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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684846/changing-trends-in-suicides-using-helium-or-nitrogen-a-15-year-study
#1
Roger W Byard
A study was undertaken of autopsy cases of suicide where either helium or nitrogen gas had been used (taken from Forensic Science SA files, 2003-2017). 33 deaths involved helium (age range 19-94yrs, average 47yrs; M:F-2.7:1), compared to 23 cases of nitrogen inhalation (age range 29-93yrs, average 66yrs; M:F-2.3:1). The combined numbers of deaths due to both helium and nitrogen inhalation showed a steady increase (5: 2003-2007; 31: 2013-2017); however, while helium deaths plateaued (14: 2008-2012, 15: 2013-2017) nitrogen-related deaths increased 16-fold...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684394/n-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline-ac-sdkp-attenuates-silicotic-fibrosis-by-suppressing-apoptosis-of-alveolar-type-ii-epithelial-cells-via-mediation-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#2
Lijuan Zhang, Dingjie Xu, Qian Li, Yi Yang, Hong Xu, Zhongqiu Wei, Ruimin Wang, Wenli Zhang, Yan Liu, Yucong Geng, Shifeng Li, Xuemin Gao, Fang Yang
Damage to alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) caused by long-term inhalation of large amounts of silica dust plays a significant role in the pathology of silicosis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the regulatory mechanism(s) involved in type II AEC damage from silicon dioxide (SiO2 ) as well as the mechanism(s) related to the prevention of silicosis by the antifibrotic tetra peptide, N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP). The 2-DE results showed that SiO2 induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in A549 cells...
April 20, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683966/intracranial-space-occupying-lesion-inducing-intracranial-hypertension-increases-the-encephalographic-effects-of-isoflurane-in-a-swine-model
#3
Tadayoshi Kurita, Shingo Kawashima, Koji Morita, Yoshiki Nakajima
BACKGROUND: Patients with a brain tumor are susceptible to the hypnotic effect of anesthetics depending on the tumor's size. We investigated whether intracranial space-occupying lesions (ICSOLs) inducing intracranial hypertension increase isoflurane's effect on electroencephalographic (EEG) results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After anesthetic induction with isoflurane, 11 swine were studied with regard to isoflurane's effect on EEGs at 0.5% to 2.0% inhalational concentration at sequential stages: baseline 1, ICSOL 1, baseline 2, ICSOL 2, baseline 3...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683847/psychoactive-substances-alcohol-and-tobacco-consumption-in-hiv-infected-outpatients
#4
Jean-Marc Jacquet, Hélène Peyriere, Alain Makinson, Marianne Peries, Nicolas Nagot, Hélène Donnadieu-Rigole, Jacques Reynes
OBJECTIVES: To assess the alcohol consumption, tobacco addiction and psychoactive substance use (PSU) of people living with HIV (PLHIV). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in an HIV outpatient unit. METHODS: Autoquestionnaire systematically proposed to all patients during their usual clinical care visit during a 6-months period, for alcohol (AUDIT test), tobacco (Short Fagerstrom Test) and PSU (ASSIST V3.0 test). RESULTS: Of 1334 distributed questionnaires, 1018 PLHIV responded: 76...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683781/laboratory-evaluation-of-a-low-cost-real-time-aerosol-multi-sensor
#5
Robert J Vercellino, Darrah K Sleeth, Rodney G Handy, Kyeong T Min, Scott C Collingwood
Exposure to occupational aerosols are a known hazard in many industry sectors and can be a risk factor for several respiratory diseases. In this study, a laboratory evaluation of low-cost aerosol sensors, the Dylos DC1700 and a modified Dylos known as the Utah Modified Dylos Sensor (UMDS), was performed to assess the sensors' efficiency in sampling respirable and inhalable dust at high concentrations, which are most common in occupational settings. Dust concentrations were measured in a low-speed wind tunnel with 3 UMDSs, collocated with an aerosol spectrometer (Grimm 1...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683731/bronchiolitis-obliterans-murine-model-induced-by-nitric-acid-aerosol-inhalation-an-economical-and-reproducible-model
#6
Jianing Yin, Xiaobo Ma, Fei Huang, Yucong Ma, Yanan Li
PURPOSE: Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a highly debilitative and fatal syndrome associated with a series of severe lower airway disorders. The pathogenesis of BO is complicated and not entirely understood. An appropriate animal model of BO may aid research into its pathogenesis. Here, we establish a mouse model of BO to provide insight into this disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 6-8 week old BABL/c mice were exposed to 5% nitric acid (NA) aerosol through a nebulizer for 3 hours, and controls were exposed to distilled water instead...
