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Antipsychotic dosing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453005/post-mortem-quetiapine-concentrations-in-hair-segments-of-psychiatric-patients-correlation-between-hair-concentration-dose-and-concentration-in-blood
#1
Kamilla Nyborg Günther, Sys Stybe Johansen, Marie Katrine Klose Nielsen, Petra Wicktor, Jytte Banner, Kristian Linnet
Drug analysis in hair is useful when seeking to establish drug intake over a period of months to years. Segmental hair analysis can also document whether psychiatric patients are receiving a stable intake of antipsychotics. This study describes segmental analysis of the antipsychotic drug quetiapine in post-mortem hair samples from long-term quetiapine users by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. The aim was to obtain more knowledge on quetiapine concentrations in hair and to relate the concentration in hair to the administered dose and the post-mortem concentration in femoral blood...
February 3, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449106/hair-analysis-in-toxicological-investigation-of-drug-facilitated-crimes-in-denmark-over-a-8-year-period
#2
Xin Wang, Sys Stybe Johansen, Marie Katrine Klose Nielsen, Kristian Linnet
Hair can serve as a specimen for identifying past drug exposure. Segmental hair analysis may differentiate a single exposure from chronic use. Consequently, segmental hair analysis is useful for disclosing a single drug ingestion, as well as for determining repeated exposures in drug-facilitated crimes (DFCs). This paper presents an overview of toxicological investigations that have used hair analysis in DFC cases from 2009 to 2016 in Denmark. Hair concentrations were determined for 24 DFC-related drugs and metabolites, including benzodiazepines and other hypnotics, antihistamines, opioid analgesics, antipsychotics, barbiturates, and illicit drugs from DFC cases...
February 5, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444340/antipsychotics-delirium-and-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-what-is-the-link
#3
Heather Torbic, Abhijit Duggal
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute inflammatory process that impairs the ability of the lungs to oxygenate and ultimately leads to respiratory failure. Patients who develop ARDS often have prolonged and complicated hospital courses putting them at risk for intensive care unit (ICU) delirium. Patients with ICU delirium often need chemical sedation, mechanical ventilation, prolonged duration of ICU and hospital stays, long-term cognitive impairment, and increased mortality. In a patient with ARDS, ICU delirium further complicates the hospital course and increases the risk of morbidly and mortality...
February 14, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439776/clinical-risk-factors-for-the-development-of-tardive-dyskinesia
#4
REVIEW
Marco Solmi, Giorgio Pigato, John M Kane, Christoph U Correll
BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a severe condition that can affect almost 1 out of 4 patients on current or previous antipsychotic treatment, including both first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). While two novel vesicular monoamine transporter inhibitors, deutetrabenazine and valbenazine, have shown acute efficacy for TD, the majority of patients do not remit, and TD appears to recur once treatment is withdrawn. Hence, prevention of TD remains a crucial goal...
February 5, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436643/neuroprotective-effect-of-lurasidone-via-antagonist-activities-on-histamine-in-a-rat-model-of-cranial-nerve-involvement
#5
Baoming He, Liang Yu, Suping Li, Fei Xu, Lili Yang, Shuai Ma, Yi Guo
Cranial nerve involvement frequently involves neuron damage and often leads to psychiatric disorder caused by multiple inducements. Lurasidone is a novel antipsychotic agent approved for the treatment of cranial nerve involvement and a number of mental health conditions in several countries. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of lurasidone by antagonist activities on histamine was investigated in a rat model of cranial nerve involvement. The antagonist activities of lurasidone on serotonin 5‑HT7, serotonin 5‑HT2A, serotonin 5‑HT1A and serotonin 5‑HT6 were analyzed, and the preclinical therapeutic effects of lurasidone were examined in a rat model of cranial nerve involvement...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432503/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-atypical-antipsychotics
#6
REVIEW
Anna Emilia Urban, Wiesław Jerzy Cubała
The paper presents an overview and analysis of the results of research on therapeutic ranges of concentrations and receptor occupancy, mainly D2 receptors, in the treatment with some atypical antipsychotic drugs. Amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, quetiapine, olanzapine, risperidone, paliperidone, sertindole, and ziprasidone were taken into account. The benefits of therapeutic drug monitoring to optimize the effectiveness of treatment and avoid side effects or toxicity were shown. The safety of patients, with the possibility to use the lowest effective dose, is an undoubted profit of TDM...
December 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430641/comparative-effect-of-antipsychotics-on-risk-of-self-harm-among-patients-with-schizophrenia
#7
C-H Ma, S-S Chang, H-J Tsai, S S-F Gau, I-M Chen, S-C Liao, Y-L Chien, M H Hsieh, C-S Wu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of different antipsychotic treatments with hospitalization due to self-harm among patients with schizophrenia. METHOD: This retrospective cohort study was based on Taiwan's universal health insurance database. Patients aged 15-45 years with a newly diagnosed schizophrenic disorder in 2001-2012 were included. The study outcome was the first hospitalization due to self-harm or undetermined injury after the diagnosis of schizophrenic disorders...
