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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223101/cognitive-impairment-measured-by-event-related-potentials-during-early-and-late-postoperative-period-following-intravenous-or-inhalation-anaesthesia
#1
Irena Holečková, Jakub Kletečka, David Štěpánek, Slavomír Žídek, David Bludovský, Jiří Pouska, Pavel Mautner, Vladimír Přibáň
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated modification in cognitive function following inhalation (IA) and total intravenous (TIVA) anaesthesia measured using auditory ERPs (Event Related Potentials). METHODS: Auditory ERPs examination with N1, P3a and P3b component registration was carried out one day before surgery (D-1) and on the first (D+1), sixth (D+6) and 42nd (D+42) days after surgery. Results were compared between two anaesthetic groups. RESULTS: On D+1, N1 latency was increased in the IA group...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222682/-three-dimensional-analysis-of-nasal-physiology-representation-by-means-of-computational-fluid-dynamics
#2
REVIEW
F Sommer, T K Hoffmann, G Mlynski, M Reichert, A-S Grossi, R Kröger, J Lindemann
The human nose takes primary responsibility for preconditioning inhaled air. Numerous pathologies can affect the physiology of the nose. The beginnings of flow analyzes were carried out with three-dimensional casting models and differently colored liquids. Temperature and humidity could not be taken into account. Today, much more complex analyzes are possible using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), which are based on three-dimensional models generated from computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets...
December 8, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222627/pediatric-asthma-management-in-china-current-and-future-challenges
#3
Xiaojian Zhou, Jianguo Hong
The purpose of this report was to review the state of asthma diagnosis and treatment in China and to examine challenges in achieving earlier diagnosis and treatment. The prevalence of asthma in children in China has increased over past decades, and data published in 2013 indicated a prevalence of 3.0% in children aged 0-14 years. Although this prevalence has increased, the percentage of children with acute asthma attacks decreased from 86% in 2000 to 77% in 2010, and the frequency of hospitalizations for asthma attacks decreased from 54...
December 8, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221966/lesion-magnetic-susceptibility-response-to-hyperoxic-challenge-a-biomarker-for-malignant-brain-tumor-microenvironment
#4
Pinar Senay Özbay, Sonja Stieb, Cristina Rossi, Oliver Riesterer, Andreas Boss, Tobias Weiss, Felix Kuhn, Klaas Paul Pruessmann, Daniel Nanz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Quantitative susceptibility mapping has been previously used to differentiate lesions in patients with brain tumors. The aim of this work was to characterize the response of magnetic susceptibility differences in malignant brain tumors and surrounding edema to hyperoxic and hypercapnic respiratory challenges. METHODS: Images of malignant brain tumor patients (2 glioblastoma multiforme, 2 anaplastic astrocytoma, 1 brain metastasis) with clinical MRI exams (contrast-enhanced T1w) were acquired at 3T...
December 5, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221918/low-variability-in-peak-expiratory-flow-predicts-successful-inhaled-corticosteroid-step-down-in-adults-with-asthma
#5
Naomi Tsurikisawa, Chiyako Oshikata, Toshio Sato, Goro Kimura, Masami Mizuki, Takahiro Tsuburai, Shunsuke Shoji, Hiroshi Saito, Terufumi Shimoda
BACKGROUND: The prognosis for patients beyond 1 year after reduction of their inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose remains unknown. Predictive factors that can be evaluated before the initiation of asthma treatment or at ICS dose reduction are unknown. METHODS: We prospectively studied 223 patients in 6 hospitals in the National Hospital Organization of Japan during the 36 months after 50% reduction of their daily ICS dose. All patients recorded their morning and evening peak expiratory flows (PEFs) in their diaries...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221728/emulsified-isoflurane-induces-release-of-cytochrome-c-in-human-neuroblastoma-shsy-5y-cells-via-jnk-c-jun-n-terminal-kinases-signaling-pathway
#6
Zeyong Yang, Jingjing Lv, Xianfu Lu, Xingxing Li, Xiaohu An, Jianwei Wang, Hao Weng, Yuanhai Li
A large number of studies have demonstrated that inhalation anesthetic isoflurane induced neural cell death by apoptosis in various cell and animal models. Emulsified isoflurane (EIso) is a new type of intravenous preparation of isoflurane that attracts increasing research attention as a promising clinical agent due to its both advantages as an intravenous and inhalation anesthetics medication. However, its safety and underlying molecular mechanism of neurotoxicity largely remain unknown. Therefore, it is meaningful to investigate the safety of EIso and to further elucidate its mechanism of anesthetic neurotoxicity...
December 5, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221714/changes-in-regulatory-b-cell-levels-in-bone-marrow-blood-and-sputum-of-asthmatics-following-inhaled-allergen-challenge
#7
John-Paul Oliveria, Amani I El-Gammal, Michelle Yee, Caitlin D Obminski, Tara X Scime, Rick M Watson, Karen Howie, Paul M O'Byrne, Roma Sehmi, Gail M Gauvreau
Following allergen exposure in the airways of subjects with allergic asthma, Bregs appear to efflux from the bone marrow and accumulate in the lungs with a possible role in dampening local inflammatory responses.
