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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331090/hili-inhibits-hiv-replication-in-activated-t-cells
#1
B Matija Peterlin, Pingyang Liu, Xiaoyun Wang, Daniele Cary, Wei Shao, Marie Leoz, Tian Hong, Tao Pan, Koh Fujinaga
Piwil proteins restrict the replication of mobile genetic elements in the germline. They are also expressed in many transformed cell lines. In this report, we discovered that the human piwil 2 (hili) can also inhibit HIV replication, especially in activated CD4+ T cells that are the preferred target cells for this virus in the infected host. Although resting cells did not express hili, it was rapidly induced following T cell activation. In these cells and transformed cell lines, depletion of hili increased levels of viral proteins and new viral particles...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209492/reproductive-considerations-in-the-setting-of%C3%A2-chronic-viral-illness
#2
REVIEW
Brent M Hanson, Jessie A Dorais
Special considerations must be taken when patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B, or hepatitis C desire to become pregnant. Patients with chronic viral illnesses desire to have children at rates similar to the general population, and options are available to decrease both vertical transmission and viral transmission between partners. Preconception counseling or consultation with fertility specialists is imperative in patients with HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C so that reproductive goals can be addressed and optimized...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190955/multi-level-correlates-of-safer-conception-methods-awareness-and-attitudes-among-ugandan-hiv-clients-with-fertility-intentions
#3
Glenn J Wagner, Mahlet A Woldetsadik, Jolly Beyeza-Kashesya, Kathy Goggin, Deborah Mindry, Sarah Finocchario-Kessler, Sarah Khanakwa, Rhoda K Wanyenze
Many people living with HIV desire childbearing, but low cost safer conception methods (SCM) such as timed unprotected intercourse (TUI) and manual self-insemination (MSI) are rarely used. We examined awareness and attitudes towards SCM, and the correlates of these constructs among 400 HIV clients with fertility intentions in Uganda. Measures included awareness, self-efficacy, and motivation regarding SCM, as well as demographics, health management, partner and provider characteristics. Just over half knew that MSI (53%) and TUI (51%) reduced transmission risk during conception, and 15% knew of sperm washing and pre-exposure prophylaxis...
March 2016: African Journal of Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178993/perspectives-of-urban-ghanaian-women-on-vasectomy
#4
Ofeibea Asare, Easmon Otupiri, Joana Apenkwa, Rose Odotei-Adjei
BACKGROUND: Advocacy for male involvement in family planning has been championed over the years after the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). There are a few contraceptive methods for men, and vasectomy uptake has been identified as one of the indicators of male involvement in family planning. Vasectomy also known as male sterilization is a permanent form of contraception. It is a generally safe, quick, easy, effective surgical operation with rare complications to prevent release of sperm...
February 8, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010131/predicting-the-clinical-outcome-of-icsi-by-sperm-head-vacuole-examination
#5
Khaled Pocate-Cheriet, Ilan Heilikman, Raphael Porcher, Virginie Barraud-Lange, Nathalie Sermondade, Charlene Herbemont, Jean Philippe Wolf, Christophe Sifer
To assess whether high magnification sperm head vacuole examination (SHVE) and/or standard sperm morphology assessment can predict ICSI outcomes in terms of fertilization, embryo quality, and delivery rates, a prospective observational bicentric study was conducted in two publicly funded assisted reproductive technology (ART) units in France between January and July of 2012. A total of 111 ICSI cycles for exclusively male infertility factors were included. A Spearman's correlation test was performed to validate SHVE reproducibility between the ART units...
December 23, 2016: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007791/factors-associated-with-seminal-impairment-in-hiv-infected-men-under-antiretroviral-therapy
#6
A Jerónimo, M B Baza, I Río, M Vera, V Hernando, J Castilla, C Rodriguez, J Del Romero
STUDY QUESTION: How do semen parameters of HIV-infected men under antiretroviral treatment compare with WHO parameters of normal semen, and what factors are associated with any differences? SUMMARY ANSWER: Semen quality in most HIV-infected patients under antiretroviral treatment exceeds WHO limits, but the number falling below them is higher than would be expected in a healthy population. Exposure to efavirenz has a significant association with dysmotility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Dysmotility is the most frequently described sperm alteration related to HIV infection, and it has recently been linked to treatment with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, particularly to efavirenz...
December 21, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821977/viral-hepatitis-and-assisted-reproduction
#7
EDITORIAL
Gautam N Allahbadia
Infertility treatment in couples where one or both parents are infected with hepatitis raises many concerns about transmission of the infection to the baby, laboratory technicians, and medical staff, and contamination of other gametes/embryos that are from virus-free parents in the same laboratory. Exposure to the other partner is only a risk when the couple's hepatitis status is discordant. The management of infertility, in association with HBV or HCV, has sparked debates about the potential risk of spread of infection to virus-free individuals, embryos, and/or semen...
