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Alzheimers AND pioglitazone

David Hsu, Gad A Marshall
The field of Alzheimer disease (AD) prevention has been a culmination of basic science, clinical, and translational research. In the past three years since the new 2011 AD diagnostic guidelines, large-scale collaborative efforts have embarked on new clinical trials with the hope of someday preventing AD. This review will shed light on the historical and scientific contexts in which these trials were based on, as well as discuss potential challenges these trials may face in the coming years. Primary preventive measures, such as lifestyle, multidomain, medication, and supplemental interventions, will be analyzed...
September 30, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Tadanori Hamano, Norimichi Shirafuji, Chiemi Makino, Shu-Hui Yen, Nicholas M Kanaan, Asako Ueno, Jinya Suzuki, Masamichi Ikawa, Akiko Matsunaga, Osamu Yamamura, Masaru Kuriyama, Yasunari Nakamoto
Tau aggregation and amyloid β protein (Aβ) deposition are the main causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) activation modulates Aβ production. To test whether the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone (PIO) is also effective in preventing tau aggregation in AD, we used a cellular model in which wild-type tau protein (4R0N) is overexpressed (M1C cells) (Hamano et al., 2012) as well as primary neuronal cultures. PIO reduced both phosphorylated and total tau levels, and inactivated glycogen synthase kinase 3β, a major tau kinase, associated with activation of Akt...
September 23, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
AmanPreet Badhwar, Rebecca Brown, Danica B Stanimirovic, Arsalan S Haqqani, Edith Hamel
Cerebrovascular insufficiency appears years prior to clinical symptoms in Alzheimer's disease. The soluble, highly toxic amyloid-β species, generated from the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein, are known instigators of the chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency observed in both Alzheimer's disease patients and transgenic mouse models. We have previously demonstrated that pioglitazone potently reverses cerebrovascular impairments in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease overexpressing amyloid-β...
June 23, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Chaluveelaveedu Murleedharan Nisha, Ashwini Kumar, Prateek Nair, Nityasha Gupta, Chitrangda Silakari, Timir Tripathi, Awanish Kumar
Amyloidogenic pathway in Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves breakdown of APP by β-secretase followed by γ-secretase and results in formation of amyloid beta plaque. β-secretase has been a promising target for developing novel anti-Alzheimer drugs. To test different molecules for this purpose, test ligands like acylguanidine 7a, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, and tartaric acid were docked against our target protein β-secretase enzyme retrieved from Protein Data Bank, considering MK-8931 (phase III trial, Merck) as the positive control...
2016: Advances in Bioinformatics
Amanda M DiBattista, Sonya B Dumanis, Joshua Newman, G William Rebeck
BACKGROUND: Over 70 million Americans inherit the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4), but have no course for reducing their risk. The association of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use with reduced risk of AD for APOE4-carriers suggests that NSAIDs may be useful in AD prevention. METHODS: We identified phenotypes associated with APOE4 in APOE knock-in mice in order to define modifiable measures that correlate with risk of AD...
June 2016: Experimental Neurology
Junya Toba, Miyu Nikkuni, Masato Ishizeki, Aya Yoshii, Naoto Watamura, Takafumi Inoue, Toshio Ohshima
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the best known neurodegenerative diseases; it causes dementia and its pathological features include accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. Elevated Cdk5 activity and CRMP2 phosphorylation have been reported in the brains of AD model mice at the early stage of the disease, but the significance thereof in human AD remains unelucidated. We have recently reported that Aβ accumulation in the cerebellum of AD model APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice, and cerebellar dysfunctions, such as impairment of motor coordination ability and long-term depression (LTD) induction, at the pre-Aβ accumulation stage...
