavelength. Increasing evidence suggests that IR can carry out photostimulation and photobiomodulation effects particularly benefiting neural stimulation, wound healing, and cancer treatment...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441329/implementation-of-an-electronic-ionosonde-to-monitor-the-earth-s-ionosphere-via-a-projected-column-through-usrp
#19
Jhon Jairo Barona Mendoza, Carlos Fernando Quiroga Ruiz, Carlos Rafael Pinedo Jaramillo
This document illustrates the processes carried out for the construction of an ionospheric sensor or ionosonde, from a universal software radio peripheral (USRP), and its programming using GNU-Radio and MATLAB. The development involved the in-depth study of the characteristics of the ionosphere, to apply the corresponding mathematical models used in the radar-like pulse compression technique and matched filters, among others. The sensor operates by firing electromagnetic waves in a frequency sweep, which are reflected against the ionosphere and are received on its return by the receiver of the instrument, which calculates the reflection height through the signal offset...
April 25, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441006/ionic-gel-paper-with-long-term-bendable-electrical-robustness-for-use-in-flexible-electroluminescent-devices
#20
Minghui He, Kaili Zhang, Guangxue Chen, Junfei Tian, Bin Su
Conductive paper owns low-cost, lightweight, sustainable, easy to scale-up and tailorable advantages, allowing for its promising potential in flexible electronics, such as bendable supercapacitors, solar cells, electromagnetic shields and actuators. Ionic gels, exhibiting a lower Young's modulus together with facile manufacturing, can fully serve as the conductive component to prepare conductive paper. Herein we report a low-cost (~1.3 dollars/m(2)), continuous and high-throughput (up to ~ 30 m/min) fabrication of reliable and long-term (stable for more than two months) conductive paper...
April 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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