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Michela Campolo, Emanuela Esposito, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Over the past three decades, attempts at understanding the multifaceted mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have seen the development of numerous animal models to investigate changes in molecular and cellular pathways and neurobehavioral outcomes. Until now, controlled cortical impact (CCI) represents the most frequently used mechanical model to induce TBI, given its accuracy, easy of control, and, most importantly, its ability to produce brain injuries similar to those seen in humans...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ye Gu, Shanhao Chen, Jingyun Shi, Chunyan Wu, Zongmei Wen, Hong Shi, Baomei Wu, Xin Xu, Hao Wang
Background: Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) is emerging as a useful new technique for diagnosing small pulmonary peripheral lesions (SPPLs). However, the accuracy and efficiency of ENB have not been investigated in Asian populations where the differential diagnoses for SPPLs may be different. To analyze this question, this study included patients who received diagnostic ENB followed by surgery for the excision of SPPLs. Methods: Consecutive patients referred to the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital (Tongji University), between May 2014 and April 2015 were recruited...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Z L Cao, H C Ong
By manipulating the relative amplitude and phase between two incoming lights, coherent control of photonic systems can be realized. Here, we show by temporal coupled mode theory and finite-difference time-domain simulation that a coupled system can be actively controlled to exhibit plenty of different spectral, angular, and excitation behaviors. Electromagnetically induced transparency-like and Fano spectral characteristics as well as strong beam steering have been observed. Remarkably, by selectively exciting the coupled modes, we have developed a new approach to determine the complex Hermitian and anti-Hermitian interaction constants...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Ziheng Zhou, Ke Chen, Junming Zhao, Ping Chen, Tian Jiang, Bo Zhu, Yijun Feng, Yue Li
The metasurfaces have recently been demonstrated to provide full control of the phase responses of electromagnetic (EM) wave scattering over subwavelength scales, enabling a wide range of practical applications. Here, we propose a comprehensive scheme for the efficient and flexible design of metasurface Salisbury screen (MSS) capable of absorbing the impinging EM wave in an ultra-wide frequency band. We show that properly designed reflective metasurface can be used to substitute the metallic ground of conventional Salisbury screen for generating diverse resonances in a desirable way, thus providing large controllability over the absorption bandwidth...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Soheil Mehrabkhani, Thomas Schneider
In several areas of optics and photonics the behavior of the electromagnetic waves has to be calculated with the scalar theory of diffraction by computational methods. Many of these high-speed diffraction algorithms based on a fast-Fourier-transformation are approximations of the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld-diffraction (RSD) theory. In this article a novel sampling condition for the well-sampling of the Riemann integral of the RSD is demonstrated, the fundamental restrictions due to this condition are discussed, it will be demonstrated that the restrictions are completely removed by a sampling below the Abbe resolution limit and a very general unified approach for applying the RSD outside its sampling domain is given...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Kihong Kim
We study the mode conversion and resonant absorption phenomena occurring in a slab of a stratified anisotropic medium, optical axes of which are tilted with respect to the direction of inhomogeneity, using the invariant imbedding theory of wave propagation. When the tilt angle is zero, mode conversion occurs if the longitudinal component of the permittivity tensor, which is the one in the direction of inhomogeneity in the non-tilted case, varies from positive to negative values within the medium, while the transverse component plays no role...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Yuejun Zheng, Xiangyu Cao, Jun Gao, Huanhuan Yang, Yulong Zhou, Tao Liu
In this paper, a multifunctional artificial electromagnetic surface (AEMS) with integrated radiation and scattering performance is proposed and realized. Different from previous AEMS designs that mainly focus on scattering performance, this AEMS design takes both radiation and scattering properties into consideration in the designing process. Inspired by the design concept of antenna, a feeding structure is added to each AEMS element to achieve radiation performance. Meanwhile, the concerned characteristics of AEMS elements are almost maintained...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
F Gevrek, D Aydin, S Ozsoy, H Aygun, C Bicer
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of Egb761 on testicular tissues and semen parameters in rats exposed to cellphone waves. BACKGROUND: EGb761 has antioxidant properties as a free-radical scavenger. Cellphone electromagnetic radiation (EMR) induces oxidative stress in cells. METHODS: Twenty-one Wistar albino male adult rats were divided into three groups (control, experimental, treatment), including seven rats in each. The experimental and treatment groups were exposed to cellphone EMR (0...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Haoran Yuan, Feng Yan, Chunyan Li, Chunling Zhu, Xitian Zhang, Yujin Chen
Herein we develop a facile strategy for fabricating nickel particle encapsulated in few-layer nitrogen-doped graphene supported by graphite carbon sheets as high-performance electromagnetic wave absorbing material. The obtained material exhibits sheet-like morphology with a lateral length ranging from hundred nanometers to 2 micrometer and a thickness of about 23 nm. Nickel nanoparticles with a diameter of approximately 20 nm were encapsulated in about 6 layers of nitrogen-doped graphene. As applied for electromagnetic absorbing material, the heteronanostructures exhibit excellent electromagnetic wave absorption property, superior to most EMW absorbing materials previously reported...
December 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Wasana Silangam, Witaya Yoosook, Pornpimol Kongtip, Amarin Kongtawelert, Keson Theppeang
Schools are a significant location where children are exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMFs), which may cause adverse health effects. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine exposure levels to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) with a range of 5 Hz-32 kHz, and ELF-electric fields (ELF-EFs) with a range of 5 Hz-2 kHz in secondary schools in Bangkok, Thailand. This study was conducted in 60 classrooms from three schools during class hours. Spot measurements were taken with a Narda EFA 300 field analyzer to evaluate exposure levels...
