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circadian sleep

Fern Jaspers-Fayer, Sarah Yao Lin, Laura Belschner, Janet Mah, Elaine Chan, Clare Bleakley, Rhonda Ellwyn, Annie Simpson, Katherine McKenney, S Evelyn Stewart
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances, including delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) and disorders of sleep initiation and maintenance (DIMS), have repeatedly been identified in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). These disturbances have not been well-characterized objectively in pediatric OCD. METHODS: Thirty OCD-affected youth (8-18 yrs, 40% male) and 30 age and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs) completed the Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children (SDSC), and one week of continuous actigraphy with concurrent sleep diary documentation...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
William D S Killgore, Haley C Kent, Sara A Knight, Anna Alkozei
Humans demonstrate a circadian rhythm of melatonin production that closely tracks the daily light/dark cycle, with profound increases in circulating levels during the night-time and nearly nonexistent levels during daylight hours. Although melatonin is known to play a role in preparing the brain and body for sleep, its effects on cognition and brain function are not well understood. We hypothesized that declines in morning melatonin would be associated with increased functional activation within cortical regions involved in alertness, attention, and executive function...
March 9, 2018: Neuroreport
Michael M Farag, Nevine S Abd El Malak, Soad A Yehia
The aim of this study was to develop a novel buccal bi-layered chronopatch capable of eliciting pulsatile release pattern of drugs treating diseases with circadian rhythm related manifestation. Zaleplon (ZLP) was used as a model drug intended to induce sleep and to treat middle of night insomnia. The chronopatch was prepared adopting double casting technique. The first layer was composed of a controlled release patch containing ZLP-Precirol melt granules intended to release ZLP in a sustained manner to maintain sleep and to prevent early morning awakening...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Marjolein Schoonakker, Johanna H Meijer, Tom Deboer, Karim Fifel
The Lateral Hypothalamus (LH) is a relatively large hypothalamic structure containing several neurochemically different, but spatially intermingled, neuronal populations. While the role of these neurons in the homeostatic regulation of diverse physiological and behavioural functions such as sleep/wake cycle has been studied extensively, the impact of sleep history on the electrophysiology of the LH and whether this effect is homogenous across LH is unknown. By combining Multi-unit Activity (MUA) recordings in different regions of LH with electroencephalogram recordings in freely moving rats, we unravelled a heterogeneity of neural-activity patterns within different sub-regions of LH...
March 7, 2018: Sleep
Maria Salsone, Basilio Vescio, Andrea Quattrone, Ferdinando Roccia, Miriam Sturniolo, Francesco Bono, Umberto Aguglia, Antonio Gambardella, Aldo Quattrone
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate circadian fluctuations and night/day ratio of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) spectral components in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in comparison with controls. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: This is a simultaneous HRV-polysomnographic (PSG) study including 29 patients with OSA and 18 age-sex-matched controls. Four patients with OSA dropped out. All participants underwent PSG and HRV analysis. We measured the 24-hour fluctuations and the night/day ratio of low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) spectral components of HRV in all subjects and controls...
