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Kathryn M Everson, Kyndall B P Hildebrandt, Steven M Goodman, Link E Olson
Madagascar is one of the world's foremost biodiversity hotspots, yet a large portion of its flora and fauna remains undescribed and the driving forces of in situ diversification are not well understood. Recent studies have identified a widespread, latitudinally structured phylogeographic pattern in Madagascar's humid-forest mammals, amphibians, reptiles, and insects. Several factors may be driving this pattern, namely biogeographic barriers (i.e., rivers or valleys) or past episodes of forest contraction and expansion...
February 28, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Kerryn A Warren, Terrence B Ritzman, Robyn A Humphreys, Christopher J Percival, Benedikt Hallgrímsson, Rebecca Rogers Ackermann
Hybridization occurs in a number of mammalian lineages, including among primate taxa. Analyses of ancient genomes have shown that hybridization between our lineage and other archaic hominins in Eurasia occurred numerous times in the past. However, we still have limited empirical data on what a hybrid skeleton looks like, or how to spot patterns of hybridization among fossils for which there are no genetic data. Here we use experimental mouse models to supplement previous studies of primates. We characterize size and shape variation in the cranium and mandible of three wild-derived inbred mouse strains and their first generation (F1 ) hybrids...
March 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
M Hölzl, R Behrmann, E Biesinger, W von Heymann, R Hülse, C Arens
This paper discusses otorhinolaryngological symptoms associated with functional disorders of the upper cervical spine. Hints aimed to avoid misdiagnoses of cross-organ otorhinolaryngological symptoms as phobic or psychogenic disorders are presented. Clinically relevant neuroanatomical convergence of the upper cervical spine (occiput to C3) is fundamental for the interpretation of functional otorhinolaryngological symptoms. Based thereon, evidence for the most common cervical differential diagnoses of dizziness, tinnitus, dysphagia, and craniomandibular dysfunction is presented separately...
February 21, 2018: HNO
J Vagt, O Distl
This study investigated familial relationships among Deutsch Drahthaar dogs with craniomandibular osteopathy and examined the most likely mode of inheritance. Sixteen Deutsch Drahthaar dogs with craniomandibular osteopathy were diagnosed using clinical findings, radiography or computed tomography. All 16 dogs with craniomandibular osteopathy had one common ancestor. Complex segregation analyses rejected models explaining the segregation of craniomandibular osteopathy through random environmental variation, monogenic inheritance or an additive sex effect...
January 2018: Veterinary Journal
Yung Kun Kim, Eunok Lee, Jin Woo Oh, Sung Yong Han
Sexual size dimorphism of craniomandibular morphology of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra in South Korea was analyzed using linear measurements. In total, 32 skulls (18 males and 14 females) and 22 linear measurements (16 cranial and 6 mandibular measurements) were used. Our results showed statistically significant sexual dimorphism between male and female skull size. Multivariate analyses using the cranial and mandibular traits showed significant differences between the sexes, respectively. The most dimorphic trait was ectorbital breadth (EOB), and the EOB of the male was approximately 10% greater than that of the female...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Elizabeth M St Clair, Nicholas Reback, Jonathan M G Perry
Phalangeriform marsupials have often been compared with primates because of similarity in the range of external morphology, ecological niches, and body size between the two radiations. We explore morphological convergence in the masticatory anatomy of strepsirrhine primates and phalangeriforms, through osteological measurements of the mandible and facial skeleton, and through dissection of the masticatory musculature, presenting new data on the arrangement and proportions of jaw adductors in phalangeriforms...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Zeng Wenli, Zhou Wuchao, Zhang Jingkun, Shao Yisen, Xi Weihong
OBJECTIVE: To explore the selection of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc reduction and fixation methods in condylar sagittal fracture surgery. METHODS: A total of 36 patients with condylar fractures were chosen. The follow-up period was more 6 months. All 36 cases of condylar sagittal fracture were fixed with long screw. In the operation, the displaced joint disc was repositioned and fixed. The fixed method included direct suture (22 cases) and anchorage (14 cases)...
October 1, 2017: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
John W Graham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Orthodontics: JCO
Srivani Padma, Sharath Umesh, Sundarrajan Asokan, Talabattula Srinivas
The maximum level of voluntary bite force, which results from the combined action of muscle of mastication, joints, and teeth, i.e., craniomandibular structure, is considered as one of the major indicators for the functional state of the masticatory system. Measurement of voluntary bite force provides useful data for the jaw muscle function and activity along with assessment of prosthetics. This study proposes an in vivo methodology for the dynamic measurement of bite force employing a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor known as bite force measurement device (BFMD)...
October 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Christine Böhmer, Estella Böhmer
In contrast to wild lagomorphs, pet rabbits exhibit a noticeably high frequency of dental problems. Although dietary habits are considered as a major factor contributing to acquired malocclusions, the exact causes and interrelationships are still under debate. In this regard, an important aspect that has not been considered thoroughly to date is the effect of diet-induced phenotypic plasticity in skull morphology. Therefore, we conducted a geometric morphometric analysis on skull radiological images of wild and pet rabbits in order to quantify intraspecific variation in craniomandibular morphology...
