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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915261/evaluation-of-a-community-based-intervention-to-improve-routine-childhood-vaccination-uptake-among-migrants-in-urban-slums-of-ludhiana-india
#1
Paramita Sengupta, Anoop Ivan Benjamin, Puja R Myles, Bontha V Babu
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the effectiveness of community-based interventions in improving vaccination uptake in migrant populations is limited. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based intervention to improve access to and uptake of childhood vaccinations among urban slum-dwelling migrant communities in Ludhiana, India. METHODS: A mixed-methods evaluation was conducted involving a post-intervention comparison of vaccination uptake in six randomly selected intervention and control slum communities...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906964/undernutrition-vitamin-a-and-iron-deficiency-are-associated-with-impaired-intestinal-mucosal-permeability-in-young-bangladeshi-children-assessed-by-lactulose-mannitol-test
#2
Md Iqbal Hossain, Rashidul Haque, Dinesh Mondal, Mustafa Mahfuz, Am Shamsir Ahmed, M Munirul Islam, Richard L Guerrant, William A Petri, Tahmeed Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Lactulose/mannitol (L:M) test has been used as a non-invasive marker of intestinal mucosal -integrity and -permeability (enteropathy). We investigated the association of enteropathy with anthropometrics, micronutrient- status, and morbidity in children. METHODS: The urine and blood samples were collected from 925 children aged 6-24 months residing in Mirpur slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh during November 2009 to April 2013. L:M test and micronutrient status were assessed in the laboratory of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) following standard procedure...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898665/extending-contact-tracing-into-the-community-within-a-50-metre-radius-of-an-index-tuberculosis-patient-using-xpert-mtb-rif-in-urban-pakistan-did-it-increase-case-detection
#3
Razia Fatima, Ejaz Qadeer, Aashifa Yaqoob, Mahboob Ul Haq, Suman S Majumdar, Hemant D Shewade, Robert Stevens, Jacob Creswell, Nasir Mahmood, Ajay M V Kumar
BACKGROUND: Currently, only 62% of incident tuberculosis (TB) cases are reported to the national programme in Pakistan. Several innovative interventions are being recommended to detect the remaining 'missed' TB cases. One such intervention involved expanding contact investigation to the community using the Xpert MTB/RIF test. METHODS: This was a before and after intervention study involving retrospective record review. Passive case finding and household contact investigation was routinely done in the pre-intervention period July 2011-June 2013...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890019/vitamin-a-deficiency-and-determinants-of-vitamin-a-status-in-bangladeshi-children-and-women-findings-of-a-national-survey
#4
Sabuktagin Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur Rahman, Nurul Alam, Am Shamsir Ahmed, Santhia Ireen, Ireen Akhter Chowdhury, Fatima Parveen Chowdhury, Sm Mustafizur Rahman, Tahmeed Ahmed
OBJECTIVE: Using data from the national micronutrients survey 2011-2012, the present study explored the status of subclinical vitamin A nutrition and the underlying determinants in the Bangladeshi population. DESIGN: A nationwide cross-sectional study. Settings The survey covered 150 clusters; fifty in each of rural, urban and slum strata. SUBJECTS: Three population groups: (i) pre-school age children (6-59 months; PSAC); (ii) school age children (6-14 years; SAC); and (iii) non-pregnant non-lactating women (15-49 years; NPNLW)...
November 28, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865243/lessons-learnt-from-active-tuberculosis-case-finding-in-an-urban-slum-setting-of-agra-city-india
#5
Banuru Muralidhara Prasad, Srinath Satyanarayana, Sarabjit Singh Chadha
Active case finding (ACF) is recognized as one of the key strategies to reach the missing 3 million cases in high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries. In India, we conducted ACF as a pilot project to assess its operational feasibility in four slums of Agra city in 2012 and covered 3940 households (in 14 wards) with a population of 21,870. Trained community volunteers visited households with an intention to provide information on TB and refer those with cough ≥2 weeks for sputum smear examination. Volunteers identified 8 persons with cough of ≥2 weeks by asking the first or the main respondent of the household...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865238/tuberculosis-prevalence-and-socio-economic-differentials-in-the-slums-of-four-metropolitan-cities-of-india
#6
Palaniappan Marimuthu
AIM: To understand tuberculosis (TB) prevalence among the slum dwellers of metropolitan cities of India and the factors associated with TB prevalence. METHODS: National Family Health Survey-III data for four metropolitan cities namely, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai was used for this study. RESULTS: Prevalence of TB is significantly (P=0.001) higher in the slums than non-slums of Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata cities. As the living standard increases, TB prevalence decreases...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863317/evaluating-promis-%C3%A2-applied-cognition-items-in-a-sample-of-older-adults-at-risk-for-cognitive-decline
#7
Molly Howland, Curtis Tatsuoka, Kathleen A Smyth, Martha Sajatovic
PROMIS(®) Applied Cognition is a short self-assessment of cognitive abilities and concerns that eliminates the need for a trained rater and provides online question banks that can be uniformly used across health care providers. This 12-month prospective study of 281 elderly individuals evaluates self-perceptions of cognitive functioning in relation to objective cognition, or assessment by an external rater, and compares PROMIS® Applied Cognition Abilities and Concerns subsets with commonly used "legacy" instruments...
