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Serotonin receptor subtype

E M Peter-Ross
The pathobiological causes, the shared cellular and molecular pathways in catatonia and in catatonic presentation in neuropsychiatric disorders are yet to be determined. The hypotheses in this paper have been deduced from the latest scientific research findings and clinical observations of patients with genetic disorders, behavioral phenotypes and other family members suffering mental disorders. The first hypothesis postulates that catatonia and the heterogeneity of catatonic signs and symptoms involve nucleolar dysfunction arising from abnormalities of the brain-specific, non-coding micro-RNA, SNORD115 genes (either duplications or deletions) which result in pathobiological dysfunction of various combinations in the downstream pathways (possibly along with other genes in these shared pathways)...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Panos Zanos, Scott M Thompson, Ronald S Duman, Carlos A Zarate, Todd D Gould
Traditional pharmacological treatments for depression have a delayed therapeutic onset, ranging from several weeks to months, and there is a high percentage of individuals who never respond to treatment. In contrast, ketamine produces rapid-onset antidepressant, anti-suicidal, and anti-anhedonic actions following a single administration to patients with depression. Proposed mechanisms of the antidepressant action of ketamine include N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) modulation, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneuron disinhibition, and direct actions of its hydroxynorketamine (HNK) metabolites...
March 7, 2018: CNS Drugs
Petra Netter
This paper presents a discussion of principles and problems of neurotransmitter challenge tests using examples of experiments, most of which were performed in the author's laboratory. Drugs targeting synthesis, release, receptors or reuptake of dopamine, serotonin and noradrenergic transmitter (TM) systems were used for characterizing or discriminating certain temperament or personality traits and their sub-factors. Any personality or temperament trait is characterized by multiple TM responses, thus constellations of hormone responses to drugs acting on different TM systems or on different sources of TM activity were investigated within individuals in crossover designs...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
M A Snider, D L Harmon, J L Klotz
Prior work using a contractility bioassay determined that the serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtype 5-HT2A is present in bovine lateral saphenous veins and plays a role in ergot alkaloid-induced vascular contraction in steers grazing endophyte-infected (Epichloë coenophiala) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). Ergot alkaloids have also been shown to be vasoactive in bovine gut vasculature. To determine what 5-HT receptors are involved in vasoconstriction of gut vasculature, contractility of ruminal and mesenteric arteries and veins collected from cattle were evaluated in the presence of agonists selective for 5-HT1B (CP 93129) 5-HT1D (L-694, 247), 5-HT2A (TCB-2), 5-HT2B (BW 723C86), 5-HT4 (BIMU-8) and 5-HT7 (LP 44) receptors...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Angela Corvino, Ferdinando Fiorino, Beatrice Severino, Irene Saccone, Francesco Frecentese, Elisa Perissutti, Paola Di Vaio, Vincenzo Santagada, Giuseppe Caliendo, Elisa Magli
The 5-HT1A receptor is a pharmacologically well characterized serotonin receptor subtype and it has long been investigated because of its involvement in several physio-pathological mechanisms and treatment of neurological diseases like ansia and depression. Serotonin (5-HT) also shows many non-neural functions such as essential hypertension, embryogenesis, follicle maturation and behavior. Moreover it exerts a growth factor function on different types of non-tumoral cells, and it was also found to be related to oncogenes...
February 9, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Emily K Stephens, Arielle L Baker, Allan T Gulledge
Serotonin (5-HT) selectively excites subpopulations of pyramidal neurons in the neocortex via activation of 5-HT2A (2A) receptors coupled to Gq subtype G-protein alpha subunits. Gq-mediated excitatory responses have been attributed primarily to suppression of potassium conductances, including those mediated by KV7 potassium channels (i.e., the M-current), or activation of non-specific cation conductances that underlie calcium-dependent afterdepolarizations (ADPs). However, 2A-dependent excitation of cortical neurons has not been extensively studied, and no consensus exists regarding the underlying ionic effector(s) involved...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Irina V Romanova, Kira V Derkach, Anastasiya L Mikhrina, Ivan B Sukhov, Elena V Mikhailova, Alexander O Shpakov
The pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) are involved in the control of food intake and metabolic processes. It is assumed that, in addition to leptin, the activity of these neurons is regulated by serotonin and dopamine, but only subtype 2C serotonin receptors (5-HT2CR) was identified earlier on the POMC-neurons. The aim of this work was a comparative study of the localization and number of leptin receptors (LepR), types 1 and 2 dopamine receptors (D1R, D2R), 5-HT1BR and 5-HT2CR on the POMC-neurons and the expression of the genes encoding them in the ARC of the normal and diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents and the agouti mice (A y /a) with the melanocortin obesity...