February 11, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425665/newly-diagnosed-bipolar-disorder-and-the-subsequent-risk-of-erectile-dysfunction-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#8
Po-Hsun Hou, Frank Chiahung Mao, Geng-Ruei Chang, Min-Wei Huang, Yao-Ting Wang, Shiau-Shian Huang
BACKGROUND: Although erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common problem in men with mental disorders, there are few reports in the literature on the relation between bipolar disorder (BD) and ED. AIMS: To establish the incidence rate of ED in men with BD and assess the risk of ED in patients with BD according to type of treatment offered or no active treatment with medication during the 1st year of onset. METHODS: We identified 5,150 men with newly diagnosed BD using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database...
February 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424805/effects-of-alcohol-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-blonanserin-and-n-deethylated-blonanserin-in-healthy-chinese-subjects
#9
Shuhua Deng, Xiaojia Ni, Dewei Shang, Zhanzhang Wang, Ming Zhang, Jinqing Hu, Xiuqing Zhu, Haoyang Lu, Yuqing Chen, Yuefeng Zhang, Huan Peng, Yuguan Wen
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Blonanserin is a novel antipsychotic drug approved for the treatment of schizophrenia in East Asia. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of alcohol on the pharmacokinetic properties of blonanserin and its metabolite N-deethyl blonanserin in healthy Chinese male subjects under fasting conditions. METHODS/PROCEDURES: The study was designed as a randomized, open-label, crossover clinical investigation in 10 male volunteers, each of whom received 2 treatments under fasted conditions: treatment A, blonanserin (8 mg) with water, and treatment B, blonanserin (8 mg) with alcohol (1 mL/kg)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417763/combined-treatment-with-a-selective-pde10a-inhibitor-tak-063-and-either-haloperidol-or-olanzapine-at-subeffective-doses-produces-potent-antipsychotic-like-effects-without-affecting-plasma-prolactin-levels-and-cataleptic-responses-in-rodents
#10
Kazunori Suzuki, Akina Harada, Hirobumi Suzuki, Clizia Capuani, Annarosa Ugolini, Mauro Corsi, Haruhide Kimura
Activation of indirect pathway medium spiny neurons (MSNs) via promotion of cAMP production is the principal mechanism of action of current antipsychotics with dopamine D2 receptor antagonism. TAK-063 [1-[2-fluoro-4-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl]-5-methoxy-3-(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)pyridazin-4(1H)-one] is a novel phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitor that activates both direct and indirect pathway MSNs through increasing both cAMP and cGMP levels by inhibition of their degradation. The activation of indirect pathway MSNs through the distinct mechanism of action of these drugs raises the possibility of augmented pharmacological effects by combination therapy...
February 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409162/antipsychotic-reduction-and-or-cessation-and-antipsychotics-as-specific-treatments-for-tardive-dyskinesia
#11
REVIEW
Hanna Bergman, John Rathbone, Vivek Agarwal, Karla Soares-Weiser
BACKGROUND: Since the 1950s antipsychotic medication has been extensively used to treat people with chronic mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. These drugs, however, have also been associated with a wide range of adverse effects, including movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) - a problem often seen as repetitive involuntary movements around the mouth and face. Various strategies have been examined to reduce a person's cumulative exposure to antipsychotics. These strategies include dose reduction, intermittent dosing strategies such as drug holidays, and antipsychotic cessation...
February 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407565/reduced-cardiovascular-fitness-associated-with-exposure-to-clozapine-in-individuals-with-chronic-schizophrenia
#12
David D Kim, Donna J Lang, Ric M Procyshyn, Melissa L Woodward, Kai Kaufman, Randall F White, William G Honer, Darren E R Warburton
Studies show that individuals with schizophrenia have impaired cardiovascular fitness (i.e., low peak aerobic power (VO2peak)). It is speculated that antipsychotics with adverse cardiovascular and metabolic profiles, in particular clozapine, have a significant impact on VO2peak. In this cross-sectional study, we examined whether exposure to clozapine was associated with further reduced VO2peak compared with non-clozapine antipsychotics. Thirty participants with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were divided into clozapine and non-clozapine groups...