December 5, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221580/mechanisms-of-allergen-immunotherapy-for-inhaled-allergens-and-predictive-biomarkers
#8
REVIEW
Mohamed H Shamji, Stephen R Durham
Allergen immunotherapy is effective in patients with IgE-dependent allergic rhinitis and asthma. When immunotherapy is given continuously for 3 years, there is persistent clinical benefit for several years after its discontinuation. This disease-modifying effect is both antigen-specific and antigen-driven. Clinical improvement is accompanied by decreases in numbers of effector cells in target organs, including mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells. Immunotherapy results in the production of blocking IgG/IgG4 antibodies that can inhibit IgE-dependent activation mediated through both high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI) on mast cells and basophils and low-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRII) on B cells...
December 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221328/uncontrolled-and-under-diagnosed-asthma-in-a-damascus-shelter-during-the-syrian-crisis
#9
Yousser Mohammad, Shaaban Rafea, Youssef Latifeh, Ali Khaddam, Bisher Sawaf, Mhd Ismael Zakaria, Mohammad Sadek Al Masalmeh, Yaser Fawaz, Abdoulraouf Allaham, Imad Almani, Hiba El-Tarcheh, Ayham Ghazal, Ali Zaher, Hala Rifai, Hamed Joumah, S Dresden Glockler-Lauf, Teresa To
Background: Studies have shown that poor shelter or dwelling conditions may lead to deteriorations in health. Those with asthma may be more susceptible to compromised living conditions and stress leading to a higher risk of asthma exacerbations. To describe the asthma control and quality of life of individuals with diagnosed asthma living in a shelter in Damascus, Syria and estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in shelter dwellers without diagnosed asthma. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all individuals 5 years and older living in Al-Herjalleh shelter with diagnosed asthma were recruited to complete a questionnaire, which included items related to their respiratory symptoms, asthma exacerbations, exposure to asthma triggers, medication use, and health-related quality of life before and since entering the shelter...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221297/current-status-of-asthma-care-in-south-korea-nationwide-the-health-insurance-review-and-assessment-service-database
#10
Joon Young Choi, Hyoung Kyu Yoon, Jae Ha Lee, Kwang Ha Yoo, Bo Yeon Kim, Hye Won Bae, Young Kyoon Kim, Chin Kook Rhee
Background: Quality control is important for patients with asthma because of its prevalence and because the social burden is substantial. This study analyzed the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) database to assess asthma quality control in South Korea. Methods: We investigated the HIRA nationwide database for reimbursed insurance claims from all medical institutions in South Korea from July 2013 to June 2014. The number of patients with asthma were evaluated and the medical institutions were categorized by type of medical institution...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220196/compatibility-of-pegylated-polymer-nanoparticles-with-the-biophysical-function-of-lung-surfactant
#11
Moritz Beck-Broichsitter
In order to minimize an unwanted interference of colloidal drug delivery vehicles with the biophysical functionality of lung surfactant, the surface of polymer nanoparticles was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGylation). Plain poly(lactide) nanoparticles provoked a statistically relevant decrease in surface activity of the naturally-derived lung surfactant Alveofact®. By contrast, the extent of lung surfactant inhibition induced by PEGylated polymer nanoparticles was significantly attenuated. Here, escalations of the PEG coating layer thickness (>3 nm, with a chain-to-chain distance of ≤4 nm) on the colloidal surface were capable of circumventing bioadverse effects...
December 8, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218501/evaluating-safety-reporting-in-paediatric-antibiotic-trials-2000-2016-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Paola Pansa, Yingfen Hsia, Julia Bielicki, Irja Lutsar, A Sarah Walker, Mike Sharland, Laura Folgori
BACKGROUND: There are very few options to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in children. A major barrier is the duration and complexity of regulatory trials of new antibiotics. Extrapolation of safety data from adult trials could facilitate drug development for children. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review on the safety of antibiotic clinical trials (CTs) in children (0-18 years) to evaluate the overall quality of safety trials conducted in children and to determine if age-specific adverse events (AEs) could be identified for specific antibiotic classes...
