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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458230/perioperative-complications-of-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-repair
#1
Catarina Barroso, Jorge Correia-Pinto
Although improvements have been made, the management of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) remains a major challenge for perinatologists and neonatal surgeons. Many aspects of the disease remain unknown and, being a rare entity, evidence-based data are hard to find. Surgical morbidity is considerable and affects long-term quality of life. Perioperative complications have been reviewed focusing on thoracoscopic repair. Intraoperative acidosis was more severe during thoracoscopy when compared with open surgery (OS), though it is possible that later neurodevelopment was not affected...
February 19, 2018: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458204/a-review-of-implantable-biosensors-for-closed-loop-glucose-control-and-other-drug-delivery-applications
#2
Kee Scholten, Ellis Meng
Closed-loop drug delivery promises autonomous control of pharmacotherapy through the continuous monitoring of biomarker levels. For decades, researchers have strived for portable closed-loop systems, capable of treating ambulatory patients with chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus. After years of development, the first of these systems have left the laboratory and entered commercial use. This long-awaited advance reflects recent development of chronically stable implantable biosensors, able to accurately measure biomarker levels in vivo...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458203/precision-pharmacology-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Harald Hampel, Andrea Vergallo, Lisi Flores Aguilar, Norbert Benda, Karl Broich, A Claudio Cuello, Jeffrey Cummings, Bruno Dubois, Howard J Federoff, Massimo Fiandaca, Remy Genthon, Marion Haberkamp, Eric Karran, Mark Mapstone, George Perry, Lon S Schneider, Lindsay A Welikovitch, Janet Woodcock, Filippo Baldacci, Simone Lista
The complex multifactorial nature of polygenic Alzheimer's disease (AD) presents significant challenges for drug development. AD pathophysiology is progressing in a non-linear dynamic fashion across multiple systems levels - from molecules to organ systems - and through adaptation, to compensation, and decompensation to systems failure. Adaptation and compensation maintain homeostasis: a dynamic equilibrium resulting from the dynamic non-linear interaction between genome, epigenome, and environment. An individual vulnerability to stressors exists on the basis of individual triggers, drivers, and thresholds accounting for the initiation and failure of adaptive and compensatory responses...
February 16, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458194/differential-effects-of-acute-versus-chronic-stress-on-ethanol-sensitivity-evidence-for-interactions-on-both-behavioral-and-neuroimmune-outcomes
#4
Tamara L Doremus-Fitzwater, Jacqueline E Paniccia, Anny Gano, Andrew Vore, Terrence Deak
Acute alcohol intoxication induces significant alterations in brain cytokines. Since stress challenges also profoundly impact central cytokine expression, these experiments examined the influence of acute and chronic stress on ethanol-induced brain cytokine responses. In Experiment 1, adult male rats were exposed to acute footshock. After a post-stress recovery interval of 0, 2, 4, or 24 h, rats were administered ethanol (4 g/kg; intragastric), with trunk blood and brains collected 3 h later. In non-stressed controls, acute ethanol increased expression of Il-6 and IκBα in the hippocampus...
February 16, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458172/modelling-human-myoblasts-survival-upon-xenotransplantation-into-immunodeficient-mouse-muscle
#5
Christophe Praud, Karine Vauchez, Pascal Zongo, Jean-Thomas Vilquin
Cell transplantation has been challenged in several clinical indications of genetic or acquired muscular diseases, but therapeutic success were mitigated. To understand and improve the yields of tissue regeneration, we aimed at modelling the fate of CD56-positive human myoblasts after transplantation. Using immunodeficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice as recipients, we assessed the survival, integration and satellite cell niche occupancy of human myoblasts by a triple immunohistochemical labelling of laminin, dystrophin and human lamin A/C...
February 16, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458152/controversies-in-endoscopic-eradication-therapy-for-barrett-s-esophagus
#6
Srinadh Komanduri, V Raman Muthusamy, Sachin Wani
Advances in Endoscopic Eradication Therapy for Barrett's Esophagus associated neoplasia have resulted in a significant paradigm shift in diagnosis and management of this complex disease. A robust body of literature critically evaluating outcomes of resection and ablative strategies has allowed gastroenterologists to make quality, evidence based decisions for their patients. Despite this progress, there are still many unanswered questions and challenges that remain. Ultimately, identification of a cost-effective screening modality, biomarkers for risk stratification, and strides to eliminate post surveillance endoscopy after EET are essential to reach our long term goal for eradication of esophageal adenocarcinoma...