2018: PloS One
Stephanie J Crowley, Charmane I Eastman
Sleep timing shifts later during adolescence (second decade). This trend reverses at ~20 years and continues to shift earlier into adulthood. The current analysis examined the hypothesis that a longer free-running circadian period during late adolescence (14-17 years) compared with adulthood (30-45 years) accounts for sleep timing differences. Sex and ancestry were also examined because previous reports find that women and those with African-American ancestry have shorter free-running periods. Circadian period was measured using an ultradian dark-light protocol (2 hr dark/sleep, 2 hr dim room light [~20 lux]/wake) over 3...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Leticia Goni, Dianjianyi Sun, Yoriko Heianza, Tiange Wang, Tao Huang, J Alfredo Martínez, Xiaoyun Shang, George A Bray, Steven R Smith, Frank M Sacks, Lu Qi
PURPOSE: A common variant of the melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) gene has been related to increased signaling of melatonin, a hormone previously associated with body fatness mainly through effects on energy metabolism. We examined whether the MTNR1B variant affects changes of body fatness and composition in response to a dietary weight loss intervention. METHODS: The MTNR1B rs10830963 variant was genotyped for 722 overweight and obese individuals, who were randomly assigned to one of four diets varying in macronutrient composition...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Philip Cheng, Gabriel Tallent, Helen J Burgess, Kieulinh Michelle Tran, Thomas Roth, Christopher L Drake
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Recent evidence indicates that daytime sleep disturbance associated with night shift work may arise from both circadian misalignment and sleep reactivity to stress. This presents an important clinical challenge because there are limited means of predicting and distinguishing between the two mechanisms, and the respective treatments differ categorically; however, there is support that a polymorphism in the PERIOD3 gene ( PER3 ) may indicate differences in vulnerability to daytime sleep disturbance in shift workers...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Shelley Hershner, Louise M O'Brien
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sleep deprivation can impair attention, mood, and performance; however, few effective sleep education programs are available. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a sleep education website, Sleep to Stay Awake (, on sleep behaviors of college students. METHODS: College students (age 18 years or older) attending a public Midwestern university were randomized to control or intervention groups. All subjects completed baseline surveys that included demographics, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Patient Health Questionnaire, sleep knowledge, and measures of sleepiness and circadian rhythm...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Philip R Holland, Mads Barloese, Jan Fahrenkrug
The interaction between sleep and primary headaches has gained considerable interest due to their strong, bidirectional, clinical relationship. Several primary headaches demonstrate either a circadian/circannual rhythmicity in attack onset or are directly associated with sleep itself. Migraine and cluster headache both show distinct attack patterns and while the underlying mechanisms of this circadian variation in attack onset remain to be fully explored, recent evidence points to clear physiological, anatomical and genetic points of convergence...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
Saif Mashaqi, Jill Hennessy, Matthew Eaton, Joel Erickson
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare genetic disorder that is characterized by specific facial, skeletal, and behavioral features associated with variable degrees of intellectual disabilities. Sleep disturbances have been reported in patients with CdLS including insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, intrinsic sleep disorders, and circadian rhythm disorders. The prevalence of sleep-related breathing disorders, in particular, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), was conducted using validated questionnaires. We report the first case of CdLS that confirmed a moderate to severe degree of OSA using overnight polysomnography, which is the gold standard diagnostic test for OSA...
December 28, 2017: Curēus
Lameese D Akacem, Kenneth P Wright, Monique K LeBourgeois
Although the light-induced melatonin suppression response is well characterized in adults, studies examining the dynamics of this effect in children are scarce. The purpose of this study was to quantify the magnitude of evening light-induced melatonin suppression in preschool-age children. Healthy children (n = 10; 7 females; 4.3 ± 1.1 years) participated in a 7-day protocol. On days 1-5, children followed a strict sleep schedule. On day 6, children entered a dim light environment (<15 lux) for 1-h before providing salivary samples every 20- to 30-min from the afternoon until 50-min after scheduled bedtime...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Maximilian Gahr, Bernhard J Connemann, René Zeiss, Albrecht Fröhlich
OBJECTIVE:  Psychopharmacotherapy is essential in the treatment of many mental disorders. Adverse drug reactions (ADR) have impact on compliance and tolerability. Sleep disorders or impaired sleep may occur as ADRs of psychopharmacotherapy. Sleep disorders are associated with an increased risk for physical and mental illness and may impair cognition, impulse control, emotion regulation and mood. Objective of the following study was the systematic presentation of type and risk of sleep disorders/impairments of sleep of frequently prescribed psychotropic drugs...
