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Hiroko Kubo, Masahito Nakataki, Satsuki Sumitani, Jun-Ichi Iga, Shusuke Numata, Naomi Kameoka, Shin-Ya Watanabe, Hidehiro Umehara, Makoto Kinoshita, Masatoshi Inoshita, Mai Tamaru, Masashi Ohta, Chiaki Nakayama-Yamauchi, Yasuhiro Funakoshi, Masafumi Harada, Tetsuro Ohmori
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have shown neurophysiological abnormalities related to the glutamate (Glu)-glutamine (Gln) cycle, membrane turnover, and neuronal integrity, although the results were neither consistent nor conclusive. Recently it has been reported the Gln/Glu ratio is the most useful index, quantifying neuronal-glial interactions and the balance of glutamatergic metabolites In this MRS study, we elucidated the abnormalities of metabolites in a larger sample of patients with BD with a high-field MRI system...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Thomas Vanicek, Alexandra Kutzelnigg, Cecile Philippe, Helen L Sigurdardottir, Gregory M James, Andreas Hahn, Georg S Kranz, Anna Höflich, Alexander Kautzky, Tatjana Traub-Weidinger, Marcus Hacker, Wolfgang Wadsak, Markus Mitterhauser, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Altered serotonergic neurotransmission has been found to cause impulsive and aggressive behavior, as well as increased motor activity, all exemplifying key symptoms of ADHD. The main objectives of this positron emission tomography (PET) study were to investigate the serotonin transporter binding potential (SERT BPND ) in patients with ADHD and to assess associations of SERT BPND between the brain regions. 25 medication-free patients with ADHD (age ± SD; 32.39 ± 10.15;10 females) without any psychiatric comorbidity and 25 age and sex matched healthy control subjects (33...
October 22, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Francisca Sanchez-Jiménez, Almudena Pino-Ángeles, Rocio Rodríguez-López, María Morales, José Luis Urdiales
Human histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and dopa decarboxilase (DDC) are highly homologous enzymes responsible for the synthesis of biogenic amines (BA) like histamine, and serotonin and dopamine, respectively. The enzymes share many structural and functional analogies, while their product metabolisms also follow similar patterns that are confluent in some metabolic steps. They are involved in common physiological functions, such as neurotransmission, gastrointestinal track function, immunity, cell growth and cell differentiation...
October 18, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Andrea Locci, Patrizia Porcu, Giuseppe Talani, Francesca Santoru, Roberta Berretti, Elisa Giunti, Valentina Licheri, Enrico Sanna, Alessandra Concas
Exposure of female rats to estradiol during the perinatal period has profound effects on GABAergic neurotransmission that are crucial to establish sexually dimorphic brain characteristics. We previously showed that neonatal β-estradiol 3-benzoate (EB) treatment decreases brain concentrations of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone, a potent positive modulator of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAAR). We thus evaluated whether neonatal EB treatment affects GABAAR expression and function in the hippocampus of adult female rats...
October 18, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Xi Chen, Heng Qiu, Chao Wang, Yu Yuan, Jennifer Tickner, Jiake Xu, Jun Zou
Choline, a hydrophilic cation, has versatile physiological roles throughout the body, including cholinergic neurotransmission, memory consolidation and membrane biosynthesis and metabolism. Choline kinases possess enzyme activity that catalyses the conversion of choline to phosphocholine, which is further converted to cytidine diphosphate-coline (CDP-choline) in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). PC is a major constituent of the phospholipid bilayer which constitutes the eukaryotic cell membrane, and regulates cell signal transduction...
October 8, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Malik Nassan, Qingqin Li, Paul E Croarkin, Wenan Chen, Colin L Colby, Marin Veldic, Susan L McElroy, Gregory D Jenkins, Euijung Ryu, Julie M Cunningham, Marion Leboyer, Mark A Frye, Joanna M Biernacka
BACKGROUND: Although multiple genes have been implicated in bipolar disorder (BD), they explain only a small proportion of its heritability. Identifying additional BD risk variants may be impaired by phenotypic heterogeneity, which is usually not taken into account in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). BD with early age at onset is a more homogeneous familial form of the disorder associated with greater symptom severity. METHODS: We conducted a GWAS of early-onset BD (onset of mania/hypomania ≤19 years old) in a discovery sample of 419 cases and 1034 controls and a replication sample of 181 cases and 777 controls...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Laura A Colangelo, Pamela Ouyang, Sherita Hill Golden, Moyses Szklo, Susan M Gapstur, Dhananjay Vaidya, Kiang Liu
INTRODUCTION: Considering that estradiol (E2) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have roles in neurogenesis and in neurotransmission, we examined whether the association of PUFAs with incident depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women is modified by hormone therapy (HT) use or estrogen status. METHODS: Women (N=1616) free of depressive symptoms at baseline (2000-2002) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis were classified by HT usage and quartiles of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and the sum EPA+DHA...