November 1, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843827/anemia-and-its-determinants-among-women-of-reproductive-age-of-a-slum-in-kolkata-a-focus-group-discussion-among-health-workers-in-a-slum-of-kolkata
#8
Aparajita Dasgupta, Kaushik Sarkar, Ranadip Chowdhury, Arindam Ray, Bhaskar Shahbabu
CONTEXT: Anemia is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among women of reproductive age. Progress toward reducing the burden of anemia has been little despite efforts through decades. AIMS: We conducted this study to unearth the microlevel determinants of anemia among women of reproductive age. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This qualitative study was conducted in Urban Health Centre (UHC), Chetla. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A focus group discussion was held among all the eight health staffs, who were involved in reproductive and child health-related service delivery under UHC, Chetla...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833755/measurement-of-overweight-and-obesity-an-urban-slum-setting-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-comparison-of-four-anthropometric-indices
#9
Tilahun Nigatu Haregu, Samuel Oti, Thaddaeus Egondi, Catherine Kyobutungi
BACKGROUND: As a result of both genetic and environmental factors, the body composition and topography of African populations are presumed to be different from western populations. Accordingly, globally accepted anthropometric markers may perform differently in African populations. In the era of rapid emergence of cardio-vascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, evidence about the performance of these markers in African settings is essential. The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-relationships among the four main anthropometric indices in measuring overweight and obesity in an urban poor African setting...
2016: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812451/prevalence-of-enteropathogens-in-children-under-15%C3%A2-years-of-age-with-special-reference-to-parasites-in-kathmandu-nepal-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Sachita Dhital, Narayan Dutt Pant, Sanjeev Neupane, Saroj Khatiwada, Bijay Gaire, Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand, Padma Shrestha
In developing countries like Nepal, gastrointestinal infections due to various parasites are common causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Present study was carried out from June 2013 to December 2013, among the children (<15 years of age) of Kathmandu Valley. Stool samples were collected from total 600 children (350 from four public schools and slum areas of Kathmandu valley and 250 from pediatric department of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital). The main objectives of this study were to investigate the intestinal parasitic infections in children below 15 years of age and their risk factors...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806533/epidemiologic-correlates-of-chronic-respiratory-infections-in-adults-an-urban-slum-of-bhubaneswar-odisha-india
#11
Sonali Kar, Ipsa Mohapatra, Amrita Konar
INTRODUCTION: Urbanization is marked by emergence of slum areas, wherein migrants from the nearby villages stay in temporary establishments for seeking avenues of employment. These dwellings lack most of the essential living conditions like safe water, healthy living conditions and access to health services. This population is also vulnerable to social evils like alcohol and tobacco addiction. KIMS, a medical college in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India has an Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC) that caters to a slum population of nearly 12,000 population for their primary health needs...
August 4, 2016: Global Journal of Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793115/women-s-status-and-experiences-of-mistreatment-during-childbirth-in-uttar-pradesh-a-mixed-methods-study-using-cultural-health-capital-theory
#12
May Sudhinaraset, Emily Treleaven, Jason Melo, Kanksha Singh, Nadia Diamond-Smith
BACKGROUND: Mistreatment of women in healthcare settings during childbirth has been gaining attention globally. Mistreatment during childbirth directly and indirectly affects health outcomes, patient satisfaction, and the likelihood of delivering in a facility currently or in the future. It is important that we study patients' reports of mistreatment and abuse to develop a deeper understanding of how it is perpetrated, its consequences, and to identify potential points of intervention...
October 28, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788441/early-testing-of-new-sanitation-technology-for-urban-slums-the-case-of-the-blue-diversion-toilet
#13
Robert Tobias, Mark O'Keefe, Rahel Künzle, Heiko Gebauer, Harald Gründl, Eberhard Morgenroth, Wouter Pronk, Tove A Larsen
The toilets used most in informal urban settlements have detrimental consequences for the environment and human health due to the lack of proper collection and treatment of toilet waste. Concepts for safe, sustainable and affordable sanitation systems exist, but their feasibility and acceptance have to be investigated at an early stage of development, which is difficult due to the high costs of building working models. In this paper, we present an approach to estimate acceptance in a valid and representative form with only one working model, and apply it to test an innovative zero-emission toilet with recycling of wash water...