December 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818734/coconut-oil-extract-mitigates-testicular-injury-following-adjuvant-treatment-with-antiretroviral-drugs
#8
Oluwatosin O Ogedengbe, Ayoola I Jegede, Ismail O Onanuga, Ugochukwu Offor, Edwin Cs Naidu, Aniekan I Peter, Onyemaechi O Azu
Increased access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has made the management of drug toxicities an increasingly crucial component of HIV. This study investigated the effects of adjuvant use of coconut oil and HAART on testicular morphology and seminal parameters in Sprague- Dawley rats. Twelve adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 153~169 g were distributed into four groups (A-D) and treated as follows: A served as control (distilled water); B (HAART cocktail- Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Nevirapine); C (HAART + Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg) and D (Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg)...
October 2016: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646677/improving-icsi-a-review-from-the-spermatozoon-perspective
#9
Mara Simopoulou, Laertis Gkoles, Panagiotis Bakas, Polina Giannelou, Theodoros Kalampokas, Konstantinos Pantos, Michael Koutsilieris
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is the most frequently applied method for fertilization making the process of identifying the perfect spermatozoon fundamental. Herein we offer a critical and thorough presentation on the techniques reported regarding (i) handling and preparing semen samples, (ii) identifying and 'fishing' spermatozoa, and (iii) improving key factors, such as motility for a successful ICSI practice. These approaches are suggested to make the process easier and more effective especially in atypical and challenging circumstances...
December 2016: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584606/prevalence-of-blood-borne-viruses-in-ivf-an-audit-of-a-fertility-centre
#10
Michael B Yakass, Bryan J Woodward, Mary A Otoo, Edem K Hiadzi
OBJECTIVE: The rate of infertility continues to be on the increase in the developing world. Similarly, the rates of blood-borne viral infections (BBVs) such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) are also on this rise. In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) quoted prevalences of 1.5% (HIV), 15% (HBV) 1.3 - 8.4% (HCV) in the Ghanaian general population. It has been reported that BBVs can adversely affect male fertility, specifically sperm count and progressive motility...
August 1, 2016: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463087/effects-of-aqueous-crude-extract-of-echeveria-gibbiflora-on-mouse-sperm-function
#11
Joaquín Cordero-Martínez, Charmina Aguirre-Alvarado, Jessica Gabriela Guzmán-Soriano, Cinthia Erika Sánchez-Arroyo, Juan Carlos Flores-Alonso, Lorena Rodríguez-Páez
UNLABELLED: The present study evaluates the possible antifertility effect of aqueous crude extract (OBACE) of Echeveria gibbiflora, a plant that belongs to the crassulaceae family, used in traditional Mexican medicine as a vaginal post coital rinse to prevent pregnancy and shown to have an immobilization/agglutination effect on sperm of different mammal species. We evaluated the effect of OBACE on functional parameters of mouse sperm, such as viability, capacitation, and acrosome reaction...
October 2016: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462093/hormonal-contraceptive-use-among-hiv-positive-women-and-hiv-transmission-risk-to-male-partners-zambia-1994-2012
#12
Kristin M Wall, William Kilembe, Bellington Vwalika, Preeti Ravindhran, Naw Htee Khu, Ilene Brill, Elwyn Chomba, Brent A Johnson, Lisa B Haddad, Amanda Tichacek, Susan Allen
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the association between female-to-male human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission risk and hormonal contraception is sparse and conflicting. METHODS: Heterosexual HIV-discordant couples from Lusaka, Zambia, were followed longitudinally at 3 month-intervals from 1994 to 2012. The impact of hormonal contraception on time to HIV transmission from HIV-positive women to their HIV-negative male partners (M-F+) was evaluated. RESULTS: Among 1601 M-F+ couples, 171 genetically linked HIV transmissions occurred in men over 3216 couple-years (5...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442068/effect-of-monotherapy-with-darunavir-ritonavir-on-viral-load-in-seminal-fluid-and-quality-parameters-of-semen-in-hiv-1-positive-patients
#13
Miguel A Lopez-Ruz, Purificación Navas, Miguel A López-Zúñiga, María Carmen Gonzalvo, Antonio Sampedro, Juan Pasquau, Carmen Hidalgo-Tenorio, Rosario Javier, José A Castilla
Patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) who receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) often achieve increased survival and improved quality of life. In this respect, monotherapy with darunavir/ritonavir (mDRV/r) can be a useful treatment strategy. This prospective study analyses the effect of mDRV/r on sperm quality and viral load in a group of 28 patients who had previously been given conventional ART and who had recorded a viral load <20 copies/mL for at least six months. These patients were given mDRV/r at a dose of 800/100 mg for 48 weeks...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402434/the-australasian-psoriasis-collaboration-view-on-methotrexate-for-psoriasis-in-the-australasian-setting
#14
REVIEW
Marius Rademaker, Monisha Gupta, Megan Andrews, Katherine Armour, Chris Baker, Peter Foley, Kurt Gebauer, Jacob George, Diana Rubel, John Sullivan
The Australasian Psoriasis Collaboration reviewed methotrexate (MTX) in the management of psoriasis in the Australian and New Zealand setting. The following comments are based on expert opinion and a literature review. Low-dose MTX (< 0.4 mg/kg per week) has a slow onset of action and has moderate to good efficacy, together with an acceptable safety profile. The mechanism of action is anti-inflammatory, rather than immunosuppressive. For pretreatment, consider testing full blood count (FBC), liver and renal function, non-fasting lipids, hepatitis serology, HbA1c and glucose...
