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Neurotransmitter systems

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102288/acetylcholine-acts-through-m3-muscarinic-receptor-to-activate-the-egfr-signaling-and-promotes-gastric-cancer-cell-proliferation
#1
Huangfei Yu, Hongwei Xia, Qiulin Tang, Huanji Xu, Guoqing Wei, Ying Chen, Xinyu Dai, Qiyong Gong, Feng Bi
Acetylcholine (ACh), known as a neurotransmitter, regulates the functions of numerous fundamental central and peripheral nervous system. Recently, emerging evidences indicate that ACh also plays an important role in tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the role of ACh in gastric cancer. Here, we reported that ACh could be auto-synthesized and released from MKN45 and BGC823 gastric cancer cells. Exogenous ACh promoted cell proliferation in a does-dependent manner. The M3R antagonist 4-DAMP, but not M1R antagonist trihexyphenidyl and M2/4 R antagonist AFDX-116, could reverse the ACh-induced cell proliferation...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099138/role-of-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-mood-disorders
#2
Anton S Tsybko, Tatiana V Ilchibaeva, Nina K Popova
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is widely recognized as a survival factor for dopaminergic neurons, but GDNF has also been shown to promote development, differentiation, and protection of other central nervous system neurons and was thought to play an important role in various neuropsychiatric disorders. Severe mood disorders, such as primarily major depressive disorder and bipolar affective disorder, attract particular attention. These psychopathologies are characterized by structural alterations accompanied by the dysregulation of neuroprotective and neurotrophic signaling mechanisms required for the maturation, growth, and survival of neurons and glia...
January 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097916/exploring-the-first-rimonabant-analog-opioid-peptide-hybrid-compound-as-bivalent-ligand-for-cb1-and-opioid-receptors
#3
Adriano Mollica, Sveva Pelliccia, Valeria Famiglini, Azzurra Stefanucci, Giorgia Macedonio, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Giustino Orlando, Luigi Brunetti, Claudio Ferrante, Stefano Pieretti, Ettore Novellino, Sandor Benyhe, Ferenc Zador, Anna Erdei, Edina Szucs, Reza Samavati, Szalbolch Dvrorasko, Csaba Tomboly, Rino Ragno, Alexandros Patsilinakos, Romano Silvestri
Cannabinoid (CB) and opioid systems are both involved in analgesia, food intake, mood and behavior. Due to the co-localization of µ-opioid (MOR) and CB1 receptors in various regions of the central nervous system (CNS) and their ability to form heterodimers, bivalent ligands targeting to both these systems may be good candidates to investigate the existence of possible cross-talking or synergistic effects, also at sub-effective doses. In this work, we selected from a small series of new Rimonabant analogs one CB1R reverse agonist to be conjugated to the opioid fragment Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-NH2...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097372/the-role-of-neuropeptides-in-adverse-myocardial-remodeling-and-heart-failure
#4
REVIEW
Alexander Widiapradja, Prasad Chunduri, Scott P Levick
In addition to traditional neurotransmitters of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, the heart also contains numerous neuropeptides. These neuropeptides not only modulate the effects of neurotransmitters, but also have independent effects on cardiac function. While in most cases the physiological actions of these neuropeptides are well defined, their contributions to cardiac pathology are less appreciated. Some neuropeptides are cardioprotective, some promote adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure, and in the case of others their functions are unclear...
January 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095073/preclinical-and-potential-applications-of-common-western-herbal-supplements-as-complementary-treatment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Luke A Morgan, Oliver Grundmann
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder with a complex pathological etiology, which is not fully understood. Progression of PD may be the result of a buildup of iron in the substantia nigra, microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, dysfunctional mitochondria, or abnormal protein handling. Dopamine is the main neurotransmitter affected, but as the disease progresses, a decrease in all the brain's biogenic amines occurs. Current medication used in the treatment of PD aims to prevent the breakdown of dopamine or increase dopaminergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093476/muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-m-currents-underlie-efferent-mediated-slow-excitation-in-calyx-bearing-vestibular-afferents
#6
J Chris Holt, Paivi M Jordan, Anna Lysakowski, Amit Shah, Kathy Barsz, Donatella Contini
: Stimulation of vestibular efferent neurons excites calyx and dimorphic (CD) afferents. This excitation consists of fast and slow components that differ over 100-fold in activation kinetics and response duration. In turtle, efferent-mediated fast excitation arises in CD afferents when the predominant efferent neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) activates calyceal nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs); however, it is unclear whether the accompanying efferent-mediated slow excitation is also attributed to cholinergic mechanisms...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089664/neurotensin-nts1-and-nts2-receptor-agonists-produce-anxiolytic-like-effects-in-the-22-khz-ultrasonic-vocalization-model-in-rats
#7
Floyd F Steele, Shannon C Whitehouse, Jacob S Aday, Adam J Prus
Neurotensin is a neuropeptide neurotransmitter that interacts with multiple neurotransmitter systems, including those regulating amygdalar function, via NTS1 and NTS2 receptors. Both receptors are expressed in the amygdala and agonists for NTS1 or NTS2 receptors have exhibited anxiolytic effects in animal models. Systemic adminstration of NTS1 receptor agonist PD149163 was recently shown to reduce footshock conditioned 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations in rats, suggesting that PD149163 produced an anxiolytic effect...