October 14, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Alice Filippini, Daniela Bonini, Luca La Via, Alessandro Barbon
Glutamate receptors play a key role in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS). Their channel properties are largely dictated by the subunit composition of tetrameric receptors. Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and kainate channels are assembled from GluA1-4 AMPA or GluK1-5 kainate receptor subunits. However, their functional properties are highly modulated by a post-transcriptional mechanism called RNA editing. This process involves the enzymatic deamination of specific adenosines (A) into inosines (I) in pre-messenger RNA...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Bok Soon Go, Sarah M Barry, Jacqueline F McGinty
Cocaine self-administration induces dysfunctional neuroadaptations in the prefrontal cortex that underlie relapse to cocaine-seeking. Cocaine self-administration disturbs glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens that is prevented by infusion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) into the prelimbic area of the prefrontal cortex. Intra-prelimbic infusion of BDNF decreases cocaine-seeking in a TrkB-ERK MAP kinase-dependent manner. Neuronal activity triggers an interaction between TrkB receptors and NMDA receptors, leading to ERK activation...
October 17, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Elżbieta Lorenc-Koci, Anna Czarnecka, Kinga Kamińska, Joanna Knutelska, Małgorzata Zygmunt, Magdalena Dudek
BACKGROUND: Interaction between dopaminergic and nitrergic neurotransmission in the brain plays a crucial role in the control of motor function and in the regulation of blood pressure (BP). In Parkinson's disease (PD), dopaminergic denervation of the striatum leads to disturbances in the nitrergic system in the basal ganglia. Recently, it has been demonstrated that addition of a low dose of the nitric oxide donor molsidomine to l-DOPA therapy improves dopaminergic neurotransmission in the denervated nigrostriatal system and weakens dyskinesias in rodent models of the disease...
September 28, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Yimin Qiu, Dongmei Chen, Xiaojing Huang, Lina Huang, Liang Tang, Jihong Jiang, Lianhua Chen, Shitong Li
BACKGROUND: Limited surveys have assessed the performance of 5-hydroxytreptamine receptor 1A and its antagonist WAY-100635 in pharmacological manipulations targeting delirium therapies. The purpose of this paper was to assess the central pharmacological activity of WAY-100635 in a rat model of scopolamine-induced delirium and its underlying mechanism. RESULTS: A delirium rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine and behavioral changes evaluated through open field and elevated plus maze experiments...
October 19, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
Fernando J Sialana, Peter Gulyassy, Peter Májek, Evelina Sjöstedt, Viktor Kis, André C Müller, Elena L Rudashevskaya, Jan Mulder, Keiryn L Bennett, Gert Lubec
The molecular composition of synaptic signal transduction machineries shapes synaptic neurotransmission. The repertoire of receptors, transporters and channels (RTCs) comprises major signaling events in the brain. RTCs are conventionally studied by candidate immunohistochemistry and biochemistry, which are low throughput with resolution greatly affected by available immunoreagents and membrane interference. Therefore, a comprehensive resource of synaptic brain RTCs is still lacking. In particular, studies on the detergent-soluble synaptosomal fraction, known to contain transporters and channels, are limited...
