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Alzheimers AND pioglitazone

Carmen M Fernandez-Martos, Rachel A K Atkinson, Meng I Chuah, Anna E King, James C Vickers
INTRODUCTION: Combination therapy approaches may be necessary to address the many facets of pathologic change in the brain in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The drugs leptin and pioglitazone have previously been shown individually to have neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory actions, respectively, in animal models. METHODS: We studied the impact of combined leptin and pioglitazone treatment in 6-month-old APP/PS1 (APPswe/PSEN1dE9) transgenic AD mouse model. RESULTS: We report that an acute 2-week treatment with combined leptin and pioglitazone resulted in a reduction of spatial memory deficits (Y maze) and brain β-amyloid levels (soluble β-amyloid and amyloid plaque burden) relative to vehicle-treated animals...
January 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
Jeffrey Fessel
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the hypotheses stating the importance of amyloid or of its oligomers in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Published studies were examined. RESULTS: The importance of amyloid in the pathogenesis of AD is well established, yet accepting it as the main cause for AD is problematic, because amyloid-centric treatments have provided no clinical benefit and about one-third of cognitively normal, older persons have cerebral amyloid plaques...
January 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Sisi Yang, Zhe Chen, Ming Cao, Renjie Li, Zhigang Wang, Muxun Zhang
Pioglitazone may have potential benefits as an alternative therapeutic treatment for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), particularly in individuals that also have comorbid diabetes; however, the mechanisms of action remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore the effects of pioglitazone on amyloid β, isoform 42 (Aβ42) deposition in rats with diet‑induced insulin resistance (IR). Diet‑induced IR model rats were established in the presence or absence of pioglitazone. Plasma glucose and insulin levels, and cerebrospinal fluid insulin levels were measured; in addition, hippocampal tissues were collected for immunohistochemical analysis of Aβ42 expression...
May 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
W J Fessel
The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease involves multiple pathways that, at the macrolevel, include decreased proliferation plus increased loss affecting neurons, astrocytes, and capillaries and, at the subcellular level, involve several elements: amyloid/amyloid precursor protein, presenilins, the unfolded protein response, the ubiquitin/proteasome system, the Wnt/catenin system, the Notch signaling system, mitochondria, mitophagy, calcium, and tau. Data presented show the intimate, anatomical interactions between neurons, astrocytes, and capillaries; the interactions between the several subcellular factors affecting those cells; and the treatments that are currently available and that might correct dysfunctions in the subcellular factors...
May 2017: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Shobana Subramanian, William K Gottschalk, So Young Kim, Allen D Roses, Ornit Chiba-Falek
Chromosome 19q13.32 is a gene rich region, and has been implicated in multiple human phenotypes in adulthood including lipids traits, Alzheimer's disease, and longevity. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated nuclear transcription factor that plays a role in human complex traits that are also genetically associated with the chromosome 19q13.32 region. Here, we study the effects of PPARγ on the regional expression regulation of the genes clustered within chromosome 19q13...
March 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Zhao-Xu Zhang, Yan-Bing Li, Rui-Ping Zhao
The accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide plaques is a major pathogenic event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ is a cleaved fragment of APP via BACE1, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in APP processing and Aβ generation. Nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is considered to be a potential target for AD treatment, because of its potent antioxidant and inhibitory effects on Aβ production by negatively regulating BACE1. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a highly active catechin found in green tea, is known to enhance metabolic activity and cognitive ability in the mice model of AD...
February 2017: Neurochemical Research
Daniela Galimberti, Elio Scarpini
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Pharmacological treatment of AD includes Anticholinesterase Inhibitors (AChEIs) for mild-moderate AD, and memantine for severe AD. These drugs provide mainly symptomatic short-term benefits without clearly influencing the progression of the disease. Pioglitazone (AD4833) is an insulin sensitizer of the thiazolidinedione class of nuclear Peroxisome-Proliferator Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists. It binds to PPARγ, affecting gene transcription and reducing inflammation...