February 3, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Annalisa Pinna, Marcello Serra, Micaela Morelli, Nicola Simola
Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that regulates several physiological functions, at the central and peripheral levels. Besides, adenosine has emerged as a major player in the regulation of motor behavior. In fact, adenosine receptors of the A 2A subtype are highly enriched in the caudate-putamen, which is richly innervated by dopamine. Moreover, several studies in experimental animals have consistently demonstrated that the pharmacological antagonism of A 2A receptors has a facilitatory influence on motor behavior...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Cristiana Carbone, Annalisa Adinolfi, Stefano Cinque, Enza Lacivita, Enrico Alleva, Marcello Leopoldo, Walter Adriani
AIMS: The serotonin 7 receptor (5-HT7R) subtype, coded by Htr7 gene, is broadly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) with clear involvement in behavioral functions such as learning/memory, regulation of mood, and circadian rhythms. In this study, we assessed effects of 5-HT7R stimulation by administration of its selective agonist, LP-211 (0.25 mg/kg i.p.), in adult Wistar-Han rats. METHODS: We used two different explorative-curiosity tests. Drug was administered either before one side-chamber familiarization (CF/V group) or immediately after it, to act on consolidation of familiarization (V/CF group)...
February 1, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Raphael Rodrigues Perim, Daryl P Fields, Gordon S Mitchell
Intermittent spinal serotonin receptor activation elicits phrenic motor facilitation (pMF), a form of spinal respiratory motor plasticity. Episodic activation of either serotonin type-2 (5-HT2) or 7 (5-HT7) receptors elicits pMF, although they do so via distinct cellular mechanisms known as the Q (5-HT2) and S (5-HT7) pathways to pMF. When co-activated, these pathways interact via mutual, cross-talk inhibition. Although we have a rudimentary understanding of mechanisms mediating cross-talk interactions between spinal 5-HT2 subtype-A (5-HT2A) and 5-HT7 receptor activation, we do not know if similar interactions exist between 5-HT2 subtype-B (5-HT2B) and 5-HT7 receptors...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Attila Szabo, Peter Gogolak, Gabor Koncz, Zsofia Foldvari, Kitti Pazmandi, Noemi Miltner, Szilard Poliska, Attila Bacsi, Srdjan Djurovic, Eva Rajnavolgyi
Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter that signals through a wide array of receptors (5-HT1-7) many of which are also involved in immune processes. Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial players in immune defense by bridging innate and adaptive immune responses via their vast repertoire of pattern recognition receptors and antigen-presenting capability. Although serotonin is known to influence immunity at many levels, cell type-specific expression and function of its receptors remains poorly understood. Here we aimed to study 5-HT1-7 expression and function in CD1a- and CD1a+ human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs)...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ya Fatou Njie-Mbye, Jenaye Robinson, Leah Mitchell-Bush, Marshalyn Mckoy, Catherine A Opere, Sunny E Ohia, Naj Sharif
PURPOSE: To determine the serotonergic (5HT) receptor subtype mediating the contraction of bovine posterior ciliary arteries (BPCAs) in vitro. METHODS: Longitudinal isometric tension was measured in BPCA strips (4-5 mm) mounted in 25 mL organ baths containing oxygenated Krebs solution at 37°C. Cumulative contractile concentration-response (C-R) curves were generated for various 5-HT agonists to assess their potencies and maximal degrees of contraction. Multiple agonist C-R curves were also constructed in the presence and absence of receptor-selective antagonists to determine antagonist potencies using Schild plots...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Sunny E Ohia, Ya Fatou Njie-Mbye, Jenaye Robinson, Leah Mitchell, Marshalyn Mckoy, Catherine A Opere, Naj A Sharif
PURPOSE: To study the pharmacological profile of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) receptor subtype mediating contractions in bovine isolated ciliary muscles. METHODS: Ciliary muscle strips were isolated from bovine eyeballs and mounted in organ baths containing aerated (95% O2, 5% CO2) Krebs buffer solution maintained at 37°C. Each muscle strip was attached at 1 end to a Grass Force-displacement Transducer connected to a Polyview Computer System for recording changes in isometric tension...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Julie A Wixey, Hanna E Reinebrant, Kirat K Chand, Kathryn M Buller
It has become increasingly evident the serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system is an important central neuronal network disrupted following neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) insults. Serotonin acts via a variety of receptor subtypes that are differentially associated with behavioural and cognitive mechanisms. The 5-HT7 receptor is purported to play a key role in epilepsy, anxiety, learning and memory and neuropsychiatric disorders. Furthermore, the 5-HT7 receptor is highly localized in brain regions damaged following neonatal HI insults...
