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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799240/adaptive-functioning-and-its-associated-factors-among-girl-children-residing-in-slum-areas-of-bhubaneswar-india
#1
Ansuman Panigrahi, Sai C Das, Prabhudarsan Sahoo
AIM: Adaptive functioning develops throughout early childhood, and its limitation is a reflection that the child has developmental or emotional problems or even mental retardation. Little is known about the adaptive functioning or developmental status of slum children. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken during the year 2014 to assess the status of adaptive functioning among girl children aged between 3 and 9 years residing in slum areas of Bhubaneswar and to explore the factors associated with poor adaptive functioning...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793024/socioenvironmental-conditions-and-intestinal-parasitic-infections-in-brazilian-urban-slums-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Caroline Ferraz Ignacio, Milena Enderson Chagas da Silva, Natasha Berendonk Handam, Maria de Fatima Leal Alencar, Adriana Sotero-Martins, Martha Macedo de Lima Barata, Antonio Henrique Almeida de Moraes
Methods: A cross-sectional study covering an agglomeration of urban slums was conducted between 2015 and 2016 using participants observation, a socioeconomic survey, and the spontaneous sedimentation method with three slides per sample to analyze fresh stool specimens ( n =595) searching for intestinal parasites. Results: Endolimax nana ( n =95, 16.0%) and Entamoeba coli ( n =65, 10.9%) were the most frequently identified agents, followed by Giardia intestinalis ( n =24, 4...
August 7, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749766/identifying-potential-sources-of-exposure-along-the-child-feces-management-pathway-a-cross-sectional-study-among-urban-slums-in-odisha-india
#3
Fiona Majorin, Belen Torondel, Parimita Routray, Manaswini Rout, Thomas Clasen
Child feces represent a particular health risk to children risk due to increased prevalence of enteric agents and a higher risk of exposure owing to exploratory behaviors of young children. The safe management of such feces presents a significant challenge, not only for the 2.4 billion who lack access to improved sanitation, but also due to unhygienic feces collection and disposal and poor subsequent handwashing practices. We assessed potential sources of fecal exposure by documenting child feces management practices in a cross-sectional study of 851 children < 5 years of age from 694 households in 42 slums in two cities in Odisha, India...
July 24, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749402/coverage-of-childhood-vaccination-among-children-aged-12-23-months-tamil-nadu-2015-india
#4
Manoj V Murhekar, P Kamaraj, K Kanagasabai, G Elavarasu, T Daniel Rajasekar, K Boopathi, Sanjay Mehendale
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: District-Level Household Survey-4 (DLHS-4) indicated that during 2012-2013, only 56 per cent of children aged 12-23 months in Tamil Nadu were fully vaccinated, which were lesser than those reported in earlier national surveys. We, therefore, conducted cluster surveys to estimate coverage of childhood vaccination in the State, and also to identify the factors associated with low coverage. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 15 strata [municipal corporation non-slum (n=1), municipal corporation slum (n=1), hilly (n=1), rural (n=6) and urban (n=6)]...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746325/effect-of-maternal-socio-demographic-factors-and-child-feeding-practice-on-wasting-among-under-five-years-children-in-slum-area-of-rupandehi-district-in-nepal
#5
S Gautam, S Ruchal, B Timalsina, D Acharya, B Khadka, V Gautam, J K Singh
INTRODUCTION: Childhood wasting although well studied elsewhere, it has not been well understood about in slum area of Nepal. This study aimed to assess effect of socio-demographic factors and child feeding practice in the determination of wasting among the children under five years of age in slum area of Nepal. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional study was performed among 150 children under five years of age from the slum area of Nepal between 1st January and 28th February 2013 using simple random sampling techniques...
