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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330556/evolution-of-the-phosphatidylcholine-biosynthesis-pathways-in-green-algae-combinatorial-diversity-of-methyltransferases
#1
Takashi Hirashima, Masakazu Toyoshima, Takashi Moriyama, Naoki Sato
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is one of the most common phospholipids in eukaryotes, although some green algae such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are known to lack PC. Recently, we detected PC in four species in the genus Chlamydomonas: C. applanata NIES-2202, C. asymmetrica NIES-2207, C. debaryana NIES-2212, and C. sphaeroides NIES-2242. To reveal the PC biosynthesis pathways in green algae and the evolutionary scenario involved in their diversity, we analyzed the PC biosynthesis genes in these four algae using draft genome sequences...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329271/transketolase-is-identified-as-a-target-of-herbicidal-substance-%C3%AE-terthienyl-by-proteomics
#2
Bin Zhao, Jingqian Huo, Ning Liu, Jinlin Zhang, Jingao Dong
α-terthienyl is a natural phytotoxin isolated originally from Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze. The bioassay presented here shows the strong herbicidal activity of α-terthienyl on Digitaria sanguinalis, Arabidopsis thaliana and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The α-terthienyl-induced response of A. thaliana at the protein level was analyzed at different times. Changes in the protein expression profiles were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) mass spectrometry...
January 12, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327221/whole-cell-solid-state-nmr-study-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-microalgae
#3
Alexandre A Arnold, Jean-Philippe Bourgouin, Bertrand Genard, Dror E Warschawski, Réjean Tremblay, Isabelle Marcotte
In vivo or whole-cell solid-state NMR is an emerging field which faces tremendous challenges. In most cases, cell biochemistry does not allow the labelling of specific molecules and an in vivo study is thus hindered by the inherent difficulty of identifying, among a formidable number of resonances, those arising from a given molecule. In this work we examined the possibility of studying, by solid-state NMR, the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii fully and non-specifically 13C labelled. The extension of NMR-based dynamic filtering from one-dimensional to two-dimensional experiments enabled an enhanced selectivity which facilitated the assignment of cell constituents...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327073/azospirillum-brasilense-increases-co2-fixation-on-microalgae-scenedesmus-obliquus-chlorella-vulgaris-and-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-cultured-on-high-co2-concentrations
#4
Francisco J Choix, Cecilia Guadalupe López-Cisneros, Hugo Oscar Méndez-Acosta
Mutualism interactions of microalgae with other microorganisms are widely used in several biotechnological processes since symbiotic interaction improves biotechnological capabilities of the microorganisms involved. The interaction of the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense was assessed with three microalgae genus, Scenedesmus, Chlorella, and Chlamydomonas, during CO2 fixation under high CO2 concentrations. The results in this study have demonstrated that A. brasilense maintained a mutualistic interaction with the three microalgae assessed, supported by the metabolic exchange of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and tryptophan (Trp), respectively...
January 11, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321604/trophic-transfer-and-individual-impact-of-nano-sized-polystyrene-in-a-four-species-freshwater-food-chain
#5
Yooeun Chae, Dokyung Kim, Shin Woong Kim, Youn-Joo An
This study investigated the trophic transfer, individual impact, and embryonic uptake of fluorescent nano-sized polystyrene plastics (nanoplastics) through direct exposure in a freshwater ecosystem, with a food chain containing four species. The alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, water flea Daphnia magna, secondary-consumer fish Oryzias sinensis, and end-consumer fish Zacco temminckii were used as test species. In the trophic transfer test, algae were exposed to 50 mg/L nanoplastics, defined as plastic particles <100 nm in diameter; higher trophic level organisms were exposed through their diet...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321492/quantification-of-silver-nanoparticle-toxicity-to-algae-in-soil-via-photosynthetic-and-flow-cytometric-analyses
#6
Sun-Hwa Nam, Jin Il Kwak, Youn-Joo An
Soil algae, which have received attention for their use in a novel bioassay to evaluate soil toxicity, expand the range of terrestrial test species. However, there is no information regarding the toxicity of nanomaterials to soil algae. Thus, we evaluated the effects of silver nanoparticles (0-50 mg AgNPs/kg dry weight soil) on the soil alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii after six days, and assessed changes in biomass, photosynthetic activity, cellular morphology, membrane permeability, esterase activity, and oxidative stress...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321297/gradual-plasticity-alters-population-dynamics-in-variable-environments-thermal-acclimation-in-the-green-alga-chlamydomonas-reinhartdii
#7
Colin T Kremer, Samuel B Fey, Aldo A Arellano, David A Vasseur
Environmental variability is ubiquitous, but its effects on populations are not fully understood or predictable. Recent attention has focused on how rapid evolution can impact ecological dynamics via adaptive trait change. However, the impact of trait change arising from plastic responses has received less attention, and is often assumed to optimize performance and unfold on a separate, faster timescale than ecological dynamics. Challenging these assumptions, we propose that gradual plasticity is important for ecological dynamics, and present a study of the plastic responses of the freshwater green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as it acclimates to temperature changes...