July 12, 2016: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401301/effect-of-co-administration-of-hypoxis-hemerocallidea-extract-and-antiretroviral-therapy-haart-on-the-histomorphology-and-seminal-parameters-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#15
A I Jegede, U Offor, I O Onanuga, E C S Naidu, O O Azu
Although the successful introduction and rollout of antiretroviral therapy has impacted positively on morbidity and mortality of HIV-positive patients, its interaction with plant-based adjuvants remain sparsely investigated. We report the interaction and effects of adjuvant treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and Hypoxis hemeocallidea (HH) extracts on testicular structure of rats. A total of 63 pathogen-free adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into nine groups and treated according to protocols...
March 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27372854/oocyte-activation-and-latent-hiv-1-reactivation-ampk-as-a-common-mechanism-of-action-linking-the-beginnings-of-life-and-the-potential-eradication-of-hiv-1
#16
Jahahreeh Finley
In all mammalian species studied to date, the initiation of oocyte activation is orchestrated through alterations in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling. Upon sperm binding to the oocyte plasma membrane, a sperm-associated phospholipase C (PLC) isoform, PLC zeta (PLCζ), is released into the oocyte cytoplasm. PLCζ hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to produce diacylglycerol (DAG), which activates protein kinase C (PKC), and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), which induces the release of Ca(2+) from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores...
August 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27298520/yes-it-is-possible
#17
Gautam N Allahbadia
Human immunodeficiency virus-serodiscordant couples are actively seeking reproductive assistance and often consider or practice unsafe measures to achieve pregnancy. Reproductive issues and concerns unique to these couples need to be addressed before treatment. Assisted reproduction techniques can minimize the risk of infection and complete families associated with serodiscordant couples. Since 1987, more than 4000 published attempts have been reported in which processed spermatozoa from HIV-seropositive men were used to establish pregnancy in HIV-seronegative women...
June 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159761/the-exclusion-of-sperm-donation-on-the-basis-of-sexual-practices-time-for-a-policy-update
#18
Sally R Greenwald, Deborah Cohan, Shannon Weber, Kirsten E Salmeen
Currently, both the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and American Society for Reproductive Medicine exclude sperm donation from men who have sex with men. The recommended screening includes questioning donors about their sexual practices and performing a physical examination to look for signs of anal intercourse in addition to standard human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) laboratory testing. The rationale cited is concern over increased risk of HIV transmission in this higher prevalence population. We were unable to find evidence that excluding men who have sex with men or those with signs of anal intercourse on physical examination decreases the false-negative rate of laboratory testing...
June 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26995657/semen-residual-viral-load-and-reproductive-outcomes-in-hiv-infected-men-undergoing-icsi-after-extended-semen-preparation
#19
Maria Jose Zamora, Albert Obradors, Bryan Woodward, Valerie Vernaeve, Rita Vassena
The aim of this study was to evaluate the residual presence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) following a triple gradient extended semen wash from ejaculates of serodiscordant couples, and analyse their reproductive outcomes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). For this purpose, a retrospective analysis of our database was performed in serodiscordant couples, with HIV-infected men and non-infected women, using fresh or frozen sperm with ICSI in oocytes from either the patients or donors from January 2006 to September 2013...
June 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26908065/clinical-efficacy-of-a-combination-of-percoll-continuous-density-gradient-and-swim-up-techniques-for-semen-processing-in-hiv-1-serodiscordant-couples
#20
Osamu Inoue, Naoaki Kuji, Hiroe Ito, Mitsutoshi Yamada, Toshio Hamatani, Aimi Oyadomari, Shingo Kato, Hideji Hanabusa, Keiichi Isaka, Mamoru Tanaka
To evaluate the clinical efficacy of a procedure comprising a combination of Percoll continuous density gradient and modified swim-up techniques for the removal of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from the semen of HIV-1 infected males, a total of 129 couples with an HIV-1 positive male partner and an HIV-1 negative female partner (serodiscordant couples) who were treated at Keio University Hospital between January 2002 and April 2012 were examined. A total of 183 ejaculates from 129 HIV-1 infected males were processed...
March 2017: Asian Journal of Andrology
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