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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137047/massive-neonatal-intracranial-hemorrhage-caused-by-bromadiolone-a-case-report
#1
Mingsheng Ma, Mengqi Zhang, Xiaoyan Tang, Zhenghong Li
RATIONALE: Bromadiolone, often called a super-warfarin, is a potent rodenticide with long half-life. Skin and mucosal bleeding is the most common clinical manifestations of its intoxication. Bromadiolone intoxications in adults and children have been reported, but this phenomenon is rarely seen in fetuses. This paper presents a case of neonate with massive intracranial hemorrhage mediated by bromadiolone intoxication, highlighting that the bromadiolone is potentially lethal to the fetus...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135964/the-killer-of-socrates-coniine-and-related-alkaloids-in-the-plant-kingdom
#2
REVIEW
Hannu Hotti, Heiko Rischer
Coniine, a polyketide-derived alkaloid, is poisonous to humans and animals. It is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, which leads to inhibition of the nervous system, eventually causing death by suffocation in mammals. Coniine's most famous victim is Socrates who was sentenced to death by poison chalice containing poison hemlock in 399 BC. In chemistry, coniine holds two historical records: It is the first alkaloid the chemical structure of which was established (in 1881), and that was chemically synthesized (in 1886)...
November 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134971/detection-of-dna-fragmentation-in-liver-of-goats-exposed-to-lead-poisoning-in-bagega-district-of-zamfara-state-nigeria
#3
A T Jubril, O A Fagbohun, A A Adekola
The ubiquitous presence of lead (Pb) and its release by anthropogenic activities has remained a majorenvironmental pollution risk to both humans and animals. Lead toxicity has been associated with different systemic toxicitiesand biochemical impacts (such as oxidative stress and DNA damaging effects) with dire health consequences. In Nigeria,the health problem associated with lead toxicity has been overwhelming in the Bagega District of Zamfara State whereartisanal gold mining has resulted in widespread environmental lead contamination...
June 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124976/rethinking-mercury-the-role-of-selenium-in-the-pathophysiology-of-mercury-toxicity
#4
Henry A Spiller
INTRODUCTION: There is increasing evidence that the pathophysiological target of mercury is in fact selenium, rather than the covalent binding of mercury to sulfur in the body's ubiquitous sulfhydryl groups. The role of selenium in mercury poisoning is multifaceted, bidirectional, and central to understanding the target organ toxicity of mercury. METHODS: An initial search was performed using Medline/PubMed, Toxline, Google Scholar, and Google for published work on mercury and selenium...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124530/fungus-farming-termites-selectively-bury-weedy-fungi-that-smell-different-from-crop-fungi
#5
Lakshya Katariya, Priya B Ramesh, Thejashwini Gopalappa, Sathish Desireddy, Jean-Marie Bessière, Renee M Borges
Mutualistic associations such as the fungal farms of insects are prone to parasitism and are consequently vulnerable to attack by weeds and pests. Therefore, efficient farm management requires quick detection of weeds for their elimination. Furthermore, if the available weedicides are non-specific, then the ability of insects to discriminate between crop and weeds becomes essential for targeted application of such compounds. Here, we demonstrate for the first time in fungus-farming insects, that worker castes of the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes obesus discriminate between their crop (Termitomyces) and the weedy (Pseudoxylaria) fungi, even if exposed to only fungal scents...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121712/epidemiologic-incidence-of-rhabdomyolysis-in-opioid-overdose-in-icu-of-poisoning-center-in-iran-2014
#6
Babak Khoshideh, Mohammad Arefi, Mazaher Ghorbani, Samaneh Akbarpour, Fatemeh Taghizadeh
Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical, demographical characteristics and some laboratory findings of hospitalized patients with acute opioid toxicity and rhabdomyolysis. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 354 hospitalized patients were investigated at Baharloo Educational Hospital in Tehran, with acute illicit drug toxicity in 2014. Data was collected by an investigator-made check lists. The collected data and variations (such as mortality rate, demographic data, and renal function tests as well as serum biochemical elements) were analyzed by descriptive statistics and x-square test...
November 8, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117643/advanced-electrocardiogram-ecg-analysis-in-the-amitriptyline-poisoned-pig-treated-with-activated-charcoal-hemoperfusion-cac-hp
#7
Tejs Jansen, Lotte C G Hoegberg, Thomas Eriksen, Christian Haarmark, Kim Dalhoff, Bo Belhage
Coated Activated Charcoal Hemoperfusion (CAC-HP) does not reduce the plasma concentration in amitriptyline (AT)-poisoned pigs. The aim of this non-blinded, randomised, controlled animal trial was to determine if CAC-HP reduces the pathological ECG changes caused by AT poisoning. Fourteen female Danish Land Race pigs (mean weight 27.7 kg, range 20-35 kg (CAC-HP) and 24.4 kg, range 18-30 kg (control group, CG), n=7 in each group were included. After randomisation, the pigs were anaesthetised and intravenously poisoned with AT...