April 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729309/the-role-of-a-decision-support-smartphone-application-in-enhancing-community-health-volunteers-effectiveness-to-improve-maternal-and-newborn-outcomes-in-nairobi-kenya-quasi-experimental-research-protocol
#6
Pauline Bakibinga, Eva Kamande, Milka Omuya, Abdhalah K Ziraba, Catherine Kyobutungi
INTRODUCTION: Improving maternal and newborn survival remains major aspirations for many countries in the Global South. Slum settlements, a result of rapid urbanisation in many developing countries including Kenya, exhibit high levels of maternal and neonatal mortality. There are limited referral mechanisms for sick neonates and their mothers from the community to healthcare facilities with ability to provide adequate care. In this study, we specifically plan to develop and assess the added value of having community health volunteers (CHVs) use smartphones to identify and track mothers and children in a bid to reduce pregnancy-related complications and newborn deaths in the urban slums of Kamukunji subcounty in Nairobi, Kenya...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723927/piped-water-supply-interruptions-and-acute-diarrhea-among-under-five-children-in-addis-ababa-slums-ethiopia-a-matched-case-control-study
#7
Metadel Adane, Bezatu Mengistie, Girmay Medhin, Helmut Kloos, Worku Mulat
BACKGROUND: The problem of intermittent piped water supplies that exists in low- and middle-income countries is particularly severe in the slums of sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known about whether there is deterioration of the microbiological quality of the intermittent piped water supply at a household level and whether it is a factor in reducing or increasing the occurrence of acute diarrhea among under-five children in slums of Addis Ababa. This study aimed to determine the association of intermittent piped water supplies and point-of-use (POU) contamination of household stored water by Escherichia coli (E...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722635/early-life-inflammation-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome-in-bangladeshi-infants-growing-up-in-adversity
#8
Nona M Jiang, Fahmida Tofail, Jennie Z Ma, Rashidul Haque, Beth Kirkpatrick, Charles A Nelson, William A Petri
Exposure to profound adversity can negatively affect the neurodevelopment of children, but biologic mechanisms that underlie this association remain unknown. We sought to determine whether elevated levels of the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in Bangladeshi children. A total of 422 infant-mother pairs from an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh, were enrolled at birth and followed prospectively. Inflammation was measured with sCD14, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 at 18 weeks, and CRP at 6, 18, 40, and 53 weeks...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722608/active-tuberculosis-case-finding-in-haiti
#9
Jack Masur, Serena P Koenig, Pierrot Julma, Oksana Ocheretina, Maria A Durán-Mendicuti, Daniel W Fitzgerald, Jean W Pape
In 2010, Haiti suffered from a devastating earthquake; data on the impact on the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic are limited. From January to June 2013, we conducted active case finding at the household level in a slum in Port-au-Prince. Community health workers identified individuals with cough ≥ 2 weeks, and referred them for evaluation. Contact tracing was conducted for patients with active TB. Of an estimated 7,500 residents screened, 394 (5%) had cough and were tested for TB. One hundred (25%) were diagnosed with active TB; 53 (53%) were smear positive...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721954/out-of-pocket-health-expenditure-and-sources-of-financing-for-delivery-postpartum-and-neonatal-health-in-urban-slums-of-bhubaneswar-odisha-india
#10
Kirti Sundar Sahu, Bhavna Bharati
BACKGROUND: Out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) is an obstacle in the path of getting universal health coverage in India. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the OOPE, sources of funding, and experience of catastrophic expenditure (CE) for healthcare related to delivery, postpartum, and neonatal morbidity. METHODS: A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 240 recently delivered women from the slums of Bhubaneswar, Odisha...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719789/waist-to-height-ratio-in-indian-women-comparison-with-traditional-indices-of-obesity-association-with-inflammatory-biomarkers-and-lipid-profile
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sharvari Dilip Malshe, Shobha Anand Udipi
We compared waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with traditional anthropometric indices in healthy women aged 21 to 45 years from urban slums of Mumbai city, India. Lipid profile and inflammatory markers were measured in a subsample of 200 women, and their relationship with WHtR was examined. Mean WHtR was 0.50 ± 0.1, but a little more than half (51.9%) of the women had WHtR ≥0.50. WHtR could correctly identify centrally obese adult women, even when they were categorized as healthy or normal according to body mass index, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, and percentage body fat...
July 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718712/comparison-of-domains-of-self-reported-physical-activity-between-kenyan-adult-urban-slum-dwellers-and-national-estimates
#12
Hilde E Groot, Stella K Muthuri
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) - largely the result of modifiable behavioral risks such as physical inactivity that gradually develop into physiological risks - are a main cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Kenya, a nationally representative STEPwise survey of risk factors for NCDs established that 10.8% of Kenyans accumulated low levels of total physical activity. OBJECTIVES: The goal of our analyses was to compare domains of self-reported physical activity in two Nairobi slums to national estimates...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716067/molecular-characterization-of-group-a-rotaviruses-in-mukuru-slums-kenya-detection-of-novel-strains-circulating-in-children-below-5%C3%A2-years-of-age
#13
Joshua Ndung'u Gikonyo, James Nyangao, Cecilia Mbae, Carlene Sang, Eliud Njagi, Joseph Ngeranwa, Mathew Esona, Mapaseka L Seheri, Grace W Gitau, Kedra Raini, Samuel Kariuki
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is a public health concern due to high morbidity and mortality among children. Rotaviruses are the leading etiological agents of severe gastroenteritis in children and accounts for more than half a million deaths per year in Africa. The study aimed at investigating the rotavirus genotypes that were circulating in children aged 5 years and below in and around Mukuru slums in Nairobi County Kenya. METHODS: A purposive cross sectional sampling method was applied where 166 samples were collected from children below 5 years of age and taken to Kenya Medical Research Institute virology laboratory...
