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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327676/management-of-organophosphorus-poisoning
#1
S R Bajracharya, P N Prasad, R Ghimire
Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are widely used for agriculture, domestic pest-control and chemical warfare. Pesticide self-poisoning accounts for one-sixth to one-eighth of the world's suicides and a third of suicide deaths in rural Asia each year. OP pesticides inhibit cholinesterase enzymes leading to overstimulation of cholinergic receptors. Clinical features depend on the types of receptors stimulated at various sites of the body. The diagnosis of OP poisoning is made on the basis of history of poisoning, smell of pesticides, the characteristic clinical signs and reduced cholinesterase activity...
September 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321305/occupational-mercury-vapour-poisoning-with-a-respiratory-failure-pneumomediastinum-and-severe-quadriparesis
#2
Jakub Smiechowicz, Anna Skoczynska, Agata Nieckula-Szwarc, Katarzyna Kulpa, Andrzej Kübler
OBJECTIVES: Despite restrictions, mercury continues to pose a health concern. Mercury has the ability to deposit in most parts of the body and can cause a wide range of unspecific symptoms leading to diagnostic mistakes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report the case of severe mercury vapour poisoning after occupational exposure in a chloralkali plant worker that resulted in life-threatening respiratory failure, pneumomediastinum and quadriparesis. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged mechanical ventilation and treatment with penicillamine and spironolactone was used with successful outcome...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318633/capillary-leak-syndrome-etiologies-pathophysiology-and-management
#3
REVIEW
Eric Siddall, Minesh Khatri, Jai Radhakrishnan
In various human diseases, an increase in capillary permeability to proteins leads to the loss of protein-rich fluid from the intravascular to the interstitial space. Although sepsis is the disease most commonly associated with this phenomenon, many other diseases can lead to a "sepsis-like" syndrome with manifestations of diffuse pitting edema, exudative serous cavity effusions, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, hypotension, and, in some cases, hypovolemic shock with multiple-organ failure. The term capillary leak syndrome has been used to describe this constellation of disease manifestations associated with an increased capillary permeability to proteins...
March 16, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318192/-abdominal-pain-as-a-presentation-by-lead-poisoning-case-report
#4
Daniel M Mottiera, Elda Cargnel
Acute lead poisoning is not a common pathology seen in the pediatrician's office. Lead poisoning symptoms can be digestive or neurological, and they can be confused with other pathologies. That is the reason why it should be considered and, in case of doubt, complementary studies to confirm lead poisoning should be requested. This is the case of a nine-year-old child that comes to the office with a strong abdominal pain and vomiting, and after a close physical examination and a detailed anamnesis, a suspicious diagnosis of "acute" lead poisoning is obtained...
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317271/baclofen-and-alcohol-dependent-patients-a-real-risk-of-severe-self-poisoning
#5
David Boels, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, Marie Grall-Bronnec, Ali Touré, Anais Garnier, Alain Turcant, Gaël Le Roux
Baclofen is often prescribed in high doses to fight cravings experienced by alcohol-dependent patients. Such an increase in the availability of baclofen is concerning. This study aimed to determine the change in number and profile of self-poisoning with baclofen over time, since baclofen has become increasingly popular, in order to describe the severity of self-poisoning with baclofen and to focus on co-existing alcohol use disorders and psychiatric illnesses determine predictors of severity. This was a retrospective study of self-poisoning with baclofen as reported by the western France Poison Control Center (PCC), which represents a population of more than 12 million people from January 2008 to March 2014...
March 19, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303424/inherited-disorders-of-transition-metal-metabolism-an-update
#6
REVIEW
Peter T Clayton
Elements with a biological role include six trace transition metals: manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc and molybdenum. Transition metals participate in group transfer reactions such as glycosylation and phosphorylation and those that can transfer an electron by alternating between two redox states such as iron (3+/2+) and copper (2+/1+) are also very important in biological redox reactions including the reduction of molecular oxygen and the transport of oxygen. However, these trace metals are also potentially toxic, generating reactive oxygen species through Fenton chemistry...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295763/protection-of-platinum-based-micromotors-from-thiol-toxicity-by-using-manganese-oxide
#7
Tam Do Minh, Muhammad Safdar, Janne Jänis
Platinum (Pt) based micromotors have shown many exciting applications when functionalized using gold-thiol chemistry. However, thiols are known to bind to the Pt surface, which can lead to serious deactivation of the catalyst. In this paper, we demonstrate that manganese oxide (MnO2) can be used to protect Pt based micromotors prior to the thiol treatment, thus fully avoiding the catalyst poisoning. This approach will greatly facilitate the use of the functionalized Pt micromotors for which the thiol toxicity has been a limiting factor...
March 14, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294691/injury-deaths-among-u-s-females-cdc-resources-and-programs
#8
Karin A Mack, Cora Peterson, Chao Zhou, Elliane MacConvery, Natalie Wilkins
Injury death rates are lower for women than for men at all ages, but we have a long way to go in understanding the circumstances of injury fatalities among females. This article presents resources that can be used to examine the most recent data on injury fatalities among females and highlights activities of CDC's Injury Center. The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control's (NCIPC's) Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System, an online surveillance database, can be used to examine injury deaths...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292505/unintentional-methadone-and-buprenorphine-exposures-in-children-developing-prevention-messages
#9
Lauren Schwartz, Maria Mercurio-Zappala, Mary Ann Howland, Robert S Hoffman, Mark K Su
OBJECTIVES: To develop key messages for methadone and buprenorphine safety education material based on an analysis of calls to the NYC Poison Control Center (NYC PCC) and designed for distribution to caregivers of young children. METHODS: Retrospective review of all calls for children 5 years of age and younger involving methadone or buprenorphine from January 1, 2000, to June 15, 2014. A data abstraction form was completed for each case to capture patient demographics, exposure and caller sites, caller relation to patient, qualitative information regarding the exposure scenario, the product information, if naloxone was given, and the medical outcome of the case...
March 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283119/the-global-burden-of-lead-toxicity-attributable-to-informal-used-lead-acid-battery-sites
#10
Bret Ericson, Phillip Landrigan, Mark Patrick Taylor, Joseph Frostad, Jack Caravanos, John Keith, Richard Fuller
BACKGROUND: Prior calculations of the burden of disease from environmental lead exposure in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not included estimates of the burden from lead-contaminated sites because of a lack of exposure data, resulting in an underestimation of a serious public health problem. OBJECTIVE: We used publicly available statistics and detailed site assessment data to model the number of informal used lead-acid battery (ULAB) recyclers and the resulting exposures in 90 LMICs...
September 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280466/embryonic-stem-cell-derived-neurons-grown-on-multi-electrode-arrays-as-a-novel-in-vitro-bioassay-for-the-detection-of-clostridium-botulinum-neurotoxins
#11
Stephen P Jenkinson, Denis Grandgirard, Martina Heidemann, Anne Tscherter, Marc-André Avondet, Stephen L Leib
Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most poisonous naturally occurring protein toxins known to mankind and are the causative agents of the severe and potentially life-threatening disease botulism. They are also known for their application as cosmetics and as unique bio-pharmaceuticals to treat an increasing number of neurological and non-neurological disorders. Currently, the potency of biologically active BoNT for therapeutic use is mainly monitored by the murine LD50-assay, an ethically disputable test causing suffering and death of a considerable number of mice...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270650/successful-treatment-of-severe-metabolic-acidosis-due-to-acute-aluminum-phosphide-poisoning-with-peritoneal-dialysis-a-report-of-2-cases
#12
Bahman Bashardoust, Esmaeil Farzaneh, Afshin Habibzadeh, Mir Salim Seyyed Sadeghi
Aluminum phosphide poisoning is common in our region. It can cause severe metabolic acidosis and persistent hypotension, which lead to cardiogenic shock and subsequently mortality. Oliguric or anuric acute kidney injury is seen in almost all patients with aluminum phosphide poisoning. Renal replacement therapies are recommended in these patients to improve metabolic acidosis and increase the rate of survival. We report 2 cases of severe acute aluminum phosphide poisoning treated successfully with peritoneal dialysis...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267745/disturbed-sensorimotor-and-electrophysiological-patterns-in-lead-intoxicated-rats-during-development-are-restored-by-curcumin-i
#13
Hind Benammi, Hasna Erazi, Omar El Hiba, Laurent Vinay, Hélène Bras, Jean-Charles Viemari, Halima Gamrani
Lead poisoning is one of the most significant health problem of environmental origin. It is known to cause different damages in the central and peripheral nervous system which could be represented by several neurophysiological and behavioral symptoms. In this study we firstly investigated the effect of lead prenatal exposure in rats to (3g/L), from neonatal to young age, on the motor/sensory performances, excitability of the spinal cord and gaits during development. Then we evaluated neuroprotective effects of curcumin I (Cur I) against lead neurotoxicity, by means of grasping and cliff avoidance tests to reveal the impairment of the sensorimotor functions in neonatal rats exposed prenatally to lead...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262185/cognitive-sequelae-of-methanol-poisoning-involve-executive-dysfunction-and-memory-impairment-in-cross-sectional-and-long-term-perspective
#14
O Bezdicek, J Michalec, M Vaneckova, J Klempir, I Liskova, Z Seidl, B Janikova, M Miovsky, J Hubacek, P Diblik, P Kuthan, A Pilin, I Kurcova, Z Fenclova, V Petrik, T Navratil, D Pelclova, S Zakharov, E Ruzicka
Methanol poisoning leads to lesions in the basal ganglia and subcortical white matter, as well as to demyelination and atrophy of the optic nerve. However, information regarding cognitive deficits in a large methanol sample is lacking. The principal aim of the present study was to identify the cognitive sequelae of methanol poisoning and their morphological correlates. A sample of 50 patients (METH; age 48 ± 13 years), 3-8 months after methanol poisoning, and 57 control subjects (CS; age 49 ± 13 years) were administered a neuropsychological battery...
