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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424383/-long-acting-injection-four-times-a-year-review-of-the-3-monthly-paliperidone-palmitate-injection
#1
Róbert Herold
Continuous maintenance antipsychotic treatment is one of the most important factor in the long-term course of schizophrenia. Among the therapeutic options available today, the long-acting injectable antipsychotics are those that are able to efficiently provide an optimal treatment strategy required for continuous maintenance treatment. Three-monthly paliperidone palmitate (TREVICTA) is an important milestone in this therapeutic approach, since it is the first and only antipsychotic treatment for patients with schizophrenia, which provides the yearly maintenance therapeutic dose by four injections...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420824/dynamic-changes-in-near-infrared-spectroscopy-nirs-findings-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-a-case-report
#2
Tsuyoshi Hatakeyama, Yasuto Kunii, Itaru Miura, Shuntaro Itagaki, Soichi Kono, Tetsuya Shiga, Sachie Oshima, Keiko Nozaki, Rieko Suzuki, Hirooki Yabe
The clinical course of schizophrenia is characterized by recurrence and chronicity and has a large burden on society. Nevertheless, diagnosis of schizophrenia is based only on distinctive symptoms and the disease course. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a useful method for measuring changes in the hemoglobin concentration in the cortical surface area and reflects brain function. We measured NIRS four times during the clinical course in a patient with first-episode schizophrenia.A 17-year-old woman admitted to our hospital because of hallucinations, delusions and appetite loss...
April 15, 2017: Fukushima Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420451/what-leads-to-high-antipsychotic-dosing-in-forensic-patients-with-schizophrenia
#3
Branimir Margetić, Branka Aukst Margetić, Dragutin Ivanec, Tija Žarković Palijan
Earlier findings suggest that forensic schizophrenia patients are treated with higher doses of antipsychotics. This practice-based specificity is insufficiently studied, and clinicians' motives regarding this practice remain poorly understood. In this editorial, the authors provide their data on treatment of forensic schizophrenia patients and identify characteristics of psychopathology and previous types of behaviors, including suicidal attempts, as potential reasons for the practice. They also emphasize that "these previous acts" often took place years ago, and suggest that current or recent aggression is unlikely the main reason for dosing, but rather the clinicians' intention to maintain "must remain unaggressive" condition...
April 19, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420450/what-side-effects-are-problematic-for-patients-prescribed-antipsychotic-medication-the-maudsley-side-effects-mse-measure-for-antipsychotic-medication
#4
T Wykes, J Evans, C Paton, T R E Barnes, D Taylor, R Bentall, B Dalton, T Ruffell, D Rose, S Vitoratou
BACKGROUND: Capturing service users' perspectives can highlight additional and different concerns to those of clinicians, but there are no up to date, self-report psychometrically sound measures of side effects of antipsychotic medications. Aim To develop a psychometrically sound measure to identify antipsychotic side effects important to service users, the Maudsley Side Effects (MSE) measure. METHOD: An initial item bank was subjected to a Delphi exercise (n = 9) with psychiatrists and pharmacists, followed by service user focus groups and expert panels (n = 15) to determine item relevance and language...
April 19, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419874/oral-administration-of-a-specific-kynurenic-acid-synthesis-kat-ii-inhibitor-attenuates-evoked-glutamate-release-in-rat-prefrontal-cortex
#5
D M Bortz, H-Q Wu, R Schwarcz, J P Bruno
Cognitive deficits represent core symptoms in schizophrenia (SZ) and predict patient outcome; however, they remain poorly treated by current antipsychotic drugs. Elevated levels of the endogenous alpha7 nicotinic receptor negative allosteric modulator and NMDA receptor antagonist, kynurenic acid (KYNA), are commonly seen in post-mortem tissue and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with SZ. When acutely or chronically elevated in rodents, KYNA produces cognitive deficits similar to those seen in the disease, making down-regulation of KYNA, via inhibition of kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II), a potential treatment strategy...
April 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417028/general-anaesthesia-protocols-for-patients-undergoing-electroconvulsive-therapy-retrospective-analysis-of-504-sessions-over-a-five-year-period-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-oman
#6
Aravind Narayanan, Chandar Lal, Hamed Al-Sinawi
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to review general anaesthesia protocols for patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) at a tertiary care hospital in Oman, particularly with regards to clinical profile, potential drug interactions and patient outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective study took place at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Muscat, Oman. The electronic medical records of patients undergoing ECT at SQUH between January 2010 and December 2014 were reviewed for demographic characteristics and therapy details...
February 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415873/structural-brain-changes-in-schizophrenia-at-different-stages-of-the-illness-a-selective-review-of-longitudinal-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies
#7
Bruno Dietsche, Tilo Kircher, Irina Falkenberg
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disorder accompanied by aberrant structural brain connectivity. The question whether schizophrenia is a progressive brain disorder is yet to be resolved. Thus, it is not clear when these structural alterations occur and how they develop over time. METHODS: In our selective review, we summarized recent findings from longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging studies investigating structural brain alterations and its impact on clinical outcome at different stages of the illness: (1) subjects at ultra-high risk of developing psychosis, (2) patients with a first episode psychosis, and (3) chronically ill patients...