February 16, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458149/age-dependent-oxidation-of-extracellular-cysteine-cystine-redox-state-e-h-cys-cyss-in-mouse-lung-fibroblasts-is-mediated-by-a-decline-in-slc7a11-expression
#7
Yuxuan Zheng, Jeffrey D Ritzenthaler, Tom J Burke, Javier Otero, Jesse Roman, Walter H Watson
Aging is associated with progressive oxidation of the extracellular environment. The redox state of human plasma, defined by the concentrations of cysteine (Cys) and cystine (CySS), becomes more oxidized as we age. Recently, we showed that fibroblasts isolated from the lungs of young and old mice retain this differential phenotype; old cells produce and maintain a more oxidizing extracellular redox potential (Eh (Cys/CySS)) than young cells. Microarray analysis identified down-regulation of Slc7a11, the light subunit of the CySS/glutamate transporter, as a potential mediator of age-related oxidation in these cells...
February 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458131/inhibition-of-hepatitis-b-virus-replication-via-hbv-dna-cleavage-by-cas9-from-staphylococcus-aureus
#8
Yu Liu, Miaoxian Zhao, Mingxing Gong, Ying Xu, Cantao Xie, Haohui Deng, Xueying Li, Hongkai Wu, Zhanhui Wang
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is difficult to cure due to the presence of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). Accumulating evidence indicates that the CRISPR/Cas9 system effectively disrupts HBV genome, including cccDNA, in vitro and in vivo. However, efficient delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 system to the liver or hepatocytes using an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector remains challenging due to the large size of Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (Sp). The recently identified Cas9 protein from Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) is smaller than SpCas9 and thus is able to be packaged into the AAV vector...
February 16, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458125/pluripotent-stem-cells-for-uncovering-the-role-of-mitochondria-in-human-brain-function-and-dysfunction
#9
REVIEW
Annika Zink, Josef Priller, Alessandro Prigione
Mitochondrial dysfunctions are a known pathogenetic mechanism of a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. At the same time, mutations in genes encoding for components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain cause mitochondrial diseases, which commonly exhibit neurological symptoms. Mitochondria are therefore critical for the functionality of the human nervous system. The importance of mitochondria stems from their key roles in cellular metabolism, calcium handling, redox and protein homeostasis, and overall cellular homeostasis through their dynamic network...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458076/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-bmscs-improved-functional-recovery-of-spinal-cord-injury-partly-by-promoting-axonal-regeneration
#10
REVIEW
Liya Lin, Hefeng Lin, Shi Bai, Lianshun Zheng, Xiaoming Zhang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts the spinal cord and results in the loss of sensory and motor function below the lesion site. The treatment of SCI became a challenge because the injured neurons fail to axon regenerate and repair after injury. Promoting axonal regeneration plays a key role in the treatment strategies for SCI. It would meet the goal of reconstruction the injured spinal cord and improving the functional recovery. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are attractive therapeutic potential cell sources for SCI, and it could rebuild the injured spinal cord through neuroprotection, neural regeneration and remyelinating...
February 16, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458042/pretreatment-with-cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrins-prevents-loss-of-motility-associated-proteins-during-cryopreservation-of-addra-gazelle-nanger-dama-ruficollis-spermatozoa
#11
Jessye Wojtusik, Yan Wang, Budhan S Pukazhenthi
Sperm cryopreservation is challenging, often resulting in irreversible damage to spermatozoa, as indicated by decreased motility, viability, and/or acrosomal integrity. Developing cryopreservation protocols for gametes of endangered species compounds the complexity of technique optimization; samples are difficult to obtain and numbers are limited. Cryopreservation of sperm collected from the critically endangered addra gazelle (Nanger dama ruficollis), a member of the Bovidae family, resulted in significant loss of motility, which was prevented by pretreatment with cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC)...
February 16, 2018: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457991/protection-of-sheep-by-vaccination-against-experimental-challenge-with-leptospira-borgpetersenii-serovar-hardjo-and-l-interrogans-serovar-pomona
#12
W J Clough, P R Little, A Hodge, V C Chapman, D K Holz
AIMS: To evaluate a multivalent leptospiral and clostridial vaccine for prevention of renal colonisation and urinary shedding in sheep, following experimental challenge with New Zealand strains of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo type Hardjobovis and Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona. METHODS: Two separate but similarly designed studies were conducted. In both studies, Romney cross lambs, aged 9-11 weeks, were randomly allocated to a vaccinated group and a control group...
