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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474935/the-use-of-methacholine-provocation-when-assessing-therapeutic-equivalence-between-two-inhalers-in-asthmatic-patients
#1
Thomas Bengtsson, Jonas Román, Tore Persson
A planned change from Bricanyl® (terbutaline) Turbuhaler® M2 to M3 device required a pharmacodynamic study to evaluate therapeutic equivalence of the two devices. Because of the flat dose-response curve for this type of agent over this dose range when assessing bronchodilation, a bronchoprotection study was considered more feasible. In this double-blind, double-dummy, multicentre, single-dose, two-factor, crossover study, patients with stable mild-to-moderate asthma were randomised to 0.5 or 1.5 mg terbutaline via Turbuhaler® M2 or Turbuhaler® M3 followed by a methacholine challenge test...
February 20, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474893/better-airway-resistance-reduction-profile-in-intubated-copd-patients-by-personalized-bronchodilator-dosing-a-pilot-randomized-control-trial
#2
Shin-Hwar Wu, Lih-Jen Shyu, Chin-Hsing Li, Chao-Hung Yu, Huang-Chi Chen, Chew-Teng Kor, Chu-Hsien Wang, Kai-Huang Lin
INTRODUCTION: The optimal dose of inhaled metered-dose bronchodilators for intubated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown. In this study, we proposed a bronchodilator dosing schedule based on an individual's airway resistance (Raw ) and tested its efficacy in reducing Raw . METHODS: A total of 51 newly admitted patients with invasively ventilated COPD were randomly assigned to receive personalized or fixed bronchodilator dosing. Personal target Raw was defined by measuring each individual's Raw after maximal pharmacologic bronchodilatation...
February 20, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474807/point-should-an-attempt-be-made-to-withdraw-inhaled-corticosteroids-in-all-patients-with-stable-gold-3-30-%C3%A2-fev-1-50-predicted-copd-yes
#3
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473786/online-measurement-of-phthalate-particulate-matter-interactions-by-membrane-introduction-mass-spectrometry-mims
#4
Martin A Angelstad, Erik T Krogh, George R Agnes, Chris G Gill
To enable further study and assessment of indoor inhalation exposure risk, an online apparatus enabling measurement of semi-volatile compound partitioning on household particulates was developed. An example for use of the apparatus is described using dimethyl phthalate (DMP). The system employs direct measurement by membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS). The MIMS system was calibrated using known gas phase DMP concentrations produced by gravimetrically calibrated permeation devices. The quantity of DMP sorbed by particles is described first using a model particle type, a reverse-phase liquid chromatography packing material, and then with a household dust sample...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473765/antimicrobial-molecules-in-the-lung-formulation-challenges-and-future-directions-for-innovation
#5
Arcadia Woods, Khondaker Miraz Rahman
Inhaled antimicrobials have been extremely beneficial in treating respiratory infections, particularly chronic infections in a lung with cystic fibrosis. The pulmonary delivery of antibiotics has been demonstrated to improve treatment efficacy, reduce systemic side effects and, critically, reduce drug exposure to commensal bacteria compared with systemic administration, reducing selective pressure for antimicrobial resistance. This review will explore the specific challenges of pulmonary delivery of a number of differing antimicrobial molecules, and the formulation and technological approaches that have been used to overcome these difficulties...
February 23, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473393/-introduction-electronic-cigarettes-are-smokeless-devices-that-simulate-the-act-of-tobacco-smoking-by-spraying-an-e-liquid-and-diffusing-an-aerosol-that-is-inhaled-by-the-user-although-the-initial-enthusiasm-observed-in-2012-2013-has-tended-to-flag-electronic
#6
Astrid Fontaine, Fernanda Artigas
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes are smokeless devices that simulate the act of tobacco smoking by spraying an ?e-liquid? and diffusing an aerosol that is inhaled by the user. Although the initial enthusiasm observed in 2012-2013 has tended to flag, electronic cigarettes are now part of the landscape of smokers seeking an alternative to smoking and abstinence. Smoking cessation professionals need to meet a growing demand from smokers and must adopt a clear position in relation to this device...