October 24, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788377/individual-and-contextual-characteristics-of-indoor-and-outdoor-falls-in-older-residents-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#14
Carla Ferreira do Nascimento, Yeda Aparecida Oliveira Duarte, Maria Lúcia Lebrão, Alexandre Dias Porto Chiavegatto Filho
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To analyze a representative sample of older individuals of São Paulo, Brazil, according to outdoor fallers, indoor fallers and non-fallers, and to identify biological and socioeconomic (individual and contextual) factors associated with the occurrence and place of falls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using data (n = 1345) from the 2010 wave of the Health, Wellbeing and Aging (SABE) Study, a representative sample of older residents (60 years and older) of São Paulo, Brazil...
January 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784996/effectiveness-of-the-health-complex-model-in-iranian-primary-health-care-reform-the-study-protocol
#15
Jafar Sadegh Tabrizi, Mostafa Farahbakhsh, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani, Roya Hassanzadeh, Akram Zakeri, Leili Abedi
BACKGROUND: Iranian traditional primary health care (PHC) system, although proven to be successful in some areas in rural populations, suffers major pitfalls in providing PHC services in urban areas especially the slum urban areas. The new government of Iran announced a health reform movement including the health reform in PHC system of Iran. The Health Complex Model (HCM) was chosen as the preferred health reform model for this purpose. METHODS: This paper aims to report a detailed research protocol for the assessment of the effectiveness of the HCM in Iran...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784577/microwave-treatment-of-faecal-sludge-from-intensively-used-toilets-in-the-slums-of-nairobi-kenya
#16
Peter M Mawioo, Christine M Hooijmans, Hector A Garcia, Damir Brdjanovic
Toilet facilities in highly dense areas such as the slum and emergency settlements fill up rapidly; thus, requiring frequent emptying. Consequently, big quantities of fresh faecal sludge (FS) containing large amounts of pathogens are generated. Fast and efficient FS treatment technologies are therefore required for safe treatment and disposal of the FS in such conditions. This study explores the applicability of a microwave (MW) technology for the treatment of fresh FS obtained from urine-diverting dry toilets placed in slum settlements in Nairobi, Kenya...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780498/factors-affecting-carriage-and-intensity-of-infection-of-calodium-hepaticum-within-norway-rats-rattus-norvegicus-from-an-urban-slum-environment-in-salvador-brazil
#17
R Walker, T Carvalho-Pereira, S Serrano, G Pedra, K Hacker, J Taylor, A Minter, A Pertile, A Panti-May, M Carvalho, F N Souza, N Nery, G Rodrigues, T Bahiense, M G Reis, A I Ko, J E Childs, M Begon, F Costa
Urban slum environments in the tropics are conducive to the proliferation and the spread of rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens to humans. Calodium hepaticum (Brancroft, 1893) is a zoonotic nematode known to infect a variety of mammalian hosts, including humans. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are considered the most important mammalian host of C. hepaticum and are therefore a potentially useful species to inform estimates of the risk to humans living in urban slum environments. There is a lack of studies systematically evaluating the role of demographic and environmental factors that influence both carriage and intensity of infection of C...
October 26, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776601/active-tuberculosis-case-finding-in-a-migrant-slum-community-mumbai-india
#18
Yatin Dholakia, Nerges Mistry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773615/quantifying-tap-to-household-water-quality-deterioration-in-urban-communities-in-vellore-india-the-impact-of-spatial-assumptions
#19
Tania M Alarcon Falconi, Alexandra V Kulinkina, Venkata Raghava Mohan, Mark R Francis, Deepthi Kattula, Rajiv Sarkar, Honorine Ward, Gagandeep Kang, Vinohar Balraj, Elena N Naumova
Municipal water sources in India have been found to be highly contaminated, with further water quality deterioration occurring during household storage. Quantifying water quality deterioration requires knowledge about the exact source tap and length of water storage at the household, which is not usually known. This study presents a methodology to link source and household stored water, and explores the effects of spatial assumptions on the association between tap-to-household water quality deterioration and enteric infections in two semi-urban slums of Vellore, India...
January 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771634/cross-sectional-serologic-assessment-of-immunity-to-poliovirus-in-differential-risk-areas-of-india-india-seroprevalence-survey-2014
#20
Mohammad Ahmad, Sunil Bahl, Abhishek Kunwar
OBJECTIVE: To assess the seroprevalence against all three poliovirus serotypes in traditional high risk areas in Bihar, lowest routine immunization coverage areas in Madhya Pradesh and migrant population living in Mumbai urban slums. DESIGN: Cross-sectional Survey. SETTING: Subjects selected by house to house visit (community based) and transported to government health facilities for further study procedures. PARTICIPANTS: 1137 randomly selected healthy infants 6-11 months of age residing in the selected high-risk areas...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
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