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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820896/a-strategy-for-scaling-up-access-to-comprehensive-care-in-adults-with-chagas-disease-in-endemic-countries-the-bolivian-chagas-platform
#1
Maria-Jesus Pinazo, Jimy Pinto, Lourdes Ortiz, Jareth Sánchez, Wilson García, Ruth Saravia, Mirko-R Cortez, Silvia Moriana, Enric Grau, Daniel Lozano, Joaquim Gascon, Faustino Torrico
BACKGROUND: Bolivia has the highest prevalence of Chagas disease (CD) in the world (6.1%), with more than 607,186 people with Trypanosoma cruzi infection, most of them adults. In Bolivia CD has been declared a national priority. In 2009, the Chagas National Program (ChNP) had neither a protocol nor a clear directive for diagnosis and treatment of adults. Although programs had been implemented for congenital transmission and for acute cases, adults remained uncovered. Moreover, health professionals were not aware of treatment recommendations aimed at this population, and research on CD was limited; it was difficult to increase awareness of the disease, understand the challenges it presented, and adapt strategies to cope with it...
August 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820883/spatial-clustering-of-patent-and-sub-patent-malaria-infections-in-northern-namibia-implications-for-surveillance-and-response-strategies-for-elimination
#2
Jennifer L Smith, Joyce Auala, Munyaradzi Tambo, Erastus Haindongo, Stark Katokele, Petrina Uusiku, Roly Gosling, Immo Kleinschmidt, Davis Mumbengegwi, Hugh J W Sturrock
BACKGROUND: Reactive case detection (RACD) around passively detected malaria cases is a strategy to identify and treat hotspots of malaria transmission. This study investigated the unproven assumption on which this approach is based, that in low transmission settings, infections cluster over small scales. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was conducted between January 2013 and August 2014 in Ohangwena and Omusati regions in north central Namibia. Patients attending health facilities who tested positive by malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) (index cases) were traced back to their home...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820758/lack-of-association-between-interleukin-28b-polymorphism-and-vertical-transmission-of-hepatitis-c
#3
Afrodite Psaros Einberg, Ann-Sofi Duberg, Olga Filipovich, Jessica Nyström, Anton Zhirkov, Erwin Daniel Brenndörfer, Lars Frelin, Elena Rukoiatkina, Yuriy Lobzin, Matti Sällberg, Björn Fischler, Anton Lutckii
OBJECTIVES: Single genetic nucleotide polymorphism (rs12979860) near the gene for Interleukin 28B (IL28B), is known to be of importance for frequency of spontaneous clearance and treatment outcome in interferon based therapies in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate if IL28B polymorphism in children and/or their mothers plays a role in vertical transmission of HCV (HCV-VT). METHODS: Plasma samples from 59 infected women, 76 uninfected children born to infected mothers, and 47 children with known vertically transmitted HCV infection, were analysed for IL28B polymorphism and classified by the IL28B genotype (C/C, C/T and T/T) as well as by viral genotype...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820731/emphysematous-infections-of-the-urinary-tract-an-audit-of-20-patients-with-review-of-literature
#4
REVIEW
Sasanka Kumar Barua, Somor Jyoti Bora, Puskal Kumar Bagchi, Debanga Sarma, Mandeep Phukan, Saumar Jyoti Baruah, Thekampadum Puthenveetil Rajeev
Emphysematous infection of the urinary tract is a rapidly progressive, necrotizing infection which results into collection of gas and subsequent destruction of the tissues. Although very rare among general population, such necrotizing infection is common, particularly among those with compromised immune status. With the rising trend of people afflicted with diabetes mellitus globally, this fulminating infection may pose a serious threat to the medical fraternity. A high index of suspicion and abdominal CT scan usually helps to establish the diagnosis at an early stage and thereby facilitating aggressive antimicrobial therapy and percutaneous drainage where indicated...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820727/sustained-off-treatment-response-after-discontinuation-of-long-term-nucleos-t-ide-analogue-treatment-in-hbeag-seronegative-hepatitis-b-a-case-series
#5
Marion Muche, Ulrike Meyer, Britta Siegmund, Rajan Somasundaram, Hans-Joerg Epple
International guidelines recommend lifelong nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) treatment in individuals with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection who are hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seronegative, because hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroconversion is rarely achieved. However, after terminating therapy, sustained responses and HBsAg loss have been observed. Clinical characteristics identifying persons with favorable outcomes after discontinuing NA therapy have not yet been defined. This case series describes outcomes of 6 individuals with HBeAg-seronegative CHB infection without cirrhosis and low plasma levels of HBsAg who discontinued long-term NA treatment...
