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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438641/improving-therapeutics-in-anorexia-nervosa-with-tryptophan
#1
REVIEW
Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem
A growing body of evidence suggests that our diet is an important contributing factor in the development, management and prevention of a number of psychiatric illnesses. Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is the sole precursor of neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin). Administration of tryptophan can boost serotonin neurotransmission to produce therapeutically important effects in serotonin deficiency disorders. Anorexia nervosa (AN) an eating disorder associated with high levels of psychiatric comorbidity including psychosis, hyperactivity, depression and anxiety has highest lethality of all psychiatric illnesses...
April 21, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438331/-the-intestinal-microbiota-a-new-player-in-depression
#2
M Meyrel, L Varin, B Detaint, F Mouaffak
Depression is the leading cause of disability in the world according to the World Health Organization. The effectiveness of the available antidepressant therapies is limited. Data from the literature suggest that some subtypes of depression may be associated with chronic low grade inflammation. The uncovering of the role of intestinal microbiota in the development of the immune system and its bidirectional communication with the brain have led to growing interest on reciprocal interactions between inflammation, microbiota and depression...
April 21, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433499/changes-in-the-expression-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-mglur5-in-a-ketamine-based-animal-model-of-schizophrenia
#3
Dariusz Zurawek, Anna Salerno-Kochan, Marta Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Agnieszka Nikiforuk, Tomasz Kos, Piotr Popik
It has been shown that the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) is functionally associated with the NMDA subtype of the glutamate receptor family (NMDA receptors). These two receptors colocalize in brain regions associated with schizophrenia. Although the role of the NMDA receptor in cognitive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia is well studied, information about the role of mGluR5 receptors in schizophrenia is sparse. In our work, we show that subchronic administration of ketamine, a well-studied, non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors, caused cognitive deficits in rats as shown by testing novel object recognition (NOR)...
April 19, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432787/presynaptic-morphology-and-vesicular-composition-determine-vesicle-dynamics-in-mouse-central-synapses
#4
Laurent Guillaud, Dimitar Dimitrov, Tomoyuki Takahashi
Transport of synaptic vesicles (SVs) in nerve terminals is thought to play essential roles in maintenance of neurotransmission. To identify factors modulating SV movements, we performed real-time imaging analysis of fluorescently labeled SVs in giant calyceal and conventional hippocampal terminals. Compared with small hippocampal terminals, SV movements in giant calyceal terminals were faster, longer and kinetically more heterogeneous. Morphological maturation of giant calyceal terminals was associated with an overall reduction in SV mobility and displacement heterogeneity...
April 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432359/role-of-the-ion-channel-extracellular-collar-in-ampa-receptor-gating
#5
Maria V Yelshanskaya, Samaneh Mesbahi-Vasey, Maria G Kurnikova, Alexander I Sobolevsky
AMPA subtype ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission and are implicated in numerous neurological diseases. Ionic currents through AMPA receptor channels can be allosterically regulated via different sites on the receptor protein. We used site-directed mutagenesis and patch-clamp recordings to probe the ion channel extracellular collar, the binding region for noncompetitive allosteric inhibitors. We found position and substitution-dependent effects for introduced mutations at this region on AMPA receptor gating...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429309/%C3%AE-ketoadipic-acid-and-%C3%AE-aminoadipic-acid-cause-disturbance-of-glutamatergic-neurotransmission-and-induction-of-oxidative-stress-in-vitro-in-brain-of-adolescent-rats
#6
Janaína Camacho da Silva, Alexandre Umpierrez Amaral, Cristiane Cecatto, Alessandro Wajner, Kálita Dos Santos Godoy, Rafael Teixeira Ribeiro, Aline de Mello Gonçalves, Ângela Zanatta, Mateus Struecker da Rosa, Samanta Oliveira Loureiro, Carmen Regla Vargas, Guilhian Leipnitz, Diogo Onofre Gomes de Souza, Moacir Wajner
Tissue accumulation of α-ketoadipic (KAA) and α-aminoadipic (AAA) acids is the biochemical hallmark of α-ketoadipic aciduria. This inborn error of metabolism is currently considered a biochemical phenotype with uncertain clinical significance. Considering that KAA and AAA are structurally similar to α-ketoglutarate and glutamate, respectively, we investigated the in vitro effects of these compounds on glutamatergic neurotransmission in the brain of adolescent rats. Bioenergetics and redox homeostasis were also investigated because they represent fundamental systems for brain development and functioning...