March 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259507/-amputation-of-a-limb-secondary-to-snakebite-in-a-child
#15
K J E Kouassi, K I M'bra, B J L N Sery, L B Yao, K L Krah, G F Lohourou, A A N Kouassi, I Traore, Y A G R A Asséré, M Kodo
Amputation of a limb is a serious consequence of snakebite poisoning. It is caused by the toxicity of the venom and often the use of a tourniquet in some patients, which can lead to limb ischemia. Management of the victim aims to ensure survival and preserve the function of the bitten limb. Antivenom immunotherapy is the only specific treatment for ophidian envenomation. It is indicated in cases of general symptoms and signs related to the bite, but also if local damage could lead to the loss of limb function...
March 1, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258856/highly-sensitive-gqds-mno2-based-assay-with-turn-on-fluorescence-for-monitoring-cerebrospinal-acetylcholinesterase-fluctuation-a-biomarker-for-organophosphorus-pesticides-poisoning-and-management
#16
Jingjing Deng, Dingkun Lu, Xiaolei Zhang, Guoyue Shi, Tianshu Zhou
In this study, we demonstrated an assay with turn-on fluorescence for monitoring cerebrospinal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) fluctuation as a biomarker for organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) poisoning and management based on single layer MnO2 nanosheets with graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as signal readout. Initially, the fluorescence of GQDs was quenched by MnO2 nanosheets mainly due to the inner filter effect (IFE). However, with the presence of reductive thiocholine (TCh), the enzymatic product, hydrolyzed from acetylthiocholine (ATCh) by AChE, the redox reaction between MnO2 and TCh occurred, leading to the destruction of the MnO2 nanosheets, and thereby IFE was diminished gradually...
February 28, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251454/assessing-multi-tissue-lead-burdens-in-free-flying-obligate-scavengers-in-eastern-north-america
#17
Shannon Behmke, Patricia Mazik, Todd Katzner
Avian scavengers are regularly exposed to anthropogenic lead. Although many studies evaluate lead concentrations of either blood or tissues of lead-poisoned birds, there is comparatively less research on lead burdens of free-flying, apparently healthy individuals and populations. Here, we address this lack of information by assessing lead levels of multiple tissues (femur, liver, kidney, breast muscle, thigh muscle) in free-flying black vultures (n = 98) and turkey vultures (n = 10) collected outside the hunting season...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251146/exploring-complexity-of-deliberate-self-poisoning-through-network-analysis
#18
Leila R Kalankesh, Mostafa Farahbakhsh, Rebecca A Fein, Nazila Moftian, Zahra Nasiry
The purpose of this research was to examine the complexity of circumstances that result in deliberate self-poisoning cases. For the purposes of this paper, the cases were patients that presented for care and were admitted to the specialty hospital in Northwest of Iran. The research examined the problems preceding deliberate self-poisoning and the interrelations among them by applying network analysis methods. The network was scored for degrees of centrality and betweenness centrality. Structural analysis of network also was conducted using block modelling...
2017: Psychiatry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235987/staphylococcus-enterotoxin-profile-of-china-isolates-and-the-superantigenicity-of-some-novel-enterotoxins
#19
Menglu Shen, Yi Li, Linlin Zhang, Songbao Dai, Jiashun Wang, Yongqing Li, Lei Zhang, Jinhai Huang
The genus of staphylococcus widely distributes in environments and contributes to a variety of animal and human diseases. The enterotoxins (SEs) secreted by this type of pathogen have been the leading cause of bacterial toxic shock syndrome and food poisoning, and thus present a substantial concern to public health. In this study, we analyzed the superantigen profile of 122 staphylococcus strains isolated from diverse sources. When screened for the presence and prevalence of 17 known se or se-like (sel) genes, except selj, all other genes were detected in these isolates...
February 24, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231548/spatiotemporal-exposome-dynamics-of-soil-lead-and-children-s-blood-lead-pre-and-ten-years-post-hurricane-katrina-lead-and-other-metals-on-public-and-private-properties-in-the-city-of-new-orleans-louisiana-u-s-a
#20
Howard W Mielke, Christopher R Gonzales, Eric T Powell, Paul W Mielke
BACKGROUND: Anthropogenic re-distribution of lead (Pb) principally through its use in gasoline additives and lead-based paints have transformed the urban exposome. This unique study tracks urban-scale soil Pb (SPb) and blood Pb (BPb) responses of children living in public and private communities in New Orleans before and ten years after Hurricane Katrina (29 August 2005). OBJECTIVES: To compare and evaluate associations of pre- and ten years post-Katrina SPb and children's BPb on public and private residential census tracts in the core and outer areas of New Orleans, and to examine correlations between SPb and nine other soil metals...
February 20, 2017: Environmental Research
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