January 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089639/a-systematic-review-of-the-association-between-fatigue-and-genetic-polymorphisms
#8
REVIEW
Tengteng Wang, Jie Yin, Andrew H Miller, Canhua Xiao
Fatigue is one of the most common and distressing symptoms, leading to markedly decreased quality of life among a large subset of patients with a variety of disorders. Susceptibility to fatigue may be influenced by genetic factors including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), especially in the regulatory regions, of relevant genes. To further investigate the association of SNPs with fatigue in various patient populations, a systematic search was conducted on Pubmed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts Database for fatigue related-terms in combination with polymorphisms or genetic variation-related terms...
January 12, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087338/auditory-hindbrain-atrophy-and-anomalous-calcium-binding-protein-expression-after-neonatal-exposure-to-monosodium-glutamate
#9
Lindsey Foran, Kaitlyn Blackburn, Randy J Kulesza
Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and is stored and released by both neurons and astrocytes. Despite the important role of glutamate as a neurotransmitter, elevated extracellular glutamate can result in excitotoxicity and apoptosis. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a naturally occurring sodium salt of glutamic acid that is used as a flavor enhancer in many processed foods. Previous studies have shown that MSG administration during the early postnatal period results in neurodegenerative changes in several forebrain regions, characterized by neuronal loss and neuroendocrine abnormalities...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087321/enteric-nervous-system-development-a-crest-cell-s-journey-from-neural-tube-to-colon
#10
REVIEW
Nandor Nagy, Allan M Goldstein
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is comprised of a network of neurons and glial cells that are responsible for coordinating many aspects of gastrointestinal (GI) function. These cells arise from the neural crest, migrate to the gut, and then continue their journey to colonize the entire length of the GI tract. Our understanding of the molecular and cellular events that regulate these processes has advanced significantly over the past several decades, in large part facilitated by the use of rodents, avians, and zebrafish as model systems to dissect the signals and pathways involved...
January 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087060/personality-in-parkinson-s-disease-clinical-behavioural-and-cognitive-correlates
#11
REVIEW
Gabriella Santangelo, Fausta Piscopo, Paolo Barone, Carmine Vitale
Affective disorders and personality changes have long been considered pre-motor aspects of Parkinson's disease (PD). Many authors have used the term "premorbid personality" to define distinctive features of PD patients' personality characterized by reduced exploration of new environmental stimuli or potential reward sources ("novelty seeking") and avoidance behaviour ("harm avoidance") present before motor features. The functional correlates underlying the personality changes described in PD, implicate dysfunction of meso-cortico-limbic and striatal circuits...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081177/first-behavioural-characterisation-of-a-knockout-mouse-model-for-the-transforming-growth-factor-tgf-%C3%AE-superfamily-cytokine-mic-1-gdf15
#12
Jac Kee Low, Ananthan Ambikairajah, Kani Shang, David A Brown, Vicky W W Tsai, Samuel N Breit, Tim Karl
Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), also known as growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), is a stress response cytokine. MIC-1/GDF15 is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and increased levels of MIC-1/GDF15 are associated with a variety of diseases including cognitive decline. Furthermore, Mic-1/Gdf15 knockout mice (Mic-1 KO) weigh more, have increased adiposity, associated with increased spontaneous food intake, and exhibit reduced basal energy expenditure and physical activity. The current study was designed to comprehensively determine the role of MIC-1/GDF15 on behavioural domains of male and female knockout mice including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, cognition, social behaviours, and sensorimotor gating...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078839/widespread-membrane-potential-changes-and-cardiorespiratory-synchronization-involved-in-anxiety-and-sleep-wake-transitions
#13
R Jerath, S M Cearley, M Jensen
Located within the ascending reticular activating system are nuclei which release neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. These nuclei have widespread projections that extend into the limbic system and throughout cortex. Activation of these neurotransmitters during awake states leads to arousal, while inhibition leads to the loss of consciousness experienced during slow-wave sleep. Previously, we proposed a mechanism in which cardiorespiratory synchronization may underlie the widespread hyperpolarization that occurs throughout the brain during slow-wave sleep...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077712/changes-in-properties-of-auditory-nerve-synapses-following-conductive-hearing-loss
#14
Xiaowen Zhuang, Wei Sun, Matthew A Xu-Friedman
: Auditory activity plays an important role in the development of the auditory system. Decreased activity can result from conductive hearing loss (CHL) associated with otitis media, which may lead to long-term perceptual deficits. The effects of CHL have been mainly studied at later stages of the auditory pathway, but early stages remain less examined. However, changes in early stages could be important because they would affect how information about sounds is conveyed to higher-order areas for further processing and localization...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077596/the-neuroendocrine-immunomodulatory-axis-like-pathway-mediated-by-circulating-haemocytes-in-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#15
Zhaoqun Liu, Zhi Zhou, Qiufen Jiang, Lingling Wang, Qilin Yi, Limei Qiu, Linsheng Song
The neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) regulatory network is a complex system, which plays an indispensable role in the immunity of host. In this study, a neuroendocrine immunomodulatory axis (NIA)-like pathway mediated by the nervous system and haemocytes was characterized in the oyster Crassostrea gigas Once invaded pathogen was recognized by the host, the nervous system would temporally release neurotransmitters to modulate the immune response. Instead of acting passively, oyster haemocytes were able to mediate neuronal immunomodulation promptly by controlling the expression of specific neurotransmitter receptors on cell surface and modulating their binding sensitivities, thus regulating intracellular concentration of Ca(2+) This neural immunomodulation mediated by the nervous system and haemocytes could influence cellular immunity in oyster by affecting mRNA expression level of TNF genes, and humoral immunity by affecting the activities of key immune-related enzymes...
