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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795517/cardiovascular-adaptation-to-the-fontan-circulation
#1
REVIEW
Gruschen R Veldtman, Alexander R Opotowsky, Samuel G Wittekind, Jack Rychik, Daniel J Penny, Mark Fogel, Bradley S Marino, Marc Gewillig
Although medium-term survival following Fontan operations in the modern era has improved dramatically, late cardiovascular and extracardiac morbidity are common and are associated with impaired quality of life and premature late mortality. This serves as a reminder of the extraordinary adaptations required of the cardiovascular system when the systemic arterial, systemic venous and pulmonary circulations are placed in series coupled to a single ventricular pump. This article reviews the key features and principles that govern interactions between the ventricle, systemic arterial circulation, the systemic venous and pulmonary circulatory compartments, the microcirculation, and lymphatic circulations...
August 10, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749720/a-validation-study-of-near-infrared-fluorescence-imaging-of-lymphatic-vessels-in-humans
#2
Jacob Hinnerup Groenlund, Niklas Telinius, Soeren Nielsen Skov, Vibeke Hjortdal
BACKGROUND: Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging is a new imaging technique that is used to visualize lymphatic vessels in humans. It has a high spatial and temporal resolution, allowing real-time visualization of lymphatic flow. METHODS AND RESULTS: The current study investigated the intra- and inter-individual variability of the technique, and how local hypo- and hyperthermia (20°C, 40°C), as well as exercise affect lymph transport. In this study, 10 healthy volunteers were studied twice, with 2 weeks between...
July 27, 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700145/simultaneous-measurements-of-lymphatic-vessel-contraction-flow-and-valve-dynamics-in-multiple-lymphangions-using-optical-coherence-tomography
#3
Cedric Blatter, Eelco F J Meijer, Timothy P Padera, Benjamin J Vakoc
Lymphatic dysfunction is involved in many diseases including lymphedema, hypertension, autoimmune responses, graft rejection, atherosclerosis, microbial infections, cancer and cancer metastasis. Expanding our knowledge of lymphatic system function can lead to a better understanding of these disease processes and improve treatment options. Here, optical coherence tomography (OCT) methods were used to reveal intraluminal valve dynamics in 3D, and measure lymph flow and vessel contraction simultaneously in three neighboring lymphangions of the afferent collecting lymphatic vessels to the popliteal lymph node in mice...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699120/valve-related-modes-of-pump-failure-in-collecting-lymphatics-numerical-and-experimental-investigation
#4
C D Bertram, C Macaskill, M J Davis, J E Moore
Lymph is transported along collecting lymphatic vessels by intrinsic and extrinsic pumping. The walls have muscle of a type intermediate between blood-vascular smooth muscle and myocardium; a contracting segment between two valves (a lymphangion) constitutes a pump. This intrinsic mechanism is investigated ex vivo in isolated, spontaneously contracting, perfused segments subjected to controlled external pressures. The reaction to varying afterload is probed by slowly ramping up the outlet pressure until pumping fails...
July 11, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648385/fluorescence-imaging-of-lymphatic-outflow-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-mice
#5
Sunkuk Kwon, Christopher F Janssen, Fred Christian Velasquez, Eva M Sevick-Muraca
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is known to be reabsorbed by the lymphatic vessels and drain into the lymph nodes (LNs) through peripheral lymphatic vessels. In the peripheral lymphatics, the contractile pumping action of lymphangions mediates lymph drainage; yet it is unknown whether lymphatic vessels draining cranial and spinal CSF show similar function. Herein, we used non-invasive near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRFI) to image (i) indocyanine green (ICG) distribution along the neuraxis and (ii) routes of ICG-laden CSF outflow into the lymphatics following intrathecal lumbar administration...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566090/lymphatic-delivery-of-etanercept-via-nanotopography-improves-response-to-collagen-induced-arthritis
#6
Melissa B Aldrich, Fred C Velasquez, Sunkuk Kwon, Ali Azhdarinia, Kenneth Pinkston, Barrett R Harvey, Wenyaw Chan, John C Rasmussen, Russell F Ross, Caroline E Fife, E M Sevick-Muraca
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests lymphatic function mediates local rheumatoid arthritis (RA) flares. Yet biologics that target the immune system are dosed systemically via the subcutaneous (SC) administration route, thereby inefficiently reaching local lymphatic compartments. Nanotopography has previously been shown to disrupt tight cellular junctions, potentially enhancing local lymphatic delivery and potentially improving overall therapeutic efficacy. METHOD: We first characterized nanotopography (SOFUSA™) delivery of an anti-TNF drug, etanercept, by comparing pharmacokinetic profiles to those obtained by conventional SC, intravenous (IV), and intradermal (ID) routes of administration, and assessed uptake of radiolabeled etanercept in draining lymph nodes (LNs) in single dosing studies...
May 31, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530642/rasa1-regulates-the-function-of-lymphatic-vessel-valves-in-mice
#7
Philip E Lapinski, Beth A Lubeck, Di Chen, Abbas Doosti, Scott D Zawieja, Michael J Davis, Philip D King
Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM) is a blood and lymphatic vessel (LV) disorder that is caused by inherited inactivating mutations of the RASA1 gene, which encodes p120 RasGAP (RASA1), a negative regulator of the Ras small GTP-binding protein. How RASA1 mutations lead to the LV leakage defects that occur in CM-AVM is not understood. Here, we report that disruption of the Rasa1 gene in adult mice resulted in loss of LV endothelial cells (LECs) specifically from the leaflets of intraluminal valves in collecting LVs...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231612/the-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-tnf-%C3%AE-inhibits-lymphatic-pumping-via-activation-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inos-signaling-pathway
#8
Yingxuan Chen, Sonia Rehal, Simon Roizes, Hai-Lei Zhu, William C Cole, Pierre-Yves von der Weid
OBJECTIVE: Mesenteric lymphatic vessel pumping, important to propel lymph and immune cells from the intestinal interstitium to the mesenteric lymph nodes, is compromised during intestinal inflammation. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, is a significant contributor to the inflammation-induced lymphatic contractile dysfunction, and to determine its mode of action. METHODS: Contractile parameters were obtained from isolated rat mesenteric lymphatic vessels mounted on a pressure myograph after 24-hours incubation with or without TNF-α...
April 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981590/dietary-restriction-and-aerobic-exercise-attenuate-obesity-induced-lymphatic-dysfunction
#9
Shin-Haw Lee, Sina Hadipour-Lakmehsari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935958/synchronization-and-random-triggering-of-lymphatic-vessel-contractions
#10
James W Baish, Christian Kunert, Timothy P Padera, Lance L Munn
The lymphatic system is responsible for transporting interstitial fluid back to the bloodstream, but unlike the cardiovascular system, lacks a centralized pump-the heart-to drive flow. Instead, each collecting lymphatic vessel can individually contract and dilate producing unidirectional flow enforced by intraluminal check valves. Due to the large number and spatial distribution of such pumps, high-level coordination would be unwieldy. This leads to the question of how each segment of lymphatic vessel responds to local signals that can contribute to the coordination of pumping on a network basis...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756859/a-specifically-designed-aquatic-exercise-protocol-to-reduce-chronic-lower-limb-edema
#11
Sergio Gianesini, Mirko Tessari, Primo Bacciglieri, Anna Maria Malagoni, Erica Menegatti, Savino Occhionorelli, Nino Basaglia, Paolo Zamboni
OBJECTIVE: Despite the fact that muscle pump activation is known to positively impact chronic lower limb edema, objective measurements of standardized exercises for venous-lymphatic rehab are lacking. The aim of this investigation is to determine the effectiveness of an addressed physical activity exploiting the advantages of an aquatic environment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-two lower limbs of 16 patients affected by bilateral chronic leg swelling were included (12 females, 4 males)...
October 18, 2016: Phlebology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752703/optical-tracer-size-differences-allow-quantitation-of-active-pumping-rate-versus-stokes-einstein-diffusion-in-lymphatic-transport
#12
Alisha V DSouza, Kayla Marra, Jason R Gunn, Kimberley S Samkoe, Brian W Pogue
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747278/efficacy-of-argon-plasma-coagulation-in-the-management-of-portal-hypertensive-gastropathy
#13
Amr Shaaban Hanafy, Amr Talaat El Hawary
Objectives: Evaluation of the outcome and experience in 2 years of management of portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) by argon plasma coagulation (APC) in a cohort of Egyptian cirrhotic patients. Methods: This study was conducted over a 2-year period from January 2011 to February 2013. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed to evaluate the degree and site of PHG. APC was applied to areas with mucosal vascular lesions. Results: In total, 200 cirrhotic patients were enrolled; 12 patients were excluded due to death (n = 6) caused by hepatic encephalopathy (n = 3), hepatorenal syndrome (n = 2), or chronic lymphatic leukemia (n = 1), or did not complete the treatment sessions (n = 6), so 188 patients completed the study...
October 2016: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730311/effect-of-lidocaine-with-and-without-epinephrine-on-lymphatic-contractile-activity-in-mice-in-vivo
#14
Sunkuk Kwon, Eva M Sevick-Muraca
A local anesthetic, lidocaine, is known to affect cutaneous blood flow when injected into the skin. However, it is unknown if dermal lymphatic function can also be affected. Therefore, we characterized lymphatic function in response to administration of lidocaine with and without epinephrine. Non-invasive near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRFI) with intradermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG) was used to characterize the lymphatic "pumping" function in mice after subcutaneous injection of 2 % lidocaine with and without 1:100,000 epinephrine or saline...
