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Yang Bai, Lidia Casas, Hans Scheers, Bram G Janssen, Benoit Nemery, Tim S Nawrot
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are sensitive to air pollutants due to their lack of repair capacity. Changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) or content is a proxy of mitochondrial damage and has been associated with recent exposure to traffic-derived air pollutants, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) and black carbon (BC). Inhaled BC can be phagocytosed by airway macrophages (AMs), and its amount in AM reflects personal exposure to traffic-related air pollution. OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the relation between the internal marker AM BC and ambient NO2 concentration and examined the associations of mtDNAcn with NO2 and AM BC...
June 19, 2018: Environment International
Dong-Suk Kim, Poojya Anantharam, Andrea Hoffmann, Mitchell L Meade, Nadja Grobe, Jeffery M Gearhart, Elizabeth M Whitley, Belinda Mahama, Wilson K Rumbeiha
Acute exposure to high concentrations of H2 S causes severe brain injury and long-term neurological disorders, but the mechanisms involved are not known. To better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in acute H2 S-induced neurodegeneration we used a broad-spectrum proteomic analysis approach to identify key molecules and molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of acute H2 S-induced neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration. Mice were subjected to acute inhalation exposure of up to750 ppm of H2 S...
June 19, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Louis Anthony Tony Cox
Sufficiently high and prolonged inhalation exposures to some respirable elongated mineral particles (REMPs), notably including amphibole asbestos fibers, can increase risk of inflammation-mediated diseases including malignant mesothelioma, pleural diseases, fibrosis, and lung cancer. Chronic inflammation involves ongoing activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, which enables immune cells to produce potent proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) (in particular, mitochondrial ROS) contribute to NRLP3 activation via a well-elucidated mechanism involving oxidation of reduced thioredoxin and association of thioredoxin-interacting protein with NLRP3...
June 19, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Chong Lei, Lorenzo Berra, Emanuele Rezoagli, Binglan Yu, Hailong Dong, Shiqiang Yu, Lihong Hou, Min Chen, Wensheng Chen, Hongbing Wang, Qijun Zheng, Jie Shen, Zhenxiao Jin, Tao Chen, Rong Zhao, Emily Christie, Venkata S Sabbisetti, Francesco Nordio, Joseph V Bonventre, Lize Xiong, Warren M Zapol
RATIONALE: No medical intervention has been identified that decreases acute kidney injury and improves renal outcome at 1-year after cardiac surgery. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether administration of nitric oxide reduces the incidence of post-operative acute kidney injury and improves long-term kidney outcomes after multiple cardiac valve replacement requiring prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: 244 Patients undergoing elective, multiple valve replacement surgery mostly due to rheumatic fever were randomized to receive either nitric oxide (treatment) or nitrogen (control)...
June 22, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Gregory Cook, Sonali Patel, Rachael Williams, Juvonda Hodge, Walter Ingram, Rita Gayed
Fulminant hepatic failure secondary to herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a rare complication that is associated with high mortality. Here, we describe the case of a critically ill patient with severe burns and inhalation injury who developed severe coagulopathy during her hospital stay, which was later found to be caused by HSV hepatitis. In addition, we review the current literature on HSV hepatitis. Only three prior reports document liver involvement of HSV in patients with burn. Clinical symptoms, diagnostic factors, and management of HSV hepatitis in patients with burn are presented...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Nuria Martín, Patricia Guilabert, Luis Abarca, Gemma Mª Usua, Jordi Serracanta, Maria J Colomina
Patients with major burn injury undergo a series of pathophysiologic changes that begin with a systemic inflammatory response and coagulation abnormalities, similar to those experienced by patients with sepsis or severe trauma. Coagulation changes in patients with burns are generally characterized by procoagulant abnormalities, but alterations in fibrinolysis and anticoagulation factors have also been observed. Around 40% of patients with major burn show changes on standard coagulation tests, and these have been related to the severity of the lesions, smoke inhalation, and administration of intensive fluid resuscitation therapy...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Ioannis Basinas, Araceli Sánchez Jiménez, Karen S Galea, Martie van Tongeren, Fintan Hurley
Background: Establishing the routes of exposure is a fundamental component of the risk assessment process for every dangerous substance. The present study systematically reviews the available literature to assess the relevance of the different routes and forms of exposure that are of concern for the protection of workers during the manufacture, handling, or end-use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Methods: A systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature published between 2000 and 2015 was completed...
