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Hiv, sperm

Mara Simopoulou, Laertis Gkoles, Panagiotis Bakas, Polina Giannelou, Theodoros Kalampokas, Konstantinos Pantos, Michael Koutsilieris
: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is the most frequently applied method for fertilization making the process of identifying the perfect spermatozoon fundamental. Herein we offer a critical and thorough presentation on the techniques reported regarding (i) handling and preparing semen samples, (ii) identifying and 'fishing' spermatozoa, and (iii) improving key factors, such as motility for a successful ICSI practice. These approaches are suggested to make the process easier and more effective especially in atypical and challenging circumstances...
September 20, 2016: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Michael B Yakass, Bryan J Woodward, Mary A Otoo, Edem K Hiadzi
OBJECTIVE: The rate of infertility continues to be on the increase in the developing world. Similarly, the rates of blood-borne viral infections (BBVs) such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) are also on this rise. In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) quoted prevalences of 1.5% (HIV), 15% (HBV) 1.3 - 8.4% (HCV) in the Ghanaian general population. It has been reported that BBVs can adversely affect male fertility, specifically sperm count and progressive motility...
2016: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
Joaquín Cordero-Martínez, Charmina Aguirre-Alvarado, Jessica Gabriela Guzmán-Soriano, Cinthia Erika Sánchez-Arroyo, Juan Carlos Flores-Alonso, Lorena Rodríguez-Páez
UNLABELLED: The present study evaluates the possible antifertility effect of aqueous crude extract (OBACE) of Echeveria gibbiflora, a plant that belongs to the crassulaceae family, used in traditional Mexican medicine as a vaginal post coital rinse to prevent pregnancy and shown to have an immobilization/agglutination effect on sperm of different mammal species. We evaluated the effect of OBACE on functional parameters of mouse sperm, such as viability, capacitation, and acrosome reaction...
October 2016: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Kristin M Wall, William Kilembe, Bellington Vwalika, Preeti Ravindhran, Naw Htee Khu, Ilene Brill, Elwyn Chomba, Brent A Johnson, Lisa B Haddad, Amanda Tichacek, Susan Allen
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the association between female-to-male human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission risk and hormonal contraception is sparse and conflicting. METHODS: Heterosexual HIV-discordant couples from Lusaka, Zambia, were followed longitudinally at 3 month-intervals from 1994 to 2012. The impact of hormonal contraception on time to HIV transmission from HIV-positive women to their HIV-negative male partners (M-F+) was evaluated. RESULTS: Among 1601 M-F+ couples, 171 genetically linked HIV transmissions occurred in men over 3216 couple-years (5...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Miguel A Lopez-Ruz, Purificación Navas, Miguel A López-Zúñiga, María Carmen Gonzalvo, Antonio Sampedro, Juan Pasquau, Carmen Hidalgo-Tenorio, Rosario Javier, José A Castilla
Patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) who receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) often achieve increased survival and improved quality of life. In this respect, monotherapy with darunavir/ritonavir (mDRV/r) can be a useful treatment strategy. This prospective study analyses the effect of mDRV/r on sperm quality and viral load in a group of 28 patients who had previously been given conventional ART and who had recorded a viral load <20 copies/mL for at least six months. These patients were given mDRV/r at a dose of 800/100 mg for 48 weeks...
2016: PloS One
Marius Rademaker, Monisha Gupta, Megan Andrews, Katherine Armour, Chris Baker, Peter Foley, Kurt Gebauer, Jacob George, Diana Rubel, John Sullivan
The Australasian Psoriasis Collaboration reviewed methotrexate (MTX) in the management of psoriasis in the Australian and New Zealand setting. The following comments are based on expert opinion and a literature review. Low-dose MTX (< 0.4 mg/kg per week) has a slow onset of action and has moderate to good efficacy, together with an acceptable safety profile. The mechanism of action is anti-inflammatory, rather than immunosuppressive. For pretreatment, consider testing full blood count (FBC), liver and renal function, non-fasting lipids, hepatitis serology, HbA1c and glucose...
