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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231548/spatiotemporal-exposome-dynamics-of-soil-lead-and-children-s-blood-lead-pre-and-ten-years-post-hurricane-katrina-lead-and-other-metals-on-public-and-private-properties-in-the-city-of-new-orleans-louisiana-u-s-a
#1
Howard W Mielke, Christopher R Gonzales, Eric T Powell, Paul W Mielke
BACKGROUND: Anthropogenic re-distribution of lead (Pb) principally through its use in gasoline additives and lead-based paints have transformed the urban exposome. This unique study tracks urban-scale soil Pb (SPb) and blood Pb (BPb) responses of children living in public and private communities in New Orleans before and ten years after Hurricane Katrina (29 August 2005). OBJECTIVES: To compare and evaluate associations of pre- and ten years post-Katrina SPb and children's BPb on public and private residential census tracts in the core and outer areas of New Orleans, and to examine correlations between SPb and nine other soil metals...
February 20, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230105/interface-confined-hydrogen-evolution-reaction-in-zero-valent-metal-nanoparticles-intercalated-molybdenum-disulfide
#2
Zhongxin Chen, Kai Leng, Xiaoxu Zhao, Souradip Malkhandi, Wei Tang, Bingbing Tian, Lei Dong, Lirong Zheng, Ming Lin, Boon Siang Yeo, Kian Ping Loh
Interface confined reactions, which can modulate the bonding of reactants with catalytic centres and influence the rate of the mass transport from bulk solution, have emerged as a viable strategy for achieving highly stable and selective catalysis. Here we demonstrate that 1T'-enriched lithiated molybdenum disulfide is a highly powerful reducing agent, which can be exploited for the in-situ reduction of metal ions within the inner planes of lithiated molybdenum disulfide to form a zero valent metal-intercalated molybdenum disulfide...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223118/characterization-of-the-dinophysistoxin-2-acute-oral-toxicity-in-mice-to-define-the-toxicity-equivalency-factor
#3
Paula Abal, M Carmen Louzao, José Manuel Cifuentes, Natalia Vilariño, Ines Rodriguez, Amparo Alfonso, Mercedes R Vieytes, Luis M Botana
Ingestion of shellfish with dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2) can lead to diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP). The official control method of DSP toxins in seafood is the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS). However in order to calculate the total toxicity of shellfish, the concentration of each compound must be multiplied by individual Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF). Considering that TEFs caused some controversy and the scarce information about DTX2 toxicity, the aim of this study was to characterize the oral toxicity of DTX2 in mice...
February 18, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222753/evaluation-of-blood-lead-level-in-methamphetamine-users-in-tehran
#4
Babak Mostafazadeh, Shahin Shadnia, Mohammad Ali Tavakkoli, Hamid Reza Khoddami Vishteh
BACKGROUND: Given the increasing number of lead poisoning in opioids users and since no study has been conducted so far to review lead poisoning in methamphetamine (crystal) users, this study aimed to investigate blood lead level in methamphetamine addicts. METHODS: This study was conducted on 20 patients with methamphetamine poisoning and their blood lead level was measured. The subjects were selected from among patients with a history of continuous use of methamphetamine, without a history of using opiates in the past 6 months confirmed by a negative urine tests, and without a history of heavy metal poisoning...
February 22, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220909/effects-of-meso-2-3-dimercaptosuccinic-acid-potassium-iodide-and-chlorophyll-on-lead-accumulation-in-male-mice
#5
Ying Xie, Guifeng Zhou
OBJECTIVES: Lead (Pb) pollution is a serious public health problem all over the world, it especially plays severe damage role in children's health. Apart from reducing lead-induced damages, the decrease of lead accumulation is also critical. This study has been the first attempt to investigate effects of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), potassium iodide (KI) and chlorophyll (Chl) on lead accumulation in male mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty healthy Kunming male mice were selected and divided randomly into 8 groups...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219241/alkyl-cyclens-as-effective-sulfur-and-phosphorus-free-friction-modifiers-for-boundary-lubrication
#6
Michael Desanker, Xingliang He, Jie Lu, Pinzhi Liu, David B Pickens, Massimiliano Delferro, Tobin J Marks, Yip-Wah Chung, Q Jane Wang
Modern automotive engines operate at higher power densities than ever before, driving a need for new lubricant additives capable of reducing friction and wear further than ever before while not poisoning the catalytic converter. Reported in this paper is a new class of molecular friction modifier (FM), represented by 1,4,7,10-tetradodecyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (1a), designed to employ thermally stable, sulfur- and phosphorus-free alkyl substituted nitrogen heterocycles with multiple nitrogen centers per molecule...
February 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219024/is-tetraethyl-lead-poison-affecting-contemporary-indigenous-suicides-in-ontario-canada
#7
Trehani Mary Fonseka, Gerald P McKinley, Sidney H Kennedy
Prior to the mid-1980s, suicide in Indigenous population in Northwestern Ontario, Canada, was rare, occurring at rates of 1-2 per year among over 20 communities. By the early 1990s, the completed suicide rates in the same communities were among the highest in the world. Prior to the outbreak of the suicide epidemic, sniffing of gasoline containing tetraethyl was common in many communities. Existing literature confirms that tetraethyl lead poisoning is associated with alterations to the amyloid-β protein precursor and amyloid-β as well as the 5-HT-1B receptor...
