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Neurotransmitter systems

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229287/role-of-neurochemicals-in-the-interaction-between-the-microbiota-and-the-immune-and-the-nervous-system-of-the-host-organism
#1
Alexander V Oleskin, Boris A Shenderov, Vladimir S Rogovsky
This work is concerned with the role of evolutionary conserved substances, neurotransmitters, and neurohormones, within the complex framework of the microbial consortium-immune system-nervous system axis in the human or animal organism. Although the operation of each of these systems per se is relatively well understood, their combined effects on the host organism still await further research. Drawing on recent research on host-produced and microbial low-molecular-weight neurochemicals such as biogenic amines, amino acids, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), we suggest that these mediators form a part of a universal neurochemical "language...
February 22, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228718/current-concepts-on-the-physiopathological-relevance-of-dopaminergic-receptors
#2
REVIEW
Ada Ledonne, Nicola B Mercuri
Dopamine (DA) is a key neurotransmitter modulating essential functions of the central nervous system (CNS), like voluntary movement, reward, several cognitive functions and goal-oriented behaviors. The factual relevance of DAergic transmission can be well appreciated by considering that its dysfunction is recognized as a core alteration in several devastating neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and associated movement disorders, as well as, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and addiction...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228583/food-responsiveness-regulates-episodic-behavioral-states-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#3
Richard J McCloskey, Anthony D Fouad, Matthew A Churgin, Christopher Fang-Yen
Animals optimize survival and reproduction in part through control of behavioral states, which depend on the organism's internal and external environments. In the nematode C. elegans, a variety of behavioral states have been described, including roaming, dwelling, quiescence, and episodic swimming. These states have been considered in isolation, under varied experimental conditions, making it difficult to establish a unified picture of how they are regulated. Using long-term imaging, we examined C. elegans episodic behavioral states under varied mechanical and nutritional environments...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227816/a-wide-range-and-high-sensitivity-four-channel-compact-electrochemical-biosensor-for-neurotransmitter-detection-on-a-microfluidic-platform
#4
Elnaz Ghodsevali, Hamza Landari, Mounir Boukadoum, Benoit Gosselin, Amine Miled, Elnaz Ghodsevali, Hamza Landari, Mounir Boukadoum, Benoit Gosselin, Amine Miled, Benoit Gosselin, Amine Miled, Elnaz Ghodsevali, Mounir Boukadoum, Hamza Landari
We present a four-channel, high-sensitivity and linearity electrochemical biosensor for neurotransmitter (NT) detection and measurement. Using a multi-channel microfluidic platform makes this biosensor capable of detecting NT-related currents going from nanoamperes to milliamperes, with a sensitivity of the order of picoamperes. Moreover, by using a fully differential potentiostat architecture, the biosensor offers a high common-mode rejection ratio (90 dB), making it appropriate for low-noise and high-sensitive applications...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227595/research-on-neural-information-detecting-system-measuring-neuroelectricity-in-hippocampus-in-vivo-and-dopamine-in-vitro-based-on-microelectrode-array
#5
Mixia Wang, Shengwei Xu, Nansen Lin, Yilin Song, Song Zhang, Xinxia Cai, Mixia Wang, Shengwei Xu, Nansen Lin, Yilin Song, Song Zhang, Xinxia Cai, Song Zhang, Xinxia Cai, Nansen Lin, Mixia Wang, Shengwei Xu, Yilin Song
Concurrently detecting the electrical activity of neurons and neurotransmitter release signals, will have a great significance in understanding the working mechanism of the brain. This paper describes a neural information detecting system based on microelectrode array(MEA) measuring neuroelectricity in hippocampus in vivo and dopamine(DA) in vitro. The detecting system contains of electrophysiological headstage, electrochemical headstage, microprocessor, electrophysiological signal amplifier, data acquisition module and neural signal analysis software...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224681/modeling-human-methamphetamine-use-patterns-in-mice-chronic-and-binge-methamphetamine-exposure-reward-function-and-neurochemistry
#6
James P Kesby, Ariel Chang, Athina Markou, Svetlana Semenova
Different methamphetamine use patterns in human subjects may contribute to inconsistent findings regarding the effects of methamphetamine abuse on brain and behavior. The present study investigated whether human-derived chronic and binge methamphetamine use patterns have differential effects on reward and neurochemistry in mice. Brain reward function in mice was evaluated during acute/prolonged withdrawal, and in response to methamphetamine challenge using the intracranial self-stimulation procedure. Brain dopaminergic, serotonergic and glutamatergic neurochemistry was determined with high-performance liquid chromatography...
