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Sandra C Jasinoski, Fernando Abdala
Ontogenetic changes in the skull and mandible of thirty-one specimens of Galesaurus planiceps, a basal non-mammaliaform cynodont from the Early Triassic of South Africa, are documented. The qualitative survey indicated eight changes in the craniomandibular apparatus occurred during growth, dividing the sample into three ontogenetic stages: juvenile, subadult, and adult. Changes in the temporal region, zygomatic arch, occiput, and mandible occurred during the transition from the subadult to adult stage at a basal skull length of 90 mm...
September 12, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Sofia Papadiochou, Eleni Kotsiomiti, Argirios L Pissiotis
PURPOSE: A survey was conducted in the Dental School, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece, (i) to assess the perceptions and experiences of senior dental students, Classes of 2014 and 2015, toward the old, specialty-specific (OC) and new, holistic-oriented (NC) undergraduate curriculum, respectively, in removable prosthodontics and (ii) to identify areas of improvement in prosthodontic training. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Structural components of both curricula were collected, including the total number of (i) laboratory/lecture/clinical training hours, (ii) written examinations, (iii) mandatory clinical cases, and (iv) European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
Sharath Umesh, Srivani Padma, Sundarrajan Asokan, Talabattula Srinivas
The present study reports an in vivo, novel methodology for the dynamic measurement of the bite force generated by individual tooth using a Fiber Bragg Grating Bite Force Recorder (FBGBFR). Bite force is considered as one of the major indicators of the functional state of the masticatory system, which is dependent on the craniomandibular structure comprising functional components such as muscles of mastication, joints and teeth. The proposed FBGBFR is an intra-oral device, developed for the transduction of the bite force exerted at the occlusal surface, into strain variations on a base plate, which in turn is sensed by the FBG sensor bonded over it...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Yuto Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Tsugawa, Yoshinobu Maeda
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of wearing a mouthguard and teeth-clenching on impact to the head and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) during a blow to the jaw. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A custom-made mouthguard was fabricated for five participants. A 4.1-N impact load was applied to the chin with a pendulum. Two acceleration sensors were attached to the forehead and left TMJ. The amplitudes and durations of the accelerations were obtained under five conditions: mouth-open without mouthguard; light teeth-clenching without mouthguard; maximum voluntary clenching (MVC) without mouthguard; mouth-open with mouthguard and MVC with mouthguard...
May 20, 2016: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
Marjo K Hytönen, Meharji Arumilli, Anu K Lappalainen, Marta Owczarek-Lipska, Vidhya Jagannathan, Sruthi Hundi, Elina Salmela, Patrick Venta, Eva Sarkiala, Tarja Jokinen, Daniela Gorgas, Juha Kere, Pekka Nieminen, Cord Drögemüller, Hannes Lohi
One to two percent of all children are born with a developmental disorder requiring pediatric hospital admissions. For many such syndromes, the molecular pathogenesis remains poorly characterized. Parallel developmental disorders in other species could provide complementary models for human rare diseases by uncovering new candidate genes, improving the understanding of the molecular mechanisms and opening possibilities for therapeutic trials. We performed various experiments, e.g. combined genome-wide association and next generation sequencing, to investigate the clinico-pathological features and genetic causes of three developmental syndromes in dogs, including craniomandibular osteopathy (CMO), a previously undescribed skeletal syndrome, and dental hypomineralization, for which we identified pathogenic variants in the canine SLC37A2 (truncating splicing enhancer variant), SCARF2 (truncating 2-bp deletion) and FAM20C (missense variant) genes, respectively...
May 2016: PLoS Genetics
R J A M de Kanter
The disorders temporomandibular dysfunction and craniomandibular dysfunction are still being discussed intensely in the literature 25 year after the publication of the dissertation 'Prevalence and etiology of craniomandibular dysfunction. An epidemiological study of the Dutch adult population'. Attention is especially being devoted to occlusion and its relationship with this disorder; the conclusions reached are often contradictory. In addition to the definitions of temporomandibular and craniomandibular dysfunction and of occlusion, a possible explanation for this controversy can be found in the methodological shortcomings of the studies...