July 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820726/barriers-to-treatment-access-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-case-series
#6
Alexander J Millman, Boatemaa Ntiri-Reid, Risha Irvin, Maggie H Kaufmann, Andrew Aronsohn, Jeffrey S Duchin, John D Scott, Claudia Vellozzi
Restrictive policies on access to new, curative hepatitis C treatments represent a substantial barrier to treating patients infected with hepatitis C. This case series demonstrates challenges experienced by patients and practitioners in accessing these treatments and highlights several strategies for navigating the treatment preauthorization process.
July 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820725/understanding-hepatitis-c-virus-drug-resistance-clinical-implications-for-current-and-future-regimens
#7
David L Wyles, Anne F Luetkemeyer
Viral resistance to direct-acting antiviral drugs may impact their effectiveness during treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Most data on HCV drug resistance concern genotypes 1 and 3. The clinical impact of resistance to HCV nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) inhibitors and a practical approach to indications and methods for resistance testing are discussed.
July 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820724/neurologic-complications-in-persons-with-hiv-infection-in-the-era-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#8
Dennis Kolson
Neurologic complications in persons with HIV infection are less severe in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy but remain highly prevalent. Prior to the use of antiretroviral therapy, opportunistic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) and CNS malignancy were common. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), however, remains a diagnostic challenge in HIV-infected individuals, and no effective antiviral treatment for PML is currently available. Primary neurologic complications of acute HIV infection include aseptic meningitis and acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy...
July 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820719/central-nervous-system-infection-associated-with-orientia-tsutsugamushi-in-south-korea
#9
Han Sang Lee, Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Seon-Jae Ahn, Jangsup Moon, Jung-Ah Lim, Jin-Sun Jun, Woo-Jin Lee, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Ki-Young Jung, Sang Kun Lee, Kon Chu
Orientia tsutsugamushi is a major cause of vector-borne infection in Asia. Prompt recognition and appropriate treatment are crucial because of its potentially fatal complications and lack of response to beta-lactam antibiotics. The present study retrospectively evaluated the clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of 16 patients with scrub typhus-related central nervous system (CNS) infections. Single titers ≥ 1:40 of total serum antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi detected by an indirect immunofluorescent assay were considered as positive results...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820714/epidemiology-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-a-colombian-municipality
#10
Diego Alejandro Medina-Morales, Manuel E Machado-Duque, Jorge Enrique Machado-Alba
This study describes the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of leishmaniasis and the pharmacological treatment of this disease in the municipality of Pueblo Rico, Risaralda, between January 2010 and December 2014. An observational study was conducted using information from the clinical records and epidemiological reports of patients diagnosed and confirmed with leishmaniasis of any age and sex, including sociodemographic, clinical, and pharmacological variables of the therapy received. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820689/reliability-of-diagnostic-criteria-for-neurocysticercosis-for-patients-with-ventricular-cystic-lesions-or-granulomas-a-systematic-review
#11
Javier A Bustos, Hector H García, Oscar H Del Brutto
Intraventricular neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a severe form of NCC requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. We aimed to assess the reliability of the most recent version of diagnostic criteria for this form of NCC. Two systematic literature reviews were performed; one included case reports of patients with intraventricular cysticercosis and the other included case reports of patients with intraventricular cystic lesions or granulomas caused by infections other than NCC. All assessed cases were categorized according to the last revision of the long-standing Del Brutto's set of diagnostic criteria to determine its sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value for this form of NCC...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820684/lack-of-efficacy-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-against-acute-and-chronic-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-in-mice
#12
Karl V Clemons, Raymond A Sobel, Marife Martinez, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, David A Stevens
Acute and chronic infection with Trypanosoma cruzi affects millions of people. The current therapeutic options are highly toxic and often not effective. Liposomal amphotericin B (LABORATORY) has been demonstrated previously to have some activity in murine models. In our studies, higher dosages given multiple times were tested for activity against acute or chronic disease, exploring whether intermittent and brief regimens could be effective, as might then prove useful in human, particularly outpatient, therapy...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820683/malaria-in-the-guangxi-zhuang-autonomous-region-in-china-a-twelve-year-surveillance-data-study
#13
Kangming Lin, Haiyan Wei, Weikang Jiang, Jun Li, Weiwei Zhang, Shujiao Wei, Yichao Yang, Yaming Huang, Xiangyang Feng, Hong Tu, Jun Feng
The incidence of an indigenous malaria, defined as malaria acquired by a local mosquito transmission, declined from 2004 to 2015 in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. However, imported malaria, defined as malaria acquired from other endemic regions outside of China, has been increasing in the region, as in the rest of the country, particularly the disease caused by Plasmodium falciparum. A retrospective study was conducted to explore malaria-endemic characteristics in Guangxi during the 2004-2015 timeframe; a total of 2,726 confirmed malaria cases were reported, and the majority (90...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820552/-1%C3%A2-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-assay-in-monitoring-response-to-anti-fungal-therapy-in-fungal-endocarditis
#14
Jihad Slim, Christopher Saling, Maria Szabela, Melinda Brown, Tamara Johnson, Irvin Goldfarb
BACKGROUND: A case is reported of Candida glabrata infective endocarditis (IE) treated without surgical intervention. The study aim was to: (i) briefly discuss the outcomes of other documented cases of fungal IE managed medically with fluconazole; (ii) discuss the (1→3)-β-D-glucan assay and its previously studied role in the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections; and (iii) examine a possible application of the (1→3)-β-D-glucan assay to monitor response to antifungal treatment in patients with Candida endocarditis...
