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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819456/therapeutic-effect-of-astroglia-like-mesenchymal-stem-cells-expressing-glutamate-transporter-in-a-genetic-rat-model-of-depression
#1
Amit Shwartz, Oshra Betzer, Noam Kronfeld, Gila Kazimirsky, Simona Cazacu, Susan Finniss, Hae Kyung Lee, Menachem Motiei, Shani Yael Dagan, Rachela Popovtzer, Chaya Brodie, Gal Yadid
Recent studies have proposed that abnormal glutamatergic neurotransmission and glial pathology play an important role in the etiology and manifestation of depression. It was postulated that restoration of normal glutamatergic transmission, by enhancing glutamate uptake, may have a beneficial effect on depression. We examined this hypothesis using unique human glial-like mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which in addition to inherent properties of migration to regions of injury and secretion of neurotrophic factors, were differentiated to express high levels of functional glutamate transporters (excitatory amino acid transporters; EAAT)...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819132/treatment-associated-changes-of-functional-connectivity-of-midbrain-brainstem-nuclei-in-major-depressive-disorder
#2
Gerd Wagner, Feliberto de la Cruz, Stefanie Köhler, Karl-Jürgen Bär
Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies demonstrated an abnormally coordinated network functioning in Major Depression Disorder (MDD) during rest. The main monoamine-producing nuclei within midbrain/brainstem are functionally integrated within these specific networks. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of these nuclei in 45 MDD patients and differences between patients receiving two different classes of antidepressant drugs. Patients showed reduced RSFC from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and stronger RSFC to the left amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818525/whole-transcriptome-microarray-analysis-reveals-regulation-of-rab4-by-rbm5-in-neurons
#3
Travis C Jackson, Shawn E Kotermanski, Patrick M Kochanek
RNA binding motif 5 (RBM5) is a nuclear protein that modulates gene transcription and mRNA splicing in cancer cells. The brain is among the highest RBM5 expressing organ in the body but its mRNA target(s) or functions in the CNS have not been elucidated. Here we knocked down (KO) RBM5 in primary rat cortical neurons and analyzed total RNA extracts by gene microarray vs. neurons transduced with lentivirus to deliver control (non-targeting) shRNA. The mRNA levels of Sec23A (involved in ER-Golgi transport) and the small GTPase Rab4a (involved in endocytosis/protein trafficking) were increased in RBM5 KO neurons relative to controls...
August 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817804/structural-mechanism-for-modulation-of-synaptic-neuroligin-neurexin-signaling-by-mdga-proteins
#4
Jonathan Elegheert, Vedrana Cvetkovska, Amber J Clayton, Christina Heroven, Kristel M Vennekens, Samuel N Smukowski, Michael C Regan, Wanyi Jia, Alexandra C Smith, Hiro Furukawa, Jeffrey N Savas, Joris de Wit, Jo Begbie, Ann Marie Craig, A Radu Aricescu
Neuroligin-neurexin (NL-NRX) complexes are fundamental synaptic organizers in the central nervous system. An accurate spatial and temporal control of NL-NRX signaling is crucial to balance excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, and perturbations are linked with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. MDGA proteins bind NLs and control their function and interaction with NRXs via unknown mechanisms. Here, we report crystal structures of MDGA1, the NL1-MDGA1 complex, and a spliced NL1 isoform. Two large, multi-domain MDGA molecules fold into rigid triangular structures, cradling a dimeric NL to prevent NRX binding...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816240/rodent-mismatch-negativity-mmn-theta-neuro-oscillatory-response-as-a-translational-neurophysiological-biomarker-for-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-based-new-treatment-development-in-schizophrenia
#5
Migyung Lee, Andrea Balla, Henry Sershen, Pejman Sehatpour, Peter Lakatos, Daniel C Javitt
Deficits in the generation of auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) generation are among the most widely replicated neurophysiological abnormalities in schizophrenia and linked to underlying dysfunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated neurotransmission. Here, we evaluate physiological properties of rodent MMN, along with sensitivity to NMDAR agonist and antagonist treatment, relative to known patterns of dysfunction in schizophrenia. Epidural neurophysiological responses to frequency- and duration-deviants, along with responses to standard stimuli, were obtained at baseline and following 2 and 4 weeks treatment from rats treated with saline, phencyclidine (PCP, 15 mg/kg/d by osmotic minipump), or PCP+glycine (16% by weight diet) interventions...
