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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644824/mechanism-underlying-acupuncture-ameliorated-depressive-behaviors-by-enhancing-glial-glutamate-transporter-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-cums-rats
#1
Ding Luo, Rui Ma, Yanan Wu, Xuechun Zhang, Yue Liu, Lin Wang, Wenbin Fu
BACKGROUND Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a recurrent mental illness worldwide. The glutamatergic neurotransmission system is now a target for antidepressant therapy because it takes part in synaptic plasticity and cognition in physical condition and has a potential excitatory neurotoxicity in pathological conditions. Glial glutamate transporter EAAT2 performs 90% of Glu neurotransmission. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of acupuncture on depressive behaviors and EAAT2 in CUMS...
June 23, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642706/toll-like-receptor-4-modulates-small-intestine-neuromuscular-function-through-nitrergic-and-purinergic-pathways
#2
Valentina Caputi, Ilaria Marsilio, Silvia Cerantola, Mona Roozfarakh, Isabella Lante, Francesca Galuppini, Massimo Rugge, Eleonora Napoli, Cecilia Giulivi, Genny Orso, Maria Cecilia Giron
Objective: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role in the homeostatic microflora-host crosstalk. TLR4-mediated modulation of both motility and enteric neuronal survival has been reported mainly for colon with limited information on the role of TLR4 in tuning structural and functional integrity of enteric nervous system (ENS) and in controlling small bowel motility. Methods: Male TLR4 knockout (TLR4(-/-), 9 ± 1 weeks old) and sex- and age-matched wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice were used for the experiments...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642681/%C3%AE-1-containing-gaba-a-receptors-cluster-at-synapses-where-they-mediate-slower-synaptic-currents-than-%C3%AE-2-containing-gaba-a-receptors
#3
Christine L Dixon, Pankaj Sah, Angelo Keramidas, Joseph W Lynch, Nela Durisic
GABA-A receptors (GABAARs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels that are assembled mainly from α (α1-6), β (β1-3) and γ (γ1-3) subunits. Although GABAARs containing γ2L subunits mediate most of the inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain, significant expression of γ1 subunits is seen in the amygdala, pallidum and substantia nigra. However, the location and function of γ1-containing GABAARs in these regions remains unclear. In "artificial" synapses, where the subunit composition of postsynaptic receptors is specifically controlled, γ1 incorporation slows the synaptic current decay rate without affecting channel deactivation, suggesting that γ1-containing receptors are not clustered and therefore activated by diffuse neurotransmitter...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642282/kappa-opioid-receptors-mediate-heterosynaptic-suppression-of-hippocampal-inputs-in-the-rat-ventral-striatum
#4
Julie Brooks, Patricio O'Donnell
Kappa opioid receptors (KOR) are highly enriched within the ventral striatum (VS) and are thought to modulate striatal neurotransmission. This includes presynaptic inhibition of local glutamatergic release from excitatory inputs to the VS. However, it is not known which inputs drive this modulation and what impact they have on the local circuit dynamics within the VS. Individual medium spiny neurons (MSNs) within the VS serve as a site of convergence for glutamatergic inputs arising from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and limbic regions, such as the hippocampus (HP)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642069/chronic-choline-supplementation-improves-cognitive-and-motor-performance-via-modulating-oxidative-and-neurochemical-status-in-rats
#5
Saiqa Tabassum, Saida Haider, Saara Ahmad, Syeda Madiha, Tahira Parveen
Choline, an essential nutrient, accounts for multiple functions in the body and brain. While its beneficial effects on healthy adults are not clear, choline supplementation is important during pregnancy for brain development, in elderly patients for support of cognitive performance and in patients with neurological disorders to reduce memory deficits. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate whether choline administration in healthy adult rats beneficially impacts cognitive and locomotor performance, and associated oxidative and neurochemical outcomes...