July 12, 2016: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
A I Jegede, U Offor, I O Onanuga, E C S Naidu, O O Azu
Although the successful introduction and rollout of antiretroviral therapy has impacted positively on morbidity and mortality of HIV-positive patients, its interaction with plant-based adjuvants remain sparsely investigated. We report the interaction and effects of adjuvant treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and Hypoxis hemeocallidea (HH) extracts on testicular structure of rats. A total of 63 pathogen-free adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into nine groups and treated according to protocols...
July 12, 2016: Andrologia
Jahahreeh Finley
In all mammalian species studied to date, the initiation of oocyte activation is orchestrated through alterations in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling. Upon sperm binding to the oocyte plasma membrane, a sperm-associated phospholipase C (PLC) isoform, PLC zeta (PLCζ), is released into the oocyte cytoplasm. PLCζ hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to produce diacylglycerol (DAG), which activates protein kinase C (PKC), and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), which induces the release of Ca(2+) from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores...
August 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Gautam N Allahbadia
Human immunodeficiency virus-serodiscordant couples are actively seeking reproductive assistance and often consider or practice unsafe measures to achieve pregnancy. Reproductive issues and concerns unique to these couples need to be addressed before treatment. Assisted reproduction techniques can minimize the risk of infection and complete families associated with serodiscordant couples. Since 1987, more than 4000 published attempts have been reported in which processed spermatozoa from HIV-seropositive men were used to establish pregnancy in HIV-seronegative women...
June 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Sally R Greenwald, Deborah Cohan, Shannon Weber, Kirsten E Salmeen
Currently, both the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and American Society for Reproductive Medicine exclude sperm donation from men who have sex with men. The recommended screening includes questioning donors about their sexual practices and performing a physical examination to look for signs of anal intercourse in addition to standard human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) laboratory testing. The rationale cited is concern over increased risk of HIV transmission in this higher prevalence population. We were unable to find evidence that excluding men who have sex with men or those with signs of anal intercourse on physical examination decreases the false-negative rate of laboratory testing...
June 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Maria Jose Zamora, Albert Obradors, Bryan Woodward, Valerie Vernaeve, Rita Vassena
The aim of this study was to evaluate the residual presence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) following a triple gradient extended semen wash from ejaculates of serodiscordant couples, and analyse their reproductive outcomes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). For this purpose, a retrospective analysis of our database was performed in serodiscordant couples, with HIV-infected men and non-infected women, using fresh or frozen sperm with ICSI in oocytes from either the patients or donors from January 2006 to September 2013...
June 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Osamu Inoue, Naoaki Kuji, Hiroe Ito, Mitsutoshi Yamada, Toshio Hamatani, Aimi Oyadomari, Shingo Kato, Hideji Hanabusa, Keiichi Isaka, Mamoru Tanaka
To evaluate the clinical efficacy of a procedure comprising a combination of Percoll continuous density gradient and modified swim-up techniques for the removal of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from the semen of HIV-1 infected males, a total of 129 couples with an HIV-1 positive male partner and an HIV-1 negative female partner (serodiscordant couples) who were treated at Keio University Hospital between January 2002 and April 2012 were examined. A total of 183 ejaculates from 129 HIV-1 infected males were processed...
February 23, 2016: Asian Journal of Andrology
Camille Stora, Sylvie Epelboin, Emmanuel Devouche, Sophie Matheron, Loïc Epelboin, Chadi Yazbeck, Florence Damond, Pascale Longuet, Frederick Dzineku, Mandovi Rajguru, Lucie Delaroche, Laurent Mandelbrot, Dominique Luton, Catherine Patrat
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of assisted reproductive technology (ART) in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) versus HIV-negative controls. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. SETTING: University hospital ART unit. PATIENT(S): Eighty-two women infected with HIV-1 and 82 women as seronegative controls. INTERVENTION(S): Ovarian stimulation, oocytes retrieval, standard in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection, embryo transfer...