April 23, 2018: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682608/-hallucinations-following-acute-cannabis-dosing-a-case-report-and-comparison-to-other-hallucinogenic-drugs
#7
Frederick S Barrett, Nicolas J Schlienz, Natalie Lembeck, Muhammad Waqas, Ryan Vandrey
Introduction: Cannabis has been historically classified as a hallucinogen. However, subjective cannabis effects do not typically include hallucinogen-like effects. Empirical reports of hallucinogen-like effects produced by cannabis in controlled settings, particularly among healthy research volunteers, are rare and have mostly occurred after administration of purified Δ-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) rather than whole plant cannabis. Methods: The case of a healthy 30-year-old male who experienced auditory and visual hallucinations in a controlled laboratory study after inhaling vaporized cannabis that contained 25 mg THC (case dose) is presented...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682520/toxic-effects-of-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-an-overview
#8
REVIEW
Sai Sandeep Singh Rowdhwal, Jiaxiang Chen
Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is extensively used as a plasticizer in many products, especially medical devices, furniture materials, cosmetics, and personal care products. DEHP is noncovalently bound to plastics, and therefore, it will leach out of these products after repeated use, heating, and/or cleaning of the products. Due to the overuse of DEHP in many products, it enters and pollutes the environment through release from industrial settings and plastic waste disposal sites. DEHP can enter the body through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact on a daily basis, which has raised some concerns about its safety and its potential effects on human health...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681239/inhaled-formulation-and-device-selection-bridging-the-gap-between-preclinical-species-and-first-in-human-studies
#9
Jennifer L Wylie, Aileen House, Peter J Mauser, Shari Sellers, Jenna Terebetski, Zhenyu Wang, Jason D Ehrick
The factors that influence inhaled first-in-human (FIH) device and formulation selection often differ significantly from the factors that have influenced the preceding preclinical experiments and inhalation toxicology work. In order to minimize the risk of delivery issues negatively impacting a respiratory pipeline program, the preclinical and FIH delivery systems must be considered holistically. This topic will be covered in more detail in this paper. Several examples will be presented that highlight how appropriate scientific strategy can help bridge the gap between delivering to preclinical species and human...
May 2018: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680691/from-the-lung-to-the-knee-joint-toxicity-evaluation-of-carbon-black-nanoparticles-on-macrophages-and-chondrocytes
#10
Juan Ma, Anyi Guo, Shunhao Wang, Siliang Man, Yunjian Zhang, Sijin Liu, Yajun Liu
Carbon black (CB), a core elemental carbon component of airborne particles, has been used as a model material to study environmental safety and health impacts of airborne particles. Although potential adverse effects of CB have been reported, limited knowledge is available regarding CB-induced metabolic disorders and secondary effects distant from primary target organs, such as the effects on joints. The knee cavity is a relatively closed space along the peripheral circulation route with a slow rate of interchange of nutrition with blood...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680394/the-clinical-effects-of-a-low-dose-dexmedetomidine-constant-rate-infusion-in-isoflurane-anesthetized-cats
#11
B T Simon, E M Scallan, C D Coursey, W M Kiehl, E J Moore
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a low dose dexmedetomidine constant rate infusion (CRI) on cardiopulmonary function, inhalant anesthetic concentration and recovery in isoflurane anesthetized cats. In a prospective, randomized, blinded, controlled design, 12 cats undergoing anesthesia for ovariohysterectomy were administered hydromorphone (0.1mg/kg) intramuscularly, propofol (4.3-7.8mg/kg) intravenously and maintained with isoflurane. During isoflurane anesthesia, the cats were administered either a dexmedetomidine loading dose (0...
April 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679678/characterisation-of-40-mg-ml-and-100-mg-ml-tobramycin-formulations-for-aerosol-therapy-with-adult-mechanical-ventilation
#12
Jayesh A Dhanani, Patrician Tang, Steven C Wallis, Suzanne L Parker, Preeti Pandey, John F Fraser, Jeremy Cohen, Adrian Barnett, Jason R Roberts, Hak-Kim Chan
BACKGROUND: Preservative-free tobramycin is commonly used as aerosolized therapy for ventilator associated pneumonia. The comparative delivery profile of the formulations of two different concentrations (100 mg/ml and 40 mg/ml) is unknown. This study aims to evaluate the aerosol characteristics of these tobramycin formulations in a simulated adult mechanical ventilation model. METHODS: Simulated adult mechanical ventilation set up and optimal settings were used in the study...
April 18, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679606/regulatory-pitfalls-and-opportunities-when-repurposing-for-inhalation-therapy
#13
Svetlana Lyapustina
This article reviews regulatory considerations for companies wishing to develop drugs for delivery via the respiratory tract (e.g., by oral inhalation or intranasally) using molecules previously approved for a different therapeutic indication and/or a different delivery route. Conceptually, such repurposing has many medical and business advantages, but turning promising ideas into real products requires overcoming a number of practical challenges. Obtaining regulatory approval to market a candidate product comes at the end of a product development, but being aware of the regulatory requirements is necessary before the development even starts...
April 18, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679596/observational-studies-of-inhaled-corticosteroid-effectiveness-in-copd-lessons-learned
#14
Samy Suissa, Pierre Ernst
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials at times investigate findings suggested by observational studies. For example, the TORCH trial, which did not show a mortality reduction with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), was motivated by some observational studies that suggested considerable reductions in mortality with these drugs. Reasons for these discrepancies are unclear. METHODS: We searched the literature to identify all observational studies, including cohort and case-control studies, investigating the effectiveness of ICS on major outcomes in COPD patients, including death and hospitalization for COPD...
