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Pediatric CKD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893643/regional-cerebral-blood-flow-in-children-and-young-adults-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
Hua-Shan Liu, Erum A Hartung, Abbas F Jawad, Jeffrey B Ware, Nina Laney, Allison M Port, Ruben C Gur, Stephen R Hooper, Jerilynn Radcliffe, Susan L Furth, John A Detre
Purpose To investigate the pathophysiologic effects of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on brain function in children with CKD by correlating cerebral blood flow (CBF) with clinical and behavioral indexes. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 73 pediatric patients with CKD (mean age, 15.80 years ± 3.63; range, 9-25 years) and 57 control subjects (mean age, 15.65 years ± 3.76; range, 9-25 years) were recruited. CBF measurements were acquired with an MRI arterial spin labeling scheme. Neurocognitive measurements were performed with traditional and computerized neurocognitive batteries...
June 12, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872964/the-interplay-between-bone-and-vessels-in-pediatric-ckd-lessons-from-a-single-center-study
#2
Evgenia Preka, Bruno Ranchin, Anke Doyon, Melody Vierge, Tiphanie Ginhoux, Behrouz Kassai, Justine Bacchetta
OBJECTIVE: Mineral and bone disorders associated to chronic kidney disease (CKD-MBD) are a daily challenge for pediatric nephrologists, with a significant risk of long-term bone and vascular comorbidities. METHODS: This single-center study is a prospective transversal evaluation of pediatric CKD patients of our center, part of the European 4C study. In addition to clinical and biochemical data, vascular and bone evaluation was performed: 24-h blood pressure assessment, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) at the ultra-distal tibia...
June 5, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846891/diagnosis-and-management-of-non-calcium-containing-stones-in-the-pediatric-population
#3
REVIEW
Saritha Ranabothu, Ari P Bernstein, Beth A Drzewiecki
Compared to adults, urolithiasis is less common in children, with a definite rise in incidence, especially among young adults (Tasian et al. in Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 11:488, 2016). In the last 25 years, the incidence in children has increased by approximately 6-10% annually, for reasons still unknown, with an associated significant increase in related health care-related expenditures (Hyams and Matlaga in Transl Androl Urol 3(3):278-83, 2014). It has been shown that there is twice as high a risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end stage renal disease (ESRD) in stone formers compared to non-stone formers (Tasian et al...
May 30, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775446/-chronic-kidney-disease-in-children-up-to-2-years-of-age-a-single-center-data-analysis
#4
Kinga Musiał, Marta Sałamacha, Sylwia Gralec, Anna Pers, Łukasz Jacheć, Danuta Zwolińska
Although anomalies in the urinary tract are the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the pediatric population, there are few studies focusing on etiological discrepancies between younger and older children. AIM: The aim of the study was to perform a comparative analysis of etiology of CKD in children hospitalized in the Department of Pediatric Nephrology at the Wrocław Medical University, with reference to the patients' age and gender. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The retrospective analysis considered medical records of 174 patients aged 0-18 years, diagnosed with CKD, hospitalized in our Department in the years 2011-2017...
April 23, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735307/combination-of-pediatric-and-adult-formulas-yield-valid-glomerular-filtration-rate-estimates-in-young-adults-with-a-history-of-pediatric-chronic-kidney-disease
#5
Derek K Ng, George J Schwartz, Michael F Schneider, Susan L Furth, Bradley A Warady
As patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) transition from pediatric nephrology care to adult care, their kidney function is clinically assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using both pediatric and adult equations, which may not be congruent. Here we evaluated commonly used eGFR equations and directly measured iohexol GFR (iGFR) among participants between ages 18 and 26 with a diagnosis of pediatric CKD in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) cohort. The bedside serum creatinine (SCr)-only equation (CKiDSCr ), the SCr-only CKD-EPI (CKD-EPISCr ), the cystatin C (Cys)-only CKD-EPI (CKD-EPICys ) and the combined SCr and Cys CKD-EPI (CKD-EPISCr-Cys ) were compared with a) 279 measured iGFRs obtained from 187 participants and b) 548 eGFRs from the SCr and Cys-based CKiD equation (CKiDSCr-Cys ) obtained from 219 participants...
May 5, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666917/measurement-of-iron-status-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
Wesley Hayes
Anemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children, and dysregulation of iron homeostasis plays a central role in its pathogenesis. Optimizing iron status is a prerequisite for effective treatment of anemia. Insufficient iron can lead to inappropriate escalation of the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) dose, which is associated with adverse outcomes. Excess iron supplementation also has negative sequelae including free radical tissue damage and increased risk of systemic infection...
