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Short course radiation

Mohamed A Mohamed, Rohit Abraham, Tareq I Maraqa, Samir Elian
Aortic dissection is a rare and fatal complication of cocaine-induced hypertension. The injury mechanism is through shear stress that penetrates the intimal vessel layer, allowing blood flow to separate intimal and medial layers. Due to its scarcity and the paucity of related literature, our knowledge of this condition is limited. We present a rare case of a cocaine-induced aortic dissection, which extended continuously from the aortic root to the common iliacs, along with a literature review of similar cases...
January 12, 2018: Curēus
Charles T Lee, Yanqun Dong, Tianyu Li, Samuel Freedman, Jordan Anaokar, Thomas J Galloway, Mark A Hallman, Stephanie E Weiss, Shelly B Hayes, Robert A Price, C M Charlie Ma, Joshua E Meyer
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of external beam reirradiation using a pulsed low-dose-rate (PLDR) technique. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We evaluated patients treated with PLDR reirradiation from 2009 to 2016 at a single institution. Toxicity was graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0, and local control was assessed using the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors, version 1.1. On univariate analysis (UVA), the χ2 and Fisher exact tests were used to assess the toxicity outcomes...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Andre Bongers, Eric Hau, Han Shen
PURPOSE: To investigate a novel alternative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) approach using oscillating gradients preparation (OGSE) to obtain much shorter effective diffusion times (Δ eff ) for tumor response monitoring by apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping in a glioblastoma mouse model. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty-four BALB/c nude mice inoculated with U87 glioblastoma cells were randomized into a control group and an irradiation group, which underwent a 15-day fractioned radiation therapy (RT) course with 2 Gy/d...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Eleonora Farina, Jenny Capuccini, Gabriella Macchia, Luciana Caravatta, Nam P Nguyen, Silvia Cammelli, Giuseppe Zanirato Rambaldi, Savino Cilla, Tigeneh Wondemagegnhu, A F M Kamal Uddin, Mostafà Aziz Sumon, Domenico Genovesi, Milly Buwenge, Francesco Cellini, Vincenzo Valentini, Francesco Deodato, Alessio G Morganti
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a conformal Short Course Accelerated Radiation therapy (SHARON) for symptomatic palliation of locally advanced or metastatic cancers in older patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a pooled analysis on patients aged ≥80 years selected between subjects enrolled in 3 phase I-II studies on a short course palliative treatment of advanced or metastatic cancer. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the symptoms response rate produced by accelerated radiotherapy delivered in 4 total fractions in twice a day...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
Hironori Minami, Tsuyoshi Konishi, Hironori Fukuoka, Shun Miyanari, Satoshi Murahashi, Ian Fukudome, Shinsuke Suzuki, Hajime Ushigome, Toshiya Nagasaki, Takashi Akiyoshi, Yoshiya Fujimoto, Satoshi Nagayama, Yosuke Fukunaga, Masashi Ueno
BACKGROUNDS: In the setting of routine use of preoperative chemoradiotherapy(CRT)for cStage II / III rectal cancer, shortcourse radiotherapy(short-RT)is selectively used for reducing local recurrence.The purpose of this study is to clarify the safety of laparoscopic surgery after preoperative short-RT for lower rectal cancer. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients who un- derwent short-RT followed by laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for cStage II / III lower rectal cancer were retrospectively analyzed...