August 17, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813782/urea-cycle-pathway-targeted-therapeutic-action-of-naringin-against-ammonium-chloride-induced-hyperammonemic-rats
#6
Arumugam Ramakrishnan, Natesan Vijayakumar
Ammonia is a well-known neurotoxin that causes liver disease and urea cycle disorder. Excessive ammonia content in the blood leads to hyperammonemic condition and affects both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission including brain edema and coma. Naringin, a plant bioflavonoid present in various citrus fruits and mainly extracted from the grape fruit. This study was designed to assess the protective effect of naringin on ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) induced hyperammonemic rats. Experimental hyperammonemia was induced by intraperitoneal injections (i...
August 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812143/serotonin-in-psychiatry-in-vitro-disease-modeling-using-patient-derived-neurons
#7
REVIEW
Krishna C Vadodaria, Shani Stern, Maria C Marchetto, Fred H Gage
Several lines of evidence implicate serotonin in the etiology of multiple psychiatric disorders, especially mood disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Much of our current understanding of biological mechanisms underlying serotonergic alterations in mood disorders comes from animal studies. Innovation in induced pluripotent stem cell and transdifferentiation technologies for deriving neurons from adult humans has enabled the study of disease-relevant cellular phenotypes in vitro...
August 15, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810910/comprehensive-evaluation-of-gene-expression-signatures-in-response-to-electroacupuncture-stimulation-at-zusanli-st36-acupoint-by-transcriptomic-analysis
#8
Jing-Shan Wu, Hsin-Yi Lo, Chia-Cheng Li, Feng-Yuan Chen, Chien-Yun Hsiang, Tin-Yun Ho
BACKGROUND: Electroacupuncture (EA) has been applied to treat and prevent diseases for years. However, molecular events happened in both the acupunctured site and the internal organs after EA stimulation have not been clarified. METHODS: Here we applied transcriptomic analysis to explore the gene expression signatures after EA stimulation. Mice were applied EA stimulation at ST36 for 15 min and nine tissues were collected three hours later for microarray analysis...
August 15, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809841/measuring-neuromuscular-junction-functionality
#9
Emanuele Rizzuto, Simona Pisu, Carmine Nicoletti, Zaccaria Del Prete, Antonio Musarò
Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) functionality plays a pivotal role when studying diseases in which the communication between motor neuron and muscle is impaired, such as aging and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we describe an experimental protocol that can be used to measure NMJ functionality by combining two types of electrical stimulation: direct muscle membrane stimulation and the stimulation through the nerve. The comparison of the muscle response to these two different stimulations can help to define, at the functional level, potential alterations in the NMJ that lead to functional decline in muscle...
August 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807676/crf-modulates-glutamate-transmission-in-the-central-amygdala-of-na%C3%A3-ve-and-ethanol-dependent-rats
#10
Florence P Varodayan, Diego Correia, Dean Kirson, Sophia Khom, Christopher S Oleata, George Luu, Paul Schweitzer, Marisa Roberto
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is hypothesized to drive the development of alcohol dependence, as it regulates ethanol intake and several anxiogenic behaviors linked to withdrawal. Excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission contributes to alcohol reinforcement, tolerance and dependence. Therefore, in this study we used in vitro slice electrophysiology to investigate the effects of CRF and its receptor subtype (CRF1 and CRF2) antagonists on both evoked and spontaneous action potential-independent glutamatergic transmission in the CeA of naive and ethanol-dependent Sprague-Dawley rats...