November 8, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114259/identification-of-splicing-quantitative-trait-loci-sqtl-in-drosophila-melanogaster-with-developmental-lead-pb-2-exposure
#8
Wen Qu, Katherine Gurdziel, Roger Pique-Regi, Douglas M Ruden
Lead (Pb) poisoning has been a major public health issue globally and the recent Flint water crisis has drawn nation-wide attention to its effects. To better understand how lead plays a role as a neurotoxin, we utilized the Drosophila melanogaster model to study the genetic effects of lead exposure during development and identified lead-responsive genes. In our previous studies, we have successfully identified hundreds of lead-responsive expression QTLs (eQTLs) by using RNA-seq analysis on heads collected from the Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112154/ubiquitous-nature-of-fluoroquinolones-the-oscillation-between-antibacterial-and-anticancer-activities
#9
REVIEW
Temilolu Idowu, Frank Schweizer
Fluoroquinolones are synthetic antibacterial agents that stabilize the ternary complex of prokaryotic topoisomerase II enzymes (gyrase and Topo IV), leading to extensive DNA fragmentation and bacteria death. Despite the similar structural folds within the critical regions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic topoisomerases, clinically relevant fluoroquinolones display a remarkable selectivity for prokaryotic topoisomerase II, with excellent safety records in humans. Typical agents that target human topoisomerases (such as etoposide, doxorubicin and mitoxantrone) are associated with significant toxicities and secondary malignancies, whereas clinically relevant fluoroquinolones are not known to exhibit such propensities...
November 7, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103113/testicular-toxicity-and-sperm-quality-following-copper-exposure-in-wistar-albino-rats-ameliorative-potentials-of-l-carnitine
#10
Maurya Khushboo, Meesala Krishna Murthy, Maibam Sunita Devi, Sanasam Sanjeev, Kalibulla Syed Ibrahim, Nachimuthu Senthil Kumar, Vikas Kumar Roy, Guruswami Gurusubramanian
Copper is a persistent toxic and bio-accumulative heavy metal of global concern. Continuous exposure of copper compounds of different origin is the most common form of copper poisoning and in turn adversely altering testis morphology and function and affecting sperm quality. L-carnitine has a vital role in the spermatogenesis, physiology of sperm, sperm production and quality. This study was designed to examine whether the detrimental effects of long-term copper consumption on sperm quality and testis function of Wistar albino rat could be prevented by L-carnitine therapy...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099519/a-new-lateral-flow-immunochromatographic-strip-combined-with-quantum-dot-nanobeads-and-gold-nanoflowers-for-rapid-detection-of-tetrodotoxin
#11
Haicong Shen, Fei Xu, Meng Xiao, Qiangqiang Fu, Zhenzhu Cheng, Shiwei Zhang, Caihong Huang, Yong Tang
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent, low molecular weight analyte that can lead to fatal poisoning and requires a sensitive, rapid detection method. Here, we have developed a competitive, lateral-flow immunochromatographic strip combined with quantum dot nanobeads (QDNBs) and gold nanoflowers (AuNFs). This approach is called turn-on C-LFICS and it meets all testing requirements. Subsequent analysis revealed that this turn-on C-LFICS was rapid (8 min), sensitive (LOD = 0.2 ng mL(-1)), and quantitative (DLR = 1.56-100 ng mL(-1)), and had a positive signal readout (based on fluorescence quenching effects) for TTX detection...
November 3, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097222/searching-for-putative-binding-sites-of-the-bispyridinium-compound-mb327-in-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#12
Thomas Wein, Georg Höfner, Sebastian Rappenglück, Sonja Sichler, Karin V Niessen, Thomas Seeger, Franz Worek, Horst Thiermann, Klaus T Wanner
Irreversible inhibition of the acetylcholine esterase upon intoxication with organophosphorus compounds leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft and a subsequent desensitization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors which may ultimately result in respiratory failure. The bispyridinium compound MB327 has been found to restore functional activity of nAChR thus representing a promising starting point for the development of new drugs for the treatment of organophosphate poisoning. In order to optimize the resensitizing effect of MB327 on nAChR, it would be very helpful to know the MB327 specific binding site to apply structure based molecular modeling...
October 30, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095381/ventricular-tachycardia-induced-by-propafenone-intoxication-in-a-pediatric-patient
#13
Margherita Rosa, Serena Pappacoda, Carolina DʼAnna, Onorina Di Mita, Eduardo Ponticiello, Pierluigi Marzuillo, Vincenzo Tipo
Unintentional poisonings are a global health problem frequently resulting in hospital admissions. Propafenone is a class 1C antiarrhythmic drug used in the second-line management of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias and, when unintentionally ingested, can lead to severe and life-threatening poisoning. We describe a case of a 3-year-old male patient unintentionally ingesting 300 mg (20 mg/kg) of propafenone and presenting with ventricular tachycardia with QT prolongation. Two boli of intravenous hypertonic sodium bicarbonate (total amount of 3 mEq/kg), followed by 3-hours continuous infusion of 1 mEq kg h sodium bicarbonate, were able to restore the clinical conditions of the patient...