January 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
David Hsu, Gad A Marshall
The field of Alzheimer disease (AD) prevention has been a culmination of basic science, clinical, and translational research. In the past three years since the new 2011 AD diagnostic guidelines, large-scale collaborative efforts have embarked on new clinical trials with the hope of someday preventing AD. This review will shed light on the historical and scientific contexts in which these trials were based on, as well as discuss potential challenges these trials may face in the coming years. Primary preventive measures, such as lifestyle, multidomain, medication, and supplemental interventions, will be analyzed...
2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Tadanori Hamano, Norimichi Shirafuji, Chiemi Makino, Shu-Hui Yen, Nicholas M Kanaan, Asako Ueno, Jinya Suzuki, Masamichi Ikawa, Akiko Matsunaga, Osamu Yamamura, Masaru Kuriyama, Yasunari Nakamoto
Tau aggregation and amyloid β protein (Aβ) deposition are the main causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) activation modulates Aβ production. To test whether the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone (PIO) is also effective in preventing tau aggregation in AD, we used a cellular model in which wild-type tau protein (4R0N) is overexpressed (M1C cells) (Hamano et al., 2012) as well as primary neuronal cultures. PIO reduced both phosphorylated and total tau levels, and inactivated glycogen synthase kinase 3β, a major tau kinase, associated with activation of Akt...
September 23, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
AmanPreet Badhwar, Rebecca Brown, Danica B Stanimirovic, Arsalan S Haqqani, Edith Hamel
Cerebrovascular insufficiency appears years prior to clinical symptoms in Alzheimer's disease. The soluble, highly toxic amyloid-β species, generated from the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein, are known instigators of the chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency observed in both Alzheimer's disease patients and transgenic mouse models. We have previously demonstrated that pioglitazone potently reverses cerebrovascular impairments in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease overexpressing amyloid-β...
March 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Chaluveelaveedu Murleedharan Nisha, Ashwini Kumar, Prateek Nair, Nityasha Gupta, Chitrangda Silakari, Timir Tripathi, Awanish Kumar
Amyloidogenic pathway in Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves breakdown of APP by β-secretase followed by γ-secretase and results in formation of amyloid beta plaque. β-secretase has been a promising target for developing novel anti-Alzheimer drugs. To test different molecules for this purpose, test ligands like acylguanidine 7a, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, and tartaric acid were docked against our target protein β-secretase enzyme retrieved from Protein Data Bank, considering MK-8931 (phase III trial, Merck) as the positive control...
2016: Advances in Bioinformatics
Amanda M DiBattista, Sonya B Dumanis, Joshua Newman, G William Rebeck
BACKGROUND: Over 70 million Americans inherit the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4), but have no course for reducing their risk. The association of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use with reduced risk of AD for APOE4-carriers suggests that NSAIDs may be useful in AD prevention. METHODS: We identified phenotypes associated with APOE4 in APOE knock-in mice in order to define modifiable measures that correlate with risk of AD...
June 2016: Experimental Neurology
Junya Toba, Miyu Nikkuni, Masato Ishizeki, Aya Yoshii, Naoto Watamura, Takafumi Inoue, Toshio Ohshima
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the best known neurodegenerative diseases; it causes dementia and its pathological features include accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. Elevated Cdk5 activity and CRMP2 phosphorylation have been reported in the brains of AD model mice at the early stage of the disease, but the significance thereof in human AD remains unelucidated. We have recently reported that Aβ accumulation in the cerebellum of AD model APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice, and cerebellar dysfunctions, such as impairment of motor coordination ability and long-term depression (LTD) induction, at the pre-Aβ accumulation stage...
