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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932363/cadmium-toxicity-and-treatment-an-update
#1
REVIEW
Mehrdad Rafati Rahimzadeh, Mehravar Rafati Rahimzadeh, Sohrab Kazemi, Ali-Akbar Moghadamnia
Cadmium poisoning has been reported from many parts of the world. It is one of the global health problems that affect many organs and in some cases it can cause deaths annually. Long-term exposure to cadmium through air, water, soil, and food leads to cancer and organ system toxicity such as skeletal, urinary, reproductive, cardiovascular, central and peripheral nervous, and respiratory systems. Cadmium levels can be measured in the blood, urine, hair, nail and saliva samples. Patients with cadmium toxicity need gastrointestinal tract irrigation, supportive care, and chemical decontamination traditional-based chelation therapy with appropriate new chelating agents and nanoparticle-based antidotes...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930175/sensitive-genotyping-of-foodborne-associated-human-noroviruses-and-hepatitis-a-virus-using-an-array-based-platform
#2
Beatriz Quiñones, Bertram G Lee, Todd J Martinsky, Jaszemyn C Yambao, Paul K Haje, Mark Schena
Human noroviruses (NoV) are the leading cause of human gastroenteritis in populations of all ages and are linked to most of the foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is another important foodborne enteric virus and is considered the most common agent causing acute liver disease worldwide. In the present study, a focused, low-density DNA microarray was developed and validated for the simultaneous identification of foodborne-associated genotypes of NoV and HAV. By employing a novel algorithm, capture probes were designed to target variable genomic regions commonly used for typing these foodborne viruses...
September 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919698/skeletal-lead-burden-of-the-british-royal-navy-in-colonial-antigua
#3
K L Giffin, T Swanston, I Coulthard, A R Murphy, D M L Cooper, T L Varney
Lead (Pb) has been known to be a cause of human poisoning since ancient times, but despite this, it was a widely used metal in the European colonial period. In this study, the relationship between Pb exposure and the demographic variables ancestry and age was explored by comparing the bone Pb levels of individuals that were of either African or European ancestry, excavated from a British Royal Navy hospital cemetery (1793-1822 CE) at English Harbour in Antigua, West Indies. More direct comparisons of Pb levels between the two ancestral groups were possible in this study because of the unsegregated nature of this cemetery...
July 2017: Int J Osteoarchaeol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916365/sodium-phenylbutyrate-abrogates-african-swine-fever-virus-replication-by-disrupting-the-virus-induced-hypoacetylation-status-of-histone-h3k9-k14
#4
Gonçalo Frouco, Ferdinando B Freitas, Carlos Martins, Fernando Ferreira
African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a highly lethal disease in swine for which neither a vaccine nor treatment are available. Recently, a new class of drugs that inhibit histone deacetylases enzymes (HDACs) has received an increasing interest as antiviral agents. Considering studies by others showing that valproic acid, an HDAC inhibitor (HDACi), blocks the replication of enveloped viruses and that ASFV regulates the epigenetic status of the host cell by promoting heterochromatinization and recruitment of class I HDACs to viral cytoplasmic factories, the antiviral activity of four HDACi against ASFV was evaluated in this study...
September 13, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916327/glycogen-metabolism-in-brain-and-neurons-astrocytes-metabolic-cooperation-can-be-altered-by-pre-and-neonatal-lead-pb-exposure
#5
Irena Baranowska-Bosiacka, Anna Falkowska, Izabela Gutowska, Magdalena Gąssowska, Agnieszka Kolasa-Wołosiuk, Maciej Tarnowski, Karina Chibowska, Marta Goschorska, Dariusz Chlubek
Lead (Pb) is an environmental neurotoxin which particularly affects the developing brain but the molecular mechanism of its neurotoxicity still needs clarification. The aim of this paper was to examine whether pre- and neonatal exposure to Pb (concentration of Pb in rat offspring blood below the "threshold level") may affect the brain's energy metabolism in neurons and astrocytes via the amount of available glycogen. We investigated the glycogen concentration in the brain, as well as the expression of the key enzymes involved in glycogen metabolism in brain: glycogen synthase 1 (Gys1), glycogen phosphorylase (PYGM, an isoform active in astrocytes; and PYGB, an isoform active in neurons) and phosphorylase kinase β (PHKB)...
September 12, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914048/impacts-of-pb-and-so2-poisoning-on-ceo2-wo3-tio2-sio2-scr-catalyst
#6
Yue Peng, Dong Wang, Bing Li, Chizhong Wang, Junhua Li, John C Crittenden, Jiming Hao
A CeO2-WO3/TiO2-SiO2 catalyst was employed to investigate the poisoning mechanisms of Pb and SO2 during selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The introduction of Pb and SO2 suppressed the catalytic performance by decreasing the numbers of surface acid and redox sites. Specifically, Pb preferentially bonded with amorphous WO3 species rather than with CeO2, decreasing the numbers of both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites but exerting less influence on the reducibility. SO2 preferentially bonded with CeO2 as sulfate species rather than with WO3, leading to a significant decrease in reducibility and the loss of surface active oxygen groups...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912981/physician-beware-severe-cyanide-toxicity-from-amygdalin-tablets-ingestion
#7
Tam Dang, Cham Nguyen, Phu N Tran
Despite the risk of cyanide toxicity and lack of efficacy, amygdalin is still used as alternative cancer treatment. Due to the highly lethal nature of cyanide toxicity, many patients die before getting medical care. Herein, we describe the case of a 73-year-old female with metastatic pancreatic cancer who developed cyanide toxicity from taking amygdalin. Detailed history and physical examination prompted rapid clinical recognition and treatment with hydroxocobalamin, leading to resolution of her cyanide toxicity...