February 19, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457970/synthesis-of-pd-nanoscale-octahedra-through-a-one-pot-dual-reductant-route-and-the-kinetic-analysis
#13
Younan Xia, Legna Figueroa-Cosme, Kyle D Gilroy, Tung-Han Yang, Madeline Vara, Jinho Park, Shixiong Bao, Anderson G M da Silva
Shape-controlled synthesis of colloidal metal nanocrystals has traditionally relied on the use of an approach that involves the reduction of a metal precursor by a single reductant. Once the concentration of the atoms surpasses supersaturation, they will undergo homogeneous nucleation to generate nuclei and then seeds, followed by further growth into nanocrystals. In general, it is a grand challenge to optimize such an approach because the kinetic requirement for nucleation tends to be drastically different from what is needed for guiding the growth process...
February 19, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457957/synergistic-effect-of-entomopathogenic-fungus-fusarium-oxysporum-extract-in-combination-with-temephos-against-three-major-mosquito-vectors
#14
Perumal Vivekanandhan, Sengodan Karthi, Muthugounder S Shivakumar, Giovanni Benelli
Mosquito control using chemical insecticides is facing a major challenge due to development of insecticide resistance. Improving the efficiency of existing insecticides using synergistic secondary metabolites of biological origin is increasingly being researched. Herein, we evaluated the toxicity of Fusarium oxysporum extract alone and in binary combinations with temephos, on larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefaciatus. F. oxysporum extract was characterized using TLC, FT-IR and GC-MS...
February 19, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457956/gene-drives-to-fight-malaria-current-state-and-future-directions
#15
Andrew M Hammond, Roberto Galizi
Self-propagating gene drive technologies have a number of desirable characteristics that warrant their development for the control of insect pest and vector populations, such as the malaria-transmitting mosquitoes. Theoretically easy to deploy and self-sustaining, these tools may be used to generate cost-effective interventions that benefit society without obvious bias related to wealth, age or education. Their species-specific design offers the potential to reduce environmental risks and aim to be compatible and complementary with other control strategies, potentially expediting the elimination and eradication of malaria...
February 19, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457945/factors-that-influence-nurses-assessment-of-patient-acuity-and-response-to-acute-deterioration
#16
Mark Dalton, John Harrison, Anitra Malin, Conan Leavey
BACKGROUND: nurses play a crucial role in the early recognition and management of the deteriorating patient. They are responsible for the care they provide to their patients, part of which is the monitoring of vital signs (blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate and temperature), which are fundamental in the surveillance of deterioration. The aim of this study was to discover what factors influence how nurses assess patient acuity and their response to acute deterioration. METHODS: a generic qualitative approach was used...
February 22, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457943/strategies-to-future-proof-and-enhance-the-nursing-workforce
#17
Alan Glasper
Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, University of Southampton, discusses a new initiative by Health Education England to address staffing challenges facing the health service.
February 22, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457937/support-with-nutrition-for-women-receiving-chemotherapy-for-breast-cancer
#18
Fiona Gilmour, Anne Williams
Nurses are in a unique position to provide nutritional advice and information to women with breast cancer who are undergoing chemotherapy, supporting them with making decisions regarding nutrition and diet. This narrative review evaluated the research evidence relating to the nutritional challenges experienced during chemotherapy and the most effective approaches for supporting women in dietary choice. Weight gain was identified as a specific problem for women undergoing chemotherapy. The evidence indicated that information about nutrition and food preparation support may go some way in assisting women to overcome some of the nutrition-related difficulties experienced during chemotherapy treatment for breast cancer...
February 22, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457933/computer-guided-inferior-alveolar-nerve-lateralization-with-simultaneous-implant-placement-a-preliminary-report
#19
Mohamed Atef, Mohamed Mounir
Placement of Dental implants in the posterior mandibular alveolar ridges may become a challenging procedure due to limited bone height between the crest of the ridge and the inferior alveolar canal. The aim of this study was to introduce an innovative, less invasive, highly accurate and easy surgical technique of inferior alveolar nerve lateralization in the posterior deficient mandible using a special customized 3D-printed surgical guide in order to enhance the bone height for implant placement. This was a case series study included 7 patients with unilateral edentulous mandibular alveolar ridges...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Oral Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457931/synthesis-and-characterization-of-nanodiamond-growth-factor-complexes-towards-applications-in-oral-implantation-and-regenerative-medicine
#20
Julie Bang, Caleb Ting, Peter Wang, Ted Kim, Kenneth Wang, Theodore Kee, Darron Miya, Dean Ho, Dong-Keun Lee
Current challenges in the field of regenerative medicine include the need to deliver sustained concentrations of growth factors and genes that are required to induce the repair of deficient tissues. Enhancement of drug delivery and uptake may result in improved growth factor efficacy. Nanodiamonds (NDs) were explored as potential growth factor delivery agents due to the many favorable properties that they possess. For example, ND's biocompatibility has been extensively validated pre-clinically. In addition, they can be scalably produced through impact events such as detonation...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Oral Implantology
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