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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919185/modeling-the-effect-of-succimer-dmsa-dimercaptosuccinic-acid-chelation-therapy-in-patients-poisoned-by-lead
#1
Jan C H van Eijkeren, J Daniël N Olie, Sally M Bradberry, J Allister Vale, Irma de Vries, Harvey J Clewell, Jan Meulenbelt, Claudine C Hunault
CONTEXT: Kinetic models could assist clinicians potentially in managing cases of lead poisoning. Several models exist that can simulate lead kinetics but none of them can predict the effect of chelation in lead poisoning. Our aim was to devise a model to predict the effect of succimer (dimercaptosuccinic acid; DMSA) chelation therapy on blood lead concentrations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We integrated a two-compartment kinetic succimer model into an existing PBPK lead model and produced a Chelation Lead Therapy (CLT) model...
December 5, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918014/trapping-of-gaseous-pollutants-on-defective-n-doped-graphene
#2
Dibyajyoti Ghosh, Swapan K Pati
The use of pristine as well as structurally modified two-dimensional materials to efficiently trap and separate various harmful gases from the atmosphere is an intensively explored field of current research. In this paper, we have computationally demonstrated the efficient trapping of several polar poisonous and greenhouse gases on top of different kinds of pyridinic/pyrrolic nitrogen-doped graphene sheets. van der Waals corrected Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) studies evidently demonstrate the trapping of the gas molecules on top of the defect-sites of the sheets at room-temperature...
December 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911816/rapid-emergence-and-mechanisms-of-resistance-by-u87-glioblastoma-cells-to-doxorubicin-in-an-in-vitro-tumor-microfluidic-ecology
#3
Jeonghun Han, Yukyung Jun, So Hyun Kim, Hong-Hoa Hoang, Yeonjoo Jung, Suyeon Kim, Jaesang Kim, Robert H Austin, Sanghyuk Lee, Sungsu Park
In vitro prediction of the probable rapid emergence of resistance to a drug in tumors could act to winnow out potential candidates for further costly development. We have developed a microfluidic device consisting of ∼500 hexagonal microcompartments that provides a complex ecology with wide ranges of drug and nutrient gradients and local populations. This ecology of a fragmented metapopulation induced the drug resistance in stage IV U87 glioblastoma cells to doxorubicin in 7 d. Exome and transcriptome sequencing of the resistant cells identified mutations and differentially expressed genes...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902665/lead-poisoning-in-children-and-adults
#4
Vickie Ann Miracle
Lead poisoning is receiving much attention and increased awareness lately owing to the tainted water supply crisis in Flint, Michigan. This article provides an important review about lead poisoning in both children and adults, potential causes, signs and symptoms, long-term effects, prevention, and recommendations for nursing practice. This article is not an in-depth examination of the topic, but rather a quick review.
January 2017: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900531/accidental-cannabis-poisoning-in-the-elderly
#5
Anja Zupan Mežnar, Miran Brvar, Gregor Kralj, Dragan Kovačič
There are two main varieties of Cannabis sativa plant, namely, hemp which is cultivated for fiber and seeds and contains low amounts of psychoactive cannabinoids and the other which is cultivated for the drug cannabis or marijuana. Increasing popularity of hemp food products and alleged beneficial effects of cannabinoids in the drug variety of cannabis might lead to confusion in the lay population and unintentional ingestion of marijuana, as described in this case report. During a workshop on the use of hemp for medicinal purposes, there was a degustation of various hemp food products including also cookies that were brought by one of the attendees...
November 29, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885794/a-beekeepers-perspective-on-the-neonicotinoid-ban
#6
REVIEW
Norman L Carreck
Bees and agrochemicals have a long history. For example the first volume of IBRA's journal Bee World in 1919 contains mention of poisoning of bees by spraying an orchard with lead arsenate. Being insects, it is self-evident that the use of insecticides to control crop pests poses a risk to bees. Bee poisoning incidents became a very serious problem in the 1960s and 1970s with spraying of, in particular, oilseed rape with organophosphorus compounds. The introduction of carbamates and then especially synthetic pyrethroids reduced these problems...
