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Tania Ayllón, Daniel Cardoso Portela Câmara, Fernanda Cristina Morone, Larissa da Silva Gonçalves, Fábio Saito Monteiro de Barros, Patrícia Brasil, Marilia Sá Carvalho, Nildimar Alves Honório
Aedes albopictus, originally considered as a secondary vector for arbovirus transmission, especially in areas where this species co-exist with Aedes aegypti, has been described in most regions of the world. Dispersion and domiciliation of Ae. albopictus in a complex of densely urbanized slums in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, was evidenced. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that 1) Ae. albopictus distribution in urban slums is negatively related to distance from vegetation, and 2) these vectors have taken on a domestic life style with a portion of the population feeding, ovipositing, and resting indoors...
2018: PloS One
Khalil Ahmed, Muhammad Talha, Zainab Khalid, Mehvish Khurshid, Rizwan Ishtiaq
Objective Proper breastfeeding and weaning practices are effective ways of reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to find out breastfeeding and weaning practices among infants of six months to one year in urban slums of Bahawalpur city. By evaluating the knowledge and attitude of lactating mothers regarding their child feeding habits, modifications and specific interventions can be implemented to improve the breastfeeding and weaning practices of the area. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in the Shahdrah slums of Bahawalpur City after getting approval from the institutional review board of Quaid-e-Azam Medical College, Bahawalpur...
February 13, 2018: Curēus
Gulshan Ara, Mansura Khanam, Nowshin Papri, Baitun Nahar, Md Ahshanul Haque, Iqbal Kabir, Michael J Dibley
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of peer counselling on early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF) and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rates for mother-infant pairs living in urban slums, Dhaka, Bangladesh. This randomized controlled trial enrolled 350 mother-infant pairs from selected slums between September 2014 and July 2016. The women assigned to intervention group received peer counselling from locally recruited, trained community female volunteers starting in third trimester of pregnancy until 6 months after delivery; control group received no intervention...
April 16, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Khaiwal Ravindra, Kirk R Smith
Both poor water, sanitation, hygiene (WaSH) and household air pollution (HAP) adversely affect the health of millions of people each year around the globe and specifically in developing countries. The objective of current work is to highlight the importance of HAP in parallel to WaSH for decision making to achieve better health specially in developing countries. There are examples, where developing countries are strengthening efforts to tackle the issue of poor water and sanitation such as 'Clean India Mission' was recently launched by the Government of India...
April 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Alena N Skrundevskiy, Omar S Omar, Jungyoon Kim, Amr S Soliman, Theodore A Korolchuk, Fernando A Wilson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to perform a return-on-investment (ROI) analysis of a breast cancer screening program in Egypt by comparing net profit in treatment costs saved to program cost investment. METHODS: The breast cancer downstaging program targeted women living in an Egyptian slum, where residents have low access to health care. Program costs were estimated by using data from interviews with program administrative staff. Screening and treatment costs were estimated by using Ministry of Health medical reimbursement data...
April 4, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
Sanjeev Singh, Damodar Sahu, Ashish Agrawal, Meeta Dhaval Vashi
AIMS: Almost, one third of the world's urban population resides in slums and the number would double by 2030. Slums denotes collection of people from various communities having a meagre income and living in unhygienic conditions thus making themselves most vulnerable for outbreaks of communicable diseases. India contributes substantially to the global disease burden and under-five mortality rates i.e. 20% attributable to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization plays a crucial role in combating high childhood mortality rates attributable to vaccine preventable diseases across the globe...
April 4, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Andrew G Schneider, Arnau Casanovas-Massana, Kathryn P Hacker, Elsio A Wunder, Mike Begon, Mitermayer G Reis, James E Childs, Federico Costa, Janet C Lindow, Albert I Ko
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease that causes considerable morbidity and mortality globally, primarily in residents of urban slums. While contact with contaminated water plays a critical role in the transmission of leptospirosis, little is known about the distribution and abundance of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in soil and the potential contribution of this source to human infection. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collected soil samples (n = 70) from three sites within an urban slum community endemic for leptospirosis in Salvador, Brazil...
April 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
David Musoke, Rawlance Ndejjo, Abdullah Ali Halage, Simon Kasasa, John C Ssempebwa, David O Carpenter
Poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) continue to contribute to the high prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases in low-income countries such as Uganda particularly in slums. We implemented a 3-year WASH project in two urban slums in Uganda with a focus on safe drinking water and improvement in sanitation. The project implemented community and school interventions in addition to capacity building initiatives. Community interventions included home improvement campaigns, clean-up exercises, water quality assessment, promotion of drinking safe water through household point-of-use chlorination, promotion of hand washing, and support towards solid waste management...
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Mindy Thompson Fullilove
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Ameeta S Kalokhe, Sandhya R Iyer, Ambika R Kolhe, Sampada Dhayarkar, Anuradha Paranjape, Carlos Del Rio, Rob Stephenson, Seema Sahay
The high risk of experiencing domestic violence (DV) among married women in India who reside in slum communities underscores the need for effective, evidence-based, and culturally-tailored primary prevention. To inform such DV primary prevention strategies for this population, we herein aimed to identify correlates of DV experience in early marriage. Utilizing a cross-sectional design, potential correlates of DV experience were explored among a geographically-clustered random sample of 100 recently-married women residing in slums in Pune, India...
2018: PloS One
Kazi Istiaque Sanin, M Munirul Islam, Mustafa Mahfuz, A M Shamsir Ahmed, Dinesh Mondal, Rashidul Haque, Tahmeed Ahmed
The prevalence of stunting among children below 5 years of age is higher in the slum-dwelling population of Bangladesh compared to that in both urban and rural areas. Studies have reported that several factors such as inadequate nutrition, low socio-economic status, poor hygiene and sanitation and lack of maternal education are the substantial predictors of childhood stunting. Almost all these factors are universally present in the slum-dwelling population of Bangladesh. However, few studies have prospectively examined such determinants of stunting among slum populations...