March 2, 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Jie Bi, Amita Sehgal, Julie A Williams, Yu-Feng Wang
Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria present in a wide range of insects. Although their dramatic effects on host reproductive biology have been well studied, the effects of Wolbachia on sleep behavior of insect hosts are not well documented. In this study, we report that Wolbachia infection caused an increase of total sleep time in both male and female Drosophila melanogaster. The increase in sleep was associated with an increase in the number of nighttime sleep bouts or episodes, but not in sleep bout duration...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Silvio Simeone, Gianluca Pucciarelli, Marco Perrone, Teresa Rea, Gianpaolo Gargiulo, Assunta Guillari, Gaetano Castellano, Luigi Di Tommaso, Massimo Niola, Gabriele Iannelli
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To observe the clinical and structural factors that can be associated with the post-operative onset of delirium in patients who have undergone heart surgery. BACKGROUND: Several risk factors could contribute to the development of delirium, such as the use of some sedative drugs and a patient's history with certain types of acute chronic disease. However, in the literature, there is little knowledge about the association between delirium in patients who have undergone cardio-surgical intervention and their clinical and environmental predictors...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Susanna Mantovani, Simon S Smith, Richard Gordon, John D O'Sullivan
Sleep and circadian alterations are amongst the very first symptoms experienced in Parkinson's disease, and sleep alterations are present in the majority of patients with overt clinical manifestation of Parkinson's disease. However, the magnitude of sleep and circadian dysfunction in Parkinson's disease, and its influence on the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease remains often unclear and a matter of debate. In particular, the confounding influences of dopaminergic therapy on sleep and circadian dysfunction are a major challenge, and need to be more carefully addressed in clinical studies...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Hui-Li Yang, Wen-Jie Zhou, Chun-Jie Gu, Yu-Han Meng, Jun Shao, Da-Jin Li, Ming-Qing Li
Melatonin is a neurohormone synthesized from the aromatic amino acid tryptophan mainly by the pineal gland of mammals. Melatonin acts as a broad-spectrum antioxidant, powerful free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory agent, anticarcinogenic factor, sleep inducer and regulator of the circadian rhythm, and potential immunoregulator. Melatonin and reproductive system are interrelated under both physiological and pathological conditions. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune dysregulation are associated with the pathogenesis of the female reproductive system which causes endometriosis (EMS), recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Chiara Tesoriero, Yuan-Zhong Xu, Dieudonné Mumba Ngoyi, Marina Bentivoglio
Trypanosoma brucei ( T. b. ) gambiense is the parasite subspecies responsible for most reported cases of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness. This severe infection leads to characteristic disruption of the sleep-wake cycle, recalling attention on the circadian timing system. Most animal models of the disease have been hitherto based on infection of laboratory rodents with the T. b. brucei subspecies, which is not infectious to humans. In these animal models, functional, rather than structural, alterations of the master circadian pacemaker, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), have been reported...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Jeong Yeon Hwang, Min Soo Byun, Young Min Choe, Jun Ho Lee, Dahyun Yi, Jae-Won Choi, Su Hwan Hwang, Yu Jin Lee, Dong Young Lee
OBJECTIVES: To clarify the relationships between sleep-wake cycle and cerebral β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in cognitively normal (CN) older adults, focusing primarily on the moderating effects of the APOE ε4 allele. METHODS: The present study included 133 CN older adults who participated in the Korean Brain Aging Study for Early Diagnosis & Prediction of Alzheimer's Disease cohort. All participants underwent [11 C] Pittsburgh compound B-PET imaging to quantify Aβ deposition in the brain and blood sampling for APOE genotyping...
February 28, 2018: Neurology
Kelly C Allison, Namni Goel
Timing of eating is recognized as a significant contributor to body weight regulation. Disruption of sleep-wake cycles from a predominantly diurnal (daytime) to a delayed (evening) lifestyle leads to altered circadian rhythms and metabolic dysfunction. This article reviews current evidence for timed and delayed eating in individuals of normal weight and those with overweight or obesity: some findings indicate a benefit of eating earlier in the daytime on weight and/or metabolic outcomes, although the findings have not been uniformly consistent, and more rigorous and longer-duration studies are needed...
February 24, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
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