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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526981/rubisco-mutants-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-display-divergent-photosynthetic-parameters-and-lipid-allocation
#1
M G Esquível, A R Matos, J Marques Silva
Photosynthesis and lipid allocation were investigated in Rubisco small subunit mutants of the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Comparative analyses were undertaken with cells grown photoheterotrophically under sulphur-replete or sulphur-depleted conditions. The Y67A Rubisco mutant, which has previously demonstrated a pronounced reduction in Rubisco levels and higher hydrogen production rates than the wild type, also shows the following divergences in photosynthetic phenotype and lipid allocation: (i) low Fv/Fm (maximum photochemical efficiency), (ii) low effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII), (iii) low effectiveness at protection against high light intensities, (iv) a higher level of total lipids per pigment and (v) changes in the relative proportions of different fatty acids, with a marked decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (FAs)...
May 19, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521238/transcriptomic-approach-for-assessment-of-the-impact-on-microalga-and-macrophyte-of-in-situ-exposure-in-river-sites-contaminated-by-chlor-alkali-plant-effluents
#2
Perrine Dranguet, Claudia Cosio, Séverine Le Faucheur, Rebecca Beauvais-Flück, Aline Freiburghaus, Isabelle A M Worms, Brice Petit, Natacha Civic, Mylène Docquier, Vera I Slaveykova
Water quality degradation is a worldwide problem, but risk evaluation of chronic pollution in-situ is still a challenge. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential of transcriptomic analyses in representative aquatic primary producers to assess the impact of environmental pollution in-situ: the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the macrophyte Elodea nuttallii were exposed 2 h in the Babeni Reservoir of the Olt River impacted by chlor-alkali plant effluent release resulting in increased concentrations of Hg and NaCl in receiving water...
May 11, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520898/pyrenoid-loss-impairs-carbon-concentrating-mechanism-induction-and-alters-primary-metabolism-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#3
Madeline C Mitchell, Gergana Metodieva, Metodi V Metodiev, Howard Griffiths, Moritz T Meyer
Carbon-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) enable efficient photosynthesis and growth in CO2-limiting environments, and in eukaryotic microalgae localisation of Rubisco to a microcompartment called the pyrenoid is key. In the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Rubisco preferentially relocalises to the pyrenoid during CCM induction and pyrenoid-less mutants lack a functioning CCM and grow very poorly at low CO2. The aim of this study was to investigate the CO2 response of pyrenoid-positive (pyr+) and pyrenoid-negative (pyr-) mutant strains to determine the effect of pyrenoid absence on CCM induction and gene expression...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515773/building-a-multipurpose-insertional-mutant-library-for-forward-and-reverse-genetics-in-chlamydomonas
#4
Xi Cheng, Gai Liu, Wenting Ke, Lijuan Zhao, Bo Lv, Xiaocui Ma, Nannan Xu, Xiaoling Xia, Xuan Deng, Chunlei Zheng, Kaiyao Huang
BACKGROUND: The unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a classic model for studying flagella and biofuel. However, precise gene editing, such as Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein (Cas9) system, is not widely used in this organism. Screening of random insertional mutant libraries by polymerase chain reaction provides an alternate strategy to obtain null mutants of individual gene. But building, screening, and maintaining such a library was time-consuming and expensive...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513721/programmable-micrometer-sized-motor-array-based-on-live-cells
#5
Shuangxi Xie, Xiaodong Wang, Niandong Jiao, Steve Tung, Lianqing Liu
Trapping and transporting microorganisms with intrinsic motility are important tasks for biological, physical, and biomedical applications. However, fast swimming speed makes the manipulation of these organisms an inherently challenging task. In this study, we demonstrated that an optoelectrical technique, namely, optically induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP), could effectively trap and manipulate Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C. reinhardtii) cells swimming at velocities faster than 100 μm s(-1). Furthermore, live C...