January 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213321/effects-of-selenium-lead-interaction-on-the-gene-expression-of-inflammatory-factors-and-selenoproteins-in-chicken-neutrophils
#8
Xiaojing Li, Mengyuan Xing, Menghao Chen, Jinxin Zhao, Ruifeng Fan, Xia Zhao, Changyu Cao, Jie Yang, Ziwei Zhang, Shiwen Xu
Lead (Pb) is one of the most highly toxic metal pollutant that can cause damage to the immune system. It is known that selenium (Se) can antagonize heavy metals. To explore the toxic effects of Pb poisoning on bird immune cells, as well as the alleviating effects of Se on Pb, Se supplement and/or Pb poisoning chicken models were established. One hundred and eighty Hyline 7-day-old male chickens received either Se (1mg Se per kg of diet), Pb (350mg Pb per liter water) or Se+Pb in their diet and water for 90 days...
February 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212199/caregiver-fabricated-illness-in-a-child-a-case-report-of-three-siblings
#9
Mohamed Yassine Braham, Maher Jedidi, Youssef Chkirbene, Imene Hmila, Mohamed Cherif ElKhal, Mohamed Kamel Souguir, Mohamed Ben Dhiab
Caregiver-fabricated illness in a child is a form of child maltreatment caused by a caregiver inducing a child's illness, leading to unnecessary and potentially harmful medical procedures and treatments. This condition can result in significant morbidity and mortality. We present the case of three siblings in Tunisia who were poisoned with chloralose by their own mother. The symptoms that the children presented with led to misdiagnoses, which resulted in the death of two of the children. Characteristics of the clinical presentation are articulated, followed by a discussion of the legal measures that apply to the offender and the role of physicians, nurses, and medicolegal experts involved in such a complex medical situation...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210915/determining-childhood-blood-lead-level-screening-compliance-among-physicians
#10
Amanda Haboush-Deloye, Erika R Marquez, Shawn L Gerstenberger
Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Programs throughout the U.S. have addressed childhood lead poisoning by implementing primary and secondary prevention efforts. While many programs have helped increase screening rates, in some states children under the age of six still have not been tested for lead. This study aims to identify the barriers to childhood blood lead testing and develop a strategy to increase the number of children tested. Clark County physicians who work with children six and under were surveyed about blood lead level (BLL) testing practices, particularly, adherence to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines, and parental compliance with orders to have their children tested to determine their blood lead levels...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209208/food-safety-in-vietnam-where-we-are-at-and-what-we-can-learn-from-international-experiences
#11
Hung Nguyen-Viet, Tran Thi Tuyet-Hanh, Fred Unger, Sinh Dang-Xuan, Delia Grace
Food-borne diseases are attracting a lot of attention in Vietnam as a result of repeated episodes of adulterated and unsafe food. In this paper, we provide some perspectives on food safety in Vietnam from the point of view of an international research institution working on food safety with partners in the country. We argue that one of the key issues of food safety in Vietnam is that certain food value chain stakeholders lack ethics, which leads to the production and trading of unsafe foods in order to make profits irrespective of adverse health effects on consumers...
February 16, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193051/glutathione-modified-gold-nanoparticles-for-sensitive-colorimetric-detection-of-pb-2-ions-in-rainwater-polluted-by-leaking-perovskite-solar-cells
#12
Yaming Yu, Ying Hong, Peng Gao, Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin
In the past few years, the advent of lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has revolutionized the prospects of the third- generation photovoltaics and the reported power conversion efficiency (PCE) has been updated to 22%. Nevertheless, two main challenges, including the poisonous content of Pb and the vexing instability toward water, still lie between the lab-based PSCs technology and large scale commercialization. With this background, we first evaluated Pb(2+) concentration from the rainwater samples polluted by three types of markets promising PSCs with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurements (ICP-MS) as a case study...
December 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185602/impaired-hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular-axis-activity-spermatogenesis-and-sperm-function-promote-infertility-in-males-with-lead-poisoning
#13
Jason Gandhi, Rafael J Hernandez, Andrew Chen, Noel L Smith, Yefim R Sheynkin, Gargi Joshi, Sardar Ali Khan
Lead poisoning is a stealthy threat to human physiological systems as chronic exposure can remain asymptomatic for long periods of time before symptoms manifest. We presently review the biophysical mechanisms of lead poisoning that contribute to male infertility. Environmental and occupational exposure of lead may adversely affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, impairing the induction of spermatogenesis. Dysfunction at the reproductive axis, namely testosterone suppression, is most susceptible and irreversible during pubertal development...
