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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224691/musculoskeletal-health-conditions-among-older-populations-in-urban-slums-in-sub-saharan-africa
#1
REVIEW
Isabella Aboderin, Agnes Nanyonjo
BACKGROUND: Debate on the burden of musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions in lower and middle income countries is intensifying; yet, little knowledge so far exists on patterns and impacts of such conditions among general or older adult populations in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The objectives of this study are to examine the prevalence, potential predictors, and sequelae of MSK among older adults residing in two low resource informal urban settlements or "slums" in Nairobi Kenya. METHODS: Data on older adults aged 60 years and over from two unrelated cross-sectional surveys on the older slum populations are used: a 2006/7 survey on the social, health, and overall well-being of older people (sample N = 831), and a 2016 survey on realities and impacts of long-term care and social protection for older adults (sample n = 1026)...
April 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220718/spatial-and-temporal-dynamics-of-pathogenic-leptospira-in-surface-waters-from-the-urban-slum-environment
#2
Arnau Casanovas-Massana, Federico Costa, Irina N Riediger, Marcelo Cunha, Daiana de Oliveira, Diogenes C Mota, Erica Sousa, Vladimir A Querino, Nivisson Nery, Mitermayer G Reis, Elsio A Wunder, Peter J Diggle, Albert I Ko
Leptospirosis has emerged as an important urban health problem as slum settlements have expanded worldwide. Yet the dynamics of the environmentally transmitted Leptospira pathogen has not been well characterized in these settings. We used a stratified dense sampling scheme to study the dynamics of Leptospira abundance in surface waters from a Brazilian urban slum community. We collected surface water samples during the dry, intermediate and rainy seasons within a seven-month period and quantified pathogenic Leptospira by quantitative PCR (qPCR)...
November 30, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220352/how-do-slums-change-the-relationship-between-urbanization-and-the-carbon-intensity-of-well-being
#3
Julius Alexander McGee, Christina Ergas, Patrick Trent Greiner, Matthew Thomas Clement
This study examines how the relationship between urbanization (measured as the percentage of total population living in urban areas) and the carbon intensity of well-being (CIWB) (measured as a ratio of carbon dioxide emissions and life expectancy) in most nations from 1960-2013 varies based on the economic context and whereabouts of a substantial portion of a nation's urban population. To accomplish this, we use the United Nations' (UN) definition of slum households to identify developing countries that have substantial slum populations, and estimate a Prais-Winsten regression model with panel-corrected standard errors (PCSE), allowing for disturbances that are heteroskedastic and contemporaneously correlated across panels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219130/effects-of-health-education-tool-on-select-epidemiological-factors-associated-with-adult-obese-urban-slum-women
#4
Deepika Pradeep Vora, Pallavi S Shelke
BACKGROUND: National Family Health Survey-3 (2005-2006) India, found that 14.8% of Ever-Married Adults (age 15-49 years) had Body Mass Index (BMI) in the ranges of overweight and obese; compared to 10.6% in the National Family Health Survey-2. These figures highlighted the fact that India already faces a dual burden of chronic malnutrition, i.e., obesity, besides undernutrition. Higher BMI, especially, increased abdominal fat is an important determinant of the development of diabetes...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219129/utilization-of-safe-drinking-water-and-sanitary-facilities-in-slum-households-of-siliguri-west-bengal
#5
Ditipriya Bhar, Sharmistha Bhattacherjee, Abhijit Mukherjee, Tapas Kumar Sarkar, Samir Dasgupta
BACKGROUND: With the rapid expansion of urban population, provision of safe water and basic sanitation is becoming a challenge; especially in slums. This is adversely affecting the health of the people living in such areas. OBJECTIVES: The study was conducted to measure the proportion of households using improved drinking water and sanitation facilities and to determine the association between diarrhea in under-five children with water and sanitation facilities...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208864/how-does-family-structure-relate-with-children-s-language-development-a-cross-sectional-experience-from-urban-slums-in-dhaka
#6
S Islam, F Nusrat, S A Esha, F Mehrin, A Hilaly, S Shiraji, M I Hasan, F Tofail, J D Hamadani
Family structure is an important factor for children's overall development. In this cross sectional study, we explored how single parenting relates to child's language development in slums of Dhaka city, Bangladesh from 31st August 2010 to 9th February 2011. Children aged 10 to 24 months (n=133), living with mother only and those living with both parents were included. Children's comprehensive and expressive language development was assessed using the Bengali version of Mac Arthur's Communicative Development Inventory (MCDI)...
October 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208854/study-on-clinical-presentation-and-outcome-of-septic-abortion-and-its-relationship-with-person-inducing-abortion
#7
S Nahar, S Akhter, F Ahamed, K Akhtar, F Noor
Abortion is a global problem. Maternal mortality and morbidity is still high due to uncontrolled abortion mainly induced abortion which may turn to septic abortion. A total of 50 cases of septic abortion cases admitted in Dhaka Medical College Hospital were included in this study. This cross sectional study was designed to find out the clinical presentation and outcome of septic abortion from January 2010 to January 2011. Out of 50 cases of septic abortion admitted where 44(88%) were induced abortion. Majority of the cases were parous (2-3 parity 32%; 4-6 parity 38%; and 6+ parity 4%) and housewives 42(84%), living with their husbands 49(98%), hailing from urban, semi urban and urban slums...