February 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223162/the-roles-of-histamine-and-its-receptor-ligands-in-central-nervous-system-disorders-an-update
#7
REVIEW
Weiwei Hu, Zhong Chen
The neurotransmitter histamine receives less attention compared with other biogenic amines, because of its moderate action in the central nervous system (CNS). However, recent evidence suggests that histamine plays an important role in multiple CNS disorders including insomnia, narcolepsy, Parkinson's diseases, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and cerebral ischemia. New insights are emerging into the potential roles of histamine receptors as targets for the treatment of these diseases. Although some histamine related agents have failed in clinical trials, current preclinical studies suggest that this neurotransmitter may still have extensive applications in treating CNS disorders, however, advanced studies are warranted...
February 18, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223098/cannabis-and-alcohol-use-and-the-developing-brain
#8
REVIEW
A D Meruelo, N Castro, C I Cota, S F Tapert
Sex hormones and white (and grey) matter in the limbic system, cortex and other brain regions undergo changes during adolescence. Some of these changes include ongoing white matter myelination and sexually dimorphic features in grey and white matter. Adolescence is also a period of vulnerability when many are first exposed to alcohol and cannabis, which appear to influence the developing brain. Neuropsychological studies have provided considerable understanding of the effects of alcohol and cannabis on the brain...
February 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220863/engineering-botulinum-neurotoxin-c1-as-a-molecular-vehicle-for-intra-neuronal-drug-delivery
#9
Edwin J Vazquez-Cintron, Phillip H Beske, Luis Tenezaca, Bao Q Tran, Jonathan M Oyler, Elliot J Glotfelty, Christopher A Angeles, Aurelia Syngkon, Jean Mukherjee, Suzanne R Kalb, Philip A Band, Patrick M McNutt, Charles B Shoemaker, Konstantin Ichtchenko
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) binds to and internalizes its light chain into presynaptic compartments with exquisite specificity. While the native toxin is extremely lethal, bioengineering of BoNT has the potential to eliminate toxicity without disrupting neuron-specific targeting, thereby creating a molecular vehicle capable of delivering therapeutic cargo into the neuronal cytosol. Building upon previous work, we have developed an atoxic derivative (ad) of BoNT/C1 through rationally designed amino acid substitutions in the metalloprotease domain of wild type (wt) BoNT/C1...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215999/rat-animal-models-for-screening-medications-to-treat-alcohol-use-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Richard L Bell, Sheketha R Hauser, Tiebing Liang, Youssef Sari, Antoinette Maldonado-Devincci, Zachary A Rodd
The purpose of this review is to present animal research models that can be used to screen and/or repurpose medications for the treatment of alcohol abuse and dependence. The focus will be on rats and in particular selectively bred rats. Brief introductions discuss various aspects of the clinical picture, which provide characteristics of individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) to model in animals. Following this, multiple selectively bred rat lines will be described and evaluated in the context of animal models used to screen medications to treat AUDs...
February 16, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215529/new-insights-into-the-roles-of-retinoic-acid-signaling-in-nervous-system-development-and-the-establishment-of-neurotransmitter-systems
#11
E Zieger, M Schubert
Secreted chiefly from the underlying mesoderm, the morphogen retinoic acid (RA) is well known to contribute to the specification, patterning, and differentiation of neural progenitors in the developing vertebrate nervous system. Furthermore, RA influences the subtype identity and neurotransmitter phenotype of subsets of maturing neurons, although relatively little is known about how these functions are mediated. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the roles played by RA signaling during the formation of the central and peripheral nervous systems of vertebrates and highlights its effects on the differentiation of several neurotransmitter systems...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213811/basal-forebrain-cholinergic-system-and-memory
#12
M G Blake, M M Boccia
Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons constitute a way station for many ascending and descending pathways. These cholinergic neurons have a role in eliciting cortical activation and arousal. It is well established that they are mainly involved in cognitive processes requiring increased levels of arousal, attentive states and/or cortical activation with desynchronized activity in the EEG. These cholinergic neurons are modulated by several afferents of different neurotransmitter systems. Of particular importance within the cortical targets of basal forebrain neurons is the hippocampal cortex...
February 18, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213105/anxiolytic-and-antidepressant-like-effects-of-an-aqueous-extract-of-tanacetum-parthenium-l-schultz-bip-asteraceae-in-mice
#13
Jorge Cárdenas, Valeria Reyes-Pérez, María Dolores Hernández-Navarro, Ana María Dorantes-Barrón, Salvador Almazán, Rosa Estrada-Reyes
AIM: Tanacetum parthenium L. Schultz-Bip (Asteraceae) is widely used worldwide in traditional medicine for the treatment of convulsions and culture-bound syndromes such as susto (fear). The aim of this work was to evaluate the anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of an aqueous extract of T. parthenium in behavioral paradigms in mice. The effects of T. parthenium were compared with those produced by anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs. We carried out the chemical characterization of the main constituents of T...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212884/desipramine-decreases-expression-of-human-and-murine-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenases
#14
Alexandra K Brooks, Tiffany M Janda, Marcus A Lawson, Jennifer L Rytych, Robin A Smith, Cecilia Ocampo-Solis, Robert H McCusker
Abundant evidence connects depression symptomology with immune system activation, stress and subsequently elevated levels of kynurenine. Anti-depressants, such as the tricyclic norepinephrine/serotonin reuptake inhibitor desipramine (Desip), were developed under the premise that increasing extracellular neurotransmitter level was the sole mechanism by which they alleviate depressive symptomologies. However, evidence suggests that anti-depressants have additional actions that contribute to their therapeutic potential...
