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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078538/the-sleep-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-what-we-know-until-now
#1
REVIEW
Maryam Moosavi, Gholam Reza Hatam
Sleep, as one of the most important requirements of our brain, has a mystical nature. Despite long-standing studies, the molecular mechanisms and physiological properties of sleep have not been defined well as the complexity of the mammals' brain make it difficult to investigate the mechanisms and properties of sleep. Although some features of sleep have changed during evolution, its existence in such a simple animal, Caenorhabditis elegans, not only signifies the importance of sleep in even simple animals, but also allows the scientist to assess the core mechanism and biological events in an uncomplicated organism...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076377/comparative-analysis-of-vertebrate-diurnal-circadian-transcriptomes
#2
Greg Boyle, Kerstin Richter, Henry D Priest, David Traver, Todd C Mockler, Jeffrey T Chang, Steve A Kay, Ghislain Breton
From photosynthetic bacteria to mammals, the circadian clock evolved to track diurnal rhythms and enable organisms to anticipate daily recurring changes such as temperature and light. It orchestrates a broad spectrum of physiology such as the sleep/wake and eating/fasting cycles. While we have made tremendous advances in our understanding of the molecular details of the circadian clock mechanism and how it is synchronized with the environment, we still have rudimentary knowledge regarding its connection to help regulate diurnal physiology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072817/drosophila-clock-is-required-in-brain-pacemaker-neurons-to-prevent-premature-locomotor-aging-independently-of-its-circadian-function
#3
Alexandra Vaccaro, Abdul-Raouf Issa, Laurent Seugnet, Serge Birman, André Klarsfeld
Circadian clocks control many self-sustained rhythms in physiology and behavior with approximately 24-hour periodicity. In many organisms, oxidative stress and aging negatively impact the circadian system and sleep. Conversely, loss of the clock decreases resistance to oxidative stress, and may reduce lifespan and speed up brain aging and neurodegeneration. Here we examined the effects of clock disruptions on locomotor aging and longevity in Drosophila. We found that lifespan was similarly reduced in three arrhythmic mutants (ClkAR, cyc0 and tim0) and in wild-type flies under constant light, which stops the clock...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071711/transient-anhedonia-phenotype-and-altered-circadian-timing-of-behaviour-during-night-time-dim-light-exposure-in-per3-mice-but-not-wildtype-mice
#4
Bruno Jacson Martynhak, Alexandra L Hogben, Panos Zanos, Polymnia Georgiou, Roberto Andreatini, Ian Kitchen, Simon N Archer, Malcolm von Schantz, Alexis Bailey, Daan R van der Veen
Industrialisation greatly increased human night-time exposure to artificial light, which in animal models is a known cause of depressive phenotypes. Whilst many of these phenotypes are 'direct' effects of light on affect, an 'indirect' pathway via altered sleep-wake timing has been suggested. We have previously shown that the Period3 gene, which forms part of the biological clock, is associated with altered sleep-wake patterns in response to light. Here, we show that both wild-type and Per3(-/-) mice showed elevated levels of circulating corticosterone and increased hippocampal Bdnf expression after 3 weeks of exposure to dim light at night, but only mice deficient for the PERIOD3 protein (Per3(-/-)) exhibited a transient anhedonia-like phenotype, observed as reduced sucrose preference, in weeks 2-3 of dim light at night, whereas WT mice did not...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064405/a-systematic-review-of-circadian-function-chronotype-and-chronotherapy-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#5
REVIEW
Andrew N Coogan, Niall M McGowan
Reports of sleep disturbances in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are common in both children and adults; however, the aetiology of such disturbances is poorly understood. One potentially important mechanism which may be implicated in disrupted sleep in ADHD is the circadian CLOCK, a known key regulator of the sleep/wake cycle. In this systematic review, we analyse the evidence for circadian rhythm changes associated with ADHD, as well as assessing evidence for therapeutic approaches involving the circadian CLOCK in ADHD...