January 10, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320457/evaluating-the-joint-toxicity-of-two-benzophenone-type-uv-filters-on-the-green-alga-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-with-response-surface-methodology
#8
Feijian Mao, Yiliang He, Karina Yew-Hoong Gin
The widespread occurrence of benzophenone-type ultraviolet (UV) filter has raised the public concerns over the ecotoxicological effects of these chemicals. The present study assessed the joint toxicity of two representative benzophenones, benzophenone-1 (BP-1) and benzophenone-3 (BP-3), on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using response surface methodologies (RSM). Specific growth rate and photosynthetic pigments were used as endpoints to evaluate the toxic effects. Generally, exposure to the combined BP-1 and BP-3 negatively affected cell growth and pigments production, with higher inhibitions at higher exposure concentrations...
January 10, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303960/lhcsr-expression-under-hsp70-rbcs2-promoter-as-a-strategy-to-increase-productivity-in-microalgae
#9
Federico Perozeni, Giulio Rocco Stella, Matteo Ballottari
Microalgae are unicellular photosynthetic organisms considered as potential alternative sources for biomass, biofuels or high value products. However, limited biomass productivity is commonly experienced in their cultivating system despite their high potential. One of the reasons for this limitation is the high thermal dissipation of the light absorbed by the outer layers of the cultures exposed to high light caused by the activation of a photoprotective mechanism called non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). In the model organism for green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, NPQ is triggered by pigment binding proteins called light-harvesting-complexes-stress-related (LHCSRs), which are over-accumulated in high light...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303016/a-toxicological-evaluation-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-a-green-algae
#10
Timothy S Murbach, Róbert Glávits, John R Endres, Gábor Hirka, Adél Vértesi, Erzsébet Béres, Ilona Pasics Szakonyiné
There is a current worldwide interest in developing novel sustainable nonanimal nutritional sources, and one such source is the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the only green algae that has been studied as a model organism for many biological processes ranging from photosynthesis to flagellar movement. However, its potential as a safe nutritional source for use in various foods has not been thoroughly investigated. To assess the safety of C reinhardtii for use as a nutritional human food ingredient, in accordance with internationally accepted standards, the genotoxic potential and repeated-dose oral toxicity of the dried C reinhardtii (THN 6) algal biomass was investigated...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300952/deletion-of-the-chloroplast-ltd-protein-impedes-lhci-import-and-psi-lhci-assembly-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#11
Jooyeon Jeong, Kwangryul Baek, Jihyeon Yu, Henning Kirst, Nico Betterle, Woongghi Shin, Sangsu Bae, Anastasios Melis, EonSeon Jin
Nuclear-encoded light-harvesting chlorophyll- and carotenoid-binding proteins (LHCPs) are imported into the chloroplast and transported across the stroma to thylakoid membrane assembly sites by the chloroplast signal recognition particle (CpSRP) pathway. The LHCP translocation defect (LTD) protein is essential for the delivery of imported LHCPs to the CpSRP pathway in Arabidopsis. However, the function of the LTD protein in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has not been investigated. Here, we generated a C. reinhardtii ltd (Crltd) knockout mutant by using CRISPR-Cas9, a new target-specific knockout technology...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299622/a-novel-galactolipase-from-a-green-microalga-chlorella-kessleri-purification-characterization-molecular-cloning-and-heterologous-expression
#12
Shuhei Hashiro, Koyu Fujiuchi, Daisuke Sugimori, Hisashi Yasueda
We have identified an enzyme, galactolipase (ckGL), which hydrolyzes the acyl ester bond of galactolipids such as digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), in the microalga Chlorella kessleri. Following purification of the enzyme to electrophoretic homogeneity from cell-free extract, the maximum activity toward DGDG was observed at pH 6.5 and 37 °C. ckGL was Ca2+-dependent enzyme and displayed an apparent molecular mass of approx. 53 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The substrate specificity was in the order: DGDG (100%) > monogalactosyldiacylglycerol ≈ phosphatidylglycerol (~ 40%) > sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (~ 20%); the enzyme exhibited almost no activity toward glycerides and other phospholipids...
January 3, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297850/the-algal-chloroplast-as-a-synthetic-biology-platform-for-production-of-therapeutic-proteins
#13
Yuliya M Dyo, Saul Purton
The chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and other microalgae represents an attractive new platform for the synthesis of recombinant therapeutics using synthetic biology (synbio) approaches. Transgenes can be designed in silico, assembled from validated DNA parts and inserted at precise and predetermined locations within the chloroplast genome to give stable synthesis of a desired recombinant protein. Numerous recent examples of different therapeutic proteins produced successfully in the C. reinhardtii chloroplast highlight the potential of this green alga as a simple, low-cost and benign host...