August 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807378/corrigendum-to-kca1-1-is-potential-marker-for-distinguishing-ah-type-baroreceptor-neurons-in-nts-and-contributes-to-sex-specific-presynaptic-neurotransmission-in-baroreflex-afferent-pathway-neurosci-lett-604-2015-1-6
#11
Yu-Yao Zhang, Zhen-Yu Yan, Mei-Yu Qu, Xin-Jing Guo, Guo Li, Xiao-Long Lu, Yang Liu, Tao Ban, Hong-Li Sun, Guo-Fen Qiao, Bai-Yan Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806931/draft-de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-and-proteome-characterization-of-the-electric-lobe-of-tetronarce-californica-a-molecular-tool-for-the-study-of-cholinergic-neurotransmission-in-the-electric-organ
#12
Maria Stavrianakou, Ricardo Perez, Cheng Wu, Matthew S Sachs, Rodolfo Aramayo, Mark Harlow
BACKGROUND: The electric organ of Tetronarce californica (an electric ray formerly known as Torpedo californica) is a classic preparation for biochemical studies of cholinergic neurotransmission. To broaden the usefulness of this preparation, we have performed a transcriptome assembly of the presynaptic component of the electric organ (the electric lobe). We combined our assembled transcriptome with a previous transcriptome of the postsynaptic electric organ, to define a MetaProteome containing pre- and post-synaptic components of the electric organ...
August 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806219/selective-activation-of-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-neurons-attenuates-polymicrobial-sepsis-induced-inflammation-via-the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway
#13
Qian Zhai, Dengming Lai, Ping Cui, Rui Zhou, Qixing Chen, Jinchao Hou, Yunting Su, Libiao Pan, Hui Ye, Jing-Wei Zhao, Xiangming Fang
OBJECTIVES: Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are proposed as a major neuromodulatory system in inflammatory modulation. However, the function of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in sepsis is unknown, and the neural pathways underlying cholinergic anti-inflammation remain unexplored. DESIGN: Animal research. SETTING: University research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Male wild-type C57BL/6 mice and ChAT-ChR2-EYFP (ChAT) transgenic mice...
August 10, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806173/the-%C3%AE-alanine-transporter-balat-is-required-for-visual-neurotransmission-in-drosophila
#14
Yongchao Han, Liangyao Xiong, Ying Xu, Tian Tian, Tao Wang
The recycling of neurotransmitters is essential for sustained synaptic transmission. In Drosophila, histamine recycling is required for visual synaptic transmission. Synaptic histamine is rapidly taken up by laminar glia, and is converted to carcinine. After delivered back to photoreceptors, carcinine is hydrolyzed to release histamine and β-alanine. This histamine is repackaged into synaptic vesicles, but it is unclear how the β-alanine is returned to the laminar glial cells. Here, we identified a new β-alanine transporter, which we named BalaT (Beta-alanine Transporter)...
August 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805771/-synergistic-application-of-zinc-and-vitamin-c-to-support-memory-attention-and-the-reduction-of-the-risk-of-the-neurological-diseases
#15
O A Gromova, I Yu Torshin, A V Pronin, M A Kilchevsky
Zinc and vitamin C supplementation of the body is important for CNS functioning. Zinc ions are involved in the neurotransmission (signal transmission from acetylcholine, catecholamine, serotonin, prostaglandin receptors) and in ubiquitin-related protein degradation. Zinc deficits are associated with Alzheimer's disease and depression. Zinc supplementation (10-30 mg daily) improves neurologic recovery rate in patients with stroke and brain injury, has a positive impact on memory and reduces hyperactivity in children...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805144/a-qm-protein-ligand-investigation-of-anti-psychotic-drugs-with-the-dopamine-d2-receptor-d2r
#16
Ramin Ekhteiari Salmas, Yusuf Serhat Is, Serdar Durdagi, Matthias Stein, Mine Yurtsever
The dopamine D2 Receptor (D2R) is a member of the G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR) family and plays a critical role in neurotransmission activities in the human brain. Dysfunction in dopamine receptor signaling may lead to mental health illnesses such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. D2R is the target protein of the commonly used anti-psychotic drugs such as risperidone, clozapine, aripiprazole, olanzapine, ziprasidone and quetiapine. Due to their significant side effects and nonselective profiles, the discovery of novel drugs has become a challenge for researchers working in this field...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803382/cortical-afferent-inhibition-abnormalities-reveal-cholinergic-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-reappraisal