December 5, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Ulices F Apolinario, Shamaila Manzoor, Luís E E de Araujo
We investigate, both theoretically and experimentally, optical image cloning via electromagnetic induced absorption (EIA). We demonstrate the transfer of small 2D real images imprinted onto a strong coupling beam to a weak probe beam in a Rb vapor cell. We show through EIA that the coupling beam's image is cloned beyond the usual diffraction, with a potential improvement in spatial resolution of the cloned image by a factor of three in comparison to that of the original coupling beam. Optical cloning through EIA is based on position selective nonlinear absorption, and it does not rely on spatial modulation of the refractive index...
December 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Michael I Mishchenko, Gorden Videen, Ping Yang
We use a recent computer implementation of the first-principles theory of electromagnetic scattering to compute far-field extinction by a spherical particle embedded in an absorbing unbounded host. Our results show that the suppressing effect of increasing absorption inside the host medium on the ripple structure of the extinction efficiency factor as a function of the size parameter is similar to the well-known effect of increasing absorption inside a particle embedded in a nonabsorbing host. However, the accompanying effects on the interference structure of the extinction efficiency curves are diametrically opposite...
December 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Guillermo A Naranjo, Xomalin G Peralta
We measured the transmission spectra of an array of split-ring resonators (SRRs) up to 10 terahertz for parallel and perpendicular polarizations. Calculations of the lattice and plasmon mode dispersion relations, in combination with electromagnetic simulations, confirm the presence of multiple higher-order lattice and plasmon modes. We modify the quality factor of higher-order plasmon resonances by modulating the lattice-plasmon mode coupling via changes in the period of the array. We also propose single frequency switches and a broadband dual-state amplitude modulator based on structured illumination that actively modifies the period of the SRR array...
December 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Evert Klaseboer, Qiang Sun, Derek Y C Chan
The scattering of electromagnetic pulses is described using a non-singular boundary integral method to solve directly for the field components in the frequency domain, and Fourier transform is then used to obtain the complete space-time behavior. This approach is stable for wavelengths both small and large relative to characteristic length scales. Amplitudes and phases of field values can be obtained accurately on or near material boundaries. Local field enhancement effects due to multiple scattering of interest to applications in microphotonics are demonstrated...
December 1, 2017: Applied Optics
V V Masljakov, O A Suhanova, V G Barsukov, K G Kurkin, S A Suhanov
The purpose: research objective: to study influence of electromagnetic oscillations of millimetric range on rheological properties of blood at patients with chipped and cut wounds of a breast for the purpose of their correction. Methods. For the solution of a research objective we have carried out studying of changes of rheological properties of blood at the 22nd patient with the getting chipped and cut wounds of a breast without internal injury during the next postoperative period. All patient has executed primary surgical processing and drainage of a pleural cavity...
April 2017: Patologicheskaia Fiziologiia i èksperimental'naia Terapiia
Lunwu Zeng, Jin Xu, Chengen Wang, Jianhua Zhang, Yuting Zhao, Jing Zeng, Runxia Song
When space (time) translation symmetry is spontaneously broken, the space crystal (time crystal) forms; when permittivity and permeability periodically vary with space (time), the photonic crystal (photonic time crystal) forms. We proposed the concept of photonic time crystal and rewritten the Maxwell's equations. Utilizing Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, we simulated electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal, the simulation results show that more intensive scatter fields can obtained in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hui-Yong Lian, Kang-Wei Lin, Chuanjun Yang, Peng Cai
In this study, we studied the effect of 2.0 GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) and 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure on prion generation and propagation using two budding yeast strains, NT64C and SB34, as model organisms. Under exposure to RF-EMF or ELF-EMF, the de novo generation and propagation of yeast prions [URE3] were elevated in both strains. The elevation increased over time, and the effects of ELF-EMF occurred in a dose-dependent manner. The transcription and expression levels of the molecular chaperones Hsp104, Hsp70-Ssa1/2, and Hsp40-Ydj1 were not statistically significantly changed after exposure...
December 6, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Junais Habeeb Mokkath
Using first-principles time-dependent density functional theory calculations, we investigate the shape-anisotropy effects on the optical response of a spherical aluminium nanoparticle subjected to a stretching process in different directions. Progressively increased stretching in one direction resulted in prolate spheroid (nanorice) geometries and produced a couple of well-distinguishable dominant peaks together with some satellite peaks in the UV-visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. On the other hand, progressively increased stretching in two directions caused multiple peaks to appear in the UV-visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum...
December 7, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Wouter Johannes van Drunen, Mathias Mueller, Anatoly Glukhovskoy, Rolf Salcher, Marc Christopher Wurz, Thomas Lenarz, Hannes Maier
Introduction: Most implantable hearing aids currently available were developed to compensate the sensorineural hearing loss by driving middle ear structures (e.g., the ossicles). These devices are successfully used in round window (RW) stimulation clinically, although this was initially not the intended use. Here, a novel microactuator, specifically designed for RW stimulation, was tested in human temporal bones to determine actuator performance and applicability. Methods: Stapes footplate response to RW stimulation was determined experimentally in human temporal bones and the obtained sound pressure output level was estimated...
2017: BioMed Research International
Abhishek Kumar, Samjot Singh Dhillon, Spandan Patel, Matthias Grube, Amit Noheria
An increasing number of patients are receiving cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) now. Many of them need pulmonary procedures for various indications including, but not limited to, lung cancer and benign endobronchial lesions. Over the last two decades, interventional pulmonology (IP) has expanded its scope to include various modalities that use heat and electrical energy and in the process, create electromagnetic field in the vicinity. This raises concerns for electromagnetic interference (EMI) causing abnormal behavior in the CIEDs...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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