2018: PloS One
Lily Beth Lumagbas, Harry Laurence Selby Coleman, Joske Bunders, Antoine Pariente, Anne Belonje, Tjard de Cock Buning
BACKGROUND: The epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in slums has pushed its residents to heightened vulnerability. The Social Determinants of Health (SDH) framework has been used to understand the social dynamics and impact of NCDs, especially in poorly resourced communities. Whilst the SDH has helped to discredit the characterisation of NCDs as diseases of affluence, its impact on policy has been less definite. Given the multitude of factors that interact in the presentation of NCDs, operationalising the SDH for policies and programmes that account for the contextual complexity of slums has stalled...
2018: Global Health Action
Khadija Alsarhi, Rahma, Mariëlle J L Prevoo, Lenneke R A Alink, Judi Mesman
This study represents the first video observation of parenting practices conducted in Yemen, where filming women is a taboo, and women are generally fully veiled, showing only their eyes, in the presence of strangers. A total of 62 mothers and children (aged 2-6 years) were filmed in their homes for 15 min during free interaction. The mothers' veils were not experienced as hampering the coding of sensitivity. Consistent with the socioeconomically deprived context, average sensitivity levels were low, but over 25% of mothers were rated as (very) sensitive...
March 28, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Ana Carla Lima Ribeiro-Accioly, Maria Lucia Seidl-De-Moura, Deise Maria Leal Fernandes Mendes, Judi Mesman
This article reports on a study of maternal sensitivity in 22 primiparous women and their infants from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted, as well as videotaped naturalistic home observations of the dyads. A K-means cluster analysis was performed to examine patterns of risk in relation to maternal sensitivity. The results reveal that compared to the 15 mothers with higher sensitivity scores, the 7 mothers with lower sensitivity scores were characterized by lower educational levels, lower income, lower age, living in a slum, unplanned and unwanted pregnancies, and later onset of prenatal care...
March 28, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Rahma, Khadija Alsarhi, Mariëlle J L Prevoo, Lenneke R A Alink, Judi Mesman
In the context of urban slums in Makassar in Indonesia, this study aimed to test whether maternal sensitivity was predicted by maternal history of childhood maltreatment, and whether this association was mediated by current partner conflict and current cumulative sociodemographic risk. A total of 98 mothers and their 2-4-year-old children were videotaped in a naturalistic observation. Maternal sensitivity was coded using the Ainsworth scales. In addition, mothers were interviewed to assess childhood trauma, current partner conflict, and current sociodemographic risk...
March 27, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Rohit Sarin, Vikram Vohra, U K Khalid, Prem Prakash Sharma, Vineet Chadha, M A Sharada
BACKGROUND: A survey was carried out to estimate the point prevalence of bacteriologically positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among persons ≥15 years of age residing in Jhuggi-Jhopri (JJ) colonies - urban slums in Delhi, India implementing Directly Observed Treatment strategy since 1998. METHODS: Among 12 JJ colonies selected by simple random sampling, persons having persistent cough for ≥2 weeks at the time of the survey or cough of any duration along with history of contact/currently on ant-TB treatment/known HIV positive were subjected to sputum examination - 2 specimens, by smear microscopy for Acid Fast Bacilli and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Muttaquina Hossain, Scott Ickes, Lauren Rice, Gaelen Ritter, Nurun Nahar Naila, Tasnia Zia, Baitun Nahar, Mustafa Mahfuz, Donna M Denno, Tahmeed Ahmed, Judd Walson
OBJECTIVE: To understand caregivers' perceptions of children's linear growth and to identify the cultural meanings and perceptions of risk associated with poor height attainment. DESIGN: Three investigators from Bangladesh conducted twelve focus group discussions. SETTING: The study was conducted in rural and slum settings in Bangladesh. SUBJECTS: Participants included mothers and alternative caregivers (n 81) who were recruited by household screening...
March 26, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Hidenori Harada, Yuji Fujimori, Ryota Gomi, Nazmul Ahsan, Shigeo Fujii, Akira Sakai, Tomonari Matsuda
This study investigated the occurrence of Escherichia coli pathotypes in sanitary wastewater and drinking water in a Bangladeshi urban slum and the potential associations between these sources. We examined 621 E. coli isolates from sanitary wastewater and stored drinking water by multiplex PCR and dual index sequencing, classifying them into eight pathotypes based on 14 virulence genes and additionally evaluating the possession of the human-specific E. coli genetic biomarker H8. The proportions of pathogenic E...
March 25, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Indranil Saha, Kamirul Islam, Bobby Paul, Tapas Kumar Som
Background: Tobacco kills half of its users, with smoking and smokeless tobacco killing nearly 6 million people worldwide - one death every 6 s in each year. Use of tobacco over time causes a physical and psychological addiction due to the presence of nicotine. To find out the level of nicotine dependence among adult (18 years and above) tobacco users and the factors responsible for it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among 128 current tobacco users in an urban slum of Burdwan District, West Bengal, India...
October 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Anna E Kågesten, Caroline W Kabiru, Beatrice Maina, Danielle German, Robert Wm Blum
The need for early prevention approaches to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health is gaining attention, yet little is known about the sexual experiences of early adolescents aged 10-14 years. Drawing on cross-sectional survey data collected from 365 early adolescents in a Nairobi slum, we used latent class analysis to identify subgroups based on self-reported awareness about sex and involvement in romantic and sexual activities. Multivariate regression models were fitted to examine the characteristics of each subgroup...
March 20, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
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