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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511647/low-smoke-chulha-in-indian-slums-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Megha Thakur, Esther A Boudewijns, Giridhara R Babu, Bjorn Winkens, Luc P de Witte, Jeroen Gruiskens, Preeti Sushama, Cristian T Ghergu, Onno C P van Schayck
BACKGROUND: Biomass fuel is used as a primary cooking source by more than half of the world's population, contributing to a high burden of disease. Although cleaner fuels are available, some households continue using solid fuels because of financial constraints and absence of infrastructure, especially in non-notified slums. The present study documents a randomised controlled study investigating the efficacy of improved cookstove on the personal exposure to air pollution and the respiratory health of women and children in an Indian slum...
May 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511415/impact-of-a-structured-tuberculosis-awareness-strategy-on-the-knowledge-and-behaviour-of-the-families-in-a-slum-area-in-chhattisgarh-india
#2
Janmejaya Samal, Ranjit Kumar Dehury
INTRODUCTION: Of different methods of disease prevention, health education and awareness programmes can empower people regarding several aspects of disease management and thereby enabling them in accessing the right treatment, in right time, at right place. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a structured Tuberculosis (TB) awareness strategy on the knowledge and behaviour of slum dwellers of Durg, Chhattisgarh, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A TB awareness intervention was implemented in terms of informing the houses of marginalized and vulnerable communities about TB, its symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and Revised National TB Control Program (RNTCP) services and the impact of the same was assessed through a survey questionnaire before and after the implementation of the intervention...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503934/score-disparity-between-the-mmse-and-the-slums
#3
Ann B Yoelin, Nathan W Saunders
BACKGROUND: Multiple brief cognitive instruments are available to assess cognitive impairment in older adults. However, not all instruments demonstrate the same effectiveness when utilized with higher educated adults. This study evaluates the score disparity between the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the St. Louis University Mental Status (SLUMS) Examination across the education spectrum. It was hypothesized that individuals with more years of formal education would produce higher scores on both the MMSE and SLUMS...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496441/discovery-of-novel-leptospirosis-vaccine-candidates-using-reverse-and-structural-vaccinology
#4
André Alex Grassmann, Frederico Schmitt Kremer, Júlia Cougo Dos Santos, Jéssica Dias Souza, Luciano da Silva Pinto, Alan John Alexander McBride
Leptospira spp. are diderm (two membranes) bacteria that infect mammals causing leptospirosis, a public health problem with global implications. Thousands of people die every year due to leptospirosis, especially in developing countries with tropical climates. Prophylaxis is difficult due to multiple factors, including the large number of asymptomatic hosts that transmit the bacteria, poor sanitation, increasing numbers of slum dwellers, and the lack of an effective vaccine. Several leptospiral recombinant antigens were evaluated as a replacement for the inactivated (bacterin) vaccine; however, success has been limited...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489890/unmasking-inequalities-sub-national-maternal-and-child-mortality-data-from-two-urban-slums-in-lagos-nigeria-tells-the-story
#5
Erin Anastasi, Ekanem Ekanem, Olivia Hill, Agnes Adebayo Oluwakemi, Oluwatosin Abayomi, Andrea Bernasconi
INTRODUCTION: Nigeria has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world as well as high perinatal mortality. Unfortunately, the country does not have the resources to assess this critical indicator with the conventional health information system and measuring its progress toward the goal of ending preventable maternal deaths is almost impossible. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) conducted a cross-sectional study to assess maternal and perinatal mortality in Makoko Riverine and Badia East, two of the most vulnerable slums of Lagos...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484362/socio-demographic-characteristics-and-tobacco-use-among-the-adults-in-urban-slums-of-dhaka-bangladesh
#6
Nusrat Nausheen Khandker, Tuhin Biswas, Abdullah Nurus Salam Khan, Enamul Hasib, Lal B Rawal
BACKGROUND: Use of tobacco has become one of the major causes of premature deaths in most developing countries, including Bangladesh. The poorest and most disadvantaged populations, such as those living in slums, are considered to be extremely vulnerable to non-communicable diseases and their risk factors, especially tobacco use. The objective of this study was to assess the current status of tobacco consumption among slum dwellers and its association with socio-demographic factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three slums of Dhaka city...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475812/awareness-about-anti-smoking-related-laws-and-legislation-among-general-population-in-slums-of-delhi-india
#7
Nandini Sharma, Tanu Anand, Shekhar Grover, Arun Kumar, M M Singh, G K Ingle
Introduction: Almost 40% of Delhi's population lives in slums and is vulnerable to tobacco use. It is therefore important to assess their opinion and ensure compliance to anti-smoking legislation. The present study was undertaken to assess the awareness of the general public residing in slums in Delhi regarding the smoke free initiative of 2009, 3 years after intensive implementation. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted amongst participants selected by cluster sampling from the slums in 6 districts of Delhi using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire...