January 30, 2018: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472835/decreased-hippocampal-neuroplasticity-and-behavioral-impairment-in-an-animal-model-of-inhalant-abuse
#7
Hanaa Malloul, Mohammed Bennis, Sara Bonzano, Giovanna Gambarotta, Isabelle Perroteau, Silvia De Marchis, Saadia Ba-M'hamed
Thinners are highly toxic chemicals widely employed as organic solvents in industrial and domestic use. They have psychoactive properties when inhaled, and their chronic abuse as inhalants is associated with severe long-term health effects, including brain damage and cognitive-behavioral alterations. Yet, the sites and mechanisms of action of these compounds on the brain are far from being fully understood. Here, we investigated the consequences of paint thinner inhalation in adult male mice. Depression-like behaviors and an anxiolytic effect were found following repeated exposure in chronic treatments lasting 12 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471240/a-multiregional-survey-of-nickel-in-outdoor-air-particulate-matter-in-china-implication-for-human-exposure
#8
Han Li, Yanjian Wan, Xiao Chen, Lu Cheng, Xueyu Yang, Wei Xia, Shunqing Xu, Hongling Zhang
Nickel is a widespread environmental contaminant, and it is toxic to humans in certain forms at high doses. Despite this, nationwide data on nickel in outdoor air particulate matter and human exposure to nickel through inhalation in China are limited. In the present study, 662 outdoor air samples from seven representative provinces such as Shanghai, Hubei, Hunan, Hebei, Guangdong, Yunnan, and Shanxi were collected between March 2013 and February 2014 and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
February 19, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471053/morphological-and-functional-evidence-of-increased-excitatory-signaling-in-the-prelimbic-cortex-during-ethanol-withdrawal
#9
Florence P Varodayan, Harpreet Sidhu, Max Kreifeldt, Marisa Roberto, Candice Contet
Excessive alcohol consumption in humans induces deficits in decision making and emotional processing, which indicates a dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The present study aimed to determine the impact of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) inhalation on mouse medial PFC pyramidal neurons. Data were collected 6-8 days into withdrawal from 7 weeks of CIE exposure, a time point when mice exhibit behavioral symptoms of withdrawal. We found that spine maturity in prelimbic (PL) layer 2/3 neurons was increased, while dendritic spines in PL layer 5 neurons or infralimbic (IL) neurons were not affected...
February 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470660/the-effect-of-inhalant-organic-dust-on-bone-health
#10
REVIEW
Joseph M Carrington, Jill A Poole
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Agriculture remains a major economic sector globally, and workers experience high rates of chronic inflammatory lung and musculoskeletal diseases. Whereas obstructive pulmonary diseases are known risk factors for bone loss, the underlying relationship between lung inflammation and bone health is not well known. RECENT FINDINGS: An agriculture organic dust extract inhalation animal model has recently linked lung injury-induced inflammation to systemic bone loss...
February 22, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470659/impact-of-particulate-air-pollution-on-cardiovascular-health
#11
REVIEW
Zhen An, Yuefei Jin, Juan Li, Wen Li, Weidong Wu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Air pollution is established as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Ambient particulate matter (PM), a principal component of air pollutant, has been considered as a main culprit of the adverse effects of air pollution on human health. RECENT FINDINGS: Extensive epidemiological and toxicological studies have demonstrated particulate air pollution is positively associated with the development of CVDs. Short-term PM exposure can trigger acute cardiovascular events while long-term exposure over years augments cardiovascular risk to an even greater extent and can reduce life expectancy by a few years...
February 22, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470503/sevoflurane-posttreatment-prevents-oxidative-and-inflammatory-injury-in-ventilator-induced-lung-injury
#12
Julie Wagner, Karl M Strosing, Sashko G Spassov, Ziwei Lin, Helen Engelstaedter, Sabine Tacke, Alexander Hoetzel, Simone Faller
Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving clinical treatment but it can induce or aggravate lung injury. New therapeutic strategies, aimed at reducing the negative effects of mechanical ventilation such as excessive production of reactive oxygen species, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and transmigration as well as activation of neutrophil cells, are needed to improve the clinical outcome of ventilated patients. Though the inhaled anesthetic sevoflurane is known to exert organ-protective effects, little is known about the potential of sevoflurane therapy in ventilator-induced lung injury...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470253/management-of-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-pulmonary-disease
#13
Mark H Adelman, Doreen J Addrizzo-Harris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent original research and specialty society guidelines regarding the diagnosis and treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence of NTM pulmonary disease has risen in recent years. The prevalence of individual NTM species varies geographically, although Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABC) remain among the most commonly encountered in many regions...
