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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533580/olanzapine-induced-neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome
#1
Seyedhamze Hosseini, Forouzan Elyasi
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but life-threatening idiosyncratic side effect resulting from neuroleptic drugs. NMS mainly occurs in patients treated with high-potency typical antipsychotics, but rarely caused by atypical antipsychotics. Although NMS is less common with atypical antipsychotic, but it seems that its incidence is rising due to increased administration of such drugs. We present the case of a 27-year-old man with a history of paranoid schizophrenia that showed signs consistent with NMS that occurred after treatment with olanzapine...
May 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529043/the-impact-of-the-halogen-bonding-on-d2-and-5-ht1a-5-ht7-receptor-activity-of-azinesulfonamides-of-4-2-ethyl-piperidinyl-1-yl-phenylpiperazines-with-antipsychotic-and-antidepressant-properties
#2
Anna Partyka, Rafał Kurczab, Vittorio Canale, Grzegorz Satała, Krzysztof Marciniec, Agnieszka Pasierb, Magdalena Jastrzębska-Więsek, Maciej Pawłowski, Anna Wesołowska, Andrzej J Bojarski, Paweł Zajdel
A series of azinesulfonamides of long-chain arylpiperazine derivatives with semi-rigid alkylene spacer was designed, synthesized, and biologically evaluated using in vitro methods for their affinity for dopaminergic D2 and serotoninergic 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors. Docking to homology models revealed a possible halogen bond formation in complexes of the most potent ligands and the target receptors. The study allowed for the identification of compound 5-({4-(2-[4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]ethyl)piperidin-1-yl}sulfonyl)quinoline (21), which behaved as D2, 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor antagonist...
May 4, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523268/the-sedative-effect-of-propranolol-on-critically-ill-patients-a-case-series
#3
Junji Shiotsuka, Andrew Steel, James Downar
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have examined the effectiveness of alpha-2 adrenergic agonists for controlling delirium and agitation. Propranolol, a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist with good penetration of the blood-brain barrier, has not been investigated for this purpose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who were prescribed propranolol in our Medical Surgical ICU from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2013...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510296/pharmacokinetics-and-safety-of-single-dose-inhaled-loxapine-in-children-and-adolescents
#4
Sally Selim, Robert Riesenberg, James Cassella, Jeevan Kunta, Edward Hellriegel, Mark A Smith, Alexander A Vinks, Laura Rabinovich-Guilatt
This multisite open-label study sought to characterize the pharmacokinetics and safety of a single dose of inhaled loxapine in children and adolescents. Loxapine powder for oral inhalation was administered via a single-use handheld drug device to children and adolescents (aged 10-17 years) with any condition warranting chronic antipsychotic use. Patients were dosed according to body weight and cohort (<50 kg [n = 15], 2.5 or 5 mg; ≥50 kg [n = 15], 5 or 10 mg); the first 6 patients (cohort 1) enrolled in each weight group received the lower dose...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508340/comparative-effects-of-sertraline-haloperidol-or-olanzapine-treatments-on-ketamine-induced-changes-in-mouse-behaviours
#5
O J Onaolapo, T B Paul, A Y Onaolapo
Effects of sertraline, haloperidol or olanzapine administration on ketamine-induced behaviours in mice were examined. The aim was to ascertain the degree of reversal of such behaviours by sertraline, and compare its effectiveness to haloperidol and olanzapine. Ten-week old mice (N = 120) were equally divided into main groups; 1 (open-field, radial-arm maze and elevated plus maze {EPM} tests), and 2 (social interaction test). Mice in each main group were assigned into six groups of ten (n = 10) each. Group 1 received intraperitoneal (i...
May 15, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508166/toxoplasma-gondii-and-schizophrenia-a-review-of-published-rcts
#6
REVIEW
Sam D Chorlton
Over the last 60 years, accumulating evidence has suggested that acute, chronic, and maternal Toxoplasma gondii infections predispose to schizophrenia. More recent evidence suggests that chronically infected patients with schizophrenia present with more severe disease. After acute infection, parasites form walled cysts in the brain, leading to lifelong chronic infection and drug resistance to commonly used antiparasitics. Chronic infection is the most studied and closely linked with development and severity of schizophrenia...
May 15, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507829/bupropion-induced-acute-dystonia-with-dose-escalation-and-use-of-naranjo-nomogram
#7
Nawal Wasif, Komal Wasif, Muhammad W Saif
Acute drug-induced dystonia is commonly associated with antipsychotic drugs, antidepressants, antiemetics, and other medications. Bupropion (Wellbutrin and Zyban) is one of the most frequently prescribed antidepressants in the United States and Canada and smoking cessation aid. However, only few reported cases have been published of acute dystonia including dystonia after discontinuation of bupropion and even after a single dose of bupropion. Here, we report another case concerning an acute dystonia resulting from bupropion after dose escalation...