June 19, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640989/stimulant-treatment-trajectories-are-associated-with-neural-reward-processing-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#6
Lizanne J S Schweren, Annabeth Groenman, Daniel von Rhein, Wouter Weeda, Stephen F Faraone, Marjolein Luman, Hanneke van Ewijk, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Jaap Oosterlaan, Pieter J Hoekstra, Catharina A Hartman
OBJECTIVE: The past decades have seen a surge in stimulant prescriptions for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Stimulants acutely alleviate symptoms and cognitive deficits associated with ADHD by modulating striatal dopamine neurotransmission and induce therapeutic changes in brain activation patterns. Long-term functional changes after treatment are unknown, as long-term studies are scarce and have focused on brain structure. In this observational study (2009-2012), we investigated associations between lifetime stimulant treatment history and neural activity during reward processing...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638320/membrane-fusion-involved-in-neurotransmission-glimpse-from-electron-microscope-and-molecular-simulation
#7
REVIEW
Zhiwei Yang, Lu Gou, Shuyu Chen, Na Li, Shengli Zhang, Lei Zhang
Membrane fusion is one of the most fundamental physiological processes in eukaryotes for triggering the fusion of lipid and content, as well as the neurotransmission. However, the architecture features of neurotransmitter release machinery and interdependent mechanism of synaptic membrane fusion have not been extensively studied. This review article expounds the neuronal membrane fusion processes, discusses the fundamental steps in all fusion reactions (membrane aggregation, membrane association, lipid rearrangement and lipid and content mixing) and the probable mechanism coupling to the delivery of neurotransmitters...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637657/seasonal-factors-influence-quantal-transmitter-release-and-calcium-dependence-at-amphibian-neuromuscular-junctions
#8
Dengyun Ge, Nickolas Anastasios Lavidis
Amphibian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) are composed of hundreds of neurotransmitter release sites which exhibit non-uniform transmitter release probabilities and demonstrated seasonal modulation. We examined whether recruitment of release sites is variable when the extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]o) is increased in the wet and dry seasons. The amount of transmitter released from the entire nerve terminal increases by approximately the 4(th)-power as [Ca(2+)]o is increased. Toad (Bufo marinus) NMJs were visualised using DiOC2(5)-fluorescence and focal loose patch extracellular recordings were used to record the end-plate currents (EPCs) from small groups of release sites...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636360/proneurogenic-effects-of-trazodone-in-murine-and-human-neural-progenitors
#9
Valeria Bortolotto, Francesca Mancini, Giorgina Mangano, Rita Salem, Er Xia, Erika Del Grosso, Michele Bianchi, Pier Luigi Canonico, Lorenzo Polenzani, Mariagrazia Grilli
Several antidepressants increase adult hippocampal Neurogenesis (ahNG) in rodents, primates and, potentially, in humans. This effect may at least partially account for their therapeutic activity. The availability of antidepressants whose mechanism of action involves different neurotransmitter receptors represents an opportunity for increasing our knowledge on their distinctive peculiarities and for dissecting the contribution of receptor subtypes in ahNG modulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the effects of the antidepressant trazodone (TZD) on ahNG by using primary cultures of adult hippocampal Neural Progenitor Cells (ahNPC) and human iPSC-derived NPC...