May 17, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511672/crmapk3-regulates-the-expression-of-iron-deficiency-responsive-genes-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#6
Xiaowen Fei, Junmei Yu, Yajun Li, Xiaodong Deng
BACKGROUND: Under iron-deficient conditions, Chlamydomonas exhibits high affinity for iron absorption. Nevertheless, the response, transmission, and regulation of downstream gene expression in algae cells have not to be investigated. Considering that the MAPK pathway is essential for abiotic stress responses, we determined whether this pathway is involved in iron deficiency signal transduction in Chlamydomonas. RESULTS: Arabidopsis MAPK gene sequences were used as entry data to search for homologous genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome database to investigate the functions of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) gene family in C...
May 16, 2017: BMC Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501380/crispri-mediated-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase-regulation-to-enhance-the-production-of-lipid-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#7
Pei-Hsun Kao, I-Son Ng
In this study, CRISPRi (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats interference) was used for the first time to regulate expression of exogenously supplied rfp gene as a proof-of-concept, and endogenous PEPC1 gene as a proof-of-function in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The efficiency of 94% and stability of 7 generations via CRISPRi mediated gene regulation in C. reinhardtii have been demonstrated by RFP. Gene PEPC1 encoding proteins are essential for controlling the carbon flux that enters the TCA cycle and plays a crucial role in carbon partitioning of substrates in competition with lipid synthesis...
May 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500755/enhanced-fib-sem-systems-for-large-volume-3d-imaging
#8
C Shan Xu, Kenneth J Hayworth, Zhiyuan Lu, Patricia Grob, Ahmed M Hassan, José G García-Cerdán, Krishna K Niyogi, Eva Nogales, Richard J Weinberg, Harald F Hess
Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM) can automatically generate 3D images with superior z-axis resolution, yielding data that needs minimal image registration and related post-processing. Obstacles blocking wider adoption of FIB-SEM include slow imaging speed and lack of long-term system stability, which caps the maximum possible acquisition volume. Here we present techniques that accelerate image acquisition while greatly improving FIB-SEM reliability, allowing the system to operate for months and generating continuously imaged volumes > 10(6) µm(3)...
May 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500697/light-induced-conformational-changes-in-the-plant-cryptochrome-photolyase-homology-region-resolved-by-selective-isotope-labeling-and-infrared-spectroscopy
#9
Constanze Sommer, Marina S Dietz, Thomas Patschkowski, Tilo Mathes, Tilman Kottke
Plant cryptochromes are photoreceptors that regulate flowering, circadian rhythm and photomorphogenesis in response to blue and UV-A light. It has been demonstrated that the oxidized flavin cofactor is photoreduced to the neutral radical state via separate electron and proton transfer. Conformational changes have been found in the C-terminal extension, but few studies have addressed the changes in secondary structure in the sensory photolyase homology region (PHR). Here, we investigated the PHR of the plant cryptochrome from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by light-induced infrared difference spectroscopy in combination with global (13) C and (15) N isotope labeling...
May 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500267/impaired-mitochondrial-transcription-termination-disrupts-the-stromal-redox-poise-in-chlamydomonas
#10
Andreas Uhmeyer, Matteo Ballottari, Michela Cecchin, Lutz Wobbe
In photosynthetic eukaryotes, the metabolite exchange between chloroplast and mitochondria ensures efficient photosynthesis under saturating light conditions. The C. reinhardtii mutant stm6 is devoid of the mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) MOC1 and aberrantly expresses the mitochondrial genome, resulting in enhanced photosynthetic hydrogen production and diminished light tolerance. We analyzed the modulation of mitochondrial and chlororespiration during the acclimation of stm6 and the MOC1-complemented strain to excess light...
