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M Topuridze, D Baliashvili, T Komakhidze, M Shishniashvili, N Grdzelidze, M Butsashvili
Rotavirus (RV) is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. RV causes approximately half a million deaths each year among children aged <5 years. According to WHO estimates for 2008, there were approximately 10 to 50 deaths annually in young children due to rotavirus diarrhea in Georgia. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to rotavirus diarrhea and the rotavirus vaccine among health care workers (HCWs). The National Center for Disease Control and Public Health (NCDC) conducted a cross-sectional survey of HCWs involved in the expanded program of immunization (EPI)...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
P Soeters, F Bozzetti, L Cynober, A Forbes, A Shenkin, L Sobotka
In a recent consensus report in Clinical Nutrition the undernourished category of malnutrition was proposed to be defined and diagnosed on the basis of a low BMI or unintentional weight loss combined with low BMI or FFMI with certain cut off points. The definition was endorsed by ESPEN despite recent endorsement of a very different definition. The approach aims to assess whether nutritional intake is sufficient but is imprecise because a low BMI does not always indicate malnutrition and individuals with increasing BMI's may have decreasing FFM's...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Paul H Lee, Andy C Y Tse
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the quality of reporting of information essential for replication of the calculation as well as the accuracy of the sample size calculation. We examine the current quality of reporting of the sample size calculation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in PubMed and to examine the variation in reporting across study design, study characteristics, and journal impact factor. We also reviewed the targeted sample size reported in trial registries...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Douglas J Robertson, Jeffrey K Lee, C Richard Boland, Jason A Dominitz, Francis M Giardiello, David A Johnson, Tonya Kaltenbach, David Lieberman, Theodore R Levin, Douglas K Rex
The use of the fecal occult blood test (FOBT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is supported by randomized trials demonstrating effectiveness in cancer prevention and widely recommended by guidelines for this purpose. The fecal immunochemical test (FIT), as a direct measure of human hemoglobin in stool has a number of advantages relative to conventional FOBT and is increasingly used relative to that test. This review summarizes current evidence for FIT in colorectal neoplasia detection and the comparative effectiveness of FIT relative to other commonly used CRC screening modalities...
October 18, 2016: Gastroenterology
Douglas J Robertson, Jeffrey K Lee, C Richard Boland, Jason A Dominitz, Francis M Giardiello, David A Johnson, Tonya Kaltenbach, David Lieberman, Theodore R Levin, Douglas K Rex
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Signe Mezinska, Péter Kakuk, Goran Mijaljica, Marcin Waligóra, Dónal P O'Mathúna
BACKGROUND: Conducting research during or in the aftermath of disasters poses many specific practical and ethical challenges. This is particularly the case with research involving human subjects. The extraordinary circumstances of research conducted in disaster settings require appropriate regulations to ensure the protection of human participants. The goal of this study is to systematically and qualitatively review the existing ethical guidelines for disaster research by using the constant comparative method (CCM)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
Daniel Lordelo San Martin, Dislene Nascimento Dos Santos, Abrahão Fontes Baptista
OBJECTIVE: To describe the pain in patients infected with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, clinically and epidemiologically. METHODS: This systematic review was based on The PRISMA Statement. Four reviewers searched PUBMED, SciELO, LILACS and BIREME for data from observational studies and clinical trials (n≥30) regarding pain prevalence, characteristics, and associated factors in patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1. No limits on publication date or language were established...
October 18, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Hans Lassmann, Monika Bradl
One of the most frequent statements, provided in different variations in the introduction of experimental studies on multiple sclerosis (MS), is that "Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating autoimmune disease and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a suitable model to study its pathogenesis". However, so far, no single experimental model covers the entire spectrum of the clinical, pathological, or immunological features of the disease. Many different models are available, which proved to be highly useful for studying different aspects of inflammation, demyelination, remyelination, and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system...
October 20, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Sandra Bouma
The publication of the landmark paper "Defining Pediatric Malnutrition: A Paradigm Shift Toward Etiology-Related Definitions" launched a new era in diagnosing pediatric malnutrition. This work introduced the paradigm shift of etiology-related definitions-nonillness and illness related-and the use of anthropometric z scores to help identify and describe children with malnutrition (undernutrition) in the developed world. Putting the new definition into practice resulted in some interesting observations: (1) Etiology-related definitions result in etiology-related interventions...