February 10, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182688/interrupted-time-series-analysis-of-children-s-blood-lead-levels-a-case-study-of-lead-hazard-control-program-in-syracuse-new-york
#14
Liyang Shao, Lianjun Zhang, Zhen Zhen
Children's blood lead concentrations have been closely monitored over the last two decades in the United States. The bio-monitoring surveillance data collected in local agencies reflected the local temporal trends of children's blood lead levels (BLLs). However, the analysis and modeling of the long-term time series of BLLs have rarely been reported. We attempted to quantify the long-term trends of children's BLLs in the city of Syracuse, New York and evaluate the impacts of local lead poisoning prevention programs and Lead Hazard Control Program on reducing the children's BLLs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177220/mechanistic-investigation-into-the-effect-of-sulfuration-on-the-few-catalysts-for-the-selective-catalytic-reduction-of-nox-with-nh3
#15
Hui Wang, Zhenping Qu, Shicheng Dong, Chen Tang
Iron tungsten (FeW) catalyst is a potential candidate for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia because of its excellent performance in a wide operating window. Sulfur poisoning effects in SCR catalysts have long been recognized as a challenge in development of efficient catalysts for applications. In this paper, the impact of sulfuration on catalyst structure, NH3-SCR reaction performance and mechanism was systematically investigated through spectroscopic and temperature-programmed approaches...
February 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175954/multiple-resistance-to-carcinogens-and-xenobiotics-p-glycoproteins-as-universal-detoxifiers
#16
REVIEW
Thomas Efferth, Manfred Volm
The detoxification of toxic substances is of general relevance in all biological systems. The plethora of exogenous xenobiotic compounds and endogenous toxic metabolic products explains the evolutionary pressure of all organisms to develop molecular mechanisms to detoxify and excrete harmful substances from the body. P-glycoprotein and other members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family extrude innumerous chemical compounds out of cells. Their specific expression in diverse biological contexts cause different phenotypes: (1) multidrug resistance (MDR) and thus failure of cancer chemotherapy, (2) avoidance of accumulation of carcinogens and prevention of carcinogenesis in healthy tissues, (3) absorption, distribution, metabolization and excretion (ADME) of pharmacological drugs in human patients, (4) protection from environmental toxins in aquatic organisms (multi-xenobiotic resistance, MXR)...
February 7, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169542/ruthenium-catalyzed-alkyne-trans-hydrometalation-mechanistic-insights-and-preparative-implications
#17
Dragoş-Adrian Roşca, Karin Radkowski, Larry M Wolf, Minal Wagh, Richard Goddard, Walter Thiel, Alois Fürstner
[Cp*RuCl]4 (1) has previously been shown to be the precatalyst of choice for stereochemically unorthodox trans-hydrometalations of internal alkynes. Experimental and computational data now prove that the alkyne primarily acts as a four-electron donor ligand to the catalytically active metal fragment [Cp*RuCl] but switches to adopt a two-electron donor character once the reagent R3MH (M = Si, Ge, Sn) enters the ligand sphere. In the stereodetermining step the resulting loaded complex evolves via an inner-sphere mechanism into a ruthenacyclopropene which swiftly transforms into the product...
February 7, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165800/rising-cost-of-antidotes-in-the-u-s-cost-comparison-from-2010-to-2015
#18
Gregory A Heindel, Jeanette D Trella, Kevin C Osterhoudt
CONTEXT: Our poison control center observed a large increase in the cost of many antidotes over the past several years. The high cost of antidotes has previously been cited as a factor leading to inadequate antidote supply at some hospitals. Continued increases in the cost of antidotes may lead to further reductions in antidote supply and represent serious concerns. This research aims to quantify recent trends in the costs of antidotes in the U.S. METHODS: Antidotes and minimum stocking recommendations were retrieved from published guidelines...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159393/what-are-the-blood-lead-levels-of-children-living-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean
#19
REVIEW
Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio, Cláudia Gaudência Gonçalves, Fernanda Junqueira Salles, Ana Paula Sacone da Silva Ferreira, Agnes Silva Soares, Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf, Maria Regina Alves Cardoso, Etelvino José Henriques Bechara
INTRODUCTION: Information on the prevalence of lead exposure is essential to formulate efficient public health policies. Developed countries have implemented successful public policies for the prevention and control of lead poisoning. In the United States, Canada, Japan and the European Union, for instance, periodically repeated prevalence studies show that blood lead levels (BLLs) in children have decreased overall. Although BLL of Latino children in the U.S. have also dropped in recent years, the geometric mean remains higher than that of white children...
February 1, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152635/self-poisoning-with-baclofen-in-alcohol-dependent-patients-national-reports-to-french-poison-control-centers-2008-2013
#20
Fanny Pelissier, Luc de Haro, Florence Cardona, Cyndie Picot, Emmanuel Puskarczyk, Jean-Marc Sapori, Christine Tournoud, Nicolas Franchitto
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are frequently associated with self-intoxication in attempted suicide. In France since 2008, the off-label use of baclofen for treatment of alcohol dependence has greatly increased, leading to temporary regulation of use of the drug. At the request of the national authorities, the French Poison Control Centers carried out a retrospective survey to give an overview of baclofen exposure in this population. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out from January 2008 to December 2013, focusing on baclofen exposures in alcohol-dependent patients managed by the nine national French Poison Control Centers...
February 3, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
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