June 21, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Kevin K Chung, Elsa C Coates, William L Hickerson, Angela L Arnold-Ross, Daniel M Caruso, Marlene Albrecht, Brett D Arnoldo, Christina Howard, Laura S Johnson, Melissa M McLawhorn, Bruce Friedman, Amy M Sprague, Michael J Mosier, Peggie F Conrad, David J Smith, Rachel A Karlnoski, James K Aden, Elizabeth A Mann-Salinas, Steven E Wolf
Acute kidney injury (AKI) after severe burns is historically associated with a high mortality. Over the past two decades, various modes of renal replacement therapy (RRT) have been utilized in this population. The purpose of this multicenter study was to evaluate demographic, treatment and outcomes data among severe burn patients treated with RRT collectively at various burn centers around the United States. After institutional review board approval, a multicenter observational study was conducted. All adult patients 18 or older, admitted with severe burns who were placed on RRT for acute indications but not randomized into a concurrently enrolling interventional trial were included...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Tareq Maraqa, Mohamed A T Mohamed, Mina Salib, Stephen Morris, Leo Mercer, Gul R Sachwani-Daswani
The use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) has been on the rise with increased number of battery explosions causing burns. This study is a retrospective review of patients who presented with burns caused by EC explosions.Here, we present a case series of eight patients sustaining burns from EC explosions, within a year, to elucidate the pattern of such burns and to provide a treatment guideline.All of them were males. Five patients had partial-thickness burns and three had full-thickness burns. TBSA ranged from 4 to 16% (burns to lower extremity [n = 7], hand [n =3], scrotum/penis [n =2], chest [n = 1])...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Jonathan Lin, Stephanie Falwell, David Greenhalgh, Tina Palmieri, Soman Sen
High dose ascorbic acid (HDAA) has been touted to ameliorate inflammation and reduce fluid requirements during burn shock resuscitation (BSR). Whether this leads to improved outcomes is not known. The authors' aim for this study was to compare ventilator days, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and mortality between patients who did and did not receive HDAA during BSR.The authors performed a retrospective case control study from 2012 to 2015. They identified 38 patients (HDAA) who received HDAA during BSR. Using age and %TBSA, the authors identified and matched 42 control patients (CTL) who did not receive HDAA for BSR during that same time period...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Fabien Vanden Abeele, Sabine Lotteau, Sylvie Ducreux, Charlotte Dubois, Nicole Monnier, Amy Hanna, Dimitra Gkika, Caroline Romestaing, Lucile Noyer, Matthieu Flourakis, Nolwenn Tessier, Ribal Al-Mawla, Christophe Chouabe, Etienne Lefai, Joël Lunardi, Susan Hamilton, Julien Fauré, Fabien Van Coppenolle, Natalia Prevarskaya
PURPOSE: Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder arising from uncontrolled muscle calcium release due to an abnormality in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium-release mechanism triggered by halogenated inhalational anesthetics. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are still incomplete. METHODS: We aimed to identify transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) variants within the entire coding sequence in patients who developed sensitivity to MH of unknown etiology...
June 21, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Erica Lin, Andrew H Limper, Teng Moua
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune condition characterized by erosive inflammation of the joints. One rare pulmonary manifestation is obliterative bronchiolitis (OB), a small airways disease characterized by the destruction of bronchiolar epithelium and airflow obstruction. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of patients with rheumatoid arthritis-associated obliterative bronchiolitis (RA-OB) from 01/01/2000 to 12/31/2015...
June 22, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Briana B Rider, Hina Mehta, Lubna Merchant
BACKGROUND: Look-alike and sound-alike (LASA) drug name similarity is often cited as a major factor contributing to wrong drug errors. When present on a prescription, differing product characteristics or directions for use may help health care professionals differentiate between 2 LASA drug names. However, evidence suggests that 1% to 5% of prescriptions include only the signa "use as directed" rather than explicit directions for use. METHODS: Using nationally projected US outpatient physician survey data, we analyzed drug classes and their associated signa to identify products commonly prescribed with the signa "as directed...