2017: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911605/7-n-acetylcysteine-pyrrole-conjugate-a-potent-dna-reactive-metabolite-of-pyrrolizidine-alkaloids
#8
Xiaobo He, Liang Ma, Qingsu Xia, Peter P Fu
Plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widespread throughout the world and are the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. PAs require metabolic activation to form reactive dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro-PAs) that are capable of alkylating cellular DNA and proteins, form (±)-6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-DNA and DHP-protein adducts, and lead to cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and tumorigenicity. In this study, we determined that the metabolism of riddelliine and monocrotaline by human and rat liver microsomes in the presence of N-acetylcysteine both produced 7-N-acetylcysteine-DHP (7-NAC-DHP) and DHP...
October 2016: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902309/-lead-poisoning-and-marginalization-in-newborns-of-morelos-mexico
#9
Martha María Téllez-Rojo, Luis F Bautista-Arredondo, Vesta Richardson, Daniel Estrada-Sánchez, Laura Ávila-Jiménez, Camilo Ríos, Alejandra Cantoral-Preciado, Martín Romero-Martínez, Delia Flores-Pimentel, María Del Carmen Melo-Zurita, Anita Romero-Ramírez, Marco Antonio León-Mazón, Sergio Montes, Richard Fuller, Mauricio Hernández-Ávila
Objective: To determine the prevalence of lead (Pb) poisoning at birth in Morelos, analyze its distribution by social marginalization level, and estimate the association with the use of lead glazed ceramics (LGC). Materials and methods: Blood lead level (BLL) in umbilical cord was measured in a representative sample of 300 randomly selected births at the Morelos Health Services and state IMSS. Results: The prevalence of Pb poisoning at birth (BLL> 5μg/dL) was 14...
May 2017: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894784/blood-lead-levels-in-asymptomatic-opium-addict-patients-a-case-control-study
#10
Kazem Ghaemi, Atefeh Ghoreishi, Navid Rabiee, Samira Alinejad, Esmaeil Farzaneh, Alireza Amirabadi Zadeh, Mohammad Abdollahi, Omid Mehrpour
INTRODUCTION: One of the newest non-occupational sources of lead contamination is drug addiction, which has recently been addressed as a major source of lead poisoning in some countries. The present study aimed to investigate the blood lead level (BLL) of asymptomatic opium addicts. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted during a one-year period to compare BLL of three groups consisting of opium addicts, patients under methadone maintenance therapy (MMT), and healthy individuals...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894723/lead-poisoning-among-opium-users-in-iran-a-possible-new-emerging-epidemic-in-the-region
#11
Seyed Ramin Radfar, Pardis Nematollahi, Ali Farhoudian, Alireza Noroozi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894590/trpa1-channel-mediates-organophosphate-induced-delayed-neuropathy
#12
Qiang Ding, Sui Fang, Xueqin Chen, Youxin Wang, Jian Li, Fuyun Tian, Xiang Xu, Bernard Attali, Xin Xie, Zhaobing Gao
The organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN), often leads to paresthesias, ataxia and paralysis, occurs in the late-stage of acute poisoning or after repeated exposures to organophosphate (OP) insecticides or nerve agents, and may contribute to the Gulf War Syndrome. The acute phase of OP poisoning is often attributed to acetylcholinesterase inhibition. However, the underlying mechanism for the delayed neuropathy remains unknown and no treatment is available. Here we demonstrate that TRPA1 channel (Transient receptor potential cation channel, member A1) mediates OPIDN...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889271/neurotoxicity-of-metal-mixtures
#13
V M Andrade, M Aschner, A P Marreilha Dos Santos
Metals are the oldest toxins known to humans. Metals differ from other toxic substances in that they are neither created nor destroyed by humans (Casarett and Doull's, Toxicology: the basic science of poisons, 8th edn. McGraw-Hill, London, 2013). Metals are of great importance in our daily life and their frequent use makes their omnipresence and a constant source of human exposure. Metals such as arsenic [As], lead [Pb], mercury [Hg], aluminum [Al] and cadmium [Cd] do not have any specific role in an organism and can be toxic even at low levels...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888530/economic-implications-of-unintentional-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-in-the-united-states-and-the-cost-and-benefit-of-co-detectors
#14
Tao Ran, Tursynbek Nurmagambetov, Kanta Sircar
BACKGROUND: Unintentional non-fire-related (UNFR) carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning has been among the leading causes of poisoning in the United States. Current estimation of its economic burden is important for an optimal allocation of resources for UNFR CO poisoning prevention. OBJECTIVE: This study was to estimate the morbidity costs of UNFR CO poisoning. We also compared the costs and benefits of installing CO detectors in residences. METHODS: We used 2010-2014 charges and cost data from Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), and Truven© Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters and Medicare Supplemental data...
