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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352328/attenuation-of-serotonin-induced-itch-by-sumatriptan-possible-involvement-of-endogenous-opioids
#1
Nazgol-Sadat Haddadi, Arash Foroutan, Saeed Shakiba, Khashayar Afshari, Sattar Ostadhadi, Maryam Daneshpazhooh, Ahmad-Reza Dehpour
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) is a neurotransmitter in itch and impaired serotonin signaling has been linked to a variety of itch conditions. Intradermal injection of 5-HT induces scratching behavior in mice through stimulation of 5-HT receptors. Previous studies have demonstrated that selective 5-HT1B/1D receptors agonists, including sumatriptan, inhibits neurotransmission. We have also reported that sumatriptan suppresses chloroquine-induced itch. Therefore, we investigated if sumatriptan has inhibitory effects on serotonin-induced itch in mice...
January 19, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345350/activation-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-modulates-neutrophil-function
#2
Alyce J Nicholls, Shu Wen Wen, Pam Hall, Michael J Hickey, Connie H Y Wong
Emerging evidence has revealed that noradrenaline (NA), the main neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), regulates a variety of immune functions via binding to adrenergic receptors present on immune cells. In this study, we examined the role of NA in the regulation of neutrophil functions. Neutrophils were isolated from the bone marrow of naïve mice and treated with NA at various concentrations to assess the effect on various neutrophil functions. Additionally, we performed cremaster intravital microscopy to examine neutrophil-endothelial cell interactions following NA superfusion in vivo...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344832/mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-6-and-map-kinase-phosphatase-1-are-involved-in-the-response-of-arabidopsis-roots-to-l-glutamate
#3
Jesús Salvador López-Bucio, Javier Raya-González, Gustavo Ravelo-Ortega, León Francisco Ruiz-Herrera, Maricela Ramos-Vega, Patricia León, José López-Bucio, Ángel Arturo Guevara-García
The function and components of L-glutamate signaling pathways in plants have just begun to be elucidated. Here, using a combination of genetic and biochemical strategies, we demonstrated that a MAPK module is involved in the control of root developmental responses to this amino acid. Root system architecture plays an essential role in plant adaptation to biotic and abiotic factors via adjusting signal transduction and gene expression. L-Glutamate (L-Glu), an amino acid with neurotransmitter functions in animals, inhibits root growth, but the underlying genetic mechanisms are poorly understood...
January 17, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344679/distribution-and-dynamic-expression-of-serotonin-and-dopamine-in-the-nervous-system-and-ovary-of-holothuria-scabra-during-ovarian-maturation
#4
Arada Chaiyamoon, Ruchanok Tinikul, Supakant Chaichotranunt, Tanes Poomthong, Worawit Suphamungmee, Prasert Sobhon, Yotsawan Tinikul
In the present study, the distribution and dynamic expression of serotonin and dopamine in the nervous system and ovary of the sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra, during different ovarian stages were investigated. We found that serotonin-immunoreactivity was more intense in the neurons and neuropils of the outer ectoneural part, the inner hyponeural part, and the wall of hyponeural canal of radial nerve cord during the mature stages of ovarian cycle, whereas dopamine-immunoreactivity was detected at a higher intensity in these tissues during the early stages...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340966/cannabinomimetric-lipids-from-natural-extract-to-artificial-synthesis
#5
REVIEW
Ya-Ru Gao, Yong-Qiang Wang
Endocannabinoid system is related with various physiological and cognitive processes including fertility, pregnancy, during pre- and postnatal development, pain-sensation, mood, appetite, and memory. In the latest decades, an important milestone concerning the endocannabinoid system was the discovery of the existence of the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Anandamide was the first reported endogenous metabolite, which adjusted the release of some neurotransmitters through binding to the CB1 or CB2 receptors...
January 16, 2018: Natural Products and Bioprospecting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339723/fasoracetam-in-adolescents-with-adhd-and-glutamatergic-gene-network-variants-disrupting-mglur-neurotransmitter-signaling
#6
Josephine Elia, Grace Ungal, Charlly Kao, Alexander Ambrosini, Nilsa De Jesus-Rosario, Lene Larsen, Rosetta Chiavacci, Tiancheng Wang, Christine Kurian, Kanani Titchen, Brian Sykes, Sharon Hwang, Bhumi Kumar, Jacqueline Potts, Joshua Davis, Jeffrey Malatack, Emma Slattery, Ganesh Moorthy, Athena Zuppa, Andrew Weller, Enda Byrne, Yun R Li, Walter K Kraft, Hakon Hakonarson
The glutamatergic neurotransmitter system may play an important role in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This 5-week, open-label, single-blind, placebo-controlled study reports the safety, pharmacokinetics and responsiveness of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activator fasoracetam (NFC-1), in 30 adolescents, age 12-17 years with ADHD, harboring mutations in mGluR network genes. Mutation status was double-blinded. A single-dose pharmacokinetic profiling from 50-800 mg was followed by a single-blind placebo at week 1 and subsequent symptom-driven dose advancement up to 400 mg BID for 4 weeks...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331845/effect-of-levetiracetam-on-extracellular-amino-acid-levels-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus-of-rats-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
Pichardo Macías Luz Adriana, Ramírez Mendiola Blanca Alcira, Contreras García Itzel Jatziri, Zamudio Hernández Sergio Roberto, Chávez Pacheco Juan Luis, Sánchez Huerta Karla Berenice, Mendoza Torreblanca Julieta Griselda
Levetiracetam (LEV) is an anticonvulsant drug with a unique mechanism of action that is not completely understood. However, its activity profile may involve effects on excitatory and/or inhibitory neurotransmission since the primary target of LEV, synaptic vesicle protein 2A, is ubiquitously expressed in all types of synaptic vesicles. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to explore the effect of LEV (300 mg/kg/day for one week, administered via osmotic mini-pumps) on neurotransmitter release and its probable selective effect on extracellular gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu), aspartate (Asp), glutamine (Gln), taurine (Tau) and glycine (Gly) concentrations (using in vivo microdialysis under basal and high-K+ conditions) in the dorsal hippocampus (DH), a region that undergoes major synaptic changes during epilepsy...