December 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715144/lymphoedema-management-with-the-lymphflow-advance-pneumatic-compression-pump
#15
Natalie Lee, Jane Wigg, Stacy Pugh, Janet Barclay, Hayley Moore
There are many intermittent pneumatic compression devices available for use in the management and adjunct treatment of lymphatic, venous and arterial disease. This article discusses the development of a new advanced pneumatic compression device, the LymphFlow Advance, which can perform focussed treatment on the lymphoedematous area using a variety of different cycles. Case studies with therapist and patient feedback are used to demonstrate the use of the LymphFlow Advance in the lymphoedema clinic, with a discussion of the evidence to underpin recommended treatment regimes...
October 2016: British Journal of Community Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619475/obesity-induced-lymphatic-dysfunction-is-reversible-with-weight-loss
#16
Matthew D Nitti, Geoffrey E Hespe, Raghu P Kataru, Gabriela D García Nores, Ira L Savetsky, Jeremy S Torrisi, Jason C Gardenier, Andrew J Dannenberg, Babak J Mehrara
KEY POINTS: Obesity induces lymphatic leakiness, decreases initial lymphatic vessel density, impairs collecting vessel pumping and decreases transport of macromolecules. Obesity results in perilymphatic inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and accumulation of T cells and macrophages. Deleterious effects of obesity on the lymphatic system correlate with weight gain. Weight loss restores lymphatic function in obese animals and decreases perilymphatic iNOS and inflammatory cell accumulation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588380/macrophage-alterations-within-the-mesenteric-lymphatic-tissue-are-associated-with-impairment-of-lymphatic-pump-in-metabolic-syndrome
#17
Scott D Zawieja, Wei Wang, Sanjukta Chakraborty, David C Zawieja, Mariappan Muthuchamy
OBJECTIVE: The intrinsic lymphatic pump is critical to proper lymph transport and is impaired in models of the MetSyn. Lymphatic contractile inhibition under inflammatory conditions has been linked with elevated NO production by activated myeloid-derived cells. Hence we hypothesized that inhibition of the MLV pump function in MetSyn animals was dependent on NO and was associated with altered macrophage recruitment and polarization within the MLV. METHODS: We used a high fructose-fed rat model of MetSyn...
October 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529747/the-effects-of-ivermectin-on-brugia-malayi-females-in-vitro-a-transcriptomic-approach
#18
Cristina Ballesteros, Lucienne Tritten, Maeghan O'Neill, Erica Burkman, Weam I Zaky, Jianguo Xia, Andrew Moorhead, Steven A Williams, Timothy G Geary
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are disabling and disfiguring neglected tropical diseases of major importance in developing countries. Ivermectin is the drug of choice for mass drug administration programs for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in areas where the diseases are co-endemic. Although ivermectin paralyzes somatic and pharyngeal muscles in many nematodes, these actions are poorly characterized in adult filariae. We hypothesize that paralysis of pharyngeal pumping by ivermectin in filariae could result in deprivation of essential nutrients, especially iron, inducing a wide range of responses evidenced by altered gene expression, changes in metabolic pathways, and altered developmental states in embryos...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27309032/constitutively-enhanced-lymphatic-pumping-in-the-upper-limbs-of-women-who-later-develop-breast-cancer-related-lymphedema
#19
Viviana Cintolesi, Anthony W B Stanton, Salena K Bains, Emma Cousins, A Michael Peters, Arnie D Purushotham, J Rodney Levick, Peter S Mortimer
BACKGROUND: It has previously been shown that the lymph drainage rate in both upper limbs is greater in women destined to develop breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) than in those who do not develop BCRL, indicating a constitutive predisposition. We explored constitutive differences further by measuring the maximum lymphatic pump pressure (Ppump) and the rate of (99m)Tc-Nanocoll transport generated by the contractile upper limb lymphatics before and after breast cancer surgery in a group of women who were followed for 2 years to determine their eventual BCRL or non-BCRL status...
June 2016: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27219461/lymphatic-pumping-mechanics-mechanisms-and-malfunction
#20
Joshua P Scallan, Scott D Zawieja, Jorge A Castorena-Gonzalez, Michael J Davis
A combination of extrinsic (passive) and intrinsic (active) forces move lymph against a hydrostatic pressure gradient in most regions of the body. The effectiveness of the lymph pump system impacts not only interstitial fluid balance but other aspects of overall homeostasis. This review focuses on the mechanisms that regulate the intrinsic, active contractions of collecting lymphatic vessels in relation to their ability to actively transport lymph. Lymph propulsion requires not only robust contractions of lymphatic muscle cells, but contraction waves that are synchronized over the length of a lymphangion as well as properly functioning intraluminal valves...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
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