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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641402/ec-tagging-allows-cell-type-specific-rna-analysis
#1
Naoki Hida, Mohamed Y Aboukilila, Dana A Burow, Rakesh Paul, Marc M Greenberg, Michael Fazio, Samantha Beasley, Robert C Spitale, Michael D Cleary
Purification of cell type-specific RNAs remains a significant challenge. One solution involves biosynthetic tagging of target RNAs. RNA tagging via incorporation of 4-thiouracil (TU) in cells expressing transgenic uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT), a method known as TU-tagging, has been used in multiple systems but can have limited specificity due to endogenous pathways of TU incorporation. Here, we describe an alternative method that requires the activity of two enzymes: cytosine deaminase (CD) and UPRT...
June 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641400/cytosolic-delivery-of-sirna-by-ultra-high-affinity-dsrna-binding-proteins
#2
Nicole J Yang, Monique J Kauke, Fangdi Sun, Lucy F Yang, Katie F Maass, Michael W Traxlmayr, Yao Yu, Yingda Xu, Robert S Langer, Daniel G Anderson, K Dane Wittrup
Protein-based methods of siRNA delivery are capable of uniquely specific targeting, but are limited by technical challenges such as low potency or poor biophysical properties. Here, we engineered a series of ultra-high affinity siRNA binders based on the viral protein p19 and developed them into siRNA carriers targeted to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Combined in trans with a previously described endosome-disrupting agent composed of the pore-forming protein Perfringolysin O (PFO), potent silencing was achieved in vitro with no detectable cytotoxicity...
June 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641399/compannotate-a-comparative-approach-to-annotate-base-pairing-interactions-in-rna-3d-structures
#3
Shahidul Islam, Ping Ge, Shaojie Zhang
The analysis of RNA tertiary structure is hindered by the fact that not too many structural data are available and a significant amount of them are in low resolution. Due to the atomic coordinate errors posed by the limitations of low-resolution RNA three-dimensional structures, it becomes a critical challenge to extract key geometric characteristics of RNA, particularly, the interaction of bases. To address this issue, we have devised a comparative method, named CompAnnotate, that utilizes more precise structural information of high-resolution homologs to annotate the base-pairing interactions in the low-resolution structures, by aligning and making comparative geometric assessments...
June 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641383/neuroprotection-in-stroke-the-importance-of-collaboration-and-reproducibility
#4
Ain A Neuhaus, Yvonne Couch, Gina Hadley, Alastair M Buchan
Acute ischaemic stroke accounts for 6.5 million deaths per year, and by 2030 will result in the annual loss of over 200 million disability-adjusted life years globally. There have been considerable recent advances in the gold standard of acute ischaemic stroke treatment, some aspects of which-aspirin to prevent recurrence, and treating patients in specialized stroke wards-are widely applicable. Recanalization of the occluded artery through thrombolysis and/or endovascular thrombectomy is restricted to only a small proportion of patients, due to contra-indications and the costs associated with establishing the infrastructure to deliver these treatments...
June 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641358/-pain-treatment-after-thoracic-surgery
#5
Holger Hendrix, Vladimir Kamlak, Georgi Prisadov, Katrin Welcker
The treatment of pain after thoracic surgery is a challenge and takes place in the individual clinics mostly according to clinic internal standards. It exists no currently valid S3 guideline for the treatment of acute perioperative and posttraumatic pain. For an effective pain treatment as well individual pain experience as the pain intensity of the various thoracic surgical procedures must be considered. Regular pain assessment with appropriate methods and their documentation form the basis for adequate and adapted pain therapy...
June 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641356/-tracheal-surgery
#6
Jan Volmerig, Erich Hecker
Surgery of the trachea is a specialised field in which many disciplines work jointly due to the variety of indications and the extended topography. Not only because of its particular functional importance, but also because of its complex morphology, anatomy and physiology, this organ represents a special therapeutic challenge. A variety of diseases require surgical procedures of the trachea; the therapeutic strategy is influenced both by the disease itself as well as patient-dependent parameters. Regardless of the nature of the underlying disorder, good results require a high level of expertise in airway management, a careful diagnosis and interventional planning as well as an experienced surgical team that masters extended operative techniques...
June 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641332/executive-dysfunctions-predict-self-restricted-driving-habits-in-elderly-people-with-or-without-alzheimer-s-dementia
#7
Ilsemarie Kurzthaler, Georg Kemmler, Michaela Defrancesco, Bernadette Moser, Wolfgang W Fleischhacker, Elisabeth M Weiss
Introduction The purpose of this study was to elucidate the impact of specific cognitive functions on self-restricted driving habits in healthy elderly drivers and patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Method Our study population included 35 cognitively healthy controls, 10 MCI patients, and 16 patients with AD. All participants completed a neuropsychological examination and a self-reported questionnaire assessing driving habits and patterns. Results In challenging driving conditions, patients with MCI or AD showed significantly more driving self-restriction than healthy subjects (effect size d=1...