May 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412306/time-dependent-sensitization-of-antipsychotic-effect-in-adolescent-male-and-female-rats
#8
Xiaojing Ding, Xiaonan Li, Qing Shu, Ruiyong Wu, Gang Hu, Ming Li
Many behavioral and biological effects of a psychoactive drug often undergo time-dependent change following even one single drug exposure. The present study examined whether one or two exposures of haloperidol, olanzapine or clozapine would also induce a time-dependent change in their behavioral effects in adolescent rats and whether such a change vary between sexes. Adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (<40days old) were first treated with one single injection of haloperidol (0.05 and 0.1mg/kg, sc), clozapine (10...
April 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411772/psychocutaneous-disease-pharmacotherapy-and-psychotherapy
#9
REVIEW
Helena Kuhn, Constance Mennella, Michelle Magid, Caroline Stamu-O'Brien, George Kroumpouzos
Building a strong therapeutic alliance with the patient is of utmost importance in the management of psychocutaneous disease. Optimal management of psychocutaneous disease includes both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. This article reviews psychotropic medications currently used for psychocutaneous disease, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and anxiolytics, with a discussion of relevant dosing regimens and adverse effects. Pruritus management is addressed. In addition, basic and complex forms of psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and habit-reversal training, are described...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411574/risperidone-versus-olanzapine-in-the-acute-treatment-of-persistent-delusional-disorder-a-retrospective-analysis
#10
Karishma Kulkarni, Rashmi Arasappa, Krishna Prasad M, Amit Zutshi, Prabhat K Chand, Pratima Murthy, Mariamma Philip, Kesavan Muralidharan
There is a dearth of prospective trials studying treatment response in Persistent Delusional Disorder (PDD) to guide clinical practice. Available retrospective data indicate good response to second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). We selected the data of patients prescribed either olanzapine or risperidone from a retrospective chart review of PDD (n=455) at our centre. We compared the two groups olanzapine (n =86) versus risperidone (n =280) on dose, drug adherence, response and adverse effects. The two groups were comparable on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of PDD...
April 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407747/antipsychotic-prescribing-for-vulnerable-populations-a-clinical-audit-at-an-acute-australian-mental-health-unit-at-two-time-points
#11
Sara S McMillan, Sara Jacobs, Louise Wilson, Theo Theodoros, Gail Robinson, Claire Anderson, Gabor Mihala, Amanda J Wheeler
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotics are recognised as a critical intervention for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Guidelines globally endorse the routine practice of antipsychotic monotherapy, at the minimum effective dose. Even in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, clozapine use is endorsed before combining antipsychotics. This aim of this study was to review antipsychotic polytherapy alone, high-dose therapy alone, polytherapy and high-dose prescribing patterns in adults discharged from an inpatient mental health unit at two time-points, and the alignment of this prescribing with clinical guideline recommendations...
April 13, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407198/chlorpromazine-dose-for-people-with-schizophrenia
#12
REVIEW
Katharine Dudley, Xiaomeng Liu, Saskia De Haan
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) Model Lists of Essential Medicines lists chlorpromazine as one of its five medicines used in psychotic disorders. OBJECTIVES: To determine chlorpromazine dose response and dose side-effect relationships for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials (December 2008; 2 October 2014; 19 December 2016)...
April 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389049/intuitive-pharmacogenetic-dosing-of-risperidone-according-to-cyp2d6-phenotype-extrapolated-from-genotype-in-a-cohort-of-first-episode-psychosis-patients
#13
Sergi Mas, Patricia Gassó, Mercé Torra, Miquel Bioque, Antonio Lobo, Ana González-Pinto, Maria Soledad Olmeda, Iluminada Corripio, Eduard Vieta, Josefina Castro-Fornieles, Roberto Rodriguez-Jimenez, Julio Bobes, Judith Usall, Adrián Llerena, Jerónimo Saiz-Ruiz, Miguel Bernardo, Amalia Lafuente, PEPs Group
Risperidone (R) is the most prescribed antipsychotic drug for patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP). In a naturalistic cohort of chronic psychiatric inpatients, we demonstrated that clinicians adjust R dosage by CYP2D6 activity, despite being blinded to the genotype, which we described as an "intuitive pharmacogenetic" process. The aim of the present study is to replicate our previous findings of intuitive pharmacogenetic in a cohort of FEP patients using CYP2D6 phenotype extrapolated from genotypes...