January 5, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331791/magnesium-sulfate-reduces-formalin-induced-orofacial-pain-in-rats-with-normal-magnesium-serum-levels
#8
Dragana P Srebro, Sonja M Vučković, Ivan S Dožić, Branko S Dožić, Katarina R Savić Vujović, Aleksandar P Milovanović, Branislav V Karadžić, Milica Š Prostran
BACKGROUND: In humans, orofacial pain has a high prevalence and is often difficult to treat. Magnesium is an essential element in biological a system which controls the activity of many ion channels, neurotransmitters and enzymes. Magnesium produces an antinociceptive effect in neuropathic pain, while in inflammatory pain results are not consistent. We examined the effects of magnesium sulfate using the rat orofacial formalin test, a model of trigeminal pain. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were injected with 1...
August 31, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331598/commentary-on-motor-system-dysfunction-in-the-schizophrenia-diathesis-neural-systems-to-neurotransmitters
#9
EDITORIAL
D Hirjak, P N van Harten, R C Wolf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331576/normative-distribution-of-substance-p-and-its-tachykinin-neurokinin-1-receptor-in-the-medullary-serotonergic-network-of-the-human-infant-during-postnatal-development
#10
Fiona M Bright, Roger W Byard, Robert Vink, David S Paterson
Substance P (SP) and its tachykinin NK1 receptor (NK1R) function within key medullary nuclei to regulate cardiorespiratory and autonomic control. We examined the normative distribution of SP and NK1R in the serotonergic (5-Hydroxytryptamine, [5-HT]) network of the human infant medulla during postnatal development, to provide a baseline to facilitate future analysis of the SP/NK1R system and its interaction with 5-HT within pediatric brainstem disorders in early life. [125I] labelled Bolton Hunter SP (BH-SP) tissue receptor autoradiography (n = 15), single label immunohistochemistry (IHC) and double label immunofluorescence (IF) (n = 10) were used to characterize the normative distribution profile of SP and NK1R in the 5-HT network of the human infant medulla during postnatal development...
January 10, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331498/identification-of-neural-transcription-factors-required-for-the-differentiation-of-three-neuronal-subtypes-in-the-sea-urchin-embryo
#11
Leslie A Slota, David R McClay
Correct patterning of the nervous system is essential for an organism's survival and complex behavior. Embryologists have used the sea urchin as a model for decades, but our understanding of sea urchin nervous system patterning is incomplete. Previous histochemical studies identified multiple neurotransmitters in the pluteus larvae of several sea urchin species. However, little is known about how, where and when neural subtypes are differentially specified during development. Here, we examine the molecular mechanisms of neuronal subtype specification in 3 distinct neural subtypes in the Lytechinus variegatus larva...
January 10, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331172/blood-phenylalanine-reduction-corrects-cns-dopamine-and-serotonin-deficiencies-and-partially-improves-behavioral-performance-in-adult-phenylketonuric-mice
#12
Shelley R Winn, Tanja Scherer, Beat Thöny, Ming Ying, Aurora Martinez, Sydney Weber, Jacob Raber, Cary O Harding
Central nervous system (CNS) deficiencies of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric dysfunction in human phenylketonuria (PKU). In this study, we confirmed the occurrence of brain dopamine and serotonin deficiencies in association with severe behavioral alterations and cognitive impairments in hyperphenylalaninemic C57BL/6-Pahenu2/enu2 mice, a model of human PKU. Phenylalanine-reducing treatments, including either dietary phenylalanine restriction or liver-directed gene therapy, initiated during adulthood were associated with increased brain monoamine content along with improvements in nesting behavior but without a change in the severe cognitive deficits exhibited by these mice...
