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Manuel R G Carrapato, Ana M Ferreira, Tuangsit Wataganara
Cesarean sections (CS) have greatly increased and many reasons are often evoked. Safer anesthetics and surgical procedures have rendered CS a popular choice for both professionals and mothers alike. CS on maternal request, for nonmedical reasons, is the subject of scientific, legal and ethical dispute. We shall address the CS issues, primarily, from the pediatrician's point of view. The immediate neonatal problems of the more mature neonate are well recognized. For preterm birth, contradictory results on mid- and long-term outcomes do not confirm the earlier reports on neonatal advantages of CS over vaginal delivery; therefore, their mode of delivery should be based on individual circumstances...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Marielle M E Lakeman, Jan-Paul W R Roovers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Urinary tract infections are common in the field of urogynaecology. Women with persistent urinary symptoms seem more likely to have bacteriuria despite negative cultures. In this review, we will give an overview of the recent insights on the relationship between urinary tract infection and persistent urinary symptoms and possible new therapeutic options. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently published articles evaluated the prevalence of low-count bacteriuria (≥10 CFU/ml) or intracellular bacterial communities in women with overactive bladder symptoms (OAB)...
February 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Rocío Gallego-Durán, Manuel Romero-Gómez
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging health concern in both developed and non-developed world, encompassing from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and liver cancer. Incidence and prevalence of this disease are increasing due to the socioeconomic transition and change to harmful diet. Currently, gold standard method in NAFLD diagnosis is liver biopsy, despite complications and lack of accuracy due to sampling error. Further, pathogenesis of NAFLD is not fully understood, but is well-known that obesity, diabetes and metabolic derangements played a major role in disease development and progression...
October 28, 2015: World Journal of Hepatology
Francesca Bandinelli, Mirko Manetti, Lidia Ibba-Manneschi
Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a frequent extra-intestinal manifestation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), although its real diffusion is commonly considered underestimated. Abnormalities in the microbioma and genetic predisposition have been implicated in the link between bowel and joint inflammation. Otherwise, up to date, pathogenetic mechanisms are still largely unknown and the exact influence of the bowel activity on rheumatic manifestations is not clearly explained. Due to evidence-based results of clinical studies, the interest on clinically asymptomatic SpA in IBD patients increased in the last few years...
February 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
María-Carlota Londoño, Juan G Abraldes, José Altamirano, Thomas Decaens, Xavier Forns
The late and fast developments in the field of viral hepatitis were highly expected in the 2014 AASLD Liver Meeting®. Several combinations using direct acting antivirals (DAAs) showed high rates of sustained virological response (∼95%). Importantly, high cure rates were also demonstrated in patients with previous treatment failures, decompensated cirrhosis and hepatitis C recurrence after transplantation, making it clear that the interferon era is over (not so clear for ribavirin, which might still have a role in difficult-to-treat populations)...
May 2015: Journal of Hepatology
Manuel Romero-Gómez, Sara Montagnese, Rajiv Jalan
Hepatic encephalopathy in a hospitalized cirrhotic patient is associated with a high mortality rate and its presence adds further to the mortality of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). The exact pathophysiological mechanisms of HE in this group of patients are unclear but hyperammonemia, systemic inflammation (including sepsis, bacterial translocation, and insulin resistance) and oxidative stress, modulated by glutaminase gene alteration, remain as key factors. Moreover, alcohol misuse, hyponatremia, renal insufficiency, and microbiota are actively explored...
February 2015: Journal of Hepatology
Matteo A Russo, Luigi Sansone, Lucia Polletta, Alessandra Runci, Mohammad M Rashid, Elena De Santis, Enza Vernucci, Ilaria Carnevale, Marco Tafani
The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet (MD) had been first observed about 50 years ago. Consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits, cereals, red wine, nuts, legumes, etc. has been regarded as the primary factor for protection from many human pathologies by the Mediterranean diet. Subsequently, this was attributed to the presence of polyphenols and their derivatives that, by exerting an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect, can be involved in the prevention of many diseases. Clinical trials, observational studies and meta-analysis have demonstrated an antiageing effect of MD accompanied by a reduced risk of age-related pathologies, such as cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as cancer...
2014: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Noce Annalisa, Tarantino Alessio, Tsague Djoutsop Claudette, Vasili Erald, De Lorenzo Antonino, Di Daniele Nicola
Obesity has become a pandemic threat in the latest 30 years. The trend of the prevalence of overweight and obesity has got an overall increase in every part of the world, regardless of ethnicity, life-style and social ties. High food intake, genetic, and sedentary have been related to obesity; it has been also hypothesized that gut microbiota could have an impact on the complex mechanism underlying the weight gain. This review aims to illustrate the actual literature about gut microbiota and its relation with obesity and to analyze the possible implications of factors such as diet and life-style onto the composition of gut microbiota, that can lead to overweight/obesity condition...
2014: Mediators of Inflammation
G Sellge, K L Streetz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2014: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Giovanna E Carpagnano, Donato Lacedonia, Grazia Pia Palladino, Giuseppe Logrieco, Elisabetta Crisetti, Antonia Susca, Antonio Logrieco, Maria P Foschino-Barbaro
BACKGROUND: Airways of lung cancer patients are often colonized by fungi. Some of these colonizing fungi, under particular conditions, produce cancerogenic mycotoxins. Given the recent interest in the infective origin of lung cancer, with this preliminary study we aim to give our small contribution to this field of research by analysing the fungal microbiome of the exhaled breath condensate of lung cancer patients from Puglia, a region of Italy. METHODS: We enrolled 43 lung cancer patients and 21 healthy subjects that underwent exhaled breath condensate and bronchial brushing collection...
2014: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Ilaria Peluso, Luca Romanelli, Maura Palmery
The metabolic syndrome can be prevented by the Mediterranean diet, characterized by fiber, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols. However, the composition of the Mediterranean diet, which can be viewed as a natural multiple supplement, is poorly controlled, and its beneficial effects poorly predictable. The metabolic syndrome is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and the gut microbioma seems to be the main target and player in the interactions occurring between probiotics, prebiotics, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols...
May 2014: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Elisa Civardi, Francesca Garofoli, Chryssoula Tzialla, Piermichele Paolillo, Lina Bollani, Mauro Stronati
Human milk has been traditionally considered germ free, however, recent studies have shown that it represents a continuous supply of commensal and potentially probiotic bacteria to the infant gut. Mammary microbioma may exercise anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and metabolic properties. Moreover human milk may be a source of pathogenic microorganism during maternal infection, if contaminated during expression or in case of vaccination of the mother. The non-sterility of breast milk can, thus, be seen as a protective factor, or rarely, as a risk factor for the newborn...
October 2013: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Fernando Gomollón
The new information presented in Digestive Disease Week has allowed us to speculate on the future of inflammatory bowel disease. Manipulation of diet and the microbioma will probably play an increasingly important role in the treatment of this disease and, in the long term, in its prevention. Biological agents will probably be used earlier and more widely; new information on levels of biological agents, mucosal healing and new comparative studies will also allow these agents to be used in a more precise and personalized way...
September 2012: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
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