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Ze-Qun Li, Zhi-Yuan Yan, Bo-Jun Lan, Yi-Qun Dong, Ye Xiong
Depression, regulated by central nervous system (CNS), is a significant inflammatory disorder. Neuroligin3 (NLGN3) has been implicated in brain functions. In the study, a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model in wild type (WT) or NLGN3-knockout (KO) mice was established to explore the role of NLGN3 in regulating depression and to reveal the underlying molecular mechanism. The results indicated that NLGN3-knockout markedly reversed the loss of body weight, the reduction of sucrose consumption, the decrease of immobile time in the forced swimming tests (FST) and tail suspension tests (TST) induced by CUMS paradigm...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Zhi-Qiang Huang, Pan Chen, Wei-Wei Su, Yong-Gang Wang, Hao Wu, Wei Peng, Pei-Bo Li
Hypericum japonicum is traditionally used as a folk medicine to treat cholestasis and hepatitis. Quercetin 7-rhamnoside (Q7R) is one of the main flavonoid components of Hypericum japonicum and has been rarely studied. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective potential of Q7R. In the in vitro experiments, DPPH, ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were first performed to assess the antioxidant properties of Q7R, and then a H₂O₂-induced oxidative damage cellular model was used to determine the cytoprotective and antioxidant properties of Q7R in human liver L-02 cells...
May 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jinjing Guo, Ying Cheng
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the potential roles and mechanism of miR-1247 in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced acute pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The miR-1247 expression in acute stage patients with infantile pneumonia was detected. To establish the cell model of acute pneumonia, A549 cells were treated with 1 mg/mL lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The effects of miR-1247 dysregulation on the cell viability, apoptosis, inflammation and autophagy of LPS-induced A549 cells were investigated...
May 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Sharon Alroy-Preis, Elizabeth R Daly, Christine Adamski, Jodie Dionne-Odom, Elizabeth A Talbot, Fengxiang Gao, Steffany J Cavallo, Katrina Hansen, Jennifer C Mahoney, Erin Metcalf, Carol Loring, Christine Bean, Jan Drobeniuc, Guo-Liang Xia, Saleem Kamili, José T Montero
Background: In May 2012, the New Hampshire (NH) Division of Public Health Services (DPHS) was notified of 4 persons with newly diagnosed hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection at hospital X. Initial investigation suggested a common link to the hospital cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) because the infected persons included 3 CCL patients and a CCL technician. NH DPHS initiated an investigation to determine the source and control the outbreak. Methods: NH DPHS conducted site visits, case patient and employee interviews, medical record and medication use review, and employee and patient HCV testing using enzyme immunoassay for anti-HCV, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for HCV RNA, nonstructural 5B (NS5B) and hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) sequencing, and quasispecies analysis...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Juliane D Glaeser, Khosrowdad Salehi, Linda Kanim, Dmitriy Sheyn, Zachary NaPier, Phillip Behrens, Leslie Garcia, Jason M Cuéllar, Hyun W Bae
Recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) loaded absorbable collagen sponges (ACS) have been successfully used to enhance bone formation and to induce spinal fusion in humans. However, side effects, such as soft-tissue edema and inflammation, have been reported. NEMO binding domain peptide (NBD) inhibits activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), a central regulator of immune response. In this study, we investigated NBD's potential to reduce BMP-2-induced soft-tissue inflammation without affecting BMP-2-mediated spinal fusion in rat...
May 16, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Diana Rodríguez-Fernández, Benjamin Heckel, Clara Torrentó, Armin Meyer, Martin Elsner, Daniel Hunkeler, Albert Soler, Mònica Rosell, Cristina Domènech
A dual element CCl isotopic study was performed for assessing chlorinated methanes (CMs) abiotic transformation reactions mediated by iron minerals and Fe(0) to further distinguish them in natural attenuation monitoring or when applying remediation strategies in polluted sites. Isotope fractionation was investigated during carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF) degradation in anoxic batch experiments with Fe(0), with FeCl2 (aq), and with Fe-bearing minerals (magnetite, Mag and pyrite, Py) amended with FeCl2 (aq), at two different pH values (7 and 12) representative of field and remediation conditions...