April 12, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507773/rapid-onset-clozapine-induced-loss-of-glycaemic-control-case-report
#8
Alejandro Porras-Segovia, Amir Krivoy, Mark Horowitz, George Thomas, Mark Bolstridge, Dragos Ion, Sukhwinder S Shergill
Clozapine has proved to be an effective antipsychotic for the treatment of refractory schizophrenia - characterised by the persistence of symptoms despite optimal treatment trials with at least two different antipsychotics at adequate dose and duration - but its use is hampered by adverse effects. The development of clozapine-induced diabetes is commonly considered to arise as part of a metabolic syndrome, associated with weight gain, and thus evolves slowly. We present the case of an individual with refractory schizophrenia and metformin-controlled diabetes who developed rapid-onset insulin-dependent hyperglycaemia immediately after starting clozapine...
May 2017: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506099/propofol-based-palliative-sedation-to-treat-antipsychotic-resistant-agitated-delirium
#9
Alfredo Covarrubias-Gómez, Maria López Collada-Estrada
Delirium is a common problem in terminally ill patients that is associated with significant distress and, hence, considered a palliative care emergency. The three subtypes of delirium are hyperactive, hypoactive, and mixed, depending on the level of psychomotor activity and arousal disturbance. When agitated delirium becomes refractory in the setting of imminent dying, the agitation may be so severe that palliative sedation (PS) is required. Palliative sedation involves the administration of sedative medications with the purpose of reducing level of consciousness for patients with refractory suffering in the setting of a terminal illness...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499900/lurasidone-in-post-menopausal-females-with-major-depressive-disorder-with-mixed-features-post-hoc-analysis-of-a-placebo-controlled-trial
#10
John Sramek, Anthony Loebel, Michael Murphy, Yongcai Mao, Andrei Pikalov, Neal R Cutler
BACKGROUND: Several studies have found that depressed, post-menopausal females may respond differently to antidepressants compared to pre-menopausal females. The atypical antipsychotic lurasidone, whose mechanism of action differs from SSRIs and other standard antidepressants, was shown in a 6-week randomized, flexible-dose, placebo-controlled study (n=209), to be effective in treating major depressive disorder (MDD) with mixed features (subthreshold hypomanic symptoms). This post-hoc analysis assessed the efficacy of lurasidone in this study by menopausal status...
May 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498176/effectiveness-of-haloperidol-prophylaxis-in-critically-ill-patients-with-a-high-risk-of-delirium-a-systematic-review
#11
Eduardo Santos, Daniela Cardoso, Hugo Neves, Madalena Cunha, Manuel Rodrigues, João Apóstolo
BACKGROUND: Delirium is associated with increased intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation, unplanned removal of tubes and catheters, and increased morbidity and mortality. Prophylactic treatment with low-dose haloperidol may have beneficial effects for critically ill patients with a high risk of delirium. OBJECTIVES: To identify the effectiveness of haloperidol prophylaxis in critically ill patients with a high risk for delirium...
May 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494390/bipolar-patients-treated-with-long-acting-injectable-risperidone-in-taiwan-a-1-year-mirror-image-study-using-a-national-claims-database
#12
Ming H Hsieh, Po-Ya Chuang, Chi-Shin Wu, Ching-Jui Chang, Pei-Fang Chung, Chao-Hsiun Tang
OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder (BD) is burdensome for patients and healthcare systems. This study evaluated changes in concomitant medication patterns, healthcare utilization, and costs after the initiation of risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) treatment among BD patients. METHOD: 287 BD patients receiving regular RLAI treatment for 1 year were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database during 2007-2012. The bootstrapping procedure was performed to create 1000 samples to generate normally distributed data...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493654/the-us-food-and-drug-administration-s-perspective-on-the-new-antipsychotic-pimavanserin
#13
Mitchell V Mathis, Brendan M Muoio, Paul Andreason, Amy M Avila, Tiffany Farchione, Aisar Atrakchi, Robert J Temple
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) review of the safety and effectiveness for pimavanserin, an atypical antipsychotic, for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson's disease psychosis. We describe the regulatory and clinical issues important to the FDA's approval of this New Drug Application, with special focus on the risk-benefit balance. We also describe a new labeling feature that presents additional efficacy data to clinicians...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492454/use-of-lithium-in-severe-acute-manic-episodes-retrospective-prescription-practice-from-a-tertiary-inpatient-unit
#14
Armağan Özdemir, Cana Aksoy Poyraz, Burç Ç Poyraz, Nazife G Usta Sağlam, Semra Enginkaya, Nesrin Tomruk
OBJECTIVE: A retrospective chart review was performed to investigate the common preferences of clinicians for the pharmacological treatment of acute manic episodes, with particular regard to lithium use, and to assess the adherence of clinical practice to established guidelines. METHODS: Cases of manic episodes in patients admitted to Bakirköy Mazhar Osman Mental Health and Neurological Diseases Education and Research Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Length of stay, medication data, serum levels, and adverse effects were evaluated for patients who received lithium therapy (N=98)...