January 7, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063234/hadza-sleep-biology-evidence-for-flexible-sleep-wake-patterns-in-hunter-gatherers
#6
David R Samson, Alyssa N Crittenden, Ibrahim A Mabulla, Audax Z P Mabulla, Charles L Nunn
OBJECTIVES: Cross-cultural sleep research is critical to deciphering whether modern sleep expression is the product of recent selective pressures, or an example of evolutionary mismatch to ancestral sleep ecology. We worked with the Hadza, an equatorial, hunter-gatherer community in Tanzania, to better understand ancestral sleep patterns and to test hypotheses related to sleep segmentation. METHODS: We used actigraphy to analyze sleep-wake patterns in thirty-three volunteers for a total of 393 days...
January 7, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060940/clock-genes-regulate-the-circadian-expression-of-piezo1-trpv4-connexin26-and-vnut-in-an-ex-vivo-mouse-bladder-mucosa
#7
Tatsuya Ihara, Takahiko Mitsui, Yuki Nakamura, Satoru Kira, Hiroshi Nakagomi, Norifumi Sawada, Yuri Hirayama, Keisuke Shibata, Eiji Shigetomi, Yoichi Shinozaki, Mitsuharu Yoshiyama, Karl-Erik Andersson, Atsuhito Nakao, Masayuki Takeda, Schuichi Koizumi
OBJECTIVES: ClockΔ19/Δ19 mice is an experimental model mouse for nocturia (NOC). Using the bladder mucosa obtained from ClockΔ19/Δ19 mice, we investigated the gene expression rhythms of mechanosensory cation channels such as transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4 (TRPV4) and Piezo1, and main ATP release pathways including vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) and Connexin26(Cx26), in addition to clock genes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight- to twelve-week-old male C57BL/6 mice (WT) and age- and sex-matched C57BL/6 ClockΔ19/Δ19 mice, which were bred under 12-h light/dark conditions for 2 weeks, were used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057529/genetic-inhibition-of-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-rescues-cognitive-impairments-in-neurofibromatosis-1-mutant-mice
#8
Joseph B Weiss, Sydney J Weber, Eileen Ruth S Torres, Tessa Marzulla, Jacob Raber
Heterozygous Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) loss of function mutations occur in approximately 90% of patients with neurofibromatosis. A major, disabling phenotypic consequence of reduced NF1 function is cognitive impairment; a possibly related behavioral phenotype is impaired sleep. Recent results in Drosophila have demonstrated a genetic interaction between Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (Alk) and NF1 for both associative learning and sleep. Inhibition of Alk improves associative learning and sleep in heterozygous NF1 mutant flies...
January 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055288/eveningness-as-a-risk-for-behavioral-problems-in-late-adolescence
#9
Ilona Merikanto, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Liisa Kuula, Jari Lahti, Kati Heinonen, Eero Kajantie, Katri Räikkönen
Circadian preference toward eveningness has been associated with increased risk for mental health problems both in early adolescence and in adulthood. However, in late adolescence, when circadian rhythm naturally shifts to later, its significance for mental health is not clear. Accordingly, we studied how circadian rhythm estimated both by self-reported chronotype and by actigraph-defined midpoint of sleep was associated with self-reported psychiatric problems based on Youth Self Report (YSR). The study builds on a community cohort born in 1998, Helsinki, Finland...
January 5, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055282/amerindian-but-not-african-or-european-ancestry-is-significantly-associated-with-diurnal-preference-within-an-admixed-brazilian-population
#10
Kieren J Egan, Hadassa Campos Santos, Felipe Beijamini, Núbia E Duarte, Andréa R V R Horimoto, Tâmara P Taporoski, Homero Vallada, André B Negrão, José E Krieger, Mário Pedrazzoli, Kristen L Knutson, Alexandre C Pereira, Malcolm von Schantz
Significant questions remain unanswered regarding the genetic versus environmental contributions to racial/ethnic differences in sleep and circadian rhythms. We addressed this question by investigating the association between diurnal preference, using the morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ), and genetic ancestry within the Baependi Heart Study cohort, a highly admixed Brazilian population based in a rural town. Analysis was performed using measures of ancestry, using the Admixture program, and MEQ from 1,453 individuals...