May 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495749/holliday-junction-resolvases-mediate-chloroplast-nucleoid-segregation
#11
Yusuke Kobayashi, Osami Misumi, Masaki Odahara, Kota Ishibashi, Masafumi Hirono, Kumi Hidaka, Masayuki Endo, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Hiroshi Iwasaki, Tsuneyoshi Kuroiwa, Toshiharu Shikanai, Yoshiki Nishimura
Holliday junctions, four-stranded DNA structures formed during homologous recombination, are disentangled by resolvases that have been found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes but not in plant organelles. Here, we identify monokaryotic chloroplast 1 (MOC1) as a Holliday junction resolvase in chloroplasts by analyzing a green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant defective in chloroplast nucleoid (DNA-protein complex) segregation. MOC1 is structurally similar to a bacterial Holliday junction resolvase, resistance to ultraviolet (Ruv) C, and genetically conserved among green plants...
May 12, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494467/expression-and-characterization-of-functional-recombinant-bet-v-1-0101-in-the-chloroplast-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#12
Sonja Hirschl, Claudia Ralser, Claudia Asam, Alessandro Gangitano, Sara Huber, Christof Ebner, Barbara Bohle, Martin Wolf, Peter Briza, Fatima Ferreira, Christoph Griesbeck, Michael Wallner
BACKGROUND: Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) still plays a minor role in the treatment of allergic diseases. To improve the acceptance of AIT by allergic patients, the treatment has to become more convenient and efficacious. One possibility is the oral application of allergens or derivatives thereof. Therefore, we sought to produce a recombinant allergen in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a novel production platform. METHODS: The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 was selected as candidate molecule, and a codon-optimized gene was synthesized and stably integrated into the microalga C...
May 12, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487716/evolutionary-analysis-of-della-associated-transcriptional-networks
#13
Asier Briones-Moreno, Jorge Hernández-García, Carlos Vargas-Chávez, Francisco J Romero-Campero, José M Romero, Federico Valverde, Miguel A Blázquez
DELLA proteins are transcriptional regulators present in all land plants which have been shown to modulate the activity of over 100 transcription factors in Arabidopsis, involved in multiple physiological and developmental processes. It has been proposed that DELLAs transduce environmental information to pre-wired transcriptional circuits because their stability is regulated by gibberellins (GAs), whose homeostasis largely depends on environmental signals. The ability of GAs to promote DELLA degradation coincides with the origin of vascular plants, but the presence of DELLAs in other land plants poses at least two questions: what regulatory properties have DELLAs provided to the behavior of transcriptional networks in land plants, and how has the recruitment of DELLAs by GA signaling affected this regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487478/flavodiiron-proteins-promote-fast-and-transient-o2-photoreduction-in-chlamydomonas
#14
Frederic Chaux, Adrien Burlacot, Malika Mekhalfi, Pascaline Auroy, Stéphanie Blangy, Pierre Richaud, Gilles Peltier
During oxygenic photosynthesis, the reducing power generated by light energy conversion is mainly used to reduce carbon dioxide. In bacteria and archae, flavodiiron (Flv) proteins catalyze O2 or NO reduction, thus protecting cells against oxidative or nitrosative stress. These proteins are found in cyanobacteria, mosses and microalgae, but have been lost in angiosperms. Here, we used chlorophyll fluorescence and oxygen exchange measurement using [18O]-labeled O2 and a Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometer (MIMS) to characterize Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flvB insertion mutants devoid of both FlvB and FlvA proteins...
May 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487379/1-n-histidine-phosphorylation-of-chld-by-the-aaa-chli2-stimulates-magnesium-chelatase-activity-in-chlorophyll-synthesis
#15
Artur Sawicki, Shuaixiang Zhou, Kathrin Kwiatkowski, Meizhong Luo, Robert D Willows
Magnesium chelatase inserts magnesium into protoporphyrin during the biosynthesis of chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll. Enzyme activity is reconstituted by forming two separate pre-activated complexes consisting of a GUN4/ChlH/protoporphyrin IX substrate complex and a ChlI/ChlD enzyme "motor" complex . Formation of the ChlI/ChlD complex in both Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Oryza sativa is accompanied by phosphorylation of ChlD by ChlI, but the orthologous protein complex from R. capsulatus, BchI/BchD, gives no detectable phosphorylation of BchD...
