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lead poisoning

Simba Tirima, Casey Bartrem, Ian von Lindern, Margrit von Braun, Douglas Lind, Shehu Mohamed Anka, Aishat Abdullahi
In 2010, an estimated 400 to 500 children died of acute lead poisoning associated with artisanal gold mining in Zamfara, Nigeria. Processing of gold ores containing up to 10% lead within residential compounds put residents, especially children, at the highest risk. Principal routes of exposure were incidental ingestion and inhalation of contaminated soil and dusts. Several Nigerian and international health organizations collaborated to reduce lead exposures through environmental remediation and medical treatment...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Michael Kuniavsky, Yair Bechor, Marina Leitman, Shai Efrati
The effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen treatment for acute cardiac diseases is unknown. Similarly, the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen treatment for carbon monoxide intoxication is also unknown, particularly for cases in which carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels return to normal. Our case study revolved around a healthy twenty-year-old male patient, who suffered from carbon monoxide intoxication. The patient presented to the Emergency Department unconscious. Blood workup revealed significant carbon monoxide intoxication and cardiac injury (COHb = 41%, troponin T = 0...
May 9, 2018: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
Michael O Thorner
Ergotism is the long term ergot poisoning by ingestion of rye or other grains infected with the fungus Claviceps purpurea and more recently by excessive intake of ergot drugs. It has either neuropsychiatric or vascular manifestations. In the Middle Ages the gangrenous poisoning was known as St Anthony's fire, after the order of the Monks of St Anthony who were particularly skilled at treating the condition. In 1917, Professor Arthur Stoll returned home to Switzerland from Germany, to lead the development of a new pharmaceutical department at Sandoz Chemical Company...
May 11, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Pablo Ariel Martinez, Mayane Alves Andrade, Claudio Juan Bidau
The temporal pattern of co-occurrence of human beings and venomous species (scorpions, spiders, snakes) is changing. Thus, the temporal pattern of areas with risk of accidents with such species tends to become dynamic in time. We analyze the areas of occurrence of species of Tityus in Argentina and assess the impact of global climate change on their area of distribution by the construction of risk maps. Using data of occurrence of the species and climatic variables, we constructed models of species distribution (SMDs) under current and future climatic conditions...
June 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Janka Vašková, Klára Krempaská, Daniel Žatko, Pavol Mudroň, Gabriela Glinská, Ladislav Vaško
Chronic exposure to lead causes disruption to energy production mechanisms and tissue damage, in particular through its binding to thiol groups and competition for zinc binding sites. We investigated the possibility of preventing the consequences of chronic lead poisoning by administration of three different doses of humic acids (HAs) into feed with the aim of establishing an effective HA dose. During the 10-week experiment, a sub-lethal dose of lead acetate was given to rats during the first 5 weeks, with continuous administration of HA over 10 weeks...
May 10, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Jung Lee, Nai-Chia Fan, Tsung-Chieh Yao, Shao-Hsuan Hsia, En-Pei Lee, Jing-Long Huang, Han-Ping Wu
BACKGROUND: Pediatric poisoning is a common emergency worldwide. Routine surveillance is required for public health authorities and physicians to update strategies for prevention and management of pediatric poisoning. This study investigated the epidemiology of poisoning among children admitted to an emergency department (ED). METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study. Data were collected from patients under 18 years old (y/o) presenting with poisoning at the largest ED in North Taiwan from 2011 to 2015...
April 19, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Christian Reuss Mikkelsen, Jakob Ross Jornil, Ljubica Vukelic Andersen, Jørgen Bo Hasselstrøm, Sebastian Polak
Methadone-related poisoning has been found to be the leading and increasing cause of death among intoxication cases in several countries. Aside from respiratory depression, methadone is known to cause QT-prolongation, which may lead to sudden cardiac death. Concentrations in heart tissue should be more accurate for estimating cardiotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the effect of methadone on the QT-interval could be simulated and whether the concentrations in heart tissues allowed for better prediction of the Bazett corrected QT-interval (QTcB)...