January 22, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Rajapillai L I Pillai, Ashwin Malhotra, Deborah D Rupert, Bennett Weschler, John C Williams, Mengru Zhang, Jie Yang, J John Mann, Maria A Oquendo, Ramin V Parsey, Christine DeLorenzo
Serotonin 1A (5-HT1A ) receptors play a direct role in neuronal development, cell proliferation, and dendritic branching. We hypothesized that variability in 5-HT1A binding can affect cortical thickness, and may account for a subtype of major depressive disorder (MDD) in which both are altered. To evaluate this, we measured cortical thickness from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 5-HT1A binding by positron emission tomography (PET) in an exploratory study. To examine a range of 5-HT1A binding and cortical thickness values, we recruited 25 healthy controls and 19 patients with MDD...
February 2018: Human Brain Mapping
K V Derkach, I O Zakharova, I V Romanova, I I Zorina, A L Mikhrina, A O Shpakov
The metabolic parameters and functional state of hypothalamic systems in mice with the Yellow mutation in the Agouti locus and with obesity of the melanocortin type and the effect of metformin (MF) treatment (9 days, 200 mg/kg/day) were studied. The MF treatment led to decreased body weight and to normalization of glucose tolerance in mice. In the hypothalamus, MF restored the decreased activity of Akt kinase, the main component of leptin pathway, and normalized the increased expression of subtype 1B serotonin receptor...
November 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
N I Kalinina, Aleksey V Zaitsev, N P Vesselkin
Endogenous monoamine 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) is a phylogenetically ancient neurotransmitter present in vertebrates. The functions of 5-HT in central nervous system are intensively studied; however, the presynaptic effects of 5-HT in frog spinal motoneurons are practically unexplored. We have previously shown that 5-HT decreases the frequency of glycinergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (mIPSPs), but does not affect the frequency of GABAergic mIPSPs and increases the frequency of glutamatergic postsynaptic potentials...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Giacomo Rossitto, Giuseppe Maiolino, Livia Lenzini, Valeria Bisogni, Teresa Maria Seccia, Maurizio Cesari, Maurizio Iacobone, Gian Paolo Rossi
BACKGROUND: Cosyntropin and metoclopramide can affect the subtyping of primary aldosteronism when used with adrenal vein sampling by exerting hormone- and side-specific effects on cortisol and aldosterone secretion. We investigated how these stimuli affect the selectivity index, the relative aldosterone secretion index, and the lateralization index in consecutive primary aldosteronism patients submitted to adrenal vein sampling. METHODS: We recruited 171 patients; of these, 149 underwent adrenal vein sampling before and after stimulation with cosyntropin (250 µg intravenous bolus, n= 53, 73% with an aldosterone-producing adenoma) or with metoclopramide (10 mg intravenous bolus, n= 96, 65% aldosterone-producing adenoma), and 32 with an aldosterone-producing adenoma were investigated for the relative gene expression of dopamine, melanocortin 2, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) 4 receptor with microarrays...
November 30, 2017: Surgery
Tara Swami, H Christian Weber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the most recent findings relevant to the biology of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in human gastrointestinal disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Serotonin is synthesized in the central nervous system (CNS) and the gastrointestinal tract where it is secreted from enteroendocrine cells. Its biosynthesis is regulated by two isoforms of the enzyme TPH of which TPH1 is localized predominantly in gastrointestinal enteroendocrine cells...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Ayaka Hori, Takashi Nishida, Shogo Takashiba, Satoshi Kubota, Masaharu Takigawa
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5-HT) is recognized as a neurotransmitter in the central nerve system and as a regulator of systemic blood pressure in the peripheral tissues. Recently, it was reported that 5-HT2 receptors (5-HT2Rs) were expressed in cartilage tissues lacking both vessels and neurons, suggesting possible novel functions of 5-HT during cartilage development and regeneration. Our previous data indicated that CCN family protein 2/connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF) plays a central role in cartilage development and regeneration...
2017: PloS One
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