May 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Maryam Zafer, Hacsi Horvath, Okeoma Mmeje, Sheryl van der Poel, Augusto E Semprini, George Rutherford, Joelle Brown
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of semen washing in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-discordant couples in which the male partner is infected. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Forty single-arm open-label studies among HIV-discordant couples that underwent intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using washed semen...
March 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Verónica Briz, Daniel Sepúlveda-Crespo, Ana Rita Diniz, Pedro Borrego, Berta Rodes, Francisco Javier de la Mata, Rafael Gómez, Nuno Taveira, Ma Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández
The development of topical microbicide formulations for vaginal delivery to prevent HIV-2 sexual transmission is urgently needed. Second- and third-generation polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers with a silicon atom core and 16 sulfonate (G2-S16), napthylsulfonate (G2-NS16) and sulphate (G3-Sh16) end-groups have shown potent and broad-spectrum anti-HIV-1 activity. However, their antiviral activity against HIV-2 and mode of action have not been probed. Cytotoxicity, anti-HIV-2, anti-sperm and antimicrobial activities of dendrimers were determined...
September 21, 2015: Nanoscale
Oluwatosin A Adaramoye, Olubukola O Akanni, Olubusuyi M Adewumi, Solomon E Owumi
BACKGROUND: Lopinavir/Ritonavir (Kaletra®) is a protease inhibitor used in the management of HIV infection. The increased incidence of toxicity of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has necessitated proper evaluation of their effects on reproductive health. PURPOSE: Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of Kaletra® on male reproductive system in Wistar rat. METHODS: Eighteen rats were assigned into three groups. The first group served as control while the second and third groups received Kaletra® at therapeutic dose (8...
July 2015: Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
C Frapsauce, S Grabar, M Leruez-Ville, O Launay, P Sogni, V Gayet, J P Viard, M De Almeida, P Jouannet, E Dulioust
STUDY QUESTION: Are antiretroviral therapies associated with semen alterations in HIV-infected men? SUMMARY ANSWER: Antiretroviral regimens that included the non-nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz were associated with a significant impairment of sperm motility, whereas regimens without efavirenz were not associated with significant semen changes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Semen alterations including decreased ejaculate volume and sperm motility have been reported in HIV-infected men...
August 2015: Human Reproduction
L T Matthews, J A Smit, L Moore, C Milford, R Greener, F N Mosery, H Ribaudo, K Bennett, T L Crankshaw, A Kaida, C Psaros, S A Safren, D R Bangsberg
HIV-infected men and women who choose to conceive risk infecting their partners. To inform safer conception programs we surveyed HIV risk behavior prior to recent pregnancy amongst South African, HIV-infected women (N = 209) and men (N = 82) recruited from antenatal and antiretroviral clinics, respectively, and reporting an uninfected or unknown-HIV-serostatus pregnancy partner. All participants knew their HIV-positive serostatus prior to the referent pregnancy. Only 11 % of women and 5 % of men had planned the pregnancy; 40 % of women and 27 % of men reported serostatus disclosure to their partner before conception...
December 2015: AIDS and Behavior
Ming-Yih Wu, Hong-Nerng Ho
Due to significant advances in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), HIV-1 infection gradually has become a treatable chronic disease. Successfully treated HIV-positive individuals can have a normal life expectancy. Hence, more and more HIV-1 discordant couples in Taiwan and the rest of the world are seeking fertility assistance. Pre-treatment of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) combined with sperm washing and RT-polymerase chain reaction examination for HIV-1 viral load has become the standard procedure to assist them to conceive...
May 12, 2015: World Journal of Virology
A Velter, L Saboni, C Sommen, P Bernillon, N Bajos, C Semaille
To better understand the diversity of practices and behaviours to prevent HIV with casual partners, data from a large convenience sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) in France were categorised into different prevention profiles: no anal intercourse, consistent condom use during anal intercourse, risk-reduction practices (serosorting, seropositioning) and no discernible prevention practice (NDPP). Categories were applied to HIV-positive respondents with controlled (CI; n=672) and uncontrolled infection (UI; n=596), HIV-negative (n=4,734) and untested respondents (n=663)...
2015: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
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