May 11, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Elizabeth G Gibson, Tim R Blower, Monica Cacho, Ben David Bax, James M Berger, Neil Osheroff
Tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity worldwide and the incidences of drug resistance and intolerance are prevalent. Thus, there is a desperate need for the development of new anti-tubercular drugs. Mycobacterium tuberculosis gyrase inhibitors (MGIs) are napthyridone/aminopiperidine-based drugs that display activity against M. tuberculosis cells and tuberculosis in mouse models [Blanco, D., et al. (2015) Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 59, 1868-1875]. Genetic and mutagenesis studies suggest that gyrase, which is the target for fluoroquinolone antibacterials, is also the target for MGIs...
May 10, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Xia Wu, Seok Joon Kwon, Domyoung Kim, Jian Zha, Mauricio Mora-Pale, Jonathan S Dordick
Lysostaphin (Lst) is a potent bacteriolytic enzyme that kills Staphylococcus aureus , a common bacterial pathogen of humans and animals. With high activity against both planktonic cells and biofilms, Lst has the potential to be used in industrial products, such as commercial cleansers, for decontamination. However, Lst is inhibited in the presence of monoethanolamine (MEA), a chemical widely used in cleaning solutions and pharmaceuticals, and the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we examined the cell binding and killing capabilities of Lst against S...
May 4, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Borany Tort, Youn-Hee Choi, Eun-Kyong Kim, Yun-Sook Jung, Mina Ha, Keun-Bae Song, Young-Eun Lee
BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported the harmful effects of lead poisoning. However, the relationship between lead exposure and oral health of children has not been well defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between blood lead level (BLL) and oral health status of children. METHODS: A total of 351 children (aged 7-15 years) were recruited from the pilot data of the Korean Environmental Health Survey in Children and Adolescents, which was designed to examine environmental exposure and children's health status in South Korea...
May 4, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Corey H Basch, Ashley M Jackson, Jingjing Yin, Rodney N Hammond, Atin Adhikari, Isaac Chun-Hai Fung
Exposure to lead is detrimental to children's development. YouTube is a form of social media through which people may learn about lead poisoning. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the variation in lead poisoning-related YouTube contents between different video sources. The 100 most viewed lead poisoning-related videos were manually coded, among which, 50 were consumer-generated, 19 were created by health care professionals, and 31 were news. The 100 videos had a total of more than 8.9 million views, with news videos accounting for 63% of those views...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
A Naga Babu, D Srinivasa Reddy, G Suresh Kumar, K Ravindhranath, G V Krishna Mohan
Water pollution by industrial and anthropogenic actives has become a serious threat to the environment. World Health Organization (WHO) has identified that lead and fluoride amid the environmental pollutants are most poisonous water contaminants with devastating impact on the human race. The present work proposes a study on economical bio-adsorbent based technique using exhausted coffee grounds in the removal of lead and fluoride contaminants from water. The exhausted coffee grounds gathered from industrial wastes have been acid-activated and examined for their adsorption capacity...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
He Huang, Yang An, Wanying Jiao, Jinghan Wang, Shu Li, Xiaohua Teng
Lead (Pb) is an environmental pollutant. Selenium (Se) has alleviative effect on Pb poisoning. However, mitigative effect of Se on Pb-induced apoptosis has not been unclear via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pathway in chicken testes. The aim of this study was to investigate mitigative effect of Se on apoptosis induced by Pb poisoning via ER pathway in chicken testes. Sixty male chickens (7-day-old) were randomly divided into the control group offered drinking water (DW) and basic diet (BD) (0.49 mg/kg Se), the Se group offered DW and BD containing Na2 SeO3 (SeBD) (1...
April 30, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dolonchapa Chakraborty, Eric Clark, Steven A Mauro, Gerald B Koudelka
Shiga toxin (Stx)-encoding E. coli (STEC) strains are responsible for sporadic outbreaks of food poisoning dating to 1982, when the first STEC strain, E. coli O157:H7, was isolated. Regardless of STEC serotype, the primary symptoms of STEC infections are caused by Stx that is synthesized from genes resident on lambdoid prophage present in STEC. Despite similar etiology, the severity of STEC-mediated disease varies by outbreak. However, it is unclear what modulates the severity of STEC-mediated disease. Stx production and release is controlled by lytic growth of the Stx-encoding bacteriophage, which in turn, is controlled by the phage repressor...