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491312/neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-following-catatonia-vigilance-is-the-price-of-antipsychotic-prescription
#15
Thomas J Reilly, Sean Cross, David M Taylor, Richard Haslam, Sophie C Tomlin, Benjamin Gaastra
OBJECTIVES: To describe a case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome following antipsychotic treatment of catatonia, highlighting the potentially serious complications of this rare adverse drug reaction. METHODS: We present a case report of a patient who developed this syndrome with various sequelae. RESULTS: The patient developed neuroleptic after being treated with lorazepam and olanzapine for catatonia. He subsequently developed the complications of rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury, pulmonary embolism, urinary retention and ileus...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486094/a-pharmacodynamic-modelling-and-simulation-study-identifying-gender-differences-of-daily-olanzapine-dose-and-dopamine-d2-receptor-occupancy
#16
Andy R Eugene, Jolanta Masiak
BACKGROUND: Gender differences in treatment response rates for patients treated with antipsychotics are known. However, the literature lacks a pharmacodynamic model to allow for gender-based clinical trial simulations from modelling parameters for Olanzapine and dopamine D2 receptor occupancy. Thus, the primary aim of this analysis is to test and quantify the effect of gender on the pharmacodynamics of Olanzapine. METHODS: Population pharmacodynamic modelling was performed using non-linear mixed effects modelling in MONOLIX, while the Clinical Trial Simulations were performed using R for statistical programming...
May 9, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484390/spatiotemporal-mapping-techniques-show-clozapine-impairs-neurogenic-and-myogenic-patterns-of-activity-in-the-colon-of-the-rabbit-in-a-dose-dependent-manner
#17
Susanna Every-Palmer, Roger G Lentle, Gordon Reynolds, Corrin Hulls, Paul Chambers, Helen Dunn, Pete M Ellis
Background: Clozapine, an antipsychotic used in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, has adverse gastrointestinal effects with significant associated morbidity and mortality. However, its effects on defined patterns of colonic contractile activity have not been assessed. Method: We used novel radial and longitudinal spatiotemporal mapping techniques, combined with and monitoring of ambient lumen pressure, in ex vivo preparations of triply and of singly haustrated portions of rabbit colon. We identified the contractile patterns of mass peristalses, fast phasic, and ripple contractions and directly qualified the effects of clozapine, at concentrations of 10 μmol/L, 20 μmol/L, and 30 μmol/L, and of norclozapine, the main metabolite of clozapine, on contractile patterns...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483069/treatment-response-in-nonpsychotic-vs-psychotic-manias-a-follow-up-study-from-india
#18
K S Prabhavathy, P K Kuruvilla, Rajith Ravindren, K Kini Ganesh, S Midhun
BACKGROUND: Studies on treatment outcome in mania had been many. A few studies from the west address the issue of outcome in mood congruent and mood incongruent manias. None could be found from India. AIM: To compare the treatment response in three groups of patients with mania- Nonpsychotic, psychotic with mood congruent and psychotic with mood incongruent features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All consecutive manic patients admitted during 2013 to 2014, meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria were taken up...
April 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478771/evaluation-of-the-long-term-safety-and-tolerability-of-cariprazine-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-results-from-a-1-year-open-label-study
#19
Andrew J Cutler, Suresh Durgam, Yao Wang, Raffaele Migliore, Kaifeng Lu, István Laszlovszky, György Németh
OBJECTIVE: Cariprazine, a dopamine D3/D2 partial agonist atypical antipsychotic with preferential binding to D3 receptors, is approved for the treatment of schizophrenia and manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. The efficacy and safety of cariprazine was established in three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week trials in patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. This 53-week study evaluated the long-term safety and tolerability of cariprazine in patients with schizophrenia...
May 8, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474733/practitioner-review-the-effects-of-atypical-antipsychotics-and-mood-stabilisers-in-the-treatment-of-depressive-symptoms-in-paediatric-bipolar-disorder
#20
REVIEW
Tobias Atkin, Nicolas Nuñez, Gabriella Gobbi
BACKGROUND: The management of depressive and mixed symptoms in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD) remains a matter of debate. The goal of this review is, thus, to systematically examine the impact of atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) and mood stabilisers in the treatment of bipolar depression and/or mixed states. METHODS: A literature search was conducted for studies assessing the efficacy of pharmacological treatments for bipolar disorder type I, type II and not otherwise specified with a recent depressive, mixed or manic episode (with depressive symptoms) following DSM-IV criteria in children and adolescents as either acute or maintenance treatment...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
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