January 3, 2018: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291532/algal-bacterial-cooperation-improves-algal-photolysis-mediated-hydrogen-production
#14
Shidong Ban, Weitie Lin, Fangyan Wu, Jianfei Luo
In this study, bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain D was proved to be the main partner assisting Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in improving photolysis-mediated H2 production and a good partner for promoting H2 production by the green algae Chlorella and Scenedesmus. In strain D partnered algal-bacterial co-culture, the relative O2 content in the headspace plus the dissolved oxygen in the culture medium were rapidly consumed by bacterial growth, resulting in a completely anaerobic environment that proved suitable for the activation of algal hydrogenase...
December 26, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288234/recovery-from-n-deprivation-is-a-transcriptionally-and-functionally-distinct-state-in-chlamydomonas
#15
Chia-Hong Tsai, Sahra Uygun, Rebecca Roston, Shin-Han Shiu, Christoph Benning
Facing adverse conditions such as nitrogen (N) deprivation, microalgae enter cellular quiescence, a reversible cell cycle arrest with drastic changes in metabolism allowing cells to remain viable. Recovering from N deprivation and quiescence is an active and orderly process as we are showing here for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We conducted comparative transcriptomics on this alga to discern processes relevant to quiescence in the context of N deprivation and recovery following refeeding. A mutant with slow recovery from N deprivation, compromised hydrolysis of triacylglycerols 7 (cht7), was included to better define the regulatory processes governing the respective transitions...
December 29, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288232/n-glycoproteomic-characterization-of-mannosidase-and-xylotransferase-mutant-strains-of-chlamydomonas
#16
Stefan Schulze, Anne Oltmanns, Nick Machnik, Gai Liu, Nannan Xu, Niklas Jarmatz, Martin Scholz, Kazuhiko Sugimoto, Christian Fufezan, Kaiyao Huang, Michael Hippler
At present, only little is known about the enzymatic machinery required for N-glycosylation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, leading to the formation of N-glycans harboring xylose (Xyl) and methylated mannose. This machinery possesses new enzymatic features, as C. reinhardtii N-glycans are independent of β1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GnTI). Here we have performed comparative N-glycoproteomic analyses of insertional mutants of mannosidase 1A (IMMan1A) and xylosyltransferase 1A (IMXylT1A). The disruption of man1A affected methylation of mannoses and the addition of terminal Xyl...
December 29, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284743/mitochondria-affects-photosynthetic-electron-transport-and-photo-sensitivity-in-a-green-alga
#17
Veronique Larosa, Andrea Meneghesso, Nicoletta La Rocca, Janina Steinbeck, Michael Hippler, Ildiko Szabo, Tomas Morosinotto
Photosynthetic organisms use sunlight as the primary source of energy to support their metabolism. In eukaryotes reactions responsible of the conversion of light into chemical energy occur in specific organelles, the chloroplasts. In this study we showed that mitochondria also have a seminal influence on cells' energy metabolism and on photosynthetic reactions. This is illustrated by the observation that the strong photosensitivity of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells depleted of the chloroplast protein PGRL1 was rescued by the introduction of a mitochondrial mutation affecting respiratory complex I...
December 28, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258965/tailored-carbon-partitioning-for-phototrophic-production-of-e-%C3%AE-bisabolene-from-the-green-microalga-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#18
Julian Wichmann, Thomas Baier, Eduard Wentnagel, Kyle J Lauersen, Olaf Kruse
Photosynthetic microbial hosts such as cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae have recently emerged as alternative engineering platforms for the sustainable light-driven bio-production of terpenoids. Many desirable compounds with numerous applications can be produced in microorganisms by heterologous expression of terpene synthases. However, success of green microbial systems has been hampered by issues such as insufficient enzyme expression titers and low flux to desired terpenoid products from carbon fixed during photosynthesis...
December 16, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244187/polycytidylation-of-mitochondrial-mrnas-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#19
Thalia Salinas-Giegé, Marina Cavaiuolo, Valérie Cognat, Elodie Ubrig, Claire Remacle, Anne-Marie Duchêne, Olivier Vallon, Laurence Maréchal-Drouard
The unicellular photosynthetic organism, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, represents a powerful model to study mitochondrial gene expression. Here, we show that the 5'- and 3'-extremities of the eight Chlamydomonas mitochondrial mRNAs present two unusual characteristics. First, all mRNAs start primarily at the AUG initiation codon of the coding sequence which is often marked by a cluster of small RNAs. Second, unusual tails are added post-transcriptionally at the 3'-extremity of all mRNAs. The nucleotide composition of the tails is distinct from that described in any other systems and can be partitioned between A/U-rich tails, predominantly composed of Adenosine and Uridine, and C-rich tails composed mostly of Cytidine...
December 15, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240949/nitric-oxide-production-in-plants-an-update
#20
Jeremy Astier, Inonge Gross, Jörg Durner
Nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule in plant physiology. However, its production in photosynthetic organisms remains partially unresolved. The best characterized NO production route involves the reduction of nitrite to NO via different non-enzymatic or enzymatic mechanisms. Nitrate reductases (NRs), the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and the new complex between NR and NOFNiR (nitric oxide-forming nitrite reductase) described in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are the main enzymatic systems that perform this reductive NO production in plants...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
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