May 5, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473861/environmental-spatial-and-sociodemographic-factors-associated-with-nonfatal-injuries-in-indonesia
#8
Sri Irianti, Puguh Prasetyoputra
Background. The determinants of injuries and their reoccurrence in Indonesia are not well understood, despite their importance in the prevention of injuries. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the environmental, spatial, and sociodemographic factors associated with the reoccurrence of injuries among Indonesian people. Methods. Data from the 2013 round of the Indonesia Baseline Health Research (IBHR 2013) were analysed using a two-part hurdle regression model. A logit regression model was chosen for the zero-hurdle part, while a zero-truncated negative binomial regression model was selected for the counts part...
2017: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472997/erratum-to-utilization-of-health-facilities-and-predictors-of-health-seeking-behavior-for-under-five-children-with-acute-diarrhea-in-slums-of-addis-ababa-ethiopia-a-community-based-cross-sectional-study
#9
Metadel Adane, Bezatu Mengistie, Worku Mulat, Helmut Kloos, Girmay Medhin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450584/syria-slums-and-health-security
#10
EDITORIAL
Seth Berkley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444240/non-specific-effects-of-oral-polio-vaccine-on-diarrheal-burden-and-etiology-among-bangladeshi-infants
#11
Alexander Upfill-Brown, Mami Taniuchi, James A Platts-Mills, Beth Kirkpatrick, Stacey L Burgess, M Steven Oberste, William Weldon, Eric Houpt, Rashidul Haque, K Zaman, William A Petri
Background: As the global polio eradication initiative prepares to cease use of oral polio vaccine (OPV) in 2020, there is increasing interest in understanding if oral vaccination provides non-specific immunity to other infections so that the consequences of this transition can be effectively planned for and mitigated. Methods: Data was collected from infants in an urban slum in Bangladesh (Mirpur, Dhaka) as part of the PROVIDE study. Following vaccination with tOPV at 6,10, and 14 weeks, infants were randomly assigned to receive tOPV (n=315) or IPV (n=299) at 39 weeks...
April 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431817/pneumococcal-carriage-among-children-after-four-years-of-routine-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-use-in-brazil-the-emergence-of-multidrug-resistant-serotype-6c
#12
Felipe P G Neves, Nayara T Cardoso, Robert E Snyder, Mariel A Marlow, Claudete A A Cardoso, Lúcia M Teixeira, Lee W Riley
BACKGROUND: In 2010, the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced free of charge in Brazil as part of the public immunization program. Here we investigated the carriage prevalence, colonization risk factors, capsular types, and antimicrobial resistance among pneumococcal isolates obtained from children in Brazil four years after routine PCV10 use. METHODS: Between September and December 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional study among children<6years old who attended one public and two private clinics in Niterói, RJ, Brazil to evaluate pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage...
April 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409672/making-a-difference-a-study-of-cognitive-stimulation-therapy-for-persons-with-dementia
#13
Daniel B Stewart, Marla Berg-Weger, Susan Tebb, Michele Sakamoto, Kristina Roselle, Laura Downing, Janice Lundy, Deborah Hayden
Affecting nearly 5.4 million older adults in the United States and 35.6 million individuals worldwide, dementia is one of the greatest public health crises of our time. As a result, helping professionals, clients, and care partners seek effective and affordable treatment. Developed in the United Kingdom by Spector and colleagues, Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) is a non-pharmacologic psychosocial group intervention for persons with dementia. To expand upon and fill the gaps within existing research, the authors developed a descriptive study to assess the impact of CST on cognition, quality of life, and depression, among six CST groups (n = 40)...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409647/cultural-attitudes-towards-postpartum-depression-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#14
Anaise Williams, Malabika Sarker, Syeda Tahmina Ferdous
Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide, yet in many cultures it remains unaddressed and unacknowledged. Postpartum depression is particularly delicate because of its association with gender and expectations of motherhood. This ethnographic study in Dhaka, Bangladesh sought to understand local perceptions of postpartum depression and cultural influences around mental health care seeking. The results describe the role of culture and stigma in the conceptualization of mental health within both the community and medical spheres...
