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Neurotransmitter systems

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535436/microcystin-lr-induces-changes-in-the-gaba-neurotransmitter-system-of-zebrafish
#1
Wei Yan, Li Li, Guangyu Li, Sujuan Zhao
It has been reported that exposure to microcystins altered adult zebrafish swimming performance parameters, but the possible mechanisms of action remain unknown. Neuronal activity depends on the balance between the number of excitatory and inhibitory processes which are associated with neurotransmitters. In the present study, zebrafish embryos (5 d post-fertilization) were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3 and 30μg/L (microcystin-LR) MCLR for 90day until reaching sexual maturity. To investigate the effects of MCLR on the neurotransmitter system, mRNA levels involved in amino acid g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate metabolic pathways were tested using quantitative real-time PCR...
May 15, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533745/characterization-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-human-serotonergic-neurons
#2
Lining Cao, Rui Hu, Ting Xu, Zhen-Ning Zhang, Weida Li, Jianfeng Lu
In the brain, the serotonergic neurons located in the raphe nucleus are the unique resource of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which plays a pivotal role in the regulation of brain development and functions. Dysfunction of the serotonin system is present in many psychiatric disorders. Lack of in vitro functional human model limits the understanding of human central serotonergic system and its related diseases and clinical applications. Previously, we have developed a method generating human serotonergic neurons from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532644/increasing-gaba-reverses-age-related-alterations-in-excitatory-receptive-fields-and-intensity-coding-of-auditory-midbrain-neurons%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-aged-mice
#3
Elliott J Brecht, Kathy Barsz, Benjamin Gross, Joseph P Walton
A key feature of age-related hearing loss is a reduction in the expression of inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central auditory system. This loss is partially responsible for changes in central auditory processing, as inhibitory receptive fields play a critical role in shaping neural responses to sound stimuli. Vigabatrin (VGB), an antiepileptic agent that irreversibly inhibits γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) transaminase, leads to increased availability of GABA throughout the brain. This study used multi-channel electrophysiology measurements to assess the excitatory frequency response areas in old CBA mice to which VGB had been administered...
April 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529018/effects-of-anandamide-administration-on-components-of-reward-processing-during-free-choice
#4
Luke C Zona, Benjamin R Fry, Jacob A LaLonde, Howard C Cromwell
Previous research has implicated the positive modulation of anandamide, an endocannabinoid neurotransmitter, on feeding behavior. Anandamide is particularly noteworthy as it acts as an endogenous ligand of the CB1 receptor, the same receptor that is activated by tetrahydrocannabinol, the primary psychoactive component in Cannabis sativa. Cannabis legalization in North America has presented with a need to study endocannabinoid agonists and their effects on behavior. Much has yet to be determined in terms of the role of the endocannabinoid system in decision-making scenarios...
May 18, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528970/the-many-faces-of-compartmentalized-pka-signalosomes
#5
REVIEW
Omar Torres-Quesada, Johanna E Mayrhofer, Eduard Stefan
Cellular signal transmission requires the dynamic formation of spatiotemporally controlled molecular interactions. At the cell surface information is received by receptor complexes and relayed through intracellular signaling platforms which organize the actions of functionally interacting signaling enzymes and substrates. The list of hormone or neurotransmitter pathways that utilize the ubiquitous cAMP-sensing protein kinase A (PKA) system is expansive. This requires that the specificity, duration, and intensity of PKA responses are spatially and temporally restricted...