November 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Yuanyuan Liu, Feng Gao, Hongjun Hao, Weiping Sun, Yining Huang
RATIONALE: An acute presentation with diffuse magnetic resonance imaging lesions can have a broad differential. Demyelination and malignancy are important considerations. Therefore, sometimes it is hard to differentiate glioma from some demyelinating diseases solely on imaging because of the similar clinical presentation and imaging features. Detection of highly specific serum autoantibody marker aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-IgG positivity has helped to define a category of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), but the test of AQP4 antibody has not been reported in patients with glioma...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
E Rashidghamat, E Calonje
Radiation induced sarcoma is an unusual but well documented tumor. The frequency of radiation induced sarcoma of the head and neck region has been reported as 0.143%. In the literature the median interval between irradiation and development of sarcoma is 11 years. Cases of RIS with a short latent period i.e. less than four years are rare. We report a case of a 34 year-old female who developed an osteosarcoma of the scalp, over a previous craniotomy scar, three years after excision of a frontal anaplastic oligodendroglioma which had been followed by a course of 6 weeks radiotherapy (58 Gy) and 6 cycles of Temozolomide...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Thais Huarancca Reyes, Andrea Scartazza, Antonella Castagna, Eric G Cosio, Annamaria Ranieri, Lorenzo Guglielminetti
Increased ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation due to global change can affect plant growth and metabolism. Here, we evaluated the capacity of quinoa to resist under short acute UVB irradiation. Quinoa was daily exposed for 30 or 60 min to 1.69 W m-2 UVB. The results showed that 30 min exposure in 9 d-course did not cause severe alterations on photosynthetic pigments and flavonoids, but a significant increase of antioxidant capacity was observed. Otherwise, 60 min UVB in 5 d-course reduced almost all these parameters except for an increase in the de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle pigments and led to the death of the plants...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Emma B Holliday, Andrew Hunt, Y Nancy You, George J Chang, John M Skibber, Miguel A Rodriguez-Bigas, Brian K Bednarski, Cathy Eng, Eugene J Koay, Bruce D Minsky, Cullen Taniguchi, Sunil Krishnan, Joseph M Herman, Prajnan Das
Background: Select patients with rectal adenocarcinoma with metastatic disease at presentation can be cured with multimodality management. However, the optimal components and sequencing of therapy is unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate outcomes for patients treated with chemotherapy, short course radiation therapy (SCRT) and surgical resection. Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed metastatic rectal adenocarcinoma who received SCRT from 2010-2016 were identified...
December 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Avani D Rao, Arif S Rashid, Qinyu Chen, Rosangela C Villar, Daria Kobyzeva, Kristina Nilsson, Karin Dieckmann, Alexey Nechesnyuk, Ralph Ermoian, Sara Alcorn, Shannon M MacDonald, Matthew M Ladra, Eric C Ford, Brian A Winey, Maria Luisa S Figueiredo, Michael J Chen, Stephanie A Terezakis
PURPOSE: Reirradiation has been proposed as an effective modality for recurrent central nervous system (CNS) malignancies in adults. We evaluated the toxicity and outcomes of CNS reirradiation in pediatric patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The data from pediatric patients <21 years of age at the initial diagnosis who developed a recurrent CNS malignancy that received repeat radiation therapy (RT) across 5 facilities in an international pediatric research consortium were retrospectively reviewed...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Michael G Penniment, Paolo B De Ieso, Jennifer A Harvey, Sonya Stephens, Heather-Jane Au, Christopher J O'Callaghan, Andrew Kneebone, Samuel Y Ngan, Iain G Ward, Rajarshi Roy, Jennifer G Smith, Tirath Nijjar, James J Biagi, Liam A Mulroy, Rebecca Wong
BACKGROUND: A short course of radiotherapy is commonly prescribed for palliative relief of malignant dysphagia in patients with incurable oesophageal cancer. We compared chemoradiotherapy with radiotherapy alone for dysphagia relief in the palliative setting. METHODS: This multicentre randomised controlled trial included patients with advanced or metastatic oesophageal cancer who were randomly assigned (1:1) through a computer-generated adaptive biased coin design to either palliative chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone for treatment of malignant dysphagia at 22 hospitals in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the UK...
February 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Andrés José María Ferreri
Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas represent a subgroup of malignancies with specific characteristics, an aggressive course, and unsatisfactory outcome in contrast with other lymphomas comparable for tumor burden and histological type. Despite the high sensitivity to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, remissions are frequently short lasting. Treatment efficacy is limited by several factors, including the biology and microenvironment of this malignancy and the "protective" effect of the blood-brain barrier, which limits the access of most drugs to the CNS...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
Sivakumar Mahalingam, Ramakrishnan Ayloor Seshadri, Surendran Veeraiah
Surgery for low rectal cancer often involves a permanent stoma. Intersphincteric resection (ISR) with colo-anal anastomosis is a valuable sphincter sparing surgical procedure that avoids the need for permanent stoma in patients with low rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term functional and oncological outcomes following ISR. This was a retrospective analysis of patients with low rectal cancer who underwent ISR with colo-anal anastomosis in our institution between 2007 and 2015. All patients had a diversion stoma...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
Bruce D Minsky
Long-course chemoradiation therapy (CRT) has been the standard approach for locally advanced rectal tumors. Neoadjuvant CRT is associated to improved local disease control, with less toxicity when compared with adjuvant CRT, as well as the chance for pathologic complete response. The CRT regimens have improved over the past years. This article will examine selected controversies, including novel chemoradiation regimens, duration of radiation (short vs. long course), and radiation techniques such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)...