January 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077092/phylogenetic-analysis-of-ionotropic-l-glutamate-receptor-genes-in-the-bilateria-with-special-notes-on-aplysia-californica
#16
Justin B Greer, Sawsan Khuri, Lynne A Fieber
BACKGROUND: The neurotransmitter L-Glutamate (L-Glu) acting at ionotropic L-Glu receptors (iGluR) conveys fast excitatory signal transmission in the nervous systems of all animals. iGluR-dependent neurotransmission is a key component of the synaptic plasticity that underlies learning and memory. During learning, two subtypes of iGluR, α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPAR) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR), are dynamically regulated postsynaptically in vertebrates...
January 11, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076681/computational-modeling-of-neurotransmitter-release-evoked-by-electrical-stimulation-non-linear-approaches-to-predicting-stimulation-evoked-dopamine-release
#17
James K Trevathan, Ali Yousefi, Hyung Ook Park, John J Bartoletta, Kip A Ludwig, Kendall H Lee, J Luis Lujan
Neurochemical changes evoked by electrical stimulation of the nervous system have been linked to both therapeutic and undesired effects of neuromodulation therapies used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, stroke, hypertension, tinnitus, and many other indications. In fact, interest in better understanding the role of neurochemical signaling in neuromodulation therapies has been a focus of recent government- and industry-sponsored programs whose ultimate goal is to usher in an era of personalized medicine by creating neuromodulation therapies that respond to real-time changes in patient status...
January 11, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075410/is-toxoplasma-gondii-a-trigger-of-bipolar-disorder
#18
REVIEW
Claudia Del Grande, Luca Galli, Elisa Schiavi, Liliana Dell'Osso, Fabrizio Bruschi
Toxoplasma gondii, a ubiquitous intracellular parasite, has a strong tropism for the brain tissue, where it forms intracellular cysts within the neurons and glial cells, establishing a chronic infection. Although latent toxoplasmosis is generally assumed to be asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals, it is now clear that it can induce behavioral manipulations in mice and infected humans. Moreover, a strong relation has emerged in recent years between toxoplasmosis and psychiatric disorders. The link between T...
January 10, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073937/activity-of-tachykinin1-expressing-pet1-raphe-neurons-modulates-the-drive-to-breathe
#19
Morgan L Hennessy, Andrea Corcoran, Rachael D Brust, Eugene E Nattie, Susan Dymecki
: Homeostatic control of breathing, heart rate, and body temperature relies on circuits within the brainstem modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT). Mounting evidence points to specialized neuronal subtypes within the 5-HT system, which have borne out in functional studies, including the modulation of distinct facets of homeostatic control. These functional differences, read out at the organismal level, are likely subserved by differences among 5-HT neuron subtypes at the cellular and molecular levels, including differences in the capacity to co-express other neurotransmitters such as glutamate, GABA, thyrotropin releasing hormone, and substance P encoded by the Tachykinin-1 (Tac1) gene...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073591/neuropeptide-y-neuronal-network-dysfunction-in-the-frontal-lobe-of-a-genetic-mouse-model-of-schizophrenia
#20
Shunsuke Morosawa, Shuji Iritani, Hiroshige Fujishiro, Hirotaka Sekiguchi, Youta Torii, Chikako Habuchi, Keisuke Kuroda, Kozo Kaibuchi, Norio Ozaki
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been found to play a critical role in various mental functions as a neurotransmitter and is involved in the development of schizophrenia, a particularly intractable psychiatric disease whose precise etiology remains unknown. Recent molecular biological investigations have identified several candidate genes which may be associated with this disease, including disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1). The role of DISC1 would involve neurogenesis and neuronal migration. However, the functional consequences of this gene defect have not yet been fully clarified in neuronal systems...
January 5, 2017: Neuropeptides
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