January 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330149/voluntary-exercise-and-depression-like-behavior-in-rodents-are-we-running-in-the-right-direction
#13
Joram D Mul
Acute or chronic exposure to stress can increase the risk to develop major depressive disorder, a severe, recurrent and common psychiatric condition. Depression places an enormous social and financial burden on modern society. Although many depressed patients are treated with antidepressants, their efficacy is only modest, underscoring the necessity to develop clinically-effective pharmaceutical or behavioral treatments. Exercise training produces beneficial effects on stress-related mental disorders, indicative of clinical potential...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330067/protein-complexes-as-psychiatric-and-neurological-drug-targets
#14
REVIEW
Akihiko S Kato, Jeffrey M Witkin
The need for improved medications for psychiatric and neurological disorders is clear. Difficulties in finding such drugs demands that all strategic means be utilized for their invention. The discovery of forebrain specific AMPA receptor antagonists, which selectively block the specific combinations of principal and auxiliary subunits present in forebrain regions but spare targets in the cerebellum, was recently disclosed. This discovery raised the possibility that other auxiliary protein systems could be utilized to help identify new medicines...
January 9, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329743/gaba-and-glutamate-in-children-with-tourette-syndrome-a-1h-mr-spectroscopy-study-at-7t
#15
E Mark Mahone, Nicolaas A Puts, Richard A E Edden, Matthew Ryan, Harvey S Singer
Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by presence of chronic, fluctuating motor and phonic tics. The underlying neurobiological basis for these movements is hypothesized to involve cortical-striatal-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) pathways. Two major neurotransmitters within these circuits are γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. Seventy-five participants (32 with TS, 43 controls) ages 5-12 years completed 1H MRS at 7T. GABA and glutamate were measured in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), premotor cortex (PMC), and striatum, and metabolites quantified using LCModel...
January 3, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328415/role-of-catalpol-in-ameliorating-the-pathogenesis-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-increasing-the-level-of-noradrenaline-in-the-locus-coeruleus
#16
Qian Li, Tao Yang, An-Chen Guo, Yong-Ping Fan
The endogenous neurotransmitter, noradrenaline, exerts anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in vivo and in vitro. Reduced noradrenaline levels results in increased inflammation and neuronal damage. The primary source of noradrenaline in the central nervous system is tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)‑positive neurons, located in the locus coeruleus (LC). TH is the rate‑limiting enzyme for noradrenaline synthesis; therefore, regulation of TH protein expression and intrinsic enzyme activity represents the central means for controlling the synthesis of noradrenaline...
January 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326174/muscle-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-may-mediate-trans-synaptic-signaling-at-the-mouse-neuromuscular-junction
#17
Xueyong Wang, J Michael McIntosh, Mark M Rich
Block of neurotransmitter receptors at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) has been shown to trigger upregulation of the number of synaptic vesicles released (quantal content, QC), a response termed homeostatic synaptic plasticity. The mechanism underlying this plasticity is not known. Here, we used selective toxins to demonstrate that block of α1-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at the neuromuscular junction of male and female mice, triggers the upregulation of QC. Reduction of current flow through nAChRs, induced by drugs with antagonist activity, demonstrated that reduction in synaptic current per se does not trigger upregulation of QC...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323501/the-pivotal-role-of-copper-in-neurodegeneration-a-new-strategy-for-the-therapy-of-neurodegenerative-disorders
#18
Roberta Giampietro, Francesco Spinelli, Marialessandra Contino, Nicola Antonio Colabufo
Copper is an essential trace element for human body since it is a cofactor of several enzymes and proteins and plays a pivotal role in several biological functions (e.g., respiration, protection from oxidative damage, iron metabolism, etc.), also including the central nervous system development and functioning (e.g. synthesis of neurotransmitters, myelination, activation of neuropeptides, etc.). Therefore, copper dysmetabolism is associated with different toxic effects, mainly represented by oxidative stress, and it has been reported in many neurodegenerative disorders, such as Wilson's disease, Menkes disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318454/gl261-glioma-tumor-cells-respond-to-atp-with-an-intracellular-calcium-rise-and-glutamate-release
#19
Averey D Strong, M Caitlin Indart, Nolan R Hill, Richard L Daniels
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive brain cancer with an average survival rate of 15 months. The composition of the GBM tumor microenvironment-its pH, the presence of growth and immune factors, neurotransmitters, and gliotransmitters-plays an important role in GBM pathophysiology and facilitates tumor survival and growth. In particular, GBM tumor cells produce glutamate, which is toxic to healthy tissue and is associated with increased tumor invasion into adjacent brain regions. The conditions that lead to this excitotoxic release of glutamate are not completely understood...
January 9, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317951/parafunctional-behaviors-and-its-effect-on-dental-bridges
#20
REVIEW
Amal Alharby, Hanan Alzayer, Ahmed Almahlawi, Yazeed Alrashidi, Samaa Azhar, Maan Sheikho, Anas Alandijani, Amjad Aljohani, Manal Obied
Parafunctional behaviors, especially bruxism, are not uncommon among patient visiting dentists' clinics daily and they constitute a major dental issue for almost all dentists. Many researchers have focused on the definition, pathophysiology, and treatment of these behaviors. These parafunctional behaviors have a considerable negative impact on teeth and dental prothesis. In this review, we focused on the impact of parafunctional behaviors on dental bridges. We summarized the definitions, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and consequences of parafunctional behaviors...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
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