May 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Nenad L Ignjatović, Katarina M Penov-Gaši, Jovana J Ajduković, Vesna V Kojić, Smilja B Marković, Dragan P Uskoković
An androstane (17β-hydroxy-17α-picolyl-androst-5-en-3β-yl-acetate (derivative A)) cancer inhibitor was successfully captured in a carrier made of nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HAp) coated with chitosan-PLGA polymer blends (Ch-PLGA). In our previous studies, we demonstrated that it was convenient to use spherical HAp/Ch-PLGA carriers as vehicles to target the lungs following intravenous administration. In this study, we used emulsification and subsequent freeze-drying to load the spherical HAp/Ch-PLGA carriers with varying contents of the derivative A, in order to examine the selective toxicity towards cancerous/healthy lung cells...
August 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Sebastian Hasenstab-Riedel, Benjamin Schmidt, Karsten Sonnenberg, Simon Steinhauer, Helmut Beckers
The formation and characterization of a series of novel polyinterhalides is reported. Due to a more distinct σ-hole, BrCl is able to form stronger halogen bonds compared to polyhalogen anions based on Cl2 and Br2. This stabilization allows the crystallographic characterization of a variety of novel polyinterhalides, in which chloride functions as the central atom as shown by the molecular structures of [AsPh4][Cl(BrCl)3] and [CCl(NMe2)2][Cl(BrCl)5]. Furthermore, the solid state structure of an octahedral coordinated non-classical interhalide is reported for the first time...
May 9, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Johann Lechner, Jürgen Aschoff, Tatjana Rudi
Background: Recent research on vitamin D indicates that our current understanding of the factors leading to chronic inflammation should be revised. One of the key mechanisms by which microbial immunosuppression occurs is the suppression of one of the most common endogenous cell nucleus receptors: the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Autoimmune diseases may be correlated with VDR deactivation (VDR-deac) which occurs when the receptor is no longer able to transcribe antimicrobial agents. Excess 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) is not converted to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D); thus, high 1,25D levels may be accompanied by low 25D values...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
Amina E Essawy, Wessam M Abdel-Wahab, Ismail A Sadek, Omnia M Khamis
The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of aqueous extracts of ginger (GE) and rosemary (RE), both individually and in combination, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced liver injury in adult male rats. CCl4 induced significant increase in liver enzymes, bilirubin, triglycerides, and total cholesterol while total protein, albumin, and globulin were significantly decreased. Also, the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and oxidative stress markers were found to be elevated with a concomitant decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in hepatic tissue...
May 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Gaku Yamanaka, Natsumi Morishita, Shinichiro Morichi, Mika Takeshita, Urabe Tomomi, Yu Ishida, Takamatsu Tomoko, Shingo Oana, Yusuke Watanabe, Soken Go, Yasuyo Kashiwagi, Hisashi Kawashima
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy is effective for West syndrome; however, the underlying mechanism of action remains unknown. This study explored this mechanism in 5 Japanese patients with West syndrome, injected with ACTH for 28 days. Serum samples were obtained before and 30, 120, and 720 minutes after ACTH injection divided into an "early" (1-4 days) and a "late" (10-28 days) group. Responses to ACTH over time were analyzed by measuring the levels of 27 cytokines. In the early group, serum levels of interleukins-5, -9, and -17, basic fibroblast growth factor, interferon (IFN-γ), IFN-γ-inducible protein 10, chemokine ligand (CCL) 3 and 4, and platelet-derived growth factor were higher in all patients before ACTH administration than in the 720-minute time point...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
Katie J Emery, Allan Young, J Norman Arokianathar, Tell Tuttle, John A Murphy
The search for reactions where KO t Bu and other tert -alkoxides might behave as single electron donors led us to explore their reactions with tetrahalomethanes, CX₄, in the presence of adamantane. We recently reported the halogenation of adamantane under these conditions. These reactions appeared to mirror the analogous known reaction of NaOH with CBr₄ under phase-transfer conditions, where initiation features single electron transfer from a hydroxide ion to CBr₄. We now report evidence from experimental and computational studies that KO t Bu and other alkoxide reagents do not go through an analogous electron transfer...
May 1, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Z G Lu, J R Liu, P J Poole, C Y Song, S D Chang
We have used an external cavity self-injection feedback locking (SIFL) system to simultaneously reduce the optical linewidth of over 39 individual wavelength channels of an InAs/InP quantum dot (QD) coherent comb laser (CCL). Linewidth reduction from a few MHz to less than 200 kHz is observed. Measured phase noise spectra clearly indicate a significant decrease in phase noise in the frequency range above 2 kHz. The RF beating signal between two adjacent channels also shows a substantial reduction in 3-dB linewidth from 10 kHz to 300 Hz with the SIFL system, and a corresponding drop in baseline level (-27 dB to -50 dB)...