July 17, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711437/intestinal-parasitic-infections-current-status-and-associated-risk-factors-among-school-aged-children-in-an-archetypal-african-urban-slum-in-nigeria
#14
Vincent P Gyang, Ting-Wu Chuang, Chien-Wei Liao, Yueh-Lun Lee, Olaoluwa P Akinwale, Akwaowo Orok, Olusola Ajibaye, Ajayi J Babasola, Po-Ching Cheng, Chia-Mei Chou, Ying-Chieh Huang, Pasaiko Sonko, Chia-Kwung Fan
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among school aged children (SAC) in Nigeria remains endemic, hence the need for regular surveillance to attract the attention of policy makers. This cross-sectional study investigated the current prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among school aged children in an urban slum of Lagos City, Nigeria. METHODS: Single stool samples from 384 school aged children (188 boys and 196 girls) were examined by employing Merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration (MIFC) and Kato-Katz methods...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697010/estimating-population-salt-intake-in-india-using-spot-urine-samples
#15
Kristina S Petersen, Claire Johnson, Sailesh Mohan, Kris Rogers, Roopa Shivashankar, Sudhir R Thout, Priti Gupta, Feng J He, Graham A MacGregor, Jacqui Webster, Joseph A Santos, Anand Krishnan, Pallab K Maulik, K Srinath Reddy, Ruby Gupta, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Bruce Neal
OBJECTIVE: To compare estimates of mean population salt intake in North and South India derived from spot urine samples versus 24-h urine collections. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey, participants were sampled from slum, urban and rural communities in North and in South India. Participants provided 24-h urine collections, and random morning spot urine samples. Salt intake was estimated from the spot urine samples using a series of established estimating equations...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658883/artificial-neural-network-ann-model-to-predict-depression-among-geriatric-population-at-a-slum-in-kolkata-india
#16
Arkaprabha Sau, Ishita Bhakta
INTRODUCTION: Depression is one of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity among the geriatric population. Although, the aging brain is more vulnerable to depression, it cannot be considered as physiological and an inevitable part of ageing. Various sociodemographic and morbidity factors are responsible for the depression among them. Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model depression can be predicted from various sociodemographic variables and co morbid conditions even at community level by the grass root level health care workers...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656596/if-i-do-not-have-enough-water-then-how-could-i-bring-additional-water-for-toilet-cleaning-addressing-water-scarcity-to-promote-hygienic-use-of-shared-toilets-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#17
Ronald E Saxton, Farzana Yeasmin, Mahbub-Ul Alam, Abdullah Al-Masud, Notan Chandra Dutta, Dalia Yeasmin, Stephen P Luby, Leanne Unicomb, Peter J Winch
OBJECTIVES: Provision of toilets is necessary but not sufficient to impact health as poor maintenance may impair toilet function and discourage their consistent use. Water in urban slums is both scarce and a prerequisite for toilet maintenance behaviors. We describe the development of behavior change communications and selection of low-cost water storage hardware to facilitate adequate flushing among users of shared toilets. METHODS: We conducted 9 focus group discussions and 6 ranking exercises with adult users of shared toilets (50 females, 35 males), then designed and implemented 3 pilot interventions to facilitate regular flushing and improve hygienic conditions of shared toilets...
June 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630642/infant-and-young-child-feeding-practice-among-mothers-with-0-24%C3%A2-months-old-children-in-slum-areas-of-bahir-dar-city-ethiopia
#18
Yeshalem Mulugeta Demilew, Tadese Ejigu Tafere, Dereje Berhanu Abitew
BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childhood is essential to ensure the health, growth and development of children. However, infant feeding practice is suboptimal in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. The slum area is a heavily populated urban informal settlement characterized by substandard housing, squalor, with a lack of reliable sanitation services, supply of clean water, reliable electricity, law enforcement and other basic services. Residents of the slum area were poor and less educated...
2017: International Breastfeeding Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625886/zoonotic-and-vector-borne-diseases-in-urban-slums-opportunities-for-intervention
#19
Federico Costa, Ticiana Carvalho-Pereira, Mike Begon, Lee Riley, James Childs
Urban slums provide conditions that increase the risk of exposure to vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens. Large interventions, such as social and sanitary changes, are a priority but their implementation is challenging. Integration between the multidisciplinary understanding of pathogens' dynamics and community participatory approaches is a key prevention strategy.
June 15, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610937/hookworm-infections-among-migrant-workers-in-malaysia-molecular-identification-of-necator-americanus-and-ancylostoma-duodenale
#20
Norhidayu Sahimin, Yvonne Ai Lian Lim, Benacer Douadi, Mohd Khairul Nizam Mohd Khalid, John-James Wilson, Jerzy M Behnke, Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain
Ongoing urbanisation of the working population as well as cross-border migration of workers particularly into large cities has contributed to the development and growth of urban slums. These deprived areas are conducive for the transmission of intestinal pathogens including hookworm. The aim of this study was to determine both the prevalence and species identity of hookworm infections among the migrant worker community in Malaysia. A total of 388 faecal samples were collected from migrant workers between September 2014 and August 2015, representing workers from five employment sectors: construction, manufacturing, agriculture and plantations, food services and domestic services...
June 10, 2017: Acta Tropica
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