April 20, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427497/mirtazapine-induced-steatosis%C3%A2
#7
Elin Thomas, Hasan Haboubi, Namor Williams, Aled Lloyd, Chin Lye Ch'ng
Mirtazapine is a commonly used drug indicated for the treatment of severe depression. It works as a presynaptic α2-adrenoreceptor antagonist that increases central noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission, and it is metabolized by the p450 cytochrome oxidase system. There is evidence within the literature to suggest a link between antidepressants and increased liver enzymes, although case reports demonstrating a link between mirtazapine specifically and steatosis are sparse. Here, we present a case of mirtazapine-induced steatosis in a 48-year-old office worker...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426966/assembly-of-excitatory-synapses-in-the-absence-of-glutamatergic-neurotransmission
#8
Richard Sando, Eric Bushong, Yongchuan Zhu, Min Huang, Camille Considine, Sebastien Phan, Suyeon Ju, Marco Uytiepo, Mark Ellisman, Anton Maximov
Synaptic excitation mediates a broad spectrum of structural changes in neural circuits across the brain. Here, we examine the morphologies, wiring, and architectures of single synapses of projection neurons in the murine hippocampus that developed in virtually complete absence of vesicular glutamate release. While these neurons had smaller dendritic trees and/or formed fewer contacts in specific hippocampal subfields, their stereotyped connectivity was largely preserved. Furthermore, loss of release did not disrupt the morphogenesis of presynaptic terminals and dendritic spines, suggesting that glutamatergic neurotransmission is unnecessary for synapse assembly and maintenance...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425701/the-effects-of-glutamate-receptor-activation-on-local-oxygen-changes
#9
Lindsay Walton, Nick G Boustead, Susan Carroll, R Mark Wightman
Glutamate is ubiquitous throughout the brain and serves as the primary excitatory neurotransmitter. Neurons require energy to fire, and energetic substrates (i.e., O2, glucose) are renewed via cerebral blood flow (CBF) to maintain metabolic homeostasis. Magnetic resonance brain functionality studies rely on the assumption that CBF and neuronal activity are coupled consistently throughout the brain; however, the origin of neuronal activity does not always coincide with signals indicative of energy consumption (e...
April 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424294/gaba-and-primary-motor-cortex-inhibition-in-young-and-older-adults-a-multimodal-reliability-study
#10
Ronan A Mooney, John Cirillo, Winston D Byblow
The effects of healthy ageing on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) within primary motor cortex (M1) remain poorly understood. Studies have reported contrasting results, potentially due to limitations with the common assessment technique. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of healthy ageing on M1 GABA concentration and neurotransmission using a multimodal approach. Fifteen young and 16 older adults participated in this study. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to measure M1 GABA concentration...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420888/global-gene-expression-profiling-of-healthy-human-brain-and-its-application-in-studying-neurological-disorders
#11
Simarjeet K Negi, Chittibabu Guda
Brain function is governed by precise regulation of gene expression across its anatomically distinct structures; however, the expression patterns of genes across hundreds of brain structures are not clearly understood. Here, we describe a gene expression model, which is representative of the healthy human brain transcriptome by using data from the Allen Brain Atlas. Our in-depth gene expression profiling revealed that 84% of genes are expressed in at least one of the 190 brain structures studied. Hierarchical clustering based on gene expression profiles delineated brain regions into structurally tiered spatial groups and we observed striking enrichment for region-specific processes...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419939/the-5-ht4-receptor-agonist-prucalopride-does-not-facilitate-cholinergic-neurotransmission-in-circular-and-longitudinal-smooth-muscle-preparations-of-equine-mid-jejunum
#12
Romain Adelin Lefebvre, Chana Callens, Inge Van Colen, Catherine John Ghislaine Delesalle
BACKGROUND: Postoperative ileus (POI) remains an important cause of death in horses. The recently developed selective 5-HT4 receptor agonists such as prucalopride target 5-HT4 receptors on myenteric cholinergic neurons to enhance acetylcholine release and GI motility. No clearcut in vitro evaluation whether highly selective 5-HT4 receptor agonists enhance submaximal cholinergic neurotransmission towards the muscle layer has been performed in horses. OBJECTIVES: To identify functional 5-HT4 receptors in equine jejunum...
April 8, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419739/cardiac-troponin-t-and-fast-skeletal-muscle-denervation-in-ageing
#13
Zherong Xu, Xin Feng, Juan Dong, Zhong-Min Wang, Jingyun Lee, Cristina Furdui, Daniel Clark Files, Kristen M Beavers, Stephen Kritchevsky, Carolanne Milligan, Jian-Ping Jin, Osvaldo Delbono, Tan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Ageing skeletal muscle undergoes chronic denervation, and the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), the key structure that connects motor neuron nerves with muscle cells, shows increased defects with ageing. Previous studies in various species have shown that with ageing, type II fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibres show more atrophy and NMJ deterioration than type I slow-twitch fibres. However, how this process is regulated is largely unknown. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle fibre-type specific denervation at the NMJ could be critical to identifying novel treatments for sarcopenia...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418237/what-gene-mutations-affect-serotonin-in-mice
#14
Richard C Tenpenny, Kathryn G Commons
Although serotonin neurotransmission has been implicated in several neurodevelopmental and psychological disorders, the factors that drive dysfunction of the serotonin system are poorly understood. Current research regarding the serotonin system revolves around its dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders, but there is no database collating genetic mutations that result in serotonin abnormalities. To bridge this gap, we developed a list of genes in mice that, when perturbed, result in altered levels of serotonin either in brain or blood...