January 5, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049647/regulating-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-scn-circadian-clockwork-interplay-between-cell-autonomous-and-circuit-level-mechanisms
#11
REVIEW
Erik D Herzog, Tracey Hermanstyne, Nicola J Smyllie, Michael H Hastings
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the principal circadian clock of the brain, directing daily cycles of behavior and physiology. SCN neurons contain a cell-autonomous transcription-based clockwork but, in turn, circuit-level interactions synchronize the 20,000 or so SCN neurons into a robust and coherent daily timer. Synchronization requires neuropeptide signaling, regulated by a reciprocal interdependence between the molecular clockwork and rhythmic electrical activity, which in turn depends on a daytime Na(+) drive and nighttime K(+) drag...
January 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045699/agenda-for-sleep-research-in-older-adults-with-cancer-a-conference-report
#12
Ellyn E Matthews, Eileen Danaher Hacker, Julie L Otte, Grace E Dean
BACKGROUND: Sleep problems are common but often neglected in older adults, particularly in the context of cancer. Underlying mechanisms are poorly understood and interventions frequently lack a clear scientific basis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this report was to examine scientific content presented at a National Institutes of Health-sponsored U13 "Bedside to Bench" conference using a qualitative and iterative review procedure. Analysis of current scientific issues regarding sleep in older adults with cancer is needed to direct nurse scientists and clinicians toward research opportunities...
December 30, 2016: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043186/oral-propranolol-for-infantile-hemangiomas-a-prospective-study-on-the-role-of-48-hour-holter-monitoring-in-additional-safety-assessment
#13
Jelena Petrovic, Branislav Trifunovic, Goran Vukomanovic, Mirko Topalovic, Goran Trajkovic, Vojislav Parezanović
PURPOSE: Oral propranolol has been recently approved for infantile hemangiomas, but potential side effects stay a challenge. We sought to make an additional assessment on oral propranolol safety for this indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective study included 108 infants consecutively treated for infantile hemangiomas at the University Children's Hospital Tirsova, Belgrade from January 2010 to December 2013. Propranolol was administered orally at a daily dose of 0...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042611/bedtime-and-evening-light-exposure-influence-circadian-timing-in-preschool-age-children-a-field-study
#14
Lameese D Akacem, Kenneth P Wright, Monique K LeBourgeois
Light exposure and sleep timing are two factors that influence inter-individual variability in the timing of the human circadian clock. The aim of this study was to quantify the degree to which evening light exposure predicts variance in circadian timing over and above bedtime alone in preschool children. Participants were 21 children ages 4.5-5.0 years (4.7 ± 0.2 years; 9 females). Children followed their typical sleep schedules for 4 days during which time they wore a wrist actigraph to assess sleep timing and a pendant light meter to measure minute-by-minute illuminance levels in lux...
November 2016: Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041911/disinhibition-of-the-intergeniculate-leaflet-network-in-the-wag-rij-rat-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#15
Lukasz Chrobok, Katarzyna Palus, Jagoda Stanislawa Jeczmien-Lazur, Anna Chrzanowska, Mariusz Kepczynski, Marian Henryk Lewandowski
The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) of the thalamus is a retinorecipient structure implicated in orchestrating circadian rhythmicity. The IGL network is highly GABAergic and consists mainly of neuropeptide Y-synthesising and enkephalinergic neurons. A high density of GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes has been observed in the IGL, with a probable function in guarding neuronal inhibition. Interestingly, putatively enkephalinergic IGL neurons generate action potentials with an infra-slow oscillatory (ISO) pattern in vivo in urethane anesthetised Wistar rats, under light-on conditions only...