February 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469993/asthma-among-adult-patients-presenting-with-dyspnea-to-the-emergency-department-an-observational-study
#14
Win Sen Kuan, Simon Craig, Anne-Maree Kelly, Gerben Keijzers, Sharon Klim, Colin A Graham, Peter Jones, Anna Holdgate, Charles Lawoko, Said Laribi
INTRODUCTION: Shortness of breath is a common presenting symptom to the emergency department (ED) that can arise from a myriad of possible diagnoses. Asthma is one of the major causes. OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic features, clinical characteristics, management and outcomes of adults with an emergency department (ED) diagnosis of asthma who presented to an ED in the Asia Pacific region with a principal symptom of dyspnea. METHODS: Planned sub-study of patients with an ED diagnosis of asthma identified in the Asia, Australia and New Zealand Dyspnoea in Emergency Departments (AANZDEM) study...
February 22, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468625/analysis-of-the-antidote-requirements-and-outcomes-of-different-radionuclide-decorporation-strategies-for-a-scenario-of-a-dirty-bomb-attack
#15
Alexis Rump, Daniela Stricklin, Andreas Lamkowski, Stefan Eder, Michael Abend, Matthias Port
OBJECTIVE: In radiological emergencies, there is a risk of radionuclide incorporation. The radiological doses absorbed can be reduced by decorporation treatment. Antidote requirements depend on the scenario and treatment strategy ("urgent approach": immediate treatment of all patients with possible incorporation; "precautionary approach": treatment only after confirmation of incorporation). We calculated the number of daily antidote doses for different scenarios and the differences in outcome for both treatment strategies...
October 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468423/a-novel-method-for-studying-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-allergic-guinea-pigs-in-vivo-using-the-preciseinhale-system-for-delivery-of-dry-powder-aerosols
#16
A J Lexmond, S Keir, W Terakosolphan, C P Page, B Forbes
Inhaled adenosine receptor agonists induce bronchoconstriction and inflammation in asthma and are used as bronchial challenge agents for the diagnosis of asthma and in respiratory drug development. Recently developed dry powder aerosols of adenosine have several advantages over nebulised adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) as bronchial challenge agents. However, reverse translation of this bronchial challenge technique to pre-clinical drug development is limited by the difficulty of administering powder aerosols to animals...
February 21, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468074/development-of-a-patient-centred-evidence-based-and-consensus-based-discharge-care-bundle-for-patients-with-acute-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#17
Maria B Ospina, Marta Michas, Lesly Deuchar, Richard Leigh, Mohit Bhutani, Brian H Rowe, Darcy Marciniuk, Donna Goodridge, Gail Dechman, Jean Bourbeau, Meyer Balter, Pat Camp, Paul Hernandez, Roger S Goldstein, Michael K Stickland
Introduction: Hospital and emergency department discharge for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often poorly organised. We developed a patient-centred, evidence-based and consensus-based discharge care bundle for patients with acute exacerbations of COPD. Methods: A purposeful sample of clinicians and patients were invited to participate in a two-round Delphi study (July-November 2015). In round 1, participants rated on a seven-point Likert scale (1=not at all important; 7=extremely important) the importance of 29 unique COPD care actions...
2018: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467517/the-death-knell-of-inhaled-nitric-oxide-to-prevent-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#18
Kent Willis, Silpa Peravali, Mark Weems
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467105/metal-concentrations-in-e-cigarette-liquid-and-aerosol-samples-the-contribution-of-metallic-coils
#19
Pablo Olmedo, Walter Goessler, Stefan Tanda, Maria Grau-Perez, Stephanie Jarmul, Angela Aherrera, Rui Chen, Markus Hilpert, Joanna E Cohen, Ana Navas-Acien, Ana M Rule
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) generate an aerosol by heating a solution (e-liquid) with a metallic coil. Whether metals are transferred from the coil to the aerosol is unknown. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to investigate the transfer of metals from the heating coil to the e-liquid in the e-cigarette tank and the generated aerosol. METHODS: We sampled 56 e-cigarette devices from daily e-cigarette users and obtained samples from the refilling dispenser, aerosol, and remaining e-liquid in the tank...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466963/pediatric-severe-asthma-a-case-series-report-and-perspectives-on-anti-ige-treatment
#20
Virginia Mirra, Silvia Montella, Francesca Santamaria
BACKGROUND: The primary goal of asthma management is to achieve disease control for reducing the risk of future exacerbations and progressive loss of lung function. Asthma not responding to treatment may result in significant morbidity. In many children with uncontrolled symptoms, the diagnosis of asthma may be wrong or adherence to treatment may be poor. It is then crucial to distinguish these cases from the truly "severe therapy-resistant" asthmatics by a proper filtering process...
February 21, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
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