November 2017: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery
Wing Ho Mui, Tai Chung Lam, Frank Chi Sing Wong, Wing King Sze
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown similar clinical outcomes of both single and multi-fraction (Fr) radiation therapy among malignant epidural spinal cord compression (MSCC) patients with poor prognosis; whereas, patients expected to have longer survival may require long-course radiotherapy to prevent local failure. However, such a poor prognosis risk group has not yet been clearly identified for use in daily clinical practice. We examined if the known predictive Tokuhashi scoring system could be adapted in MSCC patients treated with palliative radiation therapy...
August 29, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
Agnes Weiss, Helmut Weiss
Small photovoltaic plants in private ownership are typically rated at 5 kW (peak). The panels are mounted on roofs at a decline angle of 20° to 45°. In winter time, a dense layer of snow at a width of e.g., 10 cm keeps off solar radiation from the photovoltaic cells for weeks under continental climate conditions. Practically, no energy is produced over the time of snow coverage. Only until outside air temperature has risen high enough for a rather long-time interval to allow partial melting of snow; the snow layer rushes down in an avalanche...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bin Ma, Qingzhou Xu, Yongxi Song, Peng Gao, Zhenning Wang
Neoadjuvant therapies are effective for local control and tumor downstaging. Up to date, preoperative long-course chemoradiotherapy and short-course radiotherapy are the two primary guideline-recommended neoadjuvant therapies for locally advanced rectal cancer patients. However, clinicians throughout the world are trying their best to further optimize the regimens and concepts of neoadjuvants. Hence, there is an urgent need to summarize evidence regarding indications of neaoadjuvant therapies and relative merits of current standard regimens...
November 2017: Future Oncology
Rachel B Jimenez, Brian M Alexander, Anand Mahadevan, Andrzej Niemierko, Selvan Rajakesari, Nils D Arvold, Scott R Floyd, Kevin S Oh, Jay S Loeffler, Helen A Shih
Purpose: Stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) enables focused, short course, high dose per fraction radiation delivery to brain tumors that are less ideal for single fraction treatment because of size, shape, or close proximity to sensitive structures. We sought to identify optimal SRT treatment regimens for maximizing local control while minimizing morbidity. Methods and materials: We performed a retrospective review of patients treated with SRT for solid brain metastases using variable dose schedules between 2001 and 2011 at 3 academic hospitals...
July 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Stuart E Samuels, Matthew H Stenmark, Jae Y Lee, Jonathan B McHugh, James A Hayman, Mark B Orringer, Susan G Urba, Libin Sun, Congying Xie, Feng-Ming Kong, Kyle C Cuneo
Objective: Because of the short potential doubling time of esophageal cancer, there is a theoretical benefit to using an accelerated radiation treatment schedule. This study evaluates outcomes and treatment-related mortality and morbidity of patients treated with neoadjuvant hyperfractionated accelerated chemoradiation for resectable esophageal cancer. Methods and materials: Outcomes from 250 consecutive patients with resectable esophageal cancer treated with preoperative hyperfractionated accelerated chemoradiotherapy (45 Gy in 30 twice-daily fractions over 3 weeks) followed by planned transhiatal esophagectomy were analyzed...
July 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Kevin M Kremer, Megan E McDonald, Michael J Goodheart
Uterine gas gangrene caused by Clostridium perfringens is a serious, often life-threatening infection that is rarely encountered in the practice of gynecologic oncology. However, the hypoxic nature of gynecologic cancers due to necrosis and/or prior radiation therapy creates a microenvironment optimal for proliferation of anaerobic bacteria such as the Clostridium species. Early recognition and aggressive treatment with IV antibiotics and surgical debridement remain the cornerstones of management in order to decrease morbidity and mortality...
November 2017: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
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