October 20, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Daniel J Sobczynski, Omolola Eniola-Adefeso
Plasma proteins rapidly coat the surfaces of particulate drug carriers to form a protein corona upon their injection into the bloodstream. The high presence of immunoglobulins in the corona formed on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) vascular-targeted carrier (VTC) surfaces was recently shown to negatively impact their adhesion to activated endothelial cells (aECs) in vitro. Here, we characterized the influence of anticoagulants, or their absence, on the binding efficiency of VTCs of various materials via modulation of their protein corona...
October 17, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Paul Monsarrat, Philippe Kemoun, Jean-Noel Vergnes, Luc Sensebe, Louis Casteilla, Valerie Planat-Benard
BACKGROUND AIMS: Using innovative tools derived from social network analysis, the aims of this study were (i) to decipher the spatial and temporal structure of the research centers network dedicated to the therapeutic uses of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and (ii) to measure the influence of fields of applications, cellular sources and industry funding on network topography. METHODS: From each trial using MSCs reported on, all research centers were extracted...
October 17, 2016: Cytotherapy
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Sun Mi Choi, Jinwoo Lee, Young Sik Park, Chang-Hoon Lee, Sang-Min Lee, Jae-Joon Yim
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing flexible bronchoscopy usually experience anxiety before and during the procedure. OBJECTIVES: We performed this study to investigate whether verbal empathy and intentional touch from a bronchoscopist could reduce anxiety in patients undergoing flexible bronchoscopy. METHODS: We conducted a prospective randomized trial in a university-affiliated hospital. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: a control group, a verbal empathy group, or a verbal empathy and touch group...
October 21, 2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Matteo Bonini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease and represents a relevant socioeconomic burden. e-Health has the potential to improve disease control and adherence to treatment in asthmatic patients. Available data are, however, scarce and inconsistent limiting the use of e-health in clinical practice. This article aims to provide a systematic review of the literature published in the last year regarding the real place and impact of e-health in the management of asthma...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Lisa Jamieson, Julia Bradshaw, Herenia Lawrence, John Broughton, Kamilla Venner
OBJECTIVES: This paper assessed the fidelity of an early childhood caries MI intervention among Aboriginal mothers in South Australia. METHODS: Four MI-trained staff delivered the intervention and all interviews were recorded. A randomly selected subset (n = 164, 41.2%) were tested for MI fidelity using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) code 3.1.1. A further randomly selected 20 taped sessions were additionally scored by an external expert to assess external reliability...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Ruiping Fan
This essay offers a Confucian evaluation of Article 14 of the UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, with a focus given to its statement that "the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being." It indicates that "a right to health" contained in the statement is open to two different interpretations, one radically egalitarian, another a decent minimum. It shows that Confucianism has strong moral considerations to reject the radical egalitarian interpretation, and argues that a Confucian nonegalitarian health distribution ethics of differentiated and graded love and obligation can reasonably be supported with a right to the decent minimum of health at the international level...
2016: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Mark Corbett
Conceivably, in an ideal world, all patients with a life-limiting illness would receive optimal hospice and palliative care so that no one would ever wish to hasten their own death. The reality, however, is that despite provision of optimal hospice and palliative care, individuals with terminal illness experience suffering, loss of meaning, or deterioration in quality of life to the extent where they express the desire to expedite the dying process. While there has been extensive discussion surrounding physician-assisted death (PAD), there has been less attention paid to the practice of voluntary stopping eating and drinking (VSED) near the end of life...
2016: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
Catherine de Blacam, Sean Tierney, Odhran Shelley
BACKGROUND: Surgical training requires exposure to clinical decision-making and operative experience in a supervised environment. It is recognised that learning ability is compromised when fatigued. The European Working Time Directive requires a decrease in working hours, but compliance reduces trainees' clinical exposure, which has profound implications for plastic surgery training. The aim of this study was to evaluate plastic surgery registrars' experience of an EWTD-compliant rota, and to examine its impact on patient care, education, and logbook activity...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
D B Dekiwadia, Ravul Jindal, Roy Varghese, H S Bedi, Shoaib Padaria, Malay D Patel, Sunil Agarwal, Sunderaraj Saravanan, U Vasudev Rao, Ramakrishna Pinjala, Gulshanjit Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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