April 4, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379483/effectiveness-of-prescription-based-cns-stimulants-on-hospitalization-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-nation-wide-register-study
#14
Christopher Rohde, Christoffer Polcwiartek, Marton Asztalos, Jimmi Nielsen
OBJECTIVE: Negative symptoms and cognitive deficits are main features of schizophrenia but with limited treatment options. Earlier studies have suggested that central nervous system (CNS) stimulants have a small effect on these domains, but with inconclusive results. As the first study to date, we aimed to investigate whether CNS stimulants improve naturalistic outcomes (psychiatric admissions and antipsychotic use) in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: By using extensive health registers all patients with schizophrenia and their use of CNS stimulants in Denmark were identified...
April 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376988/improving-nursing-home-compliance-via-revised-antipsychotic-use-survey-tool
#15
Linda L Bach, Donald L Lazzaretto, Clipper F Young, Paul W Lofholm
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of using a pharmacist-initiated antipsychotic use survey tool on improving nursing home compliance for appropriate antipsychotic use in patients with dementia. DESIGN: Prospective chart review study. SETTING: Two nursing homes in Marin County, California. PARTICIPANTS: Nursing home residents diagnosed with dementia and receiving antipsychotic medication. INTERVENTION: Pharmacist performing survey tool screening for appropriate antipsychotic use based on Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services guidelines and using information from the survey tool as part of the pharmacist recommendations to the prescriber...
April 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376877/rationale-and-design-of-the-placid-study-a-randomised-trial-comparing-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-inhaled-loxapine-versus-im-aripiprazole-in-acutely-agitated-patients-with-schizophrenia-or-bipolar-disorder
#16
L San, G Estrada, N Oudovenko, E Vieta
BACKGROUND: The management of acute agitation manifesting in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder requires swift pharmacological intervention to provide rapid symptomatic relief and prevent escalation to aggression and violence. Antipsychotic medications are widely used in this setting and the availability of an inhaled formulation with deep lung absorption of the antipsychotic loxapine has the potential to deliver a faster onset of therapeutic effect than the available intramuscular formulations of antipsychotics...
April 4, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376400/antipsychotic-activity-of-embelin-isolated-from-embelia-ribes-a-preliminary-study
#17
Sharanbasappa Durg, Naveen Kumar B, Ravichandra Vandal, Shivsharan B Dhadde, B S Thippeswamy, Veeresh P Veerapur, Shrishailappa Badami
BACKGROUND: Embelia ribes is claimed in Indian traditional medical practice to be useful in the treatment of nervous diseases. Embelin, an alkyl substituted hydroxy benzoquinone, is a major active constituent of E. ribes. The present preliminary study was intended to evaluate antipsychotic activity of embelin against apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour in mice and stereotyped behaviour in rats. METHODS: Two doses of embelin (5 and 10mg/kg) were administered once daily for 15days before exposure to apomorphine...
April 1, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374238/antioxidant-effects-of-rice-bran-oil-mitigate-repeated-haloperidol-induced-tardive-dyskinesia-in-male-rats
#18
Noreen Samad, Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is associated with the use of antipsychotic drugs such as D2 antagonist haloperidol (HP). The chronic use of HP is involved in the causation of free radicals and/or oxidative stress. In view of the nootropic, anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory-like effects of rice bran oil (RBO) in a variety of investigations, we assessed the protective properties of RBO on HP-induced TD and neurochemical alteration. Rats treated with HP orally at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg/day for a period of 5 weeks developed VCMs which increased progressively as the treatment continued for 5 weeks...
April 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373127/rp5063-an-atypical-antipsychotic-drug-with-a-unique-pharmacologic-profile-improves-declarative-memory-and-psychosis-in-mouse-models-of-schizophrenia
#19
Lakshmi Rajagopal, Sunoh Kwon, Mei Huang, Eric Michael, Laxminarayan Bhat, Marc Cantillon, Herbert Y Meltzer
Various types of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) modestly improve the cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS). RP5063 is an AAPD with a diverse and unique pharmacology, including partial agonism at dopamine (DA) D2, D3, D4, serotonin (5-HT)1A, and 5-HT2A receptors (Rs), full agonism at α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh)R (nAChR), and antagonism at 5-HT2B, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7Rs. Most atypical APDs are 5-HT2A inverse agonists. The efficacy of RP5063 in mouse models of psychosis and episodic memory were studied...
March 31, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370309/long-term-antipsychotic-use-and-brain-changes-in-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Sanna Huhtaniska, Erika Jääskeläinen, Noora Hirvonen, Jukka Remes, Graham K Murray, Juha Veijola, Matti Isohanni, Jouko Miettunen
OBJECTIVE: The association between long-term antipsychotic treatment and changes in brain structure in schizophrenia is unclear. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis on long-term antipsychotic effects on brain structures in schizophrenia focusing on studies with at least 2 years of follow-up between MRI scans. DESIGN: Studies were systematically collected using 4 databases, and we also contacted authors for unpublished data. We calculated correlations between antipsychotic dose and/or type and brain volumetric changes and used random effect meta-analysis to study correlations by brain area...
March 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
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