October 31, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083966/opioid-abuse-a-detailed-examination-of-cost-drivers-over-a-24-month-follow-up-period
#14
Lauren M Scarpati, Noam Y Kirson, Zitong B Jia, Jody Wen, Jaren Howard
BACKGROUND: Previous work has documented the considerable economic burden associated with opioid abuse, dependence, and overdose/poisoning (hereafter, "abuse"). Recent analyses have provided insights into the trajectory and drivers of the excess costs of abuse both before and after diagnosis, showing the important role of other substance abuse, mental health issues, and painful conditions. OBJECTIVE: To build on the recently published study by Kirson et al. (2017) and extend its findings by (a) evaluating the trajectory of excess costs of abuse for an additional year after an incident abuse diagnosis and (b) exploring the diagnosis-level drivers of excess costs over time in greater detail...
November 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081456/lead-poisoning-caused-by-traditional-chinese-medicine-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
Guangmin Tang, Xiang Tu, Ping Feng
Traditional Chinese herbal medicine is widely used for primary health care worldwide as it mostly consists of herbs or herbal extracts known to be safe. However, owing to the intentional or unintentional addition to herbs of lead-containing bases or pastes, lead poisoning from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remains a serious issue. We report here a case of lead poisoning caused by long-term use of homemade TCM. A 66-year-old man was admitted for periumbilical pain and constipation. A detailed medication history revealed that the patient had been using homemade TCM for the past 8 months...
October 2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081331/immediate-and-delayed-neuropsychological-effects-of-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-a-meta-analysis
#16
Stephanie Watt, Catherine E Prado, Simon F Crowe
BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the leading cause of accidental poisoning worldwide. This study undertook a meta-analysis to examine differences in neuropsychological functioning in patients with CO poisoning as compared to healthy controls, and examined the longer-term neuropsychological effects of CO poisoning. METHODS: Studies performed between the years 1995 and 2016 were identified through a search of the electronic databases Medline and PsycInfo...
October 30, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078718/sources-symptoms-and-characteristics-of-childhood-lead-poisoning-experience-from-a-lead-specialty-clinic-in-china
#17
Xiao-Lan Ying, Zhen-Yan Gao, Jin Yan, Meng Zhang, Ju Wang, Jian Xu, Morri Markowitz, Chong-Huai Yan
OBJECTIVES: This study explored the sources of lead exposure, identified patients' geographic distribution and evaluated the symptoms of children with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) referred to a pediatric lead specialty clinic in China. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected from 515 consecutive outpatients attending the Pediatric Lead Poisoning Clinic in Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai, China, between 2011 and 2016, referred for BLLs ≥5 μg/dL. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to measure venous BLLs...
October 27, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076389/historical-documentation-of-lead-toxicity-prior-to-the-20th-century-in-english-literature
#18
M E Jonasson, R Afshari
Lead is a heavy metal that remains a persistent environmental toxin. Although there have been a substantial number of reviews published on the health effects of lead, these reviews have predominantly focused on recent publications and rarely look at older, more historical articles. Old documents on lead can provide useful insight in establishing the historical context of lead usage and its modes of toxicity. The objective of this review is to explore historical understandings and uses of lead prior to the 20th century...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068170/antidote-availability-in-saudi-arabia-hospitals-in-the-riyadh-province
#19
Abdullah AlTamimi, Nidal K Malhis, Najla M Khojah, Saleh A Manea, Abdulrahman AlTamimi, Sami Ayed AlShammary
Inadequate antidote stocking is a global problem in hospitals. Insufficient supplies and delays in the administration of antidotes could lead to death and additional potentially negative clinical consequences. Our objective was to determine the availability of antidotes in hospitals listed on the Saudi Ministry of Health website in the Riyadh Province and to evaluate the leading poison in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted using questionnaires. The questionnaires were distributed to pharmacist directors and emergency room-treating physicians in 17 public hospitals throughout the Riyadh Province...
October 25, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064057/antiaflatoxigenic-potential-of-cell-free-supernatant-from-lactobacillus-plantarum-mys44-against-aspergillus-parasiticus
#20
K Poornachandra Rao, B V Deepthi, S Rakesh, T Ganesh, Premila Achar, M Y Sreenivasa
The study aims to evaluate the cell-free supernatant (CFS) from Lactobacillus plantarum strain MYS44 against the growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus MTCC 411. Standard in vitro techniques revealed the potential antifungal activity of CFS of LpMYS44. In poison food technique, it was observed that 6% CFS of LpMYS44 retarded maximum growth. The inhibition of A. parasiticus on peanuts confirmed the ability of CFS of LpMYS44 for biopreservation. Further, CFS of LpMYS44 was purified by chromatography and analyzed by GC-MS...
October 24, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
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