February 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211069/mglur1-enhances-efferent-inhibition-of-inner-hair-cells-in-the-developing-rat-cochlea
#15
Zhanlei Ye, Juan D Goutman, Sonja J Pyott, Elisabeth Glowatzki
Just before the onset of hearing, the inner hair cells (IHCs) receive inhibitory efferent input from cholinergic medial olivocochlear (MOC) neurons originating in the brainstem. This input may serve a role in the maturation of the ascending (afferent) auditory system by inhibiting spontaneous activity of the IHCs. To investigate the molecular mechanisms regulating these IHC efferent synapses, we combined electrical stimulation of the efferent fibres with patch clamp recordings from the IHCs to measure efferent synaptic strength...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210913/dietary-and-commercialized-fructose-sweet-or-sour
#16
REVIEW
Aslihan Yerlikaya, Tuncay Dagel, Christopher King, Masanari Kubawara, Miguel A Lanaspa, Ana Andres-Hernando, Adrian Covic, Jacek Manitius, Alan A Sag, Mehmet Kanbay
Metabolic syndrome and diabetes are main health problems of modern life in the twenty-first century. Alarming ratios of global prevalence lead to conduct more and more researches about etiological factors and pathogenesis. Disease mechanism is elementary for advancing more efficient and practicable treatment methods. Concurrent increase in both fructose consumption with Western diet and metabolic syndrome has revealed fructose hypothesis that suggests fructose as one of etiological factor of metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, central obesity, hypertension, etc...
February 16, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210777/effects-of-biperiden-and-acute-tryptophan-depletion-and-their-combination-on-verbal-word-memory-and-eeg
#17
Laura G J M Borghans, Arjan Blokland, Anke Sambeth
BACKGROUND: Research on the neurobiological foundations of memory has shown that multiple neurotransmitters play an important role in memory processing. To study the interaction between neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and serotonin, pharmacological models can be used. In this study, we tested the effects of the muscarinic M1 antagonist biperiden, acute tryptophan depletion (ATD), and the interaction between the two on episodic memory using the verbal learning task. METHODS: The study was conducted according to a double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-way crossover design...
February 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205135/apium-graveolens-extract-influences-mood-and-cognition-in-healthy-mice
#18
Phetcharat Boonruamkaew, Wanida Sukketsiri, Pharkphoom Panichayupakaranant, Wijittra Kaewnam, Supita Tanasawet, Varomyalin Tipmanee, Pilaiwanwadee Hutamekalin, Pennapa Chonpathompikunlert
Apium graveolens is a food flavoring which possesses various health promoting effects. This study investigates the effect of a sub-acute administration of A. graveolens on cognition and anti-depression behaviors via antioxidant and related neurotransmitter systems in mice brains. Cognition and depression was assessed by various models of behavior. The antioxidant system of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), % inhibition of superoxide anion (O2(-)), and lipid peroxidation were studied. In addition, neurochemical parameters including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase-type A (MAO-A) were also evaluated...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203201/modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-cortex-needs-to-understand-all-the-players
#19
REVIEW
Claire N J Meunier, Pascal Chameau, Philippe M Fossier
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in cognitive tasks such as working memory, decision making, risk assessment and regulation of attention. These functions performed by the PFC are supposed to rely on rhythmic electrical activity generated by neuronal network oscillations determined by a precise balance between excitation and inhibition balance (E/I balance) resulting from the coordinated activities of recurrent excitation and feedback and feedforward inhibition. Functional alterations in PFC functions have been associated with cognitive deficits in several pathologies such as major depression, anxiety and schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199198/the-immunological-function-of-gabaergic-system
#20
Chenlu Wu, Xiaobin Qin, Huihui Du, Nengzhang Li, Wenkai Ren, Yuanyi Peng
As a well-known inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, gamma-aminobutyric acid also has critical roles in immune system. Immune cells (e.g., lymphocytes, macrophages) express the components of GABAergic system, including GABA receptors, GABA transporters, and GABA metabolic enzymes. The functions of immune cells are highly impacted on GABA signaling. GABAergic components negatively regulate the immune responses, particularly the T cell-mediated immunity, via their effects on production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of signal pathways, like mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB pathways...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
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