June 22, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641268/newgoa-predicting-new-go-annotations-of-proteins-by-bi-random-walks-on-a-hybrid-graph
#8
Guoxian Yu, Guangyuan Fu, Jun Wang, Yingwen Zhao
A remaining key challenge of modern biology is annotating the functional roles of proteins. Various computational models have been proposed for this challenge. Most of them assume the annotations of annotated proteins are complete. But in fact, many of them are incomplete. We proposed a method called NewGOA to predict new Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for incompletely annotated proteins and for completely un-annotated ones. NewGOA employs a hybrid graph, composed of two types of nodes (proteins and GO terms), to encode interactions between proteins, hierarchical relationships between terms and available annotations of proteins...
June 15, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641250/deep-convolutional-neural-network-for-inverse-problems-in-imaging
#9
Kyong Hwan Jin, Michael T McCann, Emmanuel Froustey, Michael Unser
In this paper, we propose a novel deep convolutional neural network (CNN)-based algorithm for solving ill-posed inverse problems. Regularized iterative algorithms have emerged as the standard approach to ill-posed inverse problems in the past few decades. These methods produce excellent results, but can be challenging to deploy in practice due to factors including the high computational cost of the forward and adjoint operators and the difficulty of hyper parameter selection. The starting point of our work is the observation that unrolled iterative methods have the form of a CNN (filtering followed by point-wise nonlinearity) when the normal operator ( H*H where H* is the adjoint of the forward imaging operator, H ) of the forward model is a convolution...
June 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641247/modeling-task-fmri-data-via-deep-convolutional-autoencoder
#10
Heng Huang, Xintao Hu, Yu Zhao, Milad Makkie, Qinglin Dong, Shijie Zhao, Lei Guo, Tianming Liu
Task-based fMRI (tfMRI) has been widely used to study functional brain networks under task performance. Modeling tfMRI data is challenging due to at least two problems: the lack of the ground truth of underlying neural activity and the highly complex intrinsic structure of tfMRI data. To better understand brain networks based on fMRI data, data-driven approaches have been proposed, for instance, Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Sparse Dictionary Learning (SDL). However, both ICA and SDL only build shallow models, and they are under the strong assumption that original fMRI signal could be linearly decomposed into time series components with their corresponding spatial maps...
June 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641239/automatic-recognition-of-fmri-derived-functional-networks-using-3d-convolutional-neural-networks
#11
Yu Zhao, Qinglin Dong, Shu Zhang, Wei Zhang, Hanbo Chen, Xi Jiang, Lei Guo, Xintao Hu, Junwei Han, Tianming Liu
Current fMRI data modeling techniques such as Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Sparse Coding methods can effectively reconstruct dozens or hundreds of concurrent interacting functional brain networks simultaneously from the whole brain fMRI signals. However, such reconstructed networks have no correspondences across different subjects. Thus, automatic, effective and accurate classification and recognition of these large numbers of fMRI-derived functional brain networks are very important for subsequent steps of functional brain analysis in cognitive and clinical neuroscience applications...
June 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641213/measurement-properties-of-screening-and-diagnostic-tools-for-autism-spectrum-adults-of-mean-normal-intelligence-a-systematic-review
#12
A Baghdadli, F Russet, L Mottron
BACKGROUND: The autism spectrum (AS) is a multifaceted neurodevelopmental variant associated with lifelong challenges. Despite the relevant importance of identifying AS in adults for epidemiological, public health, and quality of life issues, the measurement properties of the tools currently used to screen and diagnose adults without intellectual disabilities (ID) have not been assessed. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review addresses the accuracy, reliability, and validity of the reported AS screening and diagnostic tools used in adults without ID...
May 17, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641208/an-associative-account-of-the-development-of-word-learning
#13
Vladimir M Sloutsky, Hyungwook Yim, Xin Yao, Simon Dennis
Word learning is a notoriously difficult induction problem because meaning is underdetermined by positive examples. How do children solve this problem? Some have argued that word learning is achieved by means of inference: young word learners rely on a number of assumptions that reduce the overall hypothesis space by favoring some meanings over others. However, these approaches have difficulty explaining how words are learned from conversations or text, without pointing or explicit instruction. In this research, we propose an associative mechanism that can account for such learning...