January 24, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
Anja Liebermann, Stefan Frei, Madalena Lucia Pinheiro Dias Engler, Otto Zuhr, Otto Prandtner, Daniel Edelhoff, Reza Saeidi Pour
OBJECTIVE: Oral rehabilitation often requires a multidisciplinary approach including restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, and periodontology to fulfill high esthetic and functional demands, frequently combined with changes in the vertical dimension. The presence of gingival recessions can be associated with numerous factors, such as brushing or preparation trauma and persistent inflammation of the gingiva due to inadequate marginal fit of restorations. Because gingival recessions can cause major esthetic and functional problems, obtaining stability of the gingival tissue around prosthetic restorations is of essential concern...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry
Felipe J Fernández-González, Jorge Cabero-López, Aritza Brizuela, Ivan Suazo, Esteban Pérez-Pevida, Teresa Cobo, Oier Montalban, Markel Diéguez-Pereira, David Chávarri-Prado, Iker Bellanco de la Pinta, Antonio Jiménez-Garrudo
BACKGROUND: For patients whose centric relation (CR) has not been considered at the start and during treatment, the task of achieving an occlusal scheme that works together with the temporomandibular joint, the muscles, and the structures of the stomatognathic apparatus becomes a major concern. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe a reproducible, predictable and to date unreported procedure of selective grinding guided by an occlusal splint and to analyze condylar position (CP) based on the skeletal pattern...
2017: Open Dentistry Journal
Khari D Thompson, Holly E Weiss-Bilka, Elizabeth B McGough, Matthew J Ravosa
The presence of regional variation in the osteogenic abilities of cranial bones underscores the fact that the mechanobiology of the mammalian skull is more complex than previously recognized. However, the relationship between patterns of cranial bone formation and biomineralization remains incompletely understood. In four strains of mice, micro-computed tomography was used to measure tissue mineral density during perinatal development in three skull regions (calvarium, basicranium, mandible) noted for variation in loading environment, embryological origin, and ossification mode...
October 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Daniele Manfredini, Lorenzo Favero, Francesco Cocilovo, Monica Monici, Luca Guarda-Nardini
OBJECTIVES: To compare three treatment modalities for the management of myofascial pain of jaw muscles. METHODS: Thirty (N = 30) patients with low pain-related impairment were randomly assigned to receive laser therapy (LST), oral appliance therapy (OA), or counseling (CSL). Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain levels and the Muscular Index (MI) of the Craniomandibular Index were the outcome variables, which were assessed at baseline, at three weeks, three months, and six months...
July 11, 2017: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
L Wang, K Liu, Z Shao, Z-J Shang
The aim of this study was to assess the management of the condyle during the restoration of mandibular defects following tumour resection. A total of 41 patients who underwent simultaneous tumour resection and reconstruction with vascularized iliac myocutaneous flaps for mandibular defects, from September 2010 to October 2014, were included. These patients were divided into three groups: group 1, condyle preserved; group 2, condyle sacrificed; group 3, condyle frozen. Patients were followed up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months for the evaluation of appearance, occlusion, and speech...
October 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Brigitte Losert-Bruggner, Manfred Hülse, Roland Hülse
OBJECTIVE: Craniomandibular dysfunction (CMD) and craniocervical dysfunction (CCD) are clearly defined musculoskeletal pain syndromes. Relationships with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) have not yet been investigated. The aim of the present study is to establish possible relationships between FMS and CMD/ CCD. METHODS: In a retrospective study, 555 patients with CCD and CMD were investigated with respect to the diagnostic criteria of FMS. In addition to otolaryngologic and dental examination, an instrumental functional analysis for the diagnosis of CMD/CCD was performed...
June 5, 2017: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
Massimo Corsalini, Di Venere Daniela, Rapone Biagio, Stefanachi Gianluca, Laforgia Alessandra, Pettini Francesco
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to highlight the evidence of signs and symptoms of craniomandibular disorders (CMD) in patients suffering from fibromyalgia. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The study has been carried out from May 2011 to May 2015, recruiting a sample of fibromyalgia patients at the Department of Neurophysiopathology at the hospital Policlinico in Bari. Among the 150 examined patients, 60 of them have been diagnosed to suffer from fibromyalgia and 27 accepted to be investigated with a gnathologic examination at the Dental School at the University of Bari...
2017: Open Dentistry Journal
Xiaozhen Lin, Sean P Edwards
We investigated the change in the natural head position and its relation to the change in the mandibular position in patients with mandibular hypoplasia. Forty-one patients treated by orthognathic surgery were divided into three groups: bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) advancement (n=8); BSSO advancement with genioplasty (n=12), and Le Fort I osteotomy with BSSO advancement (n=21). Cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) datasets were collected preoperatively and six weeks postoperatively. The natural head position was measured using the craniocervical angle and the distance from the second vertebra to the frontal plane, and the mandibular position was measured using the craniomandibular angle and the distance from the mandible to the frontal plane...
February 28, 2017: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Jop P Verweij, Kira S van Hof, Martijn J A Malessy, Richard van Merkesteyn
Iatrogenic lingual nerve lesion is a well-known and unfortunate complication after mandibular third molar removal. Occasionally, the nerve injury can cause severe neuropathic pain.Here, the authors present the history of 2 patients with lingual nerve injury due to mandibular third molar removal, and with severe neuropathic pain in the craniomandibular region. Pharmacotherapy and physiotherapy did not reduce the pain, and ultimately, the lingual nerve was surgically explored. Scar tissue and a lingual nerve neuroma were observed and resected in both patients...
March 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
D DI Venere, R M Gaudio, A Laforgia, G Stefanachi, S Tafuri, F Pettini, F Silvestre, M Petruzzi, M Corsalini
PURPOSE: The aim of this retrospective case-control study was to identify, in a group of growing children and adolescents affected by malocclusion, specific dento-skeletal characteristics which could be correlated to the onset, in the above-mentioned subjects, of craniomandibular disorders (CMD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among the patients treated at the Paedodontics and Orthodontics department of Bari Dental School, we recruited a group of patients with malocclusion and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, as an experimental group...
October 2016: Oral & Implantology
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