April 29, 2018: Viruses
Olga Nurieva, Pavel Diblik, Pavel Kuthan, Petr Sklenka, Martin Meliska, Jan Bydzovsky, Jarmila Heissigerova, Pavel Urban, Katerina Kotikova, Tomas Navratil, Martin Komarc, Zdenek Seidl, Manuela Vaneckova, Daniela Pelclova, Sergey Zakharov
PURPOSE: To study the dynamics and clinical determinants of chronic retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL) loss after methanol-induced optic neuropathy. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: All patients underwent complete ophthalmic evaluation including SD-OCT three times during four years of observation:4.9[±0.6], 25.0[±0.6], and 49.9[±0.5] months after discharge. PARTICIPANTS AND CONTROLS: Eighty-four eyes of 42 survivors of methanol poisoning; mean age (standard deviation) of 45...
April 27, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Aaron J Specht, Marc Weisskopf, Linda H Nie
Childhood lead exposure has been shown to have a significant effect on neurodevelopment. Many of the biokinetics involved with lead biomarkers in children still remain unknown. Two hundred fifty (157 in the exposed group and 93 controls) children were enrolled in our study and lead exposed children returned for multiple visits for measurement of blood and bone lead and chelation treatment. We demonstrated that the correlation between blood and bone lead increased with subsequent visits. We calculated the blood lead half-life for 50 patients, and found a significant (p-value < 0...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Agnieszka Chlebicz, Katarzyna Śliżewska
Zoonoses are diseases transmitted from animals to humans, posing a great threat to the health and life of people all over the world. According to WHO estimations, 600 million cases of diseases caused by contaminated food were noted in 2010, including almost 350 million caused by pathogenic bacteria. Campylobacter , Salmonella , as well as Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes may dwell in livestock (poultry, cattle, and swine) but are also found in wild animals, pets, fish, and rodents. Animals, often being asymptomatic carriers of pathogens, excrete them with faeces, thus delivering them to the environment...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Dana Franzen-Klein, David McRuer, Vincent A Slabe, Todd Katzner
A male juvenile bald eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was admitted to the Wildlife Center of Virginia with a left humeral fracture a large quantity of anthropogenic debris in the ventriculus, a blood lead level of 0.616 ppm, and clinical signs consistent with chronic lead toxicosis. Because of the poor prognosis for recovery and release, the eagle was euthanatized. Lead isotope analysis was performed to identify potential anthropogenic sources of lead in this bird. The lead isotope ratios in the eagle's femur (0...
March 2018: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Desheng Wu, Yu Song, Kefan Xie, Baofeng Zhang
Chemical accidents are major causes of environmental losses and have been debated due to the potential threat to human beings and environment. Compared with the single statistical analysis, co-word analysis of chemical accidents illustrates significant traits at various levels and presents data into a visual network. This study utilizes a co-word analysis of the keywords extracted from the Web crawling texts of environmental loss-related chemical accidents and uses the Pearson's correlation coefficient to examine the internal attributes...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Wai Yan Ng, Chor Kwan Ching, Yeow Kuan Chong, Sau Wah Ng, Wing Lan Cheung, Tony Wing Lai Mak
INTRODUCTION: Warfarin- and superwarfarin-type anticoagulants are commonly used as rodenticides. Exposure to these agents, especially superwarfarins with long-acting anticoagulant effect, can cause life-threatening coagulopathy in humans. Most superwarfarin poisoning cases had an obvious history of exposure, though occult cases without exposure history have also been reported. The current study aims to examine anticoagulant-type rodenticide poisoning in Hong Kong and to identify the similarities and differences between patients with known exposure history and those whose exposure is recognized only through laboratory testing...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
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