May 9, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485428/exploring-micropollutant-biotransformation-in-three-freshwater-phytoplankton-species
#16
Michael A Stravs, Francesco Pomati, Juliane Hollender
Phytoplankton constitute an important component of surface water ecosystems; however little is known about their contribution to biotransformation of organic micropollutants. To elucidate biotransformation processes, batch experiments with two cyanobacterial species (Microcystis aeruginosa and Synechococcus sp.) and one green algal species (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) were conducted. Twenty-four micropollutants were studied, including 15 fungicides and 9 pharmaceuticals. Online solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with liquid chromatography (LC)-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HRMS/MS) was used together with suspect and nontarget screening to identify transformation products (TPs)...
May 9, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485218/effects-of-alginate-oligomer-on-the-expression-of-cell-cycle-and-stress-related-genes-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#17
Mikinori Ueno, Tomoki Nishiguchi, Satoshi Takeshita, Kenichi Yamaguchi, Tatsuya Oda
Enzymatically prepared alginate oligomer (AO) promoted the growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in a concentration-dependent manner. AO at 2.5 mg/mL induced increase in expression levels of cyclin A, cyclin B, and cyclin D in C. reinhardtii. CuSO4 at 100 μM suppressed the growth of C. reinhardtiin, and AO at 2.5 mg/mL significantly alleviated the toxicity of CuSO4. Increased intracellular reactive oxygen species level in C. reinhardtii induced by CuSO4 was reduced by AO. After cultivation with CuSO4 at 100 μM, expression levels of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in C...
June 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483522/characterization-of-phosphoethanolamine-n-methyltransferases-in-green-algae
#18
Takashi Hirashima, Masakazu Toyoshima, Takashi Moriyama, Yuki Nakamura, Naoki Sato
Phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) is a common and abundant phospholipid in most eukaryotic organisms. Although it has been known that the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii lacks PtdCho, we recently detected PtdCho in four Chlamydomonas species. Homology search of draft genomic sequences of the four PtdCho-containing algae suggested existence of phosphoethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEAMT) in C. applanata and C. asymmetrica, which is the key enzyme in PtdCho biosynthesis in land plants. Here we analyzed the putative genes encoding PEAMT in C...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483385/acclimation-to-nacl-and-light-stress-of-heterotrophic-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-for-lipid-accumulation
#19
Jianhua Fan, Lvhong Zheng
Salt stress has been proven very effective in enhancing the lipid content among many photoautotrophically grown microalgae species including marine and freshwater algae. Nevertheless, its effect on heterotrophic grown cells and lipid accumulation is scarcely known. This study sought to demonstrate a new train of thought for cost-effective biofuels production by heterotrophic culture of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii coupling with subsequent salt and light stress. NaCl treatments (25-200 mM) gradually suppressed the cell growth...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476887/filaments-and-fingers-novel-structural-aspects-of-the-single-septin-from-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#20
Andressa P A Pinto, Humberto M Pereira, Ana E Zeraik, Heloisa Ciol, Frederico M Ferreira, José Brandão-Neto, Ricardo DeMarco, Marcos V A S Navarro, Cristina Risi, Vitold E Galkin, Richard C Garratt, Ana P U Araujo
Septins are filament-forming GTP-binding proteins involved in many essential cellular events related to cytoskeletal dynamics and maintenance. Septins can self-assemble into hetero-complexes, which polymerize into highly organized, cell membrane-interacting filaments. The number of septin genes varies among organisms, and although their structure and function have been thoroughly studied in opisthokonts (including animals and fungi), no structural studies have been reported for other organisms. This makes the single septin from Chlamydomonas (CrSEPT) a particularly attractive model for investigating whether functional homopolymeric septin filaments also exist...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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