March 2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
Loïc Treffel, Liubov Dmitrieva, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Marc-Antoine Custaud, Stéphane Blanc, Claude Gharib, Catherine Millet
The objective of the study was to determine the influence of simulated microgravity by exposure to dry immersion on the craniomandibular system. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in a 3-day dry immersion study. Before and immediately after exposure we measured maximal bite force using piezoresistive sensors. The mechanical properties of the jaw and cervical muscles were evaluated before, during, and after dry immersion using MyotonPRO. Because recent studies reported the effects of jaw motor activity on the postural stability of humans, stabilometric measurements of center of pressure were performed before and after dry immersion in two mandibular positions: rest position without jaw clenching, and intercuspidal position during voluntary teeth clenching...
2016: PloS One
D A Reed, J Iriarte-Diaz, T G H Diekwisch
The evolution of the middle ear from the cynodont craniomandibular bones is one of the key mammalian innovations, and the mechanics underlying this anatomical transformation represents an intriguing paradox. Because the jaw joint of nonmammalian cynodonts was functionally coupled to the inner ear, auditory performance would favor low joint reaction forces. However, this could not be achieved at the expense of feeding performance, favoring high bite forces. The balance of these two seemingly incompatible performance criteria in the context of the morphological diversity of the cynodont lower jaw is poorly understood...
January 2016: Evolution & Development
M Ziad Al-Ani, Stephen J Davies, Robin J M Gray, Philip Sloan, Anne-Marie Glenny
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ali Nabavizadeh
Jaw mechanics in ornithischian dinosaurs have been widely studied for well over a century. Most of these studies, however, use only one or few taxa within a given ornithischian clade as a model for feeding mechanics across the entire clade. In this study, mandibular mechanical advantages among 52 ornithischian genera spanning all subclades are calculated using 2D lever arm methods. These lever arm calculations estimate the effect of jaw shape and difference in adductor muscle line of action on relative bite forces along the jaw...
March 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Wayne Powell, Simone F C Knaap
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this case study is to present chiropractic management of a patient with chronic low back pain by focusing on the craniomandibular system. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 37-year-old man consulted a chiropractor for pain in the lumbosacral area with radiation down the anterolateral side of the upper left leg. The symptoms started after a fall the previous year. Examination showed a post-traumatic chronic L4-L5 facet dysfunction and left sacro-iliac joint dysfunction...
March 2015: Journal of Chiropractic Medicine
Matej Matiasovic, Abby Caine, Elena Scarpante, Giunio Bruto Cherubini
An Airedale Terrier was presented for evaluation of depression and reluctance to be touched on the head. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the head was performed. The images revealed bone lesions affecting the calvarium at the level of the coronal suture and left mandibular ramus, with focal cortical destruction, expansion, and reactive new bone formation. Skull lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted sequences, hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences, and showed an intense and homogeneous enhancement after gadolinium administration...
May 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Daniel Hellmann, Fabian Brüstle, Sophia Terebesi, Nikolaos N Giannakopoulos, Lydia Eberhard, Peter Rammelsberg, Hans J Schindler
The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of physiological control of the craniomandibular system during force-controlled biting: in intercuspation, restricted by predetermined anatomic-geometrical conditions [i.e. biting in intercuspation (BIC)]; and on a hydrostatic system [i.e. auto-balanced static equilibrium of the mandible (BAL)], in which the mandible is balanced under unrestricted occlusal conditions. For 20 healthy subjects, the spatial positions of the condyles, the lower molars, and the incisal point were measured, and the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the musculus masseter and musculus temporalis anterior were recorded bilaterally, during force-controlled biting (50, 75, 100 N) on a hydrostatic device...