May 18, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527083/shared-mechanisms-of-epilepsy-migraine-and-affective-disorders
#6
Davide Zarcone, Simona Corbetta
Since the nineteenth century several clinical features have been observed in common between migraine and epilepsy (such as episodic attacks, triggering factors, presence of aura, frequent familiarity), but only in recent years researchers have really engaged in finding a common pathogenic mechanism. From studies of disease incidence, we understand how either migraine among patients with epilepsy or epilepsy among migraine patients are more frequent than in the general population. This association may result from a direct causality, by the same environmental risk factors and/or by a common genetic susceptibility...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526435/the-bidirectional-gut-brain-microbiota-axis-as-a-potential-nexus-between-traumatic-brain-injury-inflammation-and-disease
#7
Mark H Sundman, Nan-Kuei Chen, Vignesh Subbian, Ying-Hui Chou
As head injuries and their sequelae have become an increasingly salient matter of public health, experts in the field have made great progress elucidating the biological processes occurring within the brain at the moment of injury and throughout the recovery thereafter. Given the extraordinary rate at which our collective knowledge of neurotrauma has grown, new insights may be revealed by examining the existing literature across disciplines with a new perspective. This article will aim to expand the scope of this rapidly evolving field of research beyond the confines of the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525332/distribution-and-immunohistochemical-characteristics-of-cocaine-and-amphetamineregulated-transcript-positive-nerve-elements-in-the-pelvic-ganglia-of-the-female-pig
#8
A Zacharko-Siembida, M Matysek, R Szalak, A Radlińska, K Obszańska, M B Arciszewski
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are widely expressed not only in the brain but also in numerous endocrine/neuroendocrine cells as well as in neurons of the peripheral nervous system. The present study investigated the distribution patterns of CART-like immunoreactivity in the pelvic plexus (PP) of the female pig. The co-expression of CART with principal neurotransmitter markers: choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), serotonin (5-HT) or biologically active neuropeptides: pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), substance P (SP), calbindin was analyzed using double immunohistochemical stainings...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522414/therapeutic-potential-of-agmatine-for-cns-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Vivian B Neis, Priscila B Rosa, Gislaine Olescowicz, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
Agmatine is a neuromodulator that regulates multiple neurotransmitters and signaling pathways. Several studies have focused on elucidating the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of this molecule, which seems to be mediated by a reduction in oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and proapoptotic signaling. Since these events are implicated in acute and chronic excitotoxicity-related disorders (ischemia, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric disorders) as well as in nociception, agmatine has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders...
May 15, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522408/multipotency-and-therapeutic-potential-of-ng2-cells
#10
REVIEW
Martin Valny, Pavel Honsa, Jan Kriska, Miroslava Anderova
NG2 cells represent one of the most proliferative glial cell populations in the intact mammalian central nervous system (CNS). They are well-known for their ability to renew themselves or to generate new oligodendrocytes during development as well as in adulthood, therefore also being termed oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Following CNS injuries, such as demyelination, trauma or ischemia, the proliferative capacity of NG2 cells rapidly increases and moreover, their differentiation potential broadens, as documented by numerous reports also describing their differentiation into astrocytes or even neurons...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521906/spinal-cord-regeneration-by-modulating-bone-marrow-with-neurotransmitters-and-citicholine-analysis-at-micromolecular-level
#11
Cheramadathukudiyil Skaria Paulose, Ponnezhathu Sebastian John, Romeo Chinthu, Puthenveetil Raju Akhilraj, Thoppil Raveendran Anju
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury results in disruption of brain-spinal cord fibre connectivity, leading to progressive tissue damage at the site of injury and resultant paralysis of varying degrees. The current study investigated the role of autologous bone marrow modulated with neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter stimulating agent, Citicholine, in spinal cord of spinal cord injured rats. METHODS: Radioreceptor assay using [3H] ligand was carried out to quantify muscarinic receptor...
April 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521702/role-of-ectonucleotidases-in-the-synapse-formation-during-brain-development-physiological-and-pathological-implications
#12
Ivana Grković, Dunja Drakulić, Jelena Martinović, Nataša Mitrović
Extracellular adenine nucleotides and nucleosides, such as ATP and adenosine, are among the most recently identified and least investigated diffusible signaling factors that contribute to the structural and functional remodeling of the brain, both during embryonic and postnatal development. Their levels in the extracellular milieu are tightly controlled by various ectonucleotidases: ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (E-NPP), alkaline phosphatases (AP), ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN)...
May 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518111/using-enzyme-based-biosensors-to-measure-tonic-and-phasic-glutamate-in-alzheimer-s-mouse-models
#13
Holly C Hunsberger, Sharay E Setti, Ryan T Heslin, Jorge E Quintero, Greg A Gerhardt, Miranda N Reed
Neurotransmitter disruption is often a key component of diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), playing a role in the pathology underlying Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, and anxiety. Traditionally, microdialysis has been the most common (lauded) technique to examine neurotransmitter changes that occur in these disorders. But because microdialysis has the ability to measure slow 1-20 minute changes across large areas of tissue, it has the disadvantage of invasiveness, potentially destroying intrinsic connections within the brain and a slow sampling capability...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516232/-cns-metabolism-in-high-risk-drug-abuse-german-version-insights-gained-from-1-h-and-31-p-mrs-and-pet
#14
REVIEW
S V Bodea
BACKGROUND: High-risk drug consumption is a considerable problem for public health actors in industrialised countries. The latest trends show a market tendency towards diversification and increasing demand for high-purity synthetic drugs. Whilst most consumers seek medical help after cannabis use, it is high-risk drugs like cocaine, heroin and amphetamines that account for most of the 1000 drug-related deaths that occur in Germany every year. PURPOSE: This article presents the most prominent in vivo cerebral metabolic information in cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine users provided by MRI spectroscopy and PET imaging...