April 18, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679504/intraoral-frostbite-and-leidenfrost-effect
#15
Divya Vinayachandran, Saravanakarthikeyan
Intraoral frostbite as such, is an unusual occurrence. Careful literature review revealed rare cases of intraoral frostbite, attributed to intentional inhalational abuse of fluorinated hydrocarbons, dry ice, liquid nitrogen etc,.1,2 Hypothermal injuries of the gastric mucosa caused by ingestion of liquid nitrogen have been reported but none of these patients suffered from any direct injury affecting the oral mucosa.3 Here, we report the first case of intraoral frostbite causing injury to the oral mucosal tissues due to the direct contact of liquid nitrogen, highlighting the mechanism of the injury...
April 21, 2018: Australian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678900/prevention-of-exacerbations-in-patients-with-stable-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-pharmacological-and-non-pharmacological-therapies
#16
Abd Moain Abu Dabrh, Adam T Hill, Claudia C Dobler, Noor Asi, Wigdan H Farah, Qusay Haydour, Zhen Wang, Khalid Benkhadra, Larry J Prokop, Mohammad Hassan Murad
BACKGROUND: Several pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies are used to treat stable bronchiectasis of non-cystic fibrosis (CF) aetiology. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the evidence of the effectiveness of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options in patients with stable non-CF bronchiectasis with a focus on reducing exacerbations. STUDY SELECTION: Multiple databases were searched through September 2017...
April 20, 2018: BMJ evidence-based medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678545/preparation-of-drug-loaded-small-unilamellar-liposomes-and-evaluation-of-their-potential-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-respiratory-diseases
#17
Vincenzo De Leo, Silvia Ruscigno, Adriana Trapani, Sante Di Gioia, Francesco Milano, Delia Mandracchia, Roberto Comparelli, Stefano Castellani, Angela Agostiano, Giuseppe Trapani, Lucia Catucci, Massimo Conese
The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the influence of liposome formulation on the ability of vesicles to penetrate a pathological mucus model obtained from COPD affected patients in order to assess the potential of such vesicles for the treatment of chronic respiratory diseases by inhalation. Therefore, Small Unilamellar Liposomes (PLAIN-LIPOSOMEs), Pluronic® F127-surface modified liposomes (PF-LIPOSOMEs) and PEG 2000PE-surface modified liposomes (PEG-LIPOSOMEs) were prepared using the micelle-to-vesicle transition (MVT) method and beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) as model drug...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678544/influence-of-excipients-on-physical-and-aerosolization-stability-of-spray-dried-high-dose-powder-formulations-for-inhalation
#18
Nivedita Shetty, Heejun Park, Dmitry Zemlyanov, Sharad Mangal, Sonal Bhujbal, Qi Tony Zhou
The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of excipients on physical and aerosolization stability of spray dried Ciprofloxacin dry powder inhaler formulations. The model drug, Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, was co-spray dried with excipients such as disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, trehalose), mannitol and L-leucine. The spray dried samples were stored at two different relative humidity (RH) conditions of: (1) 20% and (2) 55% RH at 20°C. Ciprofloxacin co-spray dried with disaccharides and L-leucine in the mass ratio of 1:1 demonstrated an increase in fine particle fraction (FPF) as compared with the spray dried Ciprofloxacin alone when stored at 20% RH...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678179/expression-of-mate1-p-gp-octn1-and-octn2-in-epithelial-and-immune-cells-in-the-lung-of-copd-and-healthy-individuals
#19
Tove Berg, Tove Hegelund-Myrbäck, Johan Öckinger, Xiao-Hong Zhou, Marie Brännström, Michael Hagemann-Jensen, Viktoria Werkström, Janeric Seidegård, Johan Grunewald, Magnus Nord, Lena Gustavsson
BACKGROUND: Several inhaled drugs are dependent on organic cation transporters to cross cell membranes. To further evaluate their potential to impact on inhaled drug disposition, the localization of MATE1, P-gp, OCTN1 and OCTN2 were investigated in human lung. METHODS: Transporter proteins were analysed by immunohistochemistry in lung tissue from healthy subjects and COPD patients. Transporter mRNA was analysed by qPCR in lung tissue and in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from smokers and non-smokers...
April 20, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678144/interferon-alpha-as-antiviral-therapy-in-chronic-active-epstein-barr-virus-disease-with-interstitial-pneumonia-case-report
#20
Jacek Roliński, Ewelina Grywalska, Aleksandra Pyzik, Michał Dzik, Violetta Opoka-Winiarska, Agata Surdacka, Maciej Maj, Franciszek Burdan, Michał Pirożyński, Piotr Grabarczyk, Elżbieta Starosławska
BACKGROUND: Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) disease (CAEBV) is defined as a severe, progressive lymphoproliferative disorder associated with active EBV infection persisting longer than 6 months and developing in patients without recognised immunodeficiency. Rarely, interstitial pneumonitis (IP) occurs as a serious complication in CAEBV patients. The standard therapeutic regimen for IP in CAEBV has not yet been defined. Although interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) is known to suppress viral DNA replication by affecting its basal promoter activation process, it is rarely used in CAEBV patients...
April 20, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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