December 7, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218036/the-macrophage-a-disputed-fortress-in-the-battle-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#13
REVIEW
Christophe J Queval, Roland Brosch, Roxane Simeone
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiological agent of human tuberculosis (TB), has plagued humans for thousands of years. TB still remains a major public health problem in our era, causing more than 4,400 deaths worldwide every day and killing more people than HIV. After inhaling Mtb-contaminated aerosols, TB primo-infection starts in the terminal lung airways, where Mtb is taken up by alveolar macrophages. Although macrophages are known as professional killers for pathogens, Mtb has adopted remarkable strategies to circumvent host defenses, building suitable conditions to survive and proliferate...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217405/a-novel-perspective-to-calibrate-temporal-delays-in-cerebrovascular-reactivity-using-hypercapnic-and-hyperoxic-respiratory-challenges
#14
Allen A Champagne, Alex A Bhogal, Nicole S Coverdale, Clarisse I Mark, Douglas J Cook
Redistribution of blood flow across different brain regions, arising from the vasoactive nature of hypercapnia, can introduce errors when examining cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) response delays. In this study, we propose a novel analysis method to characterize hemodynamic delays in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response to hypercapnia, and hyperoxia, as a way to provide insight into transient differences in vascular reactivity between cortical regions, and across tissue depths. A pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling sequence was used to acquire BOLD and cerebral blood flow simultaneously in 19 healthy adults (12 F; 20 ± 2 years) during boxcar CO2 and O2 gas inhalation paradigms...
December 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217086/effect-of-inhaled-allergens-and-air-pollutants-on-childhood-rhinitis-development
#15
Hui Zhou, Xia Iona Li, Jeong Hee Kim, Muhammad T Salam, Hyo Bin Kim, Rob S McConnell, Rima Habre, Tracy Bastain, Shohreh F Farzan, Jill Johnston, Frank D Gilliland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216912/changes-in-salivary-oxytocin-after-inhalation-of-clary-sage-essential-oil-scent-in-term-pregnant-women-a-feasibility-pilot-study
#16
Yuriko Tadokoro, Shigeko Horiuchi, Kaori Takahata, Takuya Shuo, Erika Sawano, Kazuyuki Shinohara
OBJECTIVES: This pilot study using a quasi-experimental design was conducted to evaluate the feasibility (i.e., limited efficacy, practicality, and acceptability) of our intervention protocol involving inhalation of the scent of clary sage essential oil by pregnant women and measurement of their preinhalation and postinhalation oxytocin levels. RESULTS: Participants were women of singleton pregnancies between 38 and 40 gestation weeks (N = 11). The experiment group (n = 5) inhaled the scent of clary sage essential oil diluted 50-fold with 10 mL of odorless propylene glycol for 20 min...
December 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216859/a-simple-prediction-tool-for-inhaled-corticosteroid-response-in-asthmatic-children
#17
Yi-Fan Wu, Ming-Wei Su, Bor-Luen Chiang, Yao-Hsu Yang, Ching-Hui Tsai, Yungling L Lee
BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids are recommended as the first-line controller medication for childhood asthma owing to their multiple clinical benefits. However, heterogeneity in the response towards these drugs remains a significant clinical problem. METHODS: Children aged 5 to 18 years with mild to moderate persistent asthma were recruited into the Taiwanese Consortium of Childhood Asthma Study. Their responses to inhaled corticosteroids were assessed based on their improvements in the asthma control test and peak expiratory flow...
December 7, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216852/access-to-affordable-medicines-and-diagnostic-tests-for-asthma-and-copd-in-sub-saharan-africa-the-ugandan-perspective
#18
Davis Kibirige, Leaticia Kampiire, David Atuhe, Raymond Mwebaze, Winceslaus Katagira, Winters Muttamba, Rebecca Nantanda, William Worodria, Bruce Kirenga
BACKGROUND: Equitable access to affordable medicines and diagnostic tests is an integral component of optimal clinical care of patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In Uganda, we lack contemporary data about the availability, cost and affordability of medicines and diagnostic tests essential in asthma and COPD management. METHODS: Data on the availability, cost and affordability of 17 medicines and 2 diagnostic tests essential in asthma and COPD management were collected from 22 public hospitals, 23 private and 85 private pharmacies...
December 8, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216805/a-review-on-recent-technologies-for-the-manufacture-of-pulmonary-drugs
#19
Gabriela Daisy Hadiwinoto, Philip Chi Lip Kwok, Richard Lakerveld
This review discusses recent developments in the manufacture of inhalable dry powder formulations. Pulmonary drugs have distinct advantages compared with other drug administration routes. However, requirements of drugs properties complicate the manufacture. Control over crystallization to make particles with the desired properties in a single step is often infeasible, which calls for micronization techniques. Although spray drying produces particles in the desired size range, a stable solid state may not be attainable...
January 2018: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216763/upregulated-mir-29c-suppresses-silica-induced-lung-fibrosis-through-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-mice
#20
X Wang, K Xu, X Y Yang, J Liu, Q Zeng, F S Wang
Silicosis is an irreversible lung disease resulting from long-term inhalation of occupational dust containing silicon dioxide. However, the pathogenesis of silicosis has not been clearly understood yet. Accumulating evidence suggests that miR-29 may have a significant anti-fibrotic capacity, meanwhile it may relate to Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The purpose of this study was to discuss the role of miR-29 in the progression of silicosis. A lentiviral vector was constructed, named Lv-miR-29c, which was overexpressing miR-29c...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
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