November 25, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876869/discerning-the-location-and-nature-of-coke-deposition-from-surface-to-bulk-of-spent-zeolite-catalysts
#7
Arun Devaraj, Murugesan Vijayakumar, Jie Bao, Mond F Guo, Miroslaw A Derewinski, Zhijie Xu, Michel J Gray, Sebastian Prodinger, Karthikeyan K Ramasamy
The formation of carbonaceous deposits (coke) in zeolite pores during catalysis leads to temporary deactivation of catalyst, necessitating regeneration steps, affecting throughput, and resulting in partial permanent loss of catalytic efficiency. Yet, even to date, the coke molecule distribution is quite challenging to study with high spatial resolution from surface to bulk of the catalyst particles at a single particle level. To address this challenge we investigated the coke molecules in HZSM-5 catalyst after ethanol conversion treatment by a combination of C K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), (13)C Cross polarization-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS NMR) spectroscopy, and atom probe tomography (APT)...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869952/-poison-related-hospitalizations-of-children-aged-0-14-at-a-teaching-hospital-in-southern-brazil-2006-2011
#8
Samara Messias Domingos, Nataly Barbosa Alves Borghesan, Maria de Fátima Garcia Lopes Merino, Ieda Harumi Higarashi
OBJECTIVE: to describe the profile of poisoning leading to children's hospitalizations, as registered at the Maringá Regional University Hospital Poisoning Control Center in the period 2006 to 2011. METHODS: this was a descriptive epidemiological study using secondary data from Intoxication Incident Report Forms, involving poisoned children aged between 0 and 14 years, hospitalized for at least 12 hours. RESULTS: 694 hospitalizations due to poisoning were registered, with medication poisoning accounting for 42...
April 2016: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858849/mercury-poisoning-caused-by-chinese-folk-prescription-cfp-a-case-report-and-analysis-of-both-cfp-and-quackery
#9
Tingting Mo, Si Sun, Yongyi Wang, Dong Luo, Bin Peng, Yinyin Xia
BACKGROUND: Though as a heavy metal, mercury has a long history in the culture of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Also until now, we can still find evidence of mercury in some Chinese folk prescriptions (CFP)s in China. CASE: We report a case of a 35-year-old rural woman, who took almost 35 g of Hg2O orally to treat her itchy skin followed a folk prescription of an unlicensed practitioners engaging in quackery (UPEQ), which lead to dark red bloody stool and mucus, nausea, and numbness...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854237/catalytic-oxidation-of-no-over-mnox-ceo%C3%A2-and-mnox-tio%C3%A2-catalysts
#10
Xiaolan Zeng, Xiaoyue Huo, Tianle Zhu, Xiaowei Hong, Ye Sun
A series of MnOx-CeO₂ and MnOx-TiO₂ catalysts were prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method and their catalytic activities for the NO oxidation in the absence or presence of SO₂ were evaluated. Results show that the optimal molar ratio of Mn/Ce and Mn/Ti are 0.7 and 0.5, respectively. The MnOx-CeO₂ catalyst exhibits higher catalytic activity and better resistance to SO₂ poisoning than the MnOx-TiO₂ catalyst. On the basis of Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning transmission electron microscope with mapping (STEM-mapping) analyses, it is seen that the MnOx-CeO₂ catalyst possesses higher BET surface area and better dispersion of MnOx over the catalyst than MnOx-TiO₂ catalyst...
November 14, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849101/-emergency-management-of-intoxications-in-the-dog-and-cat
#11
Esther Hassdenteufel, Hendrik Lehmann, Matthias Schneider, Andreas Moritz
Intoxications may lead to life-threatening emergencies. While stabilising the patient, therapy should focus on a rapid and effective elimination of the toxin. General measures for decontamination (gastrointestinal, dermal, ocular) aim to effectively decrease the absorption of the poisonous substance. Further classification of the substance and its properties can assist with the choice of specific treatment options, including dialysis and specific antidotal therapy. In recent years, treatment with lipid emulsions for enhanced elimination of lipophilic substances has become an important therapeutic option...
November 16, 2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843763/palytoxin-induced-acute-respiratory-failure
#12
Lokendra K Thakur, Kunal K Jha
Palytoxin is one of the most potent toxins known to mankind and poses a high risk to humans through ingestion, inhalation and dermal routes [1,2]. Although the exact mechanism of action is unknown it is postulated that palytoxin binds to the Na+/K + ATPase pump resulting in K(+) efflux, Ca(2+) influx and membrane depolarization leading to widespread secondary pharmacological actions [2]. Palytoxin is highly toxic and can affect multiple organs causing severe symptoms including death. Palytoxin poisoning is mainly developed after ingesting seafood...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837574/there-is-no-safe-threshold-for-lead-exposure-%C3%AE-literature-review
#13
Th Vorvolakos, S Arseniou, M Samakouri
: Lead was one of the most dangerous environmental toxic substances for a long time in western countries, and this is still the case for many places on earth today. Its neurotoxic potential is highly significant but its secure blood level concentration remains unknown. The aim of this study was to approach the above issue from the perspective of social psychiatry. A systematic search was made of Dialog and Datastar interfaces for data regarding the neuropsychiatric complications of direct or chronic exposure to lead, and a review of the relevant literature was conducted using the databases Medline, Embase, CAB Global Health and Cochrane...