December 30, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027860/from-nocturnal-frontal-lobe-epilepsy-to-sleep-related-hypermotor-seizures-a-35-year-diagnostic-challenge
#16
Paolo Tinuper, Francesca Bisulli
Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is a focal epilepsy with seizures arising mainly during sleep and characterized by complex, often bizarre, motor behavior or sustained dystonic posturing. First described in 1981, it was initially considered a motor disorder of sleep and was named nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia (NPD). The unusual seizure semiology, onset during sleep, and often uninformative scalp EEG and brain MRI make it difficult to distinguish NPD attacks from other non-epileptic nocturnal paroxysmal events, namely parasomnias...
December 15, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025809/the-human-orexin-hypocretin-receptor-crystal-structures
#17
Jie Yin, Daniel M Rosenbaum
The human orexin/hypocretin receptors (hOX1R and hOX2R) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate the diverse functions of the orexin/hypocretin neuropeptides. Orexins/hypocretins produced by neurons in the lateral hypothalamus stimulate their cognate GPCRs in multiple regions of the central nervous system to control sleep and arousal, circadian rhythms, metabolism, reward pathways, and other behaviors. Dysfunction of orexin/hypocretin signaling is associated with human disease, and the receptors are active targets in a number of therapeutic areas...
December 27, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017605/an-lhx1-regulated-transcriptional-network-controls-sleep-wake-coupling-and-thermal-resistance-of-the-central-circadian-clockworks
#18
Joseph L Bedont, Tara A LeGates, Ethan Buhr, Abhijith Bathini, Jonathan P Ling, Benjamin Bell, Mark N Wu, Philip C Wong, Russell N Van Gelder, Valerie Mongrain, Samer Hattar, Seth Blackshaw
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the central circadian clock in mammals. It is entrained by light but resistant to temperature shifts that entrain peripheral clocks [1-5]. The SCN expresses many functionally important neuropeptides, including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), which drives light entrainment, synchrony, and amplitude of SCN cellular clocks and organizes circadian behavior [5-16]. The transcription factor LHX1 drives SCN Vip expression, and cellular desynchrony in Lhx1-deficient SCN largely results from Vip loss [17, 18]...
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013579/a-rodent-model-of-night-shift-work-induces-short-term-and-enduring-sleep-and-electroencephalographic-disturbances
#19
Janne Grønli, Peter Meerlo, Torhild T Pedersen, Ståle Pallesen, Silje Skrede, Andrea R Marti, Jonathan P Wisor, Robert Murison, Tone E G Henriksen, Michael J Rempe, Jelena Mrdalj
Millions of people worldwide are working at times that overlap with the normal time for sleep. Sleep problems related to the work schedule may mediate the well-established relationship between shift work and increased risk for disease, occupational errors and accidents. Yet, our understanding of causality and the underlying mechanisms that explain this relationship is limited. We aimed to assess the consequences of night-shift work for sleep and to examine whether night-shift work-induced sleep disturbances may yield electrophysiological markers of impaired maintenance of the waking brain state...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012806/shift-work-and-shift-work-sleep-disorder-clinical-and-organizational-perspectives
#20
REVIEW
Emerson M Wickwire, Jeanne Geiger-Brown, Steven M Scharf, Christopher L Drake
Throughout the industrialized world, nearly one in five employees works some form of non-traditional shift. Such shift work is associated with numerous negative health consequences, ranging from cognitive complaints to cancer, as well as diminished quality of life. Further, a substantial percentage of shift workers develop shift work disorder (SWD), a circadian rhythm sleep disorder characterized by excessive sleepiness, insomnia, or both as a result of shift work. In addition to adverse health consequences and diminished quality of life at the individual level, SWD incurs significant costs to employers through diminished workplace performance and increased accidents and errors...
December 21, 2016: Chest
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