June 19, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641191/early-anastomotic-stricture-occurring-after-colectomy-that-responded-well-to-transanal-decompression-and-local-steroid-therapy-a-case-report
#14
Masanori Hayashi, Atsushi Ikeda, Mitsuo Yokota, Hiroyuki Sako, Hiroshi Uchida, Ken Ikeda, Seijiro Okusawa
INTRODUCTION: Anastomotic strictures occurring after colectomy are a most challenging postoperative complication for gastroenterological surgeons. Reports documenting anastomotic strictures developing in the early postoperative phase are scant, and no established treatment is available. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 78-year-old man who had undergone a laparoscopic left hemicolectomy for lower colon cancer presented on postoperative day 12 because of abdominal pain and no bowel movement...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641167/exploring-the-role-of-knowledge-of-condition-and-psycho-social-profiles-of-young-people-with-epilepsy-during-transition
#15
Victoria Gray, Lucy Palmer, Kayleigh Whelby, Jacqui Vinten, Lucy Gait
Transitioning from paediatric to adult care can be a particularly challenging time for young people with epilepsy and research has shown that there are a range of factors which may influence a young person's ability to successfully cope with this difficult time. The following study aimed to explore the psychosocial characteristics of this transitioning population, as well as investigate how knowledgeable the young person and their parent/carer are of their own condition throughout transition. Young people with epilepsy were recruited from two specialist epilepsy clinics in the North West and allocated to one of three groups; Group 1 pre-transition, Group 2 transitioning, and Group 3 post-transition...
June 19, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641095/high-dose-chemotherapy-and-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-in-relapsed-or-refractory-hodgkin-lymphoma-emerging-questions-newer-agents-and-changing-paradigm
#16
REVIEW
Saad Akhtar
Primary treatment for adult and pediatric patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) using current multiagent anthracycline-based chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy will cure approximately >70% of the patients; >95% for early stage with a favorable risk profile and 70-75% with advanced stage and high risk features. Managing refractory and relapsed disease, however, remains a challenge. High dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) can salvage 40-70% of patients with relapsed or refractory HL...
June 13, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641051/beneficial-role-of-citrus-fruit-polyphenols-against-hepatic-dysfunctions-a-review
#17
Md Mohabbulla Mohib, Kazi Afnan, Tasfiq Zaman Paran, Salma Khan, Juthika Sarker, Nahid Hasan, Istiaque Hasan, Md Abu Taher Sagor
Alcoholic liver diseases and virus-induced hepatic dysfunctions are prevalent in western countries. Evidence also suggests that hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are key players in the development of hepatic diseases and their complications. Since the comorbid diseases like obesity, diabetes and vascular dysfunctions primarily affect liver, the modern therapies against other hepatic dysfunctions are becoming a major challenge to treat. In addition to these, polypharmacy and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are further aggravating the phenomenon...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641049/a-study-of-physicians-experiences-with-recommending-hpv-vaccines-to-adolescent-boys
#18
Li Ping Wong, Zobaida Edib, Haridah Alias, Sharina M Mohamad Shakir, Raja N A Raja Muhammad Yusoff, I-Ching Sam, Gregory D Zimet
Assessing physicians' experiences in HPV vaccine recommendation and delivery to adolescent boys is essential to providing an understanding of the issues of vaccine acceptance and an insight for policymakers to enhance HPV vaccinations among adolescent boys. Between January and April 2014 a mail survey was conducted using physicians in Malaysia known to provide either one or both HPV vaccine (Gardasil and Cervarix) immunisation services. A total of 357 completed questionnaires were received (response rate 22...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641048/updates-and-current-challenges-in-microrna-research-for-personalized-medicine-in-ovarian-cancer
#19
Victoria Mandilaras, Mégane Vernon, Matthieu Meryet-Figuière, Katherine Karakasis, Bernard Lambert, Laurent Poulain, Amit Oza, Christophe Denoyelle, Stephanie Lheureux
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the second most common and the most lethal of the gynecological malignancies. Currently, there exists no effective screening tool for OC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous 18-23 nucleotide non-coding RNAs that refine gene expression. MiRNAs have been found to be aberrantly expressed in OC tumor tissue as well as detectable in biological fluids such as the blood, urine, and ascites and have been proposed as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for OC. Areas covered: This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the application of miRNAs as diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers in OC...
June 22, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641018/three-dimensional-imaging-of-transparent-tissues-via-metal-nanoparticle-labeling
#20
Abdullah Muhammad Syed, Shrey Sindhwani, Stefan Wilhelm, Benjamin R Kingston, Dennis S W Lee, Jennifer L Gommerman, Warren C W Chan
Chemical probes are key components of the bioimaging toolbox as they label biomolecules in cells and tissues. The new challenge in bioimaging is to design chemical probes for 3-Dimensional (3D) tissue imaging. Here, we discovered that the scattering of metal nanoparticles can provide imaging contrast in intact tissues in 3D. The nanoparticles can act as a template for chemically growing a metal layer to further enhance the scattering signal. The use of chemically-grown nanoparticles in whole tissues can amplify the scattering to produce a 1...
June 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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