May 13, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Chengyu Zou, Yuan Shi, Jasmin Ohli, Ulrich Schüller, Mario M Dorostkar, Jochen Herms
To successfully treat Alzheimer's disease (AD), pathophysiological events in preclinical stages need to be identified. Preclinical AD refers to the stages that exhibit amyloid deposition in the brain but have normal cognitive function, which are replicated in young adult APPswe/PS1deltaE9 (deltaE9) mice. By long-term in vivo two-photon microscopy, we demonstrate impaired adaptive spine plasticity in these transgenic mice illustrated by their failure to increase dendritic spine density and form novel neural connections when housed in enriched environment (EE)...
February 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Maximilian Pohland, Stephanie Hagl, Maren Pellowska, Mario Wurglics, Manfred Schubert-Zsilavecz, Gunter P Eckert
Developing new therapeutic strategies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a current challenge. Approved drugs merely act symptomatically and delay the progression of the disease for a relatively short period of time. Here, we investigated the effectiveness of MH84 in a cellular HEK293APPwt model of AD, characterized by elevated beta amyloid protein levels (Aβ1-42) and mitochondrial dysfunction. MH84 is a derivate of pirinixic acid belonging to a novel class of γ-secretase modulators, which combines γ-secretase modulation with activation of peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor gamma (PPARγ)...
February 2016: Neurochemical Research
Aurora Pujol
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is the most frequent inherited monogenic demyelinating disease. It is often lethal and currently lacks a satisfactory therapy. The disease is caused by loss of function of the ABCD1 gene, a peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter, resulting in the accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in organs and plasma. Recent findings on pathomechanisms of the peroxisomal neurometabolic disease X-ALD have provided important clues on therapeutic targets. Here we describe the impact of chronic redox imbalance caused by the excess VLCFA on mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration, and explore the consequences on the protein quality control systems essential for cell survival, such as the proteasome and autophagic flux...
2016: Endocrine Development
María José Pérez, Rodrigo A Quintanilla
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial metabolic brain disorder characterized by protein aggregates, synaptic failure, and cognitive impairment. In the AD brain is common to observe the accumulation of senile plaques formed by amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide and the neurofibrillary tangles composed of modified tau protein, which both lead to cellular damage and progressive neurodegeneration. Currently, there is no effective therapy for AD; however several studies have shown that the treatments with the peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonists known as thiazolidinedione drugs (TZDs), like rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, attenuate neurodegeneration and improve cognition in mouse models and patients with mild-to-moderate AD...
2015: PPAR Research
Nan Lin, Li-Min Chen, Xiao-Dong Pan, Yuan-Gui Zhu, Jing Zhang, Yan-Qing Shi, Xiao-Chun Chen
Due to its apparent rate-limiting function, BACE1 (β-secretase) appears to be a prime target for prevention of amyloid-β (Aβ) generation in brains with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The activity of BACE1 is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), a transcription factor binding site of the BACE1 promoter, indicating that PPARγ may be a potential target for AD treatment. Several studies have demonstrated that PPARγ activation is involved in the immunostimulation of amyloid-β precursor protein processing by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)...
November 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Rebecca Skerrett, Mateus P Pellegrino, Brad T Casali, Laura Taraboanta, Gary E Landreth
Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by the extracellular accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ), which is accompanied by a robust inflammatory response in the brain. Both of these pathogenic processes are regulated by nuclear receptors, including the liver X receptors (LXRs) and peroxisome-proliferator receptor γ (PPARγ). Agonists of LXRs have been demonstrated previously to reduce Aβ levels and improve cognitive deficits in AD mouse models by inducing the transcription and lipidation of apolipoprotein E (apoE)...
August 28, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Stéphane Fourcade, Isidre Ferrer, Aurora Pujol
Peroxisomal and mitochondrial malfunction, which are highly intertwined through redox regulation, in combination with defective proteostasis, are hallmarks of the most prevalent multifactorial neurodegenerative diseases-including Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD)-and of the aging process, and are also found in inherited conditions. Here we review the interplay between oxidative stress and axonal degeneration, taking as groundwork recent findings on pathomechanisms of the peroxisomal neurometabolic disease adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD)...
November 2015: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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