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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690004/a-new-species-of-temnocephala-platyhelminthes-with-an-unusual-pharynx-including-an-amendment-of-the-diagnosis-of-the-genus
#1
Rodrigo Ponce De leÓn, Odile Volonterio
Three species of Temnocephala have been reported on Aegla from Uruguay: Temnocephala axenos, Temnocephala mertoni and Temnocephala talicei. As part of a systematic review of the Uruguayan species of Temnocephala, a fourth species was found on Aegla platensis and Aegla uruguayana. This species, new for the genus, has the following diagnostic characters: Large temnocephalan; slightly curved penial stylet (225 µm in length) with a symmetrical introvert (27 long by 18 µm in diameter) that has at least 44 spine-like projections, each bearing 7 rows of internal spines; a seminal vesicle that opens sub-polarly into the contractile vesicle; a muscular vagina with a strong asymmetrical sphincter; preequatorial nephridiopores close to the internal borders of the elongate-oval excretory syncytia; a large pharynx with anterior and posterior sphincters of about the same diameter and a narrow pharyngeal lumen with nearly uniform width...
February 8, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689065/effect-of-monotherapy-with-darunavir-cobicistat-on-viral-load-and-semen-quality-of-hiv-1-patients
#2
Miguel A López-Ruz, Miguel A López-Zúñiga, María Carmen Gonzalvo, Antonio Sampedro, Juan Pasquau, Carmen Hidalgo, Javier Rosario, Jose Antonio Castilla
Many patients previously using darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) (800/100mg) have switched to darunavir/cobicistat (DRV/C) (800/150 mg) either as part of triple therapy (ART) or as monotherapy with DRV (mDRV). The latter approach continues to be used in some countries for patients receiving long-term treatment. However, to date, the behaviour of DRV/C in the seminal compartment has not been analysed. This study explores how the combination behaves in monotherapy, with respect to the control of viral load and seminal quality...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688452/differential-protein-expression-and-post-translational-modifications-in-metronidazole-resistant-giardia-duodenalis
#3
Samantha J Emery, Louise Baker, Brendan R E Ansell, Mehdi Mirzaei, Paul A Haynes, Malcom J McConville, Staffan G Svärd, Aaron R Jex
Background: Metronidazole (Mtz) is the frontline drug treatment for multiple anaerobic pathogens, including the gastrointestinal protist, Giardia duodenalis. However, treatment failure is common and linked to in vivo drug resistance. In Giardia, in vitro drug-resistant lines allow controlled experimental interrogation of resistance mechanisms in isogenic cultures. However, resistance-associated changes are inconsistent between lines, phenotypic data are incomplete, and resistance is rarely genetically fixed, highlighted by reversion to sensitivity after drug selection ceases or via passage through the life cycle...
April 1, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687320/tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-phase-cml-strategies-for-frontline-decision-making
#4
REVIEW
James A Kennedy, Gabriela Hobbs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past two decades, the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has transformed the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). With four agents currently approved for frontline use in chronic-phase (CP) disease, it follows that treatment decision-making has been rendered more challenging. Here we will review recent advances that help inform the selection of a first-line TKI. RECENT FINDINGS: Extended follow-up of the seminal CML trials has demonstrated the long-term efficacy of TKIs, while also highlighting significant differences in their respective toxicity profiles and potency...
April 23, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686966/a-rare-case-of-suspected-intravascular-large-b-cell-lymphoma-forming-nodular-masses-in-the-brain-and-around-the-prostate-and-seminal-vesicle
#5
Takuto Ogasawara, Yoshinori Ikehata, Ryuichi Kato, Noriomi Miyao, Yasuhiro Konishi, Shinichiro Kon
Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Furthermore, tumorigenesis is extremely rare. An 80-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with nervous symptoms. Imaging tests showed a brain tumor and mass lesions in the seminal vesicle and retroperitoneum. Transrectal biopsy of the seminal vesicle helped diagnose the patient with DLBCL. The patient's general status deteriorated rapidly, and he died on the 23rd day after admission. An autopsy was performed and the pathological diagnosis was DLBCL, specifically suspected as IVLBCL, with nodular masses in the brain and seminal vesicle...
May 2018: