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Lymphatic pump

Sergio Gianesini, Mirko Tessari, Primo Bacciglieri, Anna Maria Malagoni, Erica Menegatti, Savino Occhionorelli, Nino Basaglia, Paolo Zamboni
OBJECTIVE: Despite the fact that muscle pump activation is known to positively impact chronic lower limb edema, objective measurements of standardized exercises for venous-lymphatic rehab are lacking. The aim of this investigation is to determine the effectiveness of an addressed physical activity exploiting the advantages of an aquatic environment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-two lower limbs of 16 patients affected by bilateral chronic leg swelling were included (12 females, 4 males)...
October 18, 2016: Phlebology
Alisha V DSouza, Kayla Marra, Jason R Gunn, Kimberley S Samkoe, Brian W Pogue
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Amr Shaaban Hanafy, Amr Talaat El Hawary
Objectives: Evaluation of the outcome and experience in 2 years of management of portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) by argon plasma coagulation (APC) in a cohort of Egyptian cirrhotic patients. Methods: This study was conducted over a 2-year period from January 2011 to February 2013. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed to evaluate the degree and site of PHG. APC was applied to areas with mucosal vascular lesions. Results: In total, 200 cirrhotic patients were enrolled; 12 patients were excluded due to death (n = 6) caused by hepatic encephalopathy (n = 3), hepatorenal syndrome (n = 2), or chronic lymphatic leukemia (n = 1), or did not complete the treatment sessions (n = 6), so 188 patients completed the study...
October 2016: Endoscopy International Open
Sunkuk Kwon, Eva M Sevick-Muraca
A local anesthetic, lidocaine, is known to affect cutaneous blood flow when injected into the skin. However, it is unknown if dermal lymphatic function can also be affected. Therefore, we characterized lymphatic function in response to administration of lidocaine with and without epinephrine. Non-invasive near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRFI) with intradermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG) was used to characterize the lymphatic "pumping" function in mice after subcutaneous injection of 2 % lidocaine with and without 1:100,000 epinephrine or saline...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
Natalie Lee, Jane Wigg, Stacy Pugh, Janet Barclay, Hayley Moore
There are many intermittent pneumatic compression devices available for use in the management and adjunct treatment of lymphatic, venous and arterial disease. This article discusses the development of a new advanced pneumatic compression device, the LymphFlow Advance, which can perform focussed treatment on the lymphoedematous area using a variety of different cycles. Case studies with therapist and patient feedback are used to demonstrate the use of the LymphFlow Advance in the lymphoedema clinic, with a discussion of the evidence to underpin recommended treatment regimes...
October 2016: British Journal of Community Nursing
Matthew D Nitti, Geoffrey E Hespe, Raghu P Kataru, Gabriela D García Nores, Ira L Savetsky, Jeremy S Torrisi, Jason C Gardenier, Andrew J Dannenberg, Babak J Mehrara
KEY POINTS: Obesity induces lymphatic leakiness, decreases initial lymphatic vessel density, impairs collecting vessel pumping and decreases transport of macromolecules. Obesity results in perilymphatic inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and accumulation of T cells and macrophages. Deleterious effects of obesity on the lymphatic system correlate with weight gain. Weight loss restores lymphatic function in obese animals and decreases perilymphatic iNOS and inflammatory cell accumulation...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Scott D Zawieja, Wei Wang, Sanjukta Chakraborty, David C Zawieja, Mariappan Muthuchamy
The intrinsic lymphatic pump is critical to proper lymph transport and is impaired in models of the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Lymphatic contractile inhibition under inflammatory conditions has been linked with elevated nitric oxide (NO) production by activated myeloid-derived cells. We utilized a high fructose-fed rat model of MetSyn to test our hypothesis that inhibition of the MLV pump function in MetSyn animals was dependent on NO and was associated with altered macrophage recruitment and polarization within the mesenteric lymphatic vessels (MLV)...
September 2, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
Cristina Ballesteros, Lucienne Tritten, Maeghan O'Neill, Erica Burkman, Weam I Zaky, Jianguo Xia, Andrew Moorhead, Steven A Williams, Timothy G Geary
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are disabling and disfiguring neglected tropical diseases of major importance in developing countries. Ivermectin is the drug of choice for mass drug administration programs for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in areas where the diseases are co-endemic. Although ivermectin paralyzes somatic and pharyngeal muscles in many nematodes, these actions are poorly characterized in adult filariae. We hypothesize that paralysis of pharyngeal pumping by ivermectin in filariae could result in deprivation of essential nutrients, especially iron, inducing a wide range of responses evidenced by altered gene expression, changes in metabolic pathways, and altered developmental states in embryos...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Viviana Cintolesi, Anthony W B Stanton, Salena K Bains, Emma Cousins, A Michael Peters, Arnie D Purushotham, J Rodney Levick, Peter S Mortimer
BACKGROUND: It has previously been shown that the lymph drainage rate in both upper limbs is greater in women destined to develop breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) than in those who do not develop BCRL, indicating a constitutive predisposition. We explored constitutive differences further by measuring the maximum lymphatic pump pressure (Ppump) and the rate of (99m)Tc-Nanocoll transport generated by the contractile upper limb lymphatics before and after breast cancer surgery in a group of women who were followed for 2 years to determine their eventual BCRL or non-BCRL status...
June 2016: Lymphatic Research and Biology
Joshua P Scallan, Scott D Zawieja, Jorge A Castorena-Gonzalez, Michael J Davis
A combination of extrinsic (passive) and intrinsic (active) forces move lymph against a hydrostatic pressure gradient in most regions of the body. The effectiveness of the lymph pump system impacts not only interstitial fluid balance but other aspects of overall homeostasis. This review focuses on the mechanisms that regulate the intrinsic, active contractions of collecting lymphatic vessels in relation to their ability to actively transport lymph. Lymph propulsion requires not only robust contractions of lymphatic muscle cells, but contraction waves that are synchronized over the length of a lymphangion as well as properly functioning intraluminal valves...
May 24, 2016: Journal of Physiology
C D Bertram, C Macaskill, J E Moore
The transport capacity of a contractile segment of lymphatic vessel is defined by its pump function curve relating mean flow-rate and adverse pressure difference. Numerous system characteristics affect curve shape and the magnitude of the generated flow-rates and pressures. Some cannot be varied experimentally, but their separate and interacting effects can be systematically revealed numerically. This paper explores variations in the rate of change of active tension and the form of the relation between active tension and muscle length, factors not known from experiment to functional precision...
July 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
Rita Hansdorfer-Korzon, Jacek Teodorczyk, Agnieszka Gruszecka, Piotr Lass
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of secondary lymphedema still remains an important medical issue. Treatment response is characterized by periodic remission rather than complete recovery. Compression methods currently used as part of complete decongestive therapy vary considerably in efficacy. Manual drainage, bandaging, and compression pumps are ineffective in everyday practice. Positive results have increasingly been reported where compression garments have been used as part of the treatment...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
Robert D B Jaquiss, Hamza Aziz
For the child born with a functionally univentricular heart, multi-stage surgical palliation culminating in the Fontan operation is now well established as the standard of care. Though this is an effective approach, there are several inherent disadvantages to the Fontan circulation: subnormal resting cardiac output, impaired exercise capacity, increased risk of thromboembolism, and increased risk of arrhythmia. Perhaps most importantly, the long-term deleterious effects of substantial systemic venous hypertension, which is necessary to "drive" blood through the pulmonary vascular bed, include progressive dysfunction of other organ systems, particularly renal, lymphatic, gastrointestinal, and hepatic systems...
2016: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Annual
Lilian N D Silva, José A Ribeiro-Neto, Jéssica M M Valadares, Mariana M Costa, Luciana A R S Lima, Luciano A M Grillo, Vanessa F Cortes, Herica L Santos, Stênio N Alves, Leandro A Barbosa
Culex quinquefasciatus is the main vector of lymphatic filariasis and combating this insect is of great importance to public health. There are reports of insects that are resistant to the products currently used to control this vector, and therefore, the search for new products has increased. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) that showed larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus, on glucose, total protein, and triacylglycerol contents and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in mosquito larvae...
August 2016: Journal of Membrane Biology
Timothy Kassis, Sri Charan Yarlagadda, Alison B Kohan, Patrick Tso, Victor Breedveld, J Brandon Dixon
Dietary lipids are transported from the intestine through contractile lymphatics. Chronic lipid loads can adversely affect lymphatic function. However, the acute lymphatic pump response in the mesentery to a postprandial lipid meal has gone unexplored. In this study, we used the rat mesenteric collecting vessel as an in vivo model to quantify the effect of lipoproteins on vessel function. Lipid load was continuously monitored by using the intensity of a fluorescent fatty-acid analog, which we infused along with a fat emulsion through a duodenal cannula...
May 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Geoffrey E Hespe, Raghu P Kataru, Ira L Savetsky, Gabriela D García Nores, Jeremy S Torrisi, Matthew D Nitti, Jason C Gardenier, Jie Zhou, Jessie Z Yu, Lee W Jones, Babak J Mehrara
KEY POINTS: Obesity results in perilymphatic inflammation and lymphatic dysfunction. Lymphatic dysfunction in obesity is characterized by decreased lymphatic vessel density, decreased collecting lymphatic vessel pumping frequency, decreased lymphatic trafficking of immune cells, increased lymphatic vessel leakiness and changes in the gene expression patterns of lymphatic endothelial cells. Aerobic exercise, independent of weight loss, decreases perilymphatic inflammatory cell accumulation, improves lymphatic function and reverses pathological changes in gene expression in lymphatic endothelial cells...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Samira Jamalian, Michael J Davis, David C Zawieja, James E Moore
The lymphatic system is an open-ended network of vessels that run in parallel to the blood circulation system. These vessels are present in almost all of the tissues of the body to remove excess fluid. Similar to blood vessels, lymphatic vessels are found in branched arrangements. Due to the complexity of experiments on lymphatic networks and the difficulty to control the important functional parameters in these setups, computational modeling becomes an effective and essential means of understanding lymphatic network pumping dynamics...
2016: PloS One
Ryota Sugisawa, Naoki Unno, Takaaki Saito, Naoto Yamamoto, Kazunori Inuzuka, Hiroki Tanaka, Masaki Sano, Kazuto Katahashi, Hironori Uranaka, Tomohiko Marumo, Hiroyuki Konno
BACKGROUND: Lymph is pumped through the collecting lymphatic vessels by both intrinsic and extrinsic forces. The intrinsic pump relies on spontaneous lymphatic contraction, which generates the pumping lymph pressure (Plp). Among healthy people with daily leg edema, a considerable number of cases are accompanied with low leg Plp. Herein, a double-blinded controlled trial was conducted in healthy female volunteers with reduced leg Plp to compare the effectiveness of a 15-29 mmHg compression stocking (Stocking A) and a 8-16 mmHg stocking (Stocking B) on elevating Plp...
June 2016: Lymphatic Research and Biology
Jeremy S Torrisi, Geoffrey E Hespe, Daniel A Cuzzone, Ira L Savetsky, Matthew D Nitti, Jason C Gardenier, Gabriela D García Nores, Dawit Jowhar, Raghu P Kataru, Babak J Mehrara
Although recent studies have shown that obesity decreases lymphatic function, the cellular mechanisms regulating this response remain unknown. In the current study, we show that obesity results in perilymphatic accumulation of inflammatory cells and that local inhibition of this response with topical tacrolimus, an inhibitor of T cell differentiation, increases lymphatic vessel density, decreases perilymphatic iNOS expression, increases lymphatic vessel pumping frequency, and restores lymphatic clearance of interstitial fluid to normal levels...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ran Ito, Jonathan Zelken, Chin-Yu Yang, Chia-Yu Lin, Ming-Huei Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pump mechanism and pathway of lymph transit in vascularized lymph node flaps. BACKGROUND: Microsurgical treatment of lymphedema with vascularized lymph node transfer can improve signs and symptoms of disease, but the pathways and mechanisms of these flaps warrant further exploration. METHODS: (Animal model) 72 flaps were raised in 18 rats: 36 groin flaps contained lymph nodes (LN), 36 deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flaps did not (non-LN)...
April 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
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