June 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635673/toxicity-of-naphthalene-and-benzene-on-tribollium-castaneum-herbst
#10
Nerlis Pajaro-Castro, Karina Caballero-Gallardo, Jesus Olivero-Verbel
Naphthalene and benzene are widely-used volatile organic compounds. The aim of this research was to examine the toxicological effects of naphthalene and benzene against Tribolium castaneum as an animal model. Adult insects were exposed to these aromatic compounds to assess mortality after 4-48 h of exposure. The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) for naphthalene, naphthalin, and benzene were 63.6 µL/L, 20.0 µL/L, and 115.9 µL/L in air, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed expression changes in genes related to oxidative stress and metabolism [Glutathione S-Transferase (Gst), and Cytochrome P450 6BQ8 (Cyp6bq8)]; reproduction and metamorphosis [Hormone receptor in 39-like protein (Hr39), Ecdysone receptor: (Ecr), and Chitin synthase 2 (Chs2)]; and neurotransmission [Histamine-gated chloride channel 2 (Hiscl2)] in insects exposed for 4 h to 70...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634208/ligand-and-voltage-gated-ca-2-channels-differentially-regulate-the-mode-of-vesicular-neuropeptide-release-in-mammalian-sensory-neurons
#11
Yeshi Wang, Qihui Wu, Meiqin Hu, Bin Liu, Zuying Chai, Rong Huang, Yuan Wang, Huadong Xu, Li Zhou, Lianghong Zheng, Changhe Wang, Zhuan Zhou
Neuropeptides released from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons play essential roles in the neurotransmission of sensory inputs, including those underlying nociception and pathological pain. Neuropeptides are released from intracellular vesicles through two modes: a partial release mode called "kiss-and-run" (KAR) and a full release mode called "full fusion-like" (FFL). Using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, we traced the release of pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein-tagged neuropeptide Y (pHluorin-NPY) from individual dense-core vesicles in the soma and axon of single DRG neurons after Ca(2+) influx through either voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) or ligand-gated transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels...
June 20, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633562/advances-in-imaging-brain-metabolism
#12
Fahmeed Hyder, Douglas L Rothman
Metabolism is central to neuroimaging because it can reveal pathways by which neuronal and glial cells use nutrients to fuel their growth and function. We focus on advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods used in brain metabolic studies. (17)O-MRS and (31)P-MRS, respectively, provide rates of oxygen use and ATP synthesis inside mitochondria, whereas (19)F-MRS enables measurement of cytosolic glucose metabolism. Calibrated functional MRI (fMRI), an advanced form of fMRI that uses contrast generated by deoxyhemoglobin, provides maps of oxygen use that track neuronal firing across brain regions...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631864/ceftriaxone-reduces-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia-severity-in-6-hydroxydopamine-parkinson-s-disease-model
#13
Tanya Chotibut, Samantha Meadows, Ella A Kasanga, Tamara McInnis, Mark A Cantu, Christopher Bishop, Michael F Salvatore
BACKGROUND: Increased extracellular glutamate may contribute to l-dopa induced dyskinesia, a debilitating side effect faced by Parkinson's disease patients 5 to 10 years after l-dopa treatment. Therapeutic strategies targeting postsynaptic glutamate receptors to mitigate dyskinesia may have limited success because of significant side effects. Increasing glutamate uptake may be another approach to attenuate excess glutamatergic neurotransmission to mitigate dyskinesia severity or prolong the time prior to onset...
June 20, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630452/remote-memories-are-enhanced-by-comt-activity-through-dysregulation-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#14
D Scheggia, E Zamberletti, N Realini, M Mereu, G Contarini, V Ferretti, F Managò, G Margiani, R Brunoro, T Rubino, M A De Luca, D Piomelli, D Parolaro, F Papaleo
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a crucial hub for the flexible modulation of recent memories (executive functions) as well as for the stable organization of remote memories. Dopamine in the PFC is implicated in both these processes and genetic variants affecting its neurotransmission might control the unique balance between cognitive stability and flexibility present in each individual. Functional genetic variants in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene result in a different catabolism of dopamine in the PFC...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629864/structure-function-relationships-in-human-d-aspartate-oxidase-characterisation-of-variants-corresponding-to-known-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms
#15
Masumi Katane, Ryo Kanazawa, Risa Kobayashi, Megumi Oishi, Kazuki Nakayama, Yasuaki Saitoh, Tetsuya Miyamoto, Masae Sekine, Hiroshi Homma
D-Aspartate oxidase (DDO) is a degradative enzyme that is stereospecific for the acidic amino acid D-aspartate, an endogenous agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Dysregulation of NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission has been implicated in the onset of various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and in chronic pain. Thus, appropriate regulation of the amount of D-aspartate is believed to be important for maintaining proper neural activity in the nervous system. Herein, the effects of the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) R216Q and S308N on several properties of human DDO were examined...