May 17, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514694/the-association-of-prenatal-cocaine-exposure-externalizing-behavior-and-adolescent-substance-use
#15
Sonia Minnes, Meeyoung O Min, June-Yung Kim, Meredith W Francis, Adelaide Lang, Miaoping Wu, Lynn T Singer
Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) may increase adolescent substance use through alterations of neurotransmitter systems affecting fetal brain development. The relationship between PCE and substance use at 15 and 17 years was examined. Subjects (365: 186 PCE; 179 non-cocaine exposed (NCE)) supplied biologic and self-report data using the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) and Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (C-DISC 4) at ages 15 and 17. The relationship between PCE and substance use was assessed using General Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses controlling for confounding factors including violence exposure and preschool lead level...
March 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512033/bifidobacterium-cect-7765-modulates-early-stress-induced-immune-neuroendocrine-and-behavioral-alterations-in-mice
#16
A Moya-Pérez, A Perez-Villalba, A Benítez-Páez, I Campillo, Y Sanz
Emerging evidence suggests that there is a window of opportunity within the early developmental period, when microbiota-based interventions could play a major role in modulating the gut-brain axis and, thereby, in preventing mood disorders. This study aims at evaluating the effects and mode of action of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 in a murine model of chronic stress induced by maternal separation (MS). C57Bl/6J male breast-fed pups were divided into four groups, which were subjected or not to MS and supplemented with placebo or B...
May 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512029/calixarene-mediated-liquid-membrane-transport-of-choline-conjugates-3-the-effect-of-handle-variation-on-neurotransmitter-transport
#17
James L Collins, Ayu Fujii, Sahar Roshandel, Cuong-Alexander To, Michael P Schramm
Upper rim phosphonic acid functionalized calix[4]arene affects selective transport of multiple molecular payloads through a liquid membrane. The secret is in the attachment of a receptor-complementary handle to the payload. We find that the trimethylammonium ethylene group present in choline is one of several general handles for the transport of drug and drug-like species. Herein we compare the effect of handle variation against the transport of serotonin and dopamine. We find that several ionizable amine termini handles are sufficient for transport and identify two ideal candidates...
May 5, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511977/role-of-acetylcholine-and-serotonin-in-novelty-processing-using-an-oddball-paradigm
#18
S Caldenhove, L G J M Borghans, A Blokland, A Sambeth
The processing of novel stimuli is known to take place in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, and is influenced by the cholinergic system. This ability is crucial to help detect changes in the environment and adapt behavior accordingly. Previous research has shown that acetylcholine (ACh) can interact with serotonin (5-HT) at the hippocampal level, which may have consequences for cognitive functioning. However, little is known about the exact nature of this ACh and 5-HT interaction as well their possible interactive effects on novelty processing...
May 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511127/neurophysiology-of-synaptic-functioning-in-multiple-sclerosis
#19
REVIEW
Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Francesco Mori, Fabio Buttari, Girolama A Marfia, Andrea Sancesario, Diego Centonze, Ennio Iezzi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory immune-mediate disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), primarily affecting the myelin sheath and followed by neurodegeneration. Synaptic alterations are emerging as critical determinants of early neurodegeneration in MS. Inflammation-induced alterations of synaptic transmission and plasticity have been investigated in vitro and also in human MS using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) techniques. Specific inflammatory cytokines alter glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission, resulting in synaptic hyperexcitability...
April 24, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511125/the-many-facets-of-motor-learning-and-their-relevance-for-parkinson-s-disease
#20
REVIEW
Lucio Marinelli, Angelo Quartarone, Mark Hallett, Giuseppe Frazzitta, Maria Felice Ghilardi
The final goal of motor learning, a complex process that includes both implicit and explicit (or declarative) components, is the optimization and automatization of motor skills. Motor learning involves different neural networks and neurotransmitters systems depending on the type of task and on the stage of learning. After the first phase of acquisition, a motor skill goes through consolidation (i.e., becoming resistant to interference) and retention, processes in which sleep and long-term potentiation seem to play important roles...
April 9, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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