October 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208840/awareness-and-eye-health-seeking-practices-for-cataract-among-urban-slum-population-of-delhi-the-north-india-eye-disease-awareness-study
#8
Vasundhra Misra, Praveen Vashist, Senjam Suraj Singh, Sumit Malhotra, Vivek Gupta, S N Dwivedi, Sanjeev K Gupta
PURPOSE: The objective of the study was to assess the awareness and health-seeking practices related to cataract in urban slums of Delhi. METHODS: This study design was a population-based cross-sectional study. Participants aged 18-60 years were recruited from randomly selected five slums of South Delhi. They were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule on awareness and eye health-seeking practices related to cataract. The practices were recorded if the respondents themselves or any other member of the family was diagnosed with cataract in previous 2 years...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192387/differences-in-child-health-across-rural-urban-and-slum-areas-evidence-from-india
#9
Claus C Pörtner, Yu-Hsuan Su
The developing world is rapidly urbanizing, but an understanding of how child health differs across urban and rural areas is lacking. We examine the association between area of residence and child health in India, focusing on composition and selection effects. Simple height-for-age averages show that rural Indian children have the poorest health and urban children have the best, with slum children in between. With wealth or observed health environment held constant, the urban height-for-age advantage disappears, and slum children fare significantly worse than their rural counterparts...
November 30, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187954/application-of-psychosocial-models-to-home-based-testing-and-counseling-hbtc-for-increased-uptake-and-household-coverage-in-a-large-informal-urban-settlement-in-kenya
#10
Patricia Oluoch, James Orwa, Fillet Lugalia, David Mutinda, Anthony Gichangi, Joseph Oundo, Mohamed Karama, Zipporah Nganga, Jennifer Galbraith
Introduction: Home Based Testing and Counselling (HBTC) aims at reaching individuals who have low HIV risk perception and experience barriers which prevent them from seeking HIV testing and counseling (HTC) services. Saturating the community with HTC is needed to achieve the ambitious 90-90-90 targets of knowledge of HIV status, ARV treatment and viral suppression. This paper describes the use of health belief model and community participation principles in HBTC to achieve increased household coverage and HTC uptake...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182963/female-garment-workers-experiences-of-violence-in-their-homes-and-workplaces-in-bangladesh-a-qualitative-study
#11
Ruchira Naved, Tabassum Rahman, Samantha Willan, Rachel Jewkes, Andrew Gibbs
The ways in which women's engagement in paid work shapes their experiences of violence in the home and workplace is widely debated, particularly in Bangladesh, but rarely considered together. We undertook 23 in-depth interviews with female garment workers living in slums in Bangladesh, and nine interviews with key informants (factory managers and supervisors, male workers, and employees from non-governmental organisations). Data came from two studies conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh - the first between August and September 2011 and the second between June and August 2015 - and were analysed using thematic analysis...
November 21, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173242/evidence-of-multiple-intraspecific-transmission-routes-for-leptospira-acquisition-in-norway-rats-rattus-norvegicus
#12
A Minter, P J Diggle, F Costa, J Childs, A I Ko, M Begon
Infectious diseases frequently have multiple potential routes of intraspecific transmission of pathogens within wildlife and other populations. For pathogens causing zoonotic diseases, knowing whether these transmission routes occur in the wild and their relative importance, is critical for understanding maintenance, improving control measures and ultimately preventing human disease. The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the primary reservoir of leptospirosis in the urban slums of Salvador, Brazil. There is biological evidence for potentially three different transmission routes of leptospire infection occurring in the rodent population...
November 27, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143668/women-s-empowerment-and-experiences-of-mistreatment-during-childbirth-in-facilities-in-lucknow-india-results-from-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Nadia Diamond-Smith, Emily Treleaven, Nirmala Murthy, May Sudhinaraset
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence has found widespread reports of women experiencing abuse, neglect, discrimination, and poor interpersonal care during childbirth around the globe. Empowerment may be a protective mechanism for women against facility mistreatment during childbirth. The majority of previous research on mistreatment during childbirth has been qualitative in nature. METHODS: In this analysis, we use quantitative data from 392 women who recently gave birth in a facility in the slums of Lucknow, India, to explore whether measures of women's empowerment are associated with their experiences of mistreatment at their last childbirth...
November 8, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138957/the-most-important-recommended-times-of-hand-washing-with-soap-and-water-in-preventing-the-occurrence-of-acute-diarrhea-among-children-under-five-years-of-age-in-slums-of-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#14
Metadel Adane, Bezatu Mengistie, Worku Mulat, Girmay Medhin, Helmut Kloos
Adequate hand washing with soap at five recommended times is particularly important in urban slums in developing countries, but which of the recommended times are the most important in the prevention of diarrhea among children under five years of age living in these areas remains unclear. To address this gap, a community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in the slums of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia between September and November 2014. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire and an observational checklist...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138201/effect-of-iron-and-zinc-biofortified-pearl-millet-consumption-on-growth-and-immune-competence-in-children-aged-12-18-months-in-india-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Saurabh Mehta, Julia L Finkelstein, Sudha Venkatramanan, Samantha L Huey, Shobha A Udipi, Padmini Ghugre, Caleb Ruth, Richard L Canfield, Anura V Kurpad, Ramesh D Potdar, Jere D Haas
INTRODUCTION: Biofortified crops represent a sustainable agricultural solution for the widespread micronutrient malnutrition in India and other resource-limited settings. This study aims to investigate the effect of the consumption of foods prepared with iron- and zinc-biofortified pearl millet (FeZn-PM) by children on biomarkers of iron and zinc status, growth, and immune function. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a randomised controlled feeding trial in identified slums of Mumbai, India among 200 children aged between 12 and 18 months...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125452/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-vitamin-d-insufficiency-and-deficiency-among-6-24-month-old-underweight-and-normal-weight-children-living-in-an-urban-slum-of-bangladesh
#16
Am Shamsir Ahmed, Tahmeed Ahmed, Kurt Z Long, Ricardo J Soares Magalhaes, Md Iqbal Hossain, Md Munirul Islam, Mustafa Mahfuz, Sm Abdul Gaffar, Atiya Sharmeen, Rashidul Haque, Richard L Guerrant, William A Petri, Abdullah Al Mamun
OBJECTIVE: We quantified the prevalence of vitamin D status in 6-24-month-old underweight and normal-weight children and identified the socio-economic and dietary predictors for status. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, baseline data from a nutritional intervention study were analysed. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of being vitamin D deficient or insufficient with the reference being vitamin D sufficient. SETTING: Urban slum area of Mirpur field site, Dhaka, Bangladesh...
July 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125432/association-between-baseline-cognitive-impairment-and-postoperative-delirium-in-elderly-patients-undergoing-surgery-for-adult-spinal-deformity
#17
Owoicho Adogwa, Aladine A Elsamadicy, Victoria D Vuong, Jared Fialkoff, Joseph Cheng, Isaac O Karikari, Carlos A Bagley
OBJECTIVE Postoperative delirium is common in elderly patients undergoing spine surgery and is associated with a longer and more costly hospital course, functional decline, postoperative institutionalization, and higher likelihood of death within 6 months of discharge. Preoperative cognitive impairment may be a risk factor for the development of postoperative delirium. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between baseline cognitive impairment and postoperative delirium in geriatric patients undergoing surgery for degenerative scoliosis...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121443/can-e-coli-fly-the-role-of-flies-as-transmitters-of-escherichia-coli-to-food-in-an-urban-slum-in-bangladesh
#18
Yrja Lisa Lindeberg, Karen Egedal, Zenat Zebin Hossain, Matthew Phelps, Suhella Tulsiani, Israt Farhana, Anowara Begum, Peter Kjaer Mackie Jensen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the transmission of fecal bacteria by flies to food under natural settings. METHODS: Over a period of two months paired (exposed and non-exposed) containers with cooked rice were placed on the ground in kitchen areas in an urban slum area in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and the numbers of flies landing on the exposed rice were counted. Following exposure, the surface of the rice was microbiologically and molecularly analysed for the presence of E...
November 9, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113608/the-brazilian-family-health-strategy-and-the-management-of-intestinal-parasitic-infections
#19
Caroline Ferraz Ignacio, Martha Macedo de Lima Barata, Antonio Henrique Almeida de Moraes Neto
Aim This study analyzed the management of intestinal parasitic infections in the Family Health Strategy covering Brazilian urban slums. BACKGROUND: The Family Health Strategy is the preferred strategy for providing public, community-based primary health care in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). Through this strategy, Family Health teams are responsible for the health of residents of a defined territory, including health promotion, health education and control of neglected tropical diseases such as intestinal parasitic infections...
November 8, 2017: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113595/the-helminth-community-of-a-population-of-rattus-norvegicus-from-an-urban-brazilian-slum-and-the-threat-of-zoonotic-diseases
#20
Ticiana Carvalho-Pereira, Fábio N Souza, Luana R N Santos, Ruth Walker, Arsinoê C Pertile, Daiana S de Oliveira, Gabriel G Pedra, Amanda Minter, Maria Gorete Rodrigues, Thiago C Bahiense, Mitermayer G Reis, Peter J Diggle, Albert I Ko, James E Childs, Eduardo M da Silva, Mike Begon, Federico Costa
Urban slums provide suitable conditions for infestation by rats, which harbour and shed a wide diversity of zoonotic pathogens including helminths. We aimed to identify risk factors associated with the probability and intensity of infection of helminths of the digestive tract in an urban slum population of Rattus norvegicus. Among 299 rats, eleven species/groups of helminths were identified, of which Strongyloides sp., Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and, the human pathogen, Angiostrongylus cantonensis were the most frequent (97, 41 and 39%, respectively)...
November 8, 2017: Parasitology
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