#17
REVIEW
Raffaele Nardone, Francesco Brigo, Viviana Versace, Yvonne Höller, Frediano Tezzon, Leopold Saltuari, Eugen Trinka, Luca Sebastianelli
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder affecting, besides the dopaminergic function, multiple neurotransmission systems, including the cholinergic system. Central cholinergic circuits of human brain can be tested non-invasively by coupling peripheral nerve stimulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of motor cortex; this test is named short latency afferent inhibition (SAI). SAI abnormalities have been reported in PD patients with gait disturbances and many non-motor symptoms, such as visual hallucinations (VHs), REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), dysphagia, and olfactory impairment...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802861/contrasting-effects-of-vortioxetine-and-paroxetine-on-pineal-gland-biochemistry-in-a-tryptophan-depletion-model-of-depression-in-female-rats
#18
M Franklin, N Hlavacova, Y Li, I Bermudez, A Csanova, C Sanchez, D Jezova
We studied the effects of the multi-modal antidepressant, vortioxetine and the SSRI, paroxetine on pineal melatonin and monoamine synthesis in a sub-chronic tryptophan (TRP) depletion model of depression based on a low TRP diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised to groups a) control, b) low TRP diet, c) low TRP diet+paroxetine and d) low TRP diet+vortioxetine. Vortioxetine was administered via the diet (0.76mg/kg of food weight) and paroxetine via drinking water (10mg/kg/day) for 14days. Both drugs resulted in SERT occupancies >90%...
August 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801915/manganese-and-1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-mpp-induced-neurotoxicity-indicate-differences-in-morphological-electrophysiological-and-genome-wide-alterations-implications-for-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Rajeswara Babu Mythri, Narayana Reddy Raghunath, Santosh Chandrakant Narwade, Mirazkar DasharathaRao Pandareesh, Kollarkandi Rajesh Sabitha, Mohamad Aiyaz, Bipin Chand, Manas Sule, Krittika Ghosh, Senthil Kumar, Bhagyalakshmi Shankarappa, Soundarya Soundararajan, Phalguni Anand Alladi, Meera Purushottam, Narayanappa Gayathri, Deepti Dileep Deobagkar, Thenkanidiyoor Rao Laxmi, Srinivas Bharath Muchukunte Mukunda
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD) and manganese-induced atypical Parkinsonism are characterized by movement disorder and nigrostriatal pathology. Although clinical features, brain region involved and responsiveness to levodopa distinguish both, differences at the neuronal level are largely unknown. We studied the morphological, neurophysiological and molecular differences in dopaminergic neurons exposed to the PD toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+) ) and manganese (Mn) followed by validation in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and Mn mouse models...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800600/botulinum-neurotoxin-c-mutants-reveal-different-effects-of-syntaxin-or-snap-25-proteolysis-on-neuromuscular-transmission
#20
Giulia Zanetti, Stefan Sikorra, Andreas Rummel, Nadja Krez, Elisa Duregotti, Samuele Negro, Tina Henke, Ornella Rossetto, Thomas Binz, Marco Pirazzini
Botulinum neurotoxin serotype C (BoNT/C) is a neuroparalytic toxin associated with outbreaks of animal botulism, particularly in birds, and is the only BoNT known to cleave two different SNARE proteins, SNAP-25 and syntaxin. BoNT/C was shown to be a good substitute for BoNT/A1 in human dystonia therapy because of its long lasting effects and absence of neuromuscular damage. Two triple mutants of BoNT/C, namely BoNT/C S51T/R52N/N53P (BoNT/C α-51) and BoNT/C L200W/M221W/I226W (BoNT/C α-3W), were recently reported to selectively cleave syntaxin and have been used here to evaluate the individual contribution of SNAP-25 and syntaxin cleavage to the effect of BoNT/C in vivo...
August 11, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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