July 2016: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833648/alternative-drugs-go-global-possible-lead-and-or-mercury-intoxication-from-imported-natural-health-products-and-a-need-for-scientifically-evaluated-poisoning-monitoring-from-environmental-exposures
#14
Lygia Therese Budnik, Xaver Baur, Volker Harth, Axel Hahn
BACKGROUND: With increases in globalization, cultural remedies from Chinese, Ayurvedic, Arab and other traditions have become more available to international consumers, offering unfamiliar "Natural Health Products" (NHP), used as alternative medicine or supplementary medicine. Contamination with toxic ingredients including lead, mercury, arsenic, and other toxic elements has been documented in several of these products from various parts of the globe, particularly from some parts of Asia and the Orient...
2016: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816567/efficacy-and-safety-of-adjunctive-bitopertin-versus-placebo-in-patients-with-suboptimally-controlled-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-treated-with-antipsychotics-results-from-three-phase-3-randomised-double-blind-parallel-group-placebo-controlled-multicentre-studies
#15
Dragana Bugarski-Kirola, Nakao Iwata, Snjezana Sameljak, Carol Reid, Thomas Blaettler, Laurie Millar, Tiago Reis Marques, George Garibaldi, Shitij Kapur
BACKGROUND: Many patients with schizophrenia require high doses of medication for their ongoing psychotic symptoms. Glutamate theories and findings from studies showing efficacy of sarcosine, an endogenous, non-selective glycine-reuptake inhibitor mediated by GlyT1, offer an alternative approach. We undertook the SearchLyte trial programme to examine the efficacy of bitopertin, a selective GlyT1-mediated glycine-reuptake inhibitor, as an adjunctive treatment to ongoing antipsychotic treatment...
December 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807870/designing-therapeutic-cancer-vaccine-trials-with-delayed-treatment-effect
#16
Zhenzhen Xu, Boguang Zhen, Yongsoek Park, Bin Zhu
Arming the immune system against cancer has emerged as a powerful tool in oncology during recent years. Instead of poisoning a tumor or destroying it with radiation, therapeutic cancer vaccine, a type of cancer immunotherapy, unleashes the immune system to combat cancer. This indirect mechanism-of-action of vaccines poses the possibility of a delayed onset of clinical effect, which results in a delayed separation of survival curves between the experimental and control groups in therapeutic cancer vaccine trials with time-to-event endpoints...
November 2, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805907/human-and-rodent-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-ahr-from-mediator-of-dioxin-toxicity-to-physiologic-ahr-functions-and-therapeutic-options
#17
Karl Walter Bock
Metabolism of aryl hydrocarbons and toxicity of dioxins led to the discovery of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Tremendous advances have been made on multiplicity of AHR signaling and identification of endogenous ligands including the tryptophan metabolites FICZ and kynurenine. However, human AHR functions are still poorly understood due to marked species differences as well as cell-type- and cell context-dependent AHR functions. Observations in dioxin-poisoned individuals may provide hints to physiologic AHR functions in humans...
November 1, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803011/chronic-lead-poisoning-in-an-iranian-opium-smoker-resident-in-london
#18
Alex Azizi, Katie Ferguson, Sam Dluzewski, Tajammul Hussain, Martin Klein
A 46-year-old man of Iranian origin presented with a 4-day history of colicky abdominal pain and absolute constipation on a background of several weeks of irritability and malaise. He had smoked 10 g of opium per week for a year and a half. On examination, he had diffuse abdominal tenderness and faecal loading. This was cleared, but the abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting persisted. He had extravascular haemolytic anaemia with punctate basophilic stippling on blood film. The patient's serum lead concentration was substantially elevated and he perhaps demonstrated Burton's line...
November 1, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779394/benzylation-reactions-in-dmf-lead-to-an-impurity-which-acts-as-an-organocatalyst-poison-in-thiourea-catalyzed-glycosylations
#19
Avene C Colgan, Helge Müller-Bunz, Eoghan M McGarrigle
The benzylation of alcohols with the commonly used combination of benzyl bromide and sodium hydride in DMF can lead to the formation of an amine side product, N,N'-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1-(o-tolyl)methanamine. This amine coeluted with benzylated galactal during column chromatography and was found to be a catalyst poison in thiourea-catalyzed glycosylations of galactals. It may also be problematic for other base-sensitive reactions involving benzylated substrates. Solutions to this problem are described.
October 25, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771569/lead-ingestion-as-a-potential-contributing-factor-to-the-decline-in-vulture-populations-in-southern-africa
#20
V Naidoo, K Wolter, C J Botha
Vulture populations in southern Africa have been on the decline for years, which unlike the Asian vulture crisis, has no one specific cause. Reasons attributable are deliberate and secondary poisonings, drowning, power line injuries, electrocutions, traditional medicine ("muti" trade) and calcium deficiencies. However, lead toxicity as a potential causal factor is hardly mentioned. The potential for lead toxicity needs to be considered as substantial game hunting occurs in the region with little regulatory control on bullet types...
January 2017: Environmental Research
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