August 23, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884655/screening-for-the-presence-of-lipophilic-marine-biotoxins-in-shellfish-samples-using-the-neuro-2a-bioassay
#15
Marcia Bodero, Toine F H Bovee, Si Wang, Ron L A P Hoogenboom, Mirjam D Klijnstra, Liza Portier, Peter J M Hendriksen, Arjen Gerssen
The neuro-2a bioassay is considered as one of the most promising cell-based in vitro bioassays for the broad screening of seafood products for the presence of marine biotoxins. The neuro-2a assay has been shown to detect a wide array of toxins like paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs), ciguatoxins, and also lipophilic marine biotoxins (LMBs). However, the neuro-2a assay is rarely used for routine testing of samples due to matrix effects that, for example, lead to false positives when testing for LMBs. As a result there are only limited data on validation and evaluation of its performance on real samples...
September 8, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884628/the-effect-of-tannic-acid-on-bone-mechanical-and-geometric-properties-bone-density-and-trabecular-histomorphometry-as-well-as-the-morphology-of-articular-and-growth-cartilages-in-rats-co-exposed-to-cadmium-and-lead-is-dose-dependent
#16
Ewa Tomaszewska, Piotr Dobrowolski, Anna Winiarska-Mieczan, Małgorzata Kwiecień, Siemowit Muszyński, Agnieszka Tomczyk
Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are toxic elements that accumulate to the largest extent in bones. Rats were used to investigate whether tannic acid (TA; 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%. 2.0%, or 2.5%) would have a protective effect on the structure and properties of bones in the case of exposure to Cd and Pb (diet: 7 mg Cd/kg and 50 mg Pb/kg) for 6 weeks. The effects of administration of TA in Cd- and Pb-poisoned rats on bone characteristics and the morphology of articular and growth cartilages were determined. All the rats administered Cd and Pb had an enhanced Cd and Pb concentration in blood plasma and bone and reduced bone Ca content irrespective of the TA administration...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883871/drug-induced-apnea-in-children-admitted-to-loghman-hakim-hospital-tehran-iran
#17
Narges Gholami, Fathi Alwasabi, Fariba Farnaghi
OBJECTIVE: Environmental hazards, including poisons, can cause irreparable effects and even fatal for children. Poisoning in children is common and serious, but often is preventable and treatable. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of drugs and chemical toxicity leading to apnea. In addition, we detected type of drug that induced apnea among children. MATERIALS & METHODS: In a retrospective cross-sectional study from Apr 2012 to Apr 2013, data of all hospitalized drug-induced Apnea in children were collected through hospital records...
2017: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878749/in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-impact-of-the-probiotic-e-coli-nissle-1917-on-campylobacter-jejuni-s-invasion-and-intracellular-survival-in-human-colonic-cells
#18
Yosra A Helmy, Issmat I Kassem, Anand Kumar, Gireesh Rajashekara
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial food poisoning in humans. Due to the rise in antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter, there exists a need to develop antibiotic-independent interventions to control infections in humans. Here, we evaluated the impact of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN), a probiotic strain, on C. jejuni's invasion and intracellular survival in polarized human colonic cells (HT-29). To further understand how EcN mediates its impact, the expression of 84 genes associated with tight junctions and cell adhesion was profiled in HT-29 cells after treatment with EcN and challenge with C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875619/lead-poisoning-at-an-indoor-firing-range
#19
Kyung Wook Kang, Won Ju Park
In March 2014, a 39-year-old Korean male presented with a 6-month history of various nonspecific symptoms including dizziness, fatigue, asthenia, irritability, elevated blood pressure, palpitation, eyestrain, and tinnitus. His occupational history revealed that he had been working as an indoor firing range manager for 13 months; therefore, he was subjected to a blood lead level (BLL) test. The test results showed a BLL of 64 μg/dL; hence, he was diagnosed with lead poisoning and immediately withdrawn from work...
October 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874945/pediatric-exposures-to-topical-benzocaine-preparations-reported-to-a-statewide-poison-control-system
#20
Rais Vohra, Serena Huntington, Jennifer Koike, Kevin Le, Richard J Geller
INTRODUCTION: Topical benzocaine is a local anesthetic commonly used to relieve pain caused by teething, periodontal irritation, burns, wounds, and insect bites. Oral preparations may contain benzocaine concentrations ranging from 7.5% to 20%. Pediatric exposure to such large concentrations may result in methemoglobinemia and secondarily cause anemia, cyanosis, and hypoxia. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of exposures reported to a statewide poison control system...
August 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
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