June 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629779/are-dopaminergic-genotypes-risk-factors-for-eating-behavior-and-obesity-in-adults
#16
Orcun Avsar, Aysegul Kuskucu, Seda Sancak, Ece Genc
Dopamine (DA) is the main modulator of the brain reward system and significantly regulates food intake. The idea that obesity is a neurobiological disease rather than a metabolic disorder, is the basis of the study. Changes in dopamine neurotransmission affect the brain reward system in a direct way. Furthermore, changes in the reward system influence the eating behavior in human. The enzymes monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) terminate the DA function by metabolizing it. In our study, the control group which included 214 individuals and 234 subjects with obesity were investigated for MAOA-u VNTR and COMT (rs4680) polymorphisms...
June 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629580/folding-underlies-bidirectional-role-of-gpr37-pael-r-in-parkinson-disease
#17
REVIEW
Lina Leinartaité, Per Svenningsson
Since conformational flexibility, which is required for the function of a protein, comes at the expense of structural stability, many proteins, including G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), are under constant risk of misfolding and aggregation. In this regard GPR37 (also named PAEL-R and ETBR-LP-1) takes a prominent role, particularly in relation to Parkinson disease (PD). GPR37 is a substrate for parkin and accumulates abnormally in autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism, contributing to endoplasmic reticulum stress and death of dopaminergic neurons...
June 16, 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629225/cortical-plasticity-in-depression
#18
Mariagiovanna Cantone, Alessia Bramanti, Giuseppe Lanza, Manuela Pennisi, Placido Bramanti, Giovanni Pennisi, Rita Bella
Neural plasticity is considered the neurophysiological correlate of learning and memory, although several studies have also noted that it plays crucial roles in a number of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Indeed, impaired brain plasticity may be one of the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlies both cognitive decline and major depression. Moreover, a degree of cognitive impairment is frequently observed throughout the clinical spectrum of mood disorders, and the relationship between depression and cognition is often bidirectional...
May 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628896/cholinergic-neuron-gene-expression-differences-captured-by-translational-profiling-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Paul M McKeever, TaeHyung Kim, Andrew R Hesketh, Laura MacNair, Denise Miletic, Giorgio Favrin, Stephen G Oliver, Zhaolei Zhang, Peter St George-Hyslop, Janice Robertson
Cholinergic neurotransmission is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons is a key component of disease pathogenicity and symptomatology. To explore the molecular basis of this cholinergic dysfunction, we paired translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) with RNA sequencing (TRAP-Seq) to identify the actively translating mRNAs in anterior forebrain cholinergic neurons in the TgCRND8 mouse model of AD. Bioinformatic analyses revealed the downregulation of 67 of 71 known cholinergic-related transcripts, consistent with cholinergic neuron dysfunction in TgCRND8 mice, as well as transcripts related to oxidative phosphorylation, neurotrophins, and ribosomal processing...
May 25, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628658/effects-of-obesogenic-diet-and-estradiol-on-dorsal-raphe-gene-expression-in-old-female-macaques
#20
Cynthia L Bethea, Kevin Mueller, Arubala P Reddy, Steven G Kohama, Henryk F Urbanski
The beneficial effects of bioidentical ovarian steroid hormone therapy (HT) during the perimenopause are gaining recognition. However, the positive effects of estrogen (E) plus or minus progesterone (P) administration to ovariectomized (Ovx) lab animals were recognized in multiple systems for years before clinical trials could adequately duplicate the results. Moreover, very large numbers of women are often needed to find statistically significant results in clinical trials of HT; and there are still opposing results being published, especially in neural and cardiovascular systems...
2017: PloS One
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