April 30, 2018: Optics Express
Zi-Wei Zhao, Jen-Chih Chang, Li-Wei Lin, Fan-Hsuan Tsai, Hung-Chi Chang, Chi-Rei Wu
Species of Cirsium (Asteraceae family) have been used in folk hepatoprotective medicine in Taiwan. We collected four Cirsium species—including the aerial part of Cirsium arisanense (CAH), the aerial part of Cirsium kawakamii (CKH), the flower part of Cirsium japonicum DC. var. australe (CJF), and Cirsii Herba (CH)—and then made extractions from them with 70% methanol. We compared the antioxidant contents and activities of these four Cirsium species extracts by a spectrophotometric method and high-performance liquid chromatography⁻photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD)...
April 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sheng Li, Wenlei Sun, Hongjian Zheng, Feifei Tian
Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic inflammation, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Accumulative evidences have demonstrated that miRNAs exert crucial roles in the development of AS. However, the effects of miR-145 and its underlying molecular mechanism remain incompletely clear. The aim of the present study is to explore the function of miR-145 in the occurrence and development of AS through investigating its role in inflammatory reactions. High-fat diet (HFD)-treated ApoE-/- mice were used as an in vivo model of atherosclerosis (AS)...
April 21, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Rolf Teschke
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) is an efficient but highly toxic solvent, used in households and commercially in the industry under regulatory surveillance to ensure safety at the working place and to protect the workers’ health. However, acute unintentional or intentional intoxications by CCl₄ may rarely occur and are potentially life-threatening. In this review article, therapy options are discussed that are based on a literature review of traditional poisoning cases and the clinical experience with 16 patients with acute poisoning by CCl₄...
April 27, 2018: Toxics
Liwen Wei, Qingshan Chen, Aijie Guo, Jie Fan, Rong Wang, Hai Zhang
Liver fibrosis is a major pathological feature of chronic liver diseases, and effective therapies are limited at present. Asiatic acid (AA) is a triterpenoid isolated from Centella asiatica, which exhibits efficient anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of AA on CCl4 -induced liver fibrosis in rats and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Liver fibrosis-related indexes including body weight, biochemical parameters, histological changes, the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and biomarkers, and changes in the expression of related proteins in liver tissue were assessed...
April 24, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Liu Tu, Yan Wang, Di Chen, Ping Xiang, Jingjing Shen, Yingbo Li, Shali Wang
Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) is a predominant phytoestrogen extracted from Panax notoginseng that has recently been reported to play important roles in the treatment of cardiac dysfunction, diabetic kidney disease, and acute liver failure. Studies have suggested that NGR1 may be a viable treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) in neonates by reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress via estrogen receptors (ERs). However, whether NGR1 has other neuroprotective mechanisms or long-term neuroprotective effects is unclear...
April 25, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Claudia M Wunderlich, P Justus Ackermann, Anna Lena Ostermann, Petra Adams-Quack, Merly C Vogt, My-Ly Tran, Alexei Nikolajev, Ari Waisman, Christoph Garbers, Sebastian Theurich, Jan Mauer, Nadine Hövelmeyer, F Thomas Wunderlich
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide in which the vast majority of cases exhibit little genetic risk but are associated with a sedentary lifestyle and obesity. Although the mechanisms underlying CRC and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) remain unclear, we hypothesised that obesity-induced inflammation predisposes to CAC development. Here, we show that diet-induced obesity accelerates chemically-induced CAC in mice via increased inflammation and immune cell recruitment...
April 25, 2018: Nature Communications
Widad Gueddari, Amine Ouardi, Sanaa Talbi, Sihem Salam, Abdelhadi Zineddine
BACKGROUND: Mild head injury (MHI) is very common in children and the problem is a lack of consensus criteria for the indication of a brain CT. OBJECTIVE: To determine predictors of cranio-cerebral lesions (CCL) in the case of MHI in children. METHODS: Case-control study over a period of 3 years. Included children aged 1 month to 15 years, were those admitted to the department of Pediatric Emergencies for MHI and had performed a brain CT. The principal outcome was the presence of traumatic brain injury...
July 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
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