October 19, 2016: Proteomics
Jeffrey T Ehmsen, Yong Liu, Yue Wang, Nikhil Paladugu, Anna E Johnson, Jeffrey D Rothstein, Sascha du Lac, Mark P Mattson, Ahmet Höke
SLC7A10 (Asc-1) is a sodium-independent amino acid transporter known to facilitate transport of a number of amino acids including glycine, L-serine, L-alanine, and L-cysteine, as well as their D-enantiomers. It has been described as a neuronal transporter with a primary role related to modulation of excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission. We find that SLC7A10 is substantially enriched in a subset of astrocytes of the caudal brain and spinal cord in a distribution corresponding with high densities of glycinergic inhibitory synapses...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Elisa Straulino, Tomaso Scaravilli, Maria Bulgheroni, Enrico D'Amico, Umberto Castiello
Increasing evidence suggests that a dysfunctional dopaminergic system affects the ability to socially interact. Since Parkinson's disease (PD) provides a model for assessing dopaminergic dysfunctions in humans, our study was designed to investigate social interactions in PD patients receiving dopamine replacement therapy (Levodopa = l-Dopa) and in neurologically healthy controls. We focused on the kinematics of one action, reaching to grasp a wooden block, which was performed within the context of two basic modes of social cognition, namely cooperation and competition...
October 15, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Marta Flis, Kinga Szymona, Justyna Morylowska-Topolska, Anna Urbańska, Paweł Krukow, Martyna Kandefer-Szerszeń, Barbara Zdzisińska, Ewa M Urbańska, Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz
Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a neuroactive metabolite of tryptophan formed in the brain and in the periphery, known to block ionotropic glutamate receptors and α7 nicotinic receptors, and to act as a ligand of G protein-coupled GPR35 receptors and human aryl hydrocarbon (AHR) receptors. KYNA seems to modulate a number of mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia including dopaminergic transmission in mesolimbic and mesocortical areas or glutamatemediated neurotransmission. The kynurenine hypothesis of schizophrenia links the occurrence of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and cognitive impairments characteristic for the disease with the disturbances of kynurenine pathway function...
September 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Mark A Frye, David J Hinton, Victor M Karpyak, Joanna M Biernacka, Lee J Gunderson, Scott E Feeder, Doo-Sup Choi, John D Port
Although the precise drug mechanism of action of acamprosate remains unclear, its antidipsotropic effect is mediated in part through glutamatergic neurotransmission. We evaluated the effect of 4 weeks of acamprosate treatment in a cohort of 13 subjects with alcohol dependence (confirmed by a structured interview, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy glutamate levels in the midline anterior cingulate cortex (MACC). We compared levels of metabolites with a group of 16 healthy controls...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Matteo Bologna, Anna Latorre, Francesca Di Biasio, Antonella Conte, Daniele Belvisi, Nicola Modugno, Antonio Suppa, Alfredo Berardelli, Giovanni Fabbrini
BACKGROUND: By providing a stable and smooth L-dopa plasmatic level, L-dopa/carbidopa intestinal gel reproduces the physiological continuous dopaminergic receptor stimulation in patients with Parkinson disease (PD), and it therefore represents a suitable tool to investigate the role of the altered dopaminergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of motor and sensory abnormalities in this condition. METHODS: We studied 11 patients with advanced PD being treated with L-Dopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) and 11 age-matched healthy subjects...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Dmitry Mayorov, Sergey Kasparov, Julian Paton
OBJECTIVE: Functional defects in purinergic neurotransmission, and specifically adenosine A1 receptor, have been implicated in the development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Here, we examined the role of adenosine receptors in regulating cerebrovascular function in pre-hypertensive SHR. DESIGN AND METHOD: Changes in the diameter of pial arterioles (20-100 μm) in response to adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonists were assessed after pre-constriction with the thromboxane agonist U46619 in slices from the brainstem and cortex of 4-6 week-old Wistar and SHR...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Miguel Hernández-Cerón, Juan Carlos Martínez-Lazcano, Carmen Rubio, Verónica Custodio, Edith González-Guevara, Carlos Castillo-Pérez, Carlos Paz
Lesions of the cerebellar dentate nucleus (DN) reduce the after-discharge duration induced by repetitive kindling stimulation and decrease seizures to a lower rank according to Racine's scale. The DN sends cholinergic and glutamatergic fibers to the red nucleus (RN), which is composed of glutamatergic and GABAergic cells. To test the participation of these neurotransmitters in seizures, we compared the levels of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the RN in a control condition, a kindled stage, and a kindled stage followed by DN lesions...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Jean-Martin Beaulieu
Read the highlighted article 'Chronic lithium treatment rectifies maladaptive dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens' on doi/10.1111/jnc.13769.
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
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