January 17, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403128/add-on-aripiprazole-for-atypical-antipsychotic-induced-clinically-significant-hyperprolactinemia
#13
Dhanya Raveendranthan, Naren P Rao, Mukund G Rao, Ajish G Mangot, Shivaram Varambally, Muralidharan Kesavan, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Bangalore N Gangadhar
Background: Antipsychotic treatment-induced hyperprolactinemia is a highly distressing and disabling side effect for patients. The use of add-on aripiprazole has been identified as a possible treatment strategy in this situation. However, data on prolactin changes with add-on aripiprazole in a real-world naturalistic clinical setting from India are sparse. Materials and Methods: The retrospective chart review was conducted at the specialty metabolic clinic at the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, India...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401113/clozapine-for-treatment-refractory-behavioral-disturbance-in-dementia
#14
Andreea Teodorescu, Lorena Dima, Petru Ifteni, Liliana M Rogozea
BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia significantly contribute to caregiver burden and impose patient hospitalization. The goal of treatment of admitted patients is the rapid remission of symptoms to allow their return to home as soon as possible. Intervention requires an intrusive approach with parenteral treatment and physical restraints, with a negative emotional impact on patients and their families. Despite the large utilization of antipsychotics for behavioral and psychological symptoms, there is no antipsychotic approved by the Food and Drug Administration for agitation in dementia...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400443/in-vivo-characterization-of-two-18f-labeled-pde10a-pet-radioligands-in-nonhuman-primate-brains
#15
Hui Liu, Hongjun Jin, Zhonghua Luo, Xuyi Yue, Xiang Zhang, Hubert Flores, Yi Su, Joel S Perlmutter, Zhude Tu
PET with Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) specific radioligands provide a noninvasive and quantitative imaging tool to access the expression of this enzyme in vivo under normal and diseased conditions. We recently reported two potent 18F-labeled PDE10A radioligands (18F-TZ19106B and 18F-TZ8110); initial evaluation in rats and nonhuman primates indicated stable metabolic profiles and excellent target-to-non-target ratio (striatum/cerebellum) for both tracers. Herein, we focused on in vivo characterization of 18F-TZ19106B and 18F-TZ8110 to identify a suitable radioligand for imaging PDE10A in vivo...
February 5, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397899/sodium-benzoate-a-d-amino-acid-oxidase-inhibitor-added-to-clozapine-for-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#16
Chieh-Hsin Lin, Ching-Hua Lin, Yue-Cune Chang, Yu-Jhen Huang, Po-Wei Chen, Hui-Ting Yang, Hsien-Yuan Lane
BACKGROUND: Clozapine is the last-line antipsychotic agent for refractory schizophrenia. To date, there is no convincing evidence for augmentation on clozapine. Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, including inhibition of D-amino acid oxidase that may metabolize D-amino acids, has been reported to be beneficial for patients receiving antipsychotics other than clozapine. This study aimed to examine the efficacy and safety of a D-amino acid oxidase inhibitor, sodium benzoate, for schizophrenia patients who had poor response to clozapine...
December 26, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395607/a-quantitative-systems-pharmacology-study-on-optimal-scenarios-for-switching-to-paliperidone-palmitate-once-monthly
#17
Hugo Geerts, Athan Spiros, Patrick Roberts, Larry Alphs
Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic formulations are increasingly used for improving patient compliance and long-term outcomes. Transitioning to LAIs raises questions regarding how optimum efficacy can be rapidly achieved while minimizing potential efficacy and safety concerns related to overlapping plasma levels of prior treatments and the new LAI. Ideally, randomized clinical trials would provide guidance regarding transition algorithms, but the number of studies and sample size required to address relevant questions makes this approach unachievable...
January 25, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395042/metabolic-and-cardiovascular-complications-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-total-population-sibling-comparison-study-with-long-term-follow-up
#18
Kayoko Isomura, Gustaf Brander, Zheng Chang, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Christian Rück, Clara Hellner, Paul Lichtenstein, Henrik Larsson, David Mataix-Cols, Lorena Fernández de la Cruz
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with increased mortality, but the causes of this increase are poorly understood. This study examined whether OCD is associated with an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular complications. METHODS: Individuals diagnosed with OCD (n = 25,415) were identified from a cohort of 12,497,002 individuals living in Sweden between 1973 and 2013. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to investigate the risk of metabolic and cardiovascular complications in OCD patients compared with the general population and unaffected full siblings of OCD individuals...
December 21, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392351/determination-of-plasma-concentration-reference-ranges-for-oral-aripiprazole-olanzapine-and-quetiapine
#19
Julia Korell, Bruce Green, Allan Rae, Bart Remmerie, An Vermeulen
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a common disease which is commonly managed using antipsychotic medications (APS). Inadequate response and lack of adherence often prevent optimal therapeutic effectiveness. Monitoring APS concentrations can be useful to help improve outcomes for the patient. AIMS: The aim of this study was to develop "reference ranges" for oral aripiprazole, olanzapine, and quetiapine to allow clinicians to understand expected variability in patients treated with APS...
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389697/pharmacotherapy-for-primary-delusional-jealousy-a-retrospective-observational-study-of-32-cases-with-othello-syndrome
#20
Chen-Chung Liu, Yen-Chin Wang, Tzung-Jeng Hwang
To determine whether primary delusional jealousy can be treated effectively with antipsychotics or antidepressants, and whether any clinical variables are associated with response to pharmacotherapy, we carried out a retrospective case series observational study by reviewing clinical records of patients with an International Classification of Disease, 9th ed., diagnostic code of 297 (delusional disorders) who were treated at the Department of Psychiatry of a university affiliated hospital from January 2010 to December 2015...
March 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
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