April 18, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418172/analgesic-effect-of-clobazam-in-chronic-low-back-pain-but-not-in-experimentally-induced-pain
#15
J Schliessbach, P H Vuilleumier, A Siegenthaler, L Bütikofer, A Limacher, P Juni, H U Zeilhofer, L Arendt-Nielsen, M Curatolo
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is frequently associated with hypersensitivity of the nervous system, and drugs that increase central inhibition are therefore a potentially effective treatment. Benzodiazepines are potent modulators of GABAergic neurotransmission and are known to exert antihyperalgesic effects in rodents, but translation into patients are lacking. This study investigates the effect of the benzodiazepine clobazam in chronic low-back pain in humans. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of GABA modulation on chronic low-back pain and on quantitative sensory tests...
April 18, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417664/low-dose-systemic-scopolamine-disrupts-context-conditioning-in-rats
#16
Laura Luyten, Shauni Nuyts, Tom Beckers
Cholinergic neurotransmission plays a key role in learning and memory. Prior research with rats indicated that a low dose of pre-training scopolamine (0.1 mg/kg), a cholinergic receptor antagonist, did not affect cued fear conditioning, but did block renewal when injected before extinguishing a conditioned tone, opening up opportunities to pharmacologically improve exposure therapy for anxiety patients. Before translating these findings to the clinic, it is important to carefully examine how scopolamine affects contextual fear memories...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417559/asenapine-modulates-mood-related-behaviors-and-5-ht1a-7-receptors-mediated-neurotransmission
#17
Sarah Delcourte, Erika Abrial, Adeline Etiévant, Renaud Rovera, Jørn Arnt, Michael Didriksen, Nasser Haddjeri
AIM: Asenapine is a new atypical antipsychotic prescribed for the treatment of psychosis/bipolar disorders that presents higher affinity for serotonergic than dopaminergic receptors. The objective of this study was to investigate its antidepressant-like and antimanic-like properties on relevant animal models of depression and mania and to assess the acute and chronic effect of Asenapine on dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) 5-HT cell firing activity. METHODS: We assessed the effects of Asenapine using in vivo electrophysiological and behavioral assays in rats...
April 17, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416811/gene-deficiency-and-pharmacological-inhibition-of-caspase-1-confers-resilience-to-chronic-social-defeat-stress-via-regulating-the-stability-of-surface-ampars
#18
M-X Li, H-L Zheng, Y Luo, J-G He, W Wang, J Han, L Zhang, X Wang, L Ni, H-Y Zhou, Z-L Hu, P-F Wu, Y Jin, L-H Long, H Zhang, G Hu, J-G Chen, F Wang
Both inflammatory processes and glutamatergic systems have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood-related disorders. However, the role of caspase-1, a classic inflammatory caspase, in behavioral responses to chronic stress remains largely unknown. To address this issue, we examined the effects and underlying mechanisms of caspase-1 on preclinical murine models of depression. We found that loss of caspase-1 expression in Caspase-1(-/-) knockout mice alleviated chronic stress-induced depression-like behaviors, whereas overexpression of caspase-1 in the hippocampus of wild-type (WT) mice was sufficient to induce depression- and anxiety-like behaviors...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416798/neurotransmission-widening-exocytosis
#19
Darran Yates
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416628/impaired-glutamatergic-neurotransmission-in-the-vmh-may-contribute-to-defective-counterregulation-in-recurrently-hypoglycemic-rats
#20
Golam M I Chowdhury, Peili Wang, Alisha Ciardi, Ramanaiah Mamillapalli, Justin Johnson, Wanling Zhu, Tore Eid, Kevin Behar, Owen Chan
The objectives of this study were to understand the role of ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) glutamatergic neurotransmission in response to hypoglycemia and to elucidate the effects of recurrent hypoglycemia (RH) on this neurotransmitter. We measured 1) changes in interstitial VMH glutamate levels using microdialysis and biosensors, 2) identified the receptors that mediate glutamate's stimulatory effects on the counterregulatory responses, 3) quantified glutamate metabolic enzyme levels in the VMH, 4) examined astrocytic glutamate reuptake mechanisms and 5) used (1)H-[(13)C]-NMR spectroscopy to evaluate the effects of RH on neuronal glutamate metabolism...
April 17, 2017: Diabetes
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