December 2015: European Journal of Oral Sciences
Catherine Cho, Ke'ale Louie, Ahmed Maawadh, Geoffrey E Gerstner
OBJECTIVE: To study and compare the relationships between mean chewing cycle duration, selected cephalometric variables representing mandibular length, face height, etc., measured in women and in their teenage or young-adult biological daughters. DESIGN: Daughters were recruited from local high schools and the University of Michigan School of Dentistry. Selection criteria included healthy females with full dentition, 1st molar occlusion, no active orthodontics, no medical conditions nor medication use that could interfere with normal masticatory motor function...
November 2015: Archives of Oral Biology
Philippe Decocq, Jacques Honoré, Catherine Auclair-Assaad, Henrique Sequeira, Emmanuelle Bocquet
Cephalometric parameters are thought to influence static posture. The present work evaluates the relationships between skeletal class or facial divergency, on one hand, and body posture, on the other hand. ANB and FMA angles were measured from profile cephalograms in twenty healthy adults. From each, stabilograms were recorded, with eyes open or shut, and with or without disclusion splints. Without splints, ANB and FMA proved to correlate with the accuracy of postural control. Adding splints changes the average position of the center of pressure exerted on the ground by the body, the anterior-posterior axis, and this effect is consistent with that of the typology...
June 2015: L' Orthodontie Française
D Hellmann, T Stein, W Potthast, P Rammelsberg, H J Schindler, S Ringhof
Several studies have confirmed the neuromuscular effects of jaw motor activity on the postural stability of humans, but the mechanisms of functional coupling of the craniomandibular system (CMS) with human posture are not yet fully understood. The purpose of our study was, therefore, to investigate whether submaximum biting affects the kinematics of the ankle, knee, and hip joints and the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the leg muscles during bipedal narrow stance and single-leg stance. Twelve healthy young subjects performed force-controlled biting (FB) and non-biting (NB) during bipedal narrow stance and single-leg stance...
October 2015: Human Movement Science
M M C Yaneza, A Cameron, W A Clement, R Fairgrieve, M A Ledingham, M S Morrissey, J Simpson, D M Wynne, H Kubba
BACKGROUND: Congenital airway obstruction is rare but potentially fatal. We developed a complex airways interventional delivery team to manage such cases. Antenatal imaging detects airway compromise at an early stage and facilitates the planning of delivery procedures ('ex utero intrapartum treatment' and 'operation on placental support') which maintain feto-placental circulation whilst an airway is secured. METHOD: A retrospective review was performed of cases in which ENT input was required at birth for airway obstruction...
August 2015: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Cleofás Rodriguez-Blanco, Francisco Miguel Cocera-Morata, Alberto Marcos Heredia-Rizo, François Ricard, Ginés Almazán-Campos, Ángel Oliva-Pascual-Vaca
OBJECTIVE: To assess the immediate effects on vertical mouth opening, orofacial mechanosensitivity, and lumbar and suboccipital mobility after adding a myofascial induction technique to a multimodal protocol in subjects with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). DESIGN: A randomized and double-blind controlled trial was carried out. SETTINGS/LOCATION: University-based physical therapy research clinic. SUBJECTS: Sixty subjects (35±11...
August 2015: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Jonathan M G Perry, Elizabeth M St Clair, Adam Hartstone-Rose
OBJECTIVES: The craniomandibular morphology of the adapid primates of Europe, especially Adapis and Leptadapis (sensu lato), suggests that they possessed enormous jaw adductor muscles. The goal of this study is to estimate jaw adductor muscle mass, physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), and fiber length in adapid primates from the Eocene of Europe. We also estimated muscle leverage, bite force, and gape parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We use bony morphology and osteological correlates of soft tissues in a sample of extant strepsirrhines to estimate these soft-tissue and performance variables in Adapis and Leptadapis...
December 2015: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Eduardo-José García-Moya, José-María Montiel-Company, José-Manuel Almerich-Silla
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a clinical syndrome characterized by chronic widespread pain, which is non-articular and is predominantly experienced in the muscles and vertebral column, and by extensive heightened sensitivity to local pressure at many specific points The purpose of this study was to measure differences in the level of painful symptoms and in the movements of the mandible in a group of patients who had been diagnosed as suffering from fibromyalgia, in comparison with a control group...
April 2015: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
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