January 1, 2018: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
Teemu J Rönkkö, Pasi I Jalava, Mikko S Happo, Stefanie Kasurinen, Olli Sippula, Ari Leskinen, Hanna Koponen, Kari Kuuspalo, Jarno Ruusunen, Olli Väisänen, Liqing Hao, Antti Ruuskanen, Jürgen Orasche, Die Fang, Lei Zhang, Kari E J Lehtinen, Yu Zhao, Cheng Gu, Qin'geng Wang, Jorma Jokiniemi, Mika Komppula, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen
Ambient inhalable particulate matter (PM) is a serious health concern worldwide, but especially so in China where high PM concentrations affect huge populations. Atmospheric processes and emission sources cause spatial and temporal variations in PM concentration and chemical composition, but their influence on the toxicological characteristics of PM are still inadequately understood. In this study, we report an extensive chemical and toxicological characterization of size-segregated urban air inhalable PM collected in August and October 2013 from Nanjing, and assess the effects of atmospheric processes and likely emission sources...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lidong Cao, Hongjun Zhang, Fengmin Li, Zhaolu Zhou, Wenliang Wang, Dukang Ma, Li Yang, Puguo Zhou, Qiliang Huang
Quantifying operator exposure to pesticides is a key component of the decision-making procedure for risk assessment. China is the largest cotton-planting country in the world. Dense cotton planting patterns and pesticide overuse potentially place Chinese cotton farmers at high levels of exposure risk. Using whole-body dosimetry during backpack spraying application in cotton filed, the present study monitored potential dermal and inhalation exposure to the insecticide imidacloprid. For forward spraying (when the operators walked forward), the total potential dermal and inhalation exposure was 2059mg/kg of active ingredient (ai), corresponding to 0...
May 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Annika Parviainen, Claudio Marchesi, Juan Manuel Suárez-Grau, Carlos J Garrido, Rafael Pérez-López, José Miguel Nieto, Gema Cobo-Cárdenas
This study aims to explore the impact of chronic metal exposure derived from persistent pollution from mining activity using human gallstones as proxies. The samples were obtained from patients residing in geologically and environmentally contrasting areas in the Province of Huelva, SW Spain, allowing for the evaluation of the regional effect of metal pollution. The study group resides in the Iberian Pyrite Belt characterized by natural and anthropogenic metal pollution from mining activities, whereas the control group resides in the Ossa Morena Zone famous for its natural parks...
May 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Farzana Kastury, E Smith, Ranju R Karna, Kirk G Scheckel, A L Juhasz
In this study, methodological factors influencing the dissolution of metal(loid)s in simulated lung fluid (SLF) was assessed in order to develop a standardised method for the assessment of inhalation bioaccessibility in PM2.5 . To achieve this aim, the effects of solid to liquid (S/L) ratio (1:100 to 1:5000), agitation (magnetic agitation, occasional shaking, orbital and end-over-end rotation), composition of SLF (artificial lysosomal fluid: ALF; phagolysosomal simulant fluid: PSF) and extraction time (1-120 h) on metal(loid) bioaccessibility were investigated using PM2...
June 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Junmei Zhang, Lingxiao Yang, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Jianmin Chen, Xiangfeng Chen, Ying Gao, Pan Jiang, Yanyan Li, Hao Yu, Wenxing Wang
Ambient measurements of PM2.5 -bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and oxy-PAHs (OPAHs) were conducted during the summer in Jinan, China, an urban site, and at Tuoji island and Mt. Tai, two background locations. 3.5 h and 11.5 h sampling intervals in daytime and nighttime were utilized to research the diurnal variations of PAHs, NPAHs, and OPAHs. The concentrations of PAHs, NPAHs, and OPAHs were highest at the urban site and lowest at the marine site. The diurnal patterns of PAHs and NPAHs at the urban and marine sites were dissimilar to those observed at the mountain site partly due to the influence of the boundary layer...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Silvie Koval, Gregoire Krahenbuhl, Karryn Warren, Graham O'Brien
In urban environments airborne particulates (dust) must be managed to ensure that industry and community coexist in a mutually beneficial and sustainable manner. The composition of the dust is a function of the local environment and industry. In general, there is a view by many community members that a significant proportion of inhalable (PM10 ) and respirable (PM2.5 ) dust in these environments could be coal. Thus there is a need to have an analytical method that provides a quantitative analysis of the amount and size distribution of the different particulates that can be present in air samples...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Azza A Mahmoud, Nermeen A Elkasabgy, Abdel Fatah A Abdelkhalek
Roflumilast is a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-4 isoenzyme in lung cells. Having psychiatric adverse reactions when administered orally affects negatively the patients' adherence to the drug. This work aimed to prepare emulsified spray dried alginate microparticles for the pulmonary delivery of roflumilast. Sodium alginate was used as microparticle-forming material, isopropyl myristate as an oil, Tween®80 as surfactant and calcium beta-glycerophosphate as cross-linking agent to enhance the mechanical properties of the particles...
June 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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