March 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820495/human-papillomavirus-and-the-dna-damage-response-exploiting-host-repair-pathways-for-viral-replication
#15
REVIEW
Chelsey C Spriggs, Laimonis A Laimins
High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of cervical and other genital cancers. In addition, HPV infections are associated with the development of many oropharyngeal cancers. HPVs activate and repress a number of host cellular pathways to promote their viral life cycles, including those of the DNA damage response. High-risk HPVs activate the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) DNA damage repair pathways, which are essential for viral replication (particularly differentiation-dependent genome amplification)...
August 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820468/resveratrol-in-hepatitis-c-patients-treated-with-pegylated-interferon-%C3%AE-2b-and-ribavirin-reduces-sleep-disturbance
#16
Manuela Pennisi, Gaetano Bertino, Caterina Gagliano, Michele Malaguarnera, Rita Bella, Antonio Maria Borzì, Roberto Madeddu, Filippo Drago, Giulia Malaguarnera
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus infection and interferon treatment have shown to be risk factors for sleep disorder health-related quality of life. AIM: To determine whether the effects of resveratrol on sleep disorders were associated with different tests in subjects with chronic hepatitis C treated with Peg-IFN-α and RBV. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial, 30 subjects (Group A) with chronic hepatitis received Pegylated-Interferon-α2b (1...
August 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820347/association-between-eye-diagnosis-and-positive-syphilis-test-results-in-a-large-urban-sexually-transmitted-infection-primary-care-clinic-population
#17
Ann-Marie Lobo, Yan Gao, Laura Rusie, Magda Houlberg, Supriya D Mehta
In 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) released clinical advisories on rising cases of ocular syphilis. We examined the association between eye disease and syphilis infection among primary care and sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients attending an urban lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) health center. We conducted a retrospective medical record review of all patients who underwent syphilis testing at Howard Brown Health between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2015...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820346/attitudes-and-potential-barriers-towards-hepatitis-c-treatment-in-patients-with-and-without-hiv-coinfection
#18
P R Allyn, S M O'Malley, J Ferguson, C H Tseng, K W Chew, D Bhattacharya
This study aimed to assess attitudes and potential barriers towards treatment in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, comparing those with and without HIV coinfection. A cross-sectional survey of 82 HCV-infected adults with and without HIV was conducted in greater Los Angeles between November 2013 and July 2015. Overall, there were 53 (64.6%) with HIV coinfection, 20 (25.0%) with self-reported cirrhosis, and 22 (26.8%) with a history of prior HCV treatment. Of all, 93.2% wanted HCV treatment, but 45...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820067/a-comprehensive-review-on-ebola-ebov-virus-future-prospects
#19
Dr Abdru Rauf, Muhammad, Abdur Rauf, Ahsan Khan, Muhammad Rizwan, Seema Patel, Haroon Khan, Adel Mahasneh, Mohammad S Mubarak
Ebola virus (EBOV) was discovered for the first time in 1976. It belongs to the family Filoviridae, which causes hemorrhagic fever that could lead to death in a few days. West Africa faced a major outbreak where symptoms appeared in the form of chills, myalgia, fever, diarrhea, and vomiting, and the disease finally reached a severe state as a result of hemorrhagic complications and failure of multiple organs. EBOV spreads by contact with body fluids of an infected person such as blood, saliva, urine, and seminal fluid, and also spreads by a contact with contaminated surfaces...
August 16, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819882/novel-immunotherapies-for-multiple-myeloma
#20
REVIEW
Mattia D'Agostino, Mario Boccadoro, Eric L Smith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The treatment landscape of multiple myeloma is rapidly changing; however, despite improvement in patients' survival, it still remains a largely incurable disease. One hallmark of myeloma is substantial immune dysfunction leading to an increased infection rate and the inability of immune surveillance to detect neoplastic cells. Here, we critically analyze clinical approaches to harness the immune system to overcome this defect with a focus on antibody based and adoptive cellular therapies...
August 18, 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
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