May 13, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Chengyu Zou, Yuan Shi, Jasmin Ohli, Ulrich Schüller, Mario M Dorostkar, Jochen Herms
To successfully treat Alzheimer's disease (AD), pathophysiological events in preclinical stages need to be identified. Preclinical AD refers to the stages that exhibit amyloid deposition in the brain but have normal cognitive function, which are replicated in young adult APPswe/PS1deltaE9 (deltaE9) mice. By long-term in vivo two-photon microscopy, we demonstrate impaired adaptive spine plasticity in these transgenic mice illustrated by their failure to increase dendritic spine density and form novel neural connections when housed in enriched environment (EE)...
February 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Maximilian Pohland, Stephanie Hagl, Maren Pellowska, Mario Wurglics, Manfred Schubert-Zsilavecz, Gunter P Eckert
Developing new therapeutic strategies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a current challenge. Approved drugs merely act symptomatically and delay the progression of the disease for a relatively short period of time. Here, we investigated the effectiveness of MH84 in a cellular HEK293APPwt model of AD, characterized by elevated beta amyloid protein levels (Aβ1-42) and mitochondrial dysfunction. MH84 is a derivate of pirinixic acid belonging to a novel class of γ-secretase modulators, which combines γ-secretase modulation with activation of peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor gamma (PPARγ)...
February 2016: Neurochemical Research
Aurora Pujol
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is the most frequent inherited monogenic demyelinating disease. It is often lethal and currently lacks a satisfactory therapy. The disease is caused by loss of function of the ABCD1 gene, a peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter, resulting in the accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in organs and plasma. Recent findings on pathomechanisms of the peroxisomal neurometabolic disease X-ALD have provided important clues on therapeutic targets. Here we describe the impact of chronic redox imbalance caused by the excess VLCFA on mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration, and explore the consequences on the protein quality control systems essential for cell survival, such as the proteasome and autophagic flux...
2016: Endocrine Development
María José Pérez, Rodrigo A Quintanilla
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial metabolic brain disorder characterized by protein aggregates, synaptic failure, and cognitive impairment. In the AD brain is common to observe the accumulation of senile plaques formed by amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide and the neurofibrillary tangles composed of modified tau protein, which both lead to cellular damage and progressive neurodegeneration. Currently, there is no effective therapy for AD; however several studies have shown that the treatments with the peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonists known as thiazolidinedione drugs (TZDs), like rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, attenuate neurodegeneration and improve cognition in mouse models and patients with mild-to-moderate AD...
2015: PPAR Research
Nan Lin, Li-Min Chen, Xiao-Dong Pan, Yuan-Gui Zhu, Jing Zhang, Yan-Qing Shi, Xiao-Chun Chen
Due to its apparent rate-limiting function, BACE1 (β-secretase) appears to be a prime target for prevention of amyloid-β (Aβ) generation in brains with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The activity of BACE1 is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), a transcription factor binding site of the BACE1 promoter, indicating that PPARγ may be a potential target for AD treatment. Several studies have demonstrated that PPARγ activation is involved in the immunostimulation of amyloid-β precursor protein processing by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)...
November 19, 2015: Molecular Neurobiology
Rebecca Skerrett, Mateus P Pellegrino, Brad T Casali, Laura Taraboanta, Gary E Landreth
Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by the extracellular accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ), which is accompanied by a robust inflammatory response in the brain. Both of these pathogenic processes are regulated by nuclear receptors, including the liver X receptors (LXRs) and peroxisome-proliferator receptor γ (PPARγ). Agonists of LXRs have been demonstrated previously to reduce Aβ levels and improve cognitive deficits in AD mouse models by inducing the transcription and lipidation of apolipoprotein E (apoE)...
August 28, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Stéphane Fourcade, Isidre Ferrer, Aurora Pujol
Peroxisomal and mitochondrial malfunction, which are highly intertwined through redox regulation, in combination with defective proteostasis, are hallmarks of the most prevalent multifactorial neurodegenerative diseases-including Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD)-and of the aging process, and are also found in inherited conditions. Here we review the interplay between oxidative stress and axonal degeneration, taking as groundwork recent findings on pathomechanisms of the peroxisomal neurometabolic disease adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD)...
November 2015: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Huawei Cheng, Yuping Shang, Ling Jiang, Tian-lu Shi, Lin Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease and there is no effective therapy for it. Peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) agonists is a promising therapeutic approach for AD and has been widely studied recently, but no consensus was available up to now. To clarify this point, a meta-analysis was performed. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central database, PUBMED, Springer Link database, SDOS database, CBM, CNKI and Wan fang database by December 2014. Standardized mean difference (SMD), relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess the strength of the novel therapeutics for AD and mild-to-moderate AD...
2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Catrina Sims-Robinson, Anna Bakeman, Andrew Rosko, Rebecca Glasser, Eva L Feldman
Abnormalities in lysosomal function have been reported in diabetes, aging, and age-related degenerative diseases. These lysosomal abnormalities are an early manifestation of neurodegenerative diseases and often precede the onset of clinical symptoms such as learning and memory deficits; however, the mechanism underlying lysosomal dysfunction is not known. In the current study, we investigated the mechanism underlying lysosomal dysfunction in the cortex and hippocampi, key structures involved in learning and memory, of a type 2 diabetes (T2D) mouse model, the leptin receptor deficient db/db mouse...
May 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Jinan Chen, Shenghua Li, Wenshan Sun, Junrong Li
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a serine/threonine kinase that is activated by the neuron specific activators p35/p39 and plays many important roles in neuronal development. However, aberrant activation of Cdk5 is believed to be associated with the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Here in the present study, enhanced Cdk5 activity was observed in mouse models of AD; whereas soluble amyloid-β oligomers (Aβ), which contribute to synaptic failures during AD pathogenesis, induced Cdk5 hyperactivation in cultured hippocampal neurons...
2015: PloS One
Atish Prakash, Anil Kumar, Long Chiau Ming, Vasudevan Mani, Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by impaired memory function and oxidative damage. NO is a major signaling molecule produced in the central nervous system to modulate neurological activity through modulating nitric oxide synthase. Recently, PPAR-γ agonists have shown neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative disorders. However, there have been only a few studies identifying mechanisms through which cognitive benefits may be exerted. The present study was designed to investigate the possible nitric oxide mechanism in the protective effect of pioglitazone against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced memory dysfunction...
July 2015: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Kai Lun Chang, Hai Ning Pee, Shili Yang, Paul C Ho
Pioglitazone is currently undergoing clinical trials for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, poor brain penetration remains an obstacle to development of the drug for such intended clinical uses. In this study, we demonstrate that the inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) significantly increases brain penetration of pioglitazone, whereas inhibition of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) has little effect. We also investigate the stereoselectivity of pioglitazone uptake in the brain. When mice were dosed with racemic pioglitazone, the concentration of (+)-pioglitazone was 46...
2015: Scientific Reports
Donna G Crenshaw, Karen Asin, William K Gottschalk, Zhifeng Liang, Nanyin Zhang, Allen D Roses
Pioglitazone (PIO) is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonist in clinical use for treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Accumulating evidence suggests PPARγ agonists may be useful for treating or delaying the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD), possibly via actions on mitochondria, and that dose strengths lower than those clinically used for T2DM may be efficacious. Our major objective was to determine if low doses of pioglitazone, administered orally, impacted brain activity. We measured blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) low-frequency fluctuations in conscious rats to map changes in brain resting-state functional connectivity due to daily, oral dosing with low-dose PIO...
2015: PloS One
Jia Liu, Lu-ning Wang, Jian-ping Jia
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease in the elderly, and close associations between AD and diabetes have been found. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) agonists, as newly-developed oral hypoglycaemic agents, were evaluated as a possible therapy for AD. AIM: We systematically evaluated the efficacy and safety of PPAR-γ agonists in the treatment of AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), the prodromal stage of AD...
January 2015: Drugs & Aging
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