April 17, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609642/a-comprehensive-characterization-of-myocardial-and-vascular-phenotype-in-pediatric-chronic-kidney-disease-using-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#7
Mun Hong Cheang, Nathaniel J Barber, Abbas Khushnood, Jakob A Hauser, Gregorz T Kowalik, Jennifer A Steeden, Michael A Quail, Kjell Tullus, Daljit Hothi, Vivek Muthurangu
BACKGROUND: Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased cardiovascular mortality. Identifying high-risk children who may benefit from further therapeutic intervention is difficult as cardiovascular abnormalities are subtle. Although transthoracic echocardiography may be used to detect sub-clinical abnormalities, it has well-known problems with reproducibility that limit its ability to accurately detect these changes. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is the reference standard method for assessing blood flow, cardiac structure and function...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569190/hif-stabilizers-in-the-management-of-renal-anemia-from-bench-to-bedside-to-pediatrics
#8
REVIEW
Dalvir Kular, Iain C Macdougall
Anemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adult and pediatric patients. It has traditionally been treated with erythropoietin therapy and iron supplementation, with great success. With the discovery of the major transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) for the erythropoietin gene in 1992, molecules were created that inhibit the HIF prolyl-hydroxylase enzyme. This new class of drug-called HIF stabilizers, or HIF prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitors-prevents the proteasomal degradation of HIF-α, thereby inducing upregulation of the erythropoietin gene...
March 22, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517980/role-of-hypertension-in-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-children
#9
Smitha R Vidi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypertension is an independent risk factor for progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Children with early CKD develop hypertension secondary to renal disease. This review aims to highlight recent advances that help us better understand the current role of hypertension in progression of CKD in children. RECENT FINDINGS: There is increasing evidence that children with CKD who have hypertension develop early atherosclerosis and cardiac adaptive changes...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511889/kidney-injury-biomarkers-5-years-after-aki-due-to-pediatric-cardiac-surgery
#10
Jason H Greenberg, Prasad Devarajan, Heather R Thiessen-Philbrook, Catherine Krawczeski, Chirag R Parikh, Michael Zappitelli
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that children undergoing cardiac surgery are at high risk for long-term chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension, although postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is not a risk factor for worse long-term kidney outcomes. We report here our evaluation of renal injury biomarkers 5 years after cardiac surgery to determine whether they are associated with postoperative AKI or long-term CKD and hypertension. METHODS: Children aged 1 month to 18 years old undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass were recruited to this prospective cohort study...
June 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496422/bladder-contractility-index-in-posterior-urethral-valve-a-new-marker-for-early-prediction-of-progression-to-renal-failure
#11
M S Ansari, Sandeep Kumar Nunia, Ankur Bansal, Prempal Singh, Virender Sekhon, Dharmveer Singh, Rahul Soni, Priyank Yadav
INTRODUCTION: Posterior urethral valve (PUV) is the most common cause of pediatric end stage renal disease (ESRD), imposing a major health burden on medical community caregivers and adversely affecting the quality of life of patients. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage III or estimated GFR of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 is known to be associated with more adverse renal, cardiovascular, and clinical outcomes. Thus, it is desirable to identify factors predicting the rapid and early progression of disease...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453692/unacylated-ghrelin-and-obestatin-in-pediatric-ckd-are-they-important-in-protein-energy-wasting
#12
EDITORIAL
Zhen Wang, Eduardo A Oliveira, Robert H Mak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451472/hepcidin-and-proinflammatory-markers-in-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease-a-case-control-study
#13
Kamal Kumar Goyal, Abhijeet Saha, Puneet Kaur Sahi, Manpreet Kaur, Nand Kishore Dubey, Parul Goyal, Ashish Dutt Upadhayay
BACKGROUND: Hepcidin is the main regulator of hepcidin-ferroportin axis and is elevated in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Anemia of CKD and its relation to hepcidin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in iron- and erythropoietin (EPO)-naïve, non-dialyzed children with CKD is under-studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This case-control study aimed to study the levels of hepcidin and other proinflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-α, hs-CRP) and their relation with anemia in iron- and erythropoietin-naïve, non-dialysis CKD (stage 3 - 5) patients...
May 2018: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441655/the-importance-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-pediatric-transplantation-and-its-link-to-the-kidneys
#14
REVIEW
Jonathan N Johnson, Guido Filler
Cardiovascular disease is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients following solid organ transplant. CKD is also common in pediatric patients after a solid organ transplant, and the link between CKD and cardiovascular morbidity is strong. In this review, we examine potential etiologies to explain the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in pediatric solid organ recipients and identify targets for improving outcomes.
May 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389682/is-acute-kidney-injury-a-harbinger-for-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
David T Selewski, Dylan M Hyatt, Kevin M Bennett, Jennifer R Charlton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite abundant evidence in adults, the relationship between acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unanswered in pediatrics. Obstacles to overcome include the challenges defining these entities and the lack of long-term follow-up studies. This review focuses on pediatric populations at high-risk for AKI, the evidence of the long-term effect of AKI on renal health, and biomarkers to detect renal disease. RECENT FINDINGS: AKI in critically ill children and neonates is common and independently associated with adverse outcomes...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374316/pediatric-acute-kidney-injury-and-the-subsequent-risk-for-chronic-kidney-disease-is-there-cause-for-alarm
#16
Vaka K Sigurjonsdottir, Swasti Chaturvedi, Cherry Mammen, Scott M Sutherland
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized clinically as an abrupt decline in renal function marked by reduced excretion of waste products, disordered electrolytes, and disrupted fluid homeostasis. The recent development of a standardized AKI definition has transformed our understanding of AKI epidemiology and outcomes. We now know that in the short term, children with AKI experience greater morbidity and mortality; additionally, observational studies have established that chronic renal sequelae are far more common after AKI events than previously realized...
January 26, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372471/validation-of-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-equations-for-japanese-children
#17
Yoshimitsu Gotoh, Osamu Uemura, Kenji Ishikura, Tomoyuki Sakai, Yuko Hamasaki, Yoshinori Araki, Riku Hamda, Masataka Honda
BACKGROUND: The gold standard for evaluation of kidney function is renal inulin clearance (Cin). However, the methodology for Cin is complicated and difficult, especially for younger children and/or patients with bladder dysfunction. Therefore, we developed a simple and easier method for obtaining the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using equations and values for several biomarkers, i.e., serum creatinine (Cr), serum cystatin C (cystC), serum beta-2 microglobulin (β2 MG), and creatinine clearance (Ccr)...
January 25, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352455/clinical-features-in-a-series-of-258-japanese-pediatric-patients-with-thrombotic-microangiopathy
#18
Akira Ashida, Hideki Matsumura, Toshihiro Sawai, Rika Fujimaru, Yuko Fujii, Akihiko Shirasu, Hyogo Nakakura, Kazumoto Iijima
BACKGROUND: Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) includes hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). This study examined the epidemiological characteristics of pediatric patients with TMA classified according to etiology. METHODS: The survey evaluated 258 Japanese pediatric patients diagnosed with TMA between 2012 and 2015. RESULTS: The primary diseases responsible for TMA were categorized as TTP (15 cases), Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli-associated HUS (STEC-HUS) (166 cases), atypical HUS (aHUS) (40 cases), and secondary TMA (27 cases)...
January 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350437/diffusion-tensor-imaging-mri-of-sickle-cell-kidney-disease-initial-results-and-comparison-with-iron-deposition
#19
Shannon B Donnola, Connie M Piccone, Lan Lu, Joshua Batesole, Jane Little, Katherine M Dell, Chris A Flask
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs in over one-third of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and can progress to end-stage renal disease. Unfortunately, current clinical assessments of kidney function are insensitive to early-stage CKD. Previous studies have shown that diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can sensitively detect regional renal microstructural changes associated with early-stage CKD. However, previous MRI studies in patients with SCD have been largely limited to the detection of renal iron deposition assessed by T2 * relaxometry...
March 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331592/combined-creatinine-cystatin-c-ckd-epi-equation-significantly-underestimates-measured-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Júlia Dauernheimer Machado, Eduardo Guimarães Camargo, Roberta Boff, Laís da Silva Rodrigues, Joíza Lins Camargo, Ariana Aguiar Soares, Sandra Pinho Silveiro
AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of creatinine and cystatin C (cysC) equations to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and healthy adults. METHODS: Case-control study including 84 patients with type 2 DM and 100 healthy adults with measured GFR (mGFR)≥60mL/min/1.73m2 . GFR was measured by 51 Cr-EDTA and estimated (eGFR) by the following equations using creatinine, cysC or both markers: Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI), Caucasian Asian Pediatrics and Adults (CAPA), CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C (CKDEPI-CC), and CKD-EPI cystatin C (CKDEPIcysC)...
March 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
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