April 14, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402722/prevalence-of-diabetic-retinopathy-in-urban-slums-the-aditya-jyot-diabetic-retinopathy-in-urban-mumbai-slums-study-report-2
#15
Mohan Sunita, Arvind Kumar Singh, Ashwini Rogye, Manish Sonawane, Ravina Gaonkar, Radhika Srinivasan, Sundaram Natarajan, Fred C J Stevens, A J J A Scherpbier, Govindasamy Kumaramanickavel, Catherine McCarty
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to estimate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and enumerate history-based risk factors in the urban slums of Western India. METHODS: The population-based study was conducted in seven wards of Mumbai urban slums, where we screened 6569 subjects of ≥ 40 years age, with a response rate of 98.4%, for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) based on American Diabetes Association criteria. All subjects with T2DM underwent dilated 30° seven-field stereo-fundus-photography for DR severity grading based on modified Airlie House classification...
April 12, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401407/molecular-analysis-of-amantadine-resistant-influenza-a-h1n1-pdm09-virus-isolated-from-slum-dwellers-of-dhaka-bangladesh
#16
Mozibur Rahman, Sheikh Ariful Hoque, Mohammad Ariful Islam, Sabita Rezwana Rahman
Influenza is a highly contagious viral infection associated with excessive hospitalizations and deaths throughout the world. Continuous antigenic shift and drift is not only responsible for this devastating effect of influenza but also causes ineffectiveness of antiviral drugs and vaccines. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of ribavirin, oseltamivir, and amantadine drugs in vitro against nine influenza A isolates collected during June 2012-August 2013 from different slums in Dhaka city. The effectiveness of these drugs was determined by measuring the inhibition of virus-induced cytopathic effect on MDCK cells through MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide)...
June 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377651/a-cross-sectional-study-for-assessment-of-untreated-dental-caries-and-its-consequences-among-slum-dwelling-children
#17
Charu Marya, Sakshi Kataria, Ruchi Nagpal, Sukhvinder S Oberoi, Chandan Dhingra, Dimple Arora
INTRODUCTION: Dental caries affects humans of all ages throughout the world and remains the major dental public health problem among children globally. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using the cluster sampling technique to obtain the required sample size of 400 children from urban slum population of Faridabad, Haryana, India. Data were collected using World Health Organization dentition status 1997 criteria and PUFA/pufa index. TYPE OF STUDY: Cross-sectional study...
January 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376916/utilization-of-health-facilities-and-predictors-of-health-seeking-behavior-for-under-five-children-with-acute-diarrhea-in-slums-of-addis-ababa-ethiopia-a-community-based-cross-sectional-study
#18
Metadel Adane, Bezatu Mengistie, Worku Mulat, Helmut Kloos, Girmay Medhin
BACKGROUND: Information on health-seeking behavior and utilization of health facilities in slums of Addis Ababa is scarce, impeding the implementation of effective interventions. The purpose of this study is to assess the status of health facilities utilization and predictors for health-seeking behavior of mothers/caregivers of under-five children with acute diarrhea in slums of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study design was employed in five rounds of surveys in seven kebeles in slums of Addis Ababa among 472 mothers/caregivers of 472 under-five children with acute diarrhea in reference to Andersen's behavioral model...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368267/contextual-factors-for-stunting-among-children-of-age-6-to-24-months-in-an-under-privileged-community-of-dhaka-bangladesh
#19
Md Ashraful Alam, Mustafa Mahfuz, M Munirul Islam, Dinesh Mondal, Ams Ahmed, Rashidul Haque, Tahmeed Ahmed, Md Iqbal Hossain
OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with stunting among children aged 6 to 24 months in a slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh. METHODS: We conducted this case control study during November 2009 to December 2012. Children were classified as case if length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) was <-2 and as control if LAZ was >-1 SD. The logistic regression model was used to find the factors associated with stunting. RESULTS: The significant risk factors for stunting were: child's age >12 months, maternal undernutrition, mother's education <5 years, consumption of untreated drinking water and monthly family income <100 USD...
March 29, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357153/the-demand-for-disaster-microinsurance-for-small-businesses-in-urban-slums-the-results-of-surveys-in-three-indian-cities
#20
Ronak Patel, Garrett Walker, Mihir Bhatt, Vishal Pathak
BACKGROUND: Small informal businesses make up the core markets for many poor urban communities, providing essential goods, services, and livelihoods. Many of these communities and businesses exist in hazardous locations. In most cases, these business owners do not have access to proper coping mechanisms including risk transfer and lack resilience to shocks. Access to risk-transfer in the form of insurance for these small businesses is extremely limited. This demand survey is the first phase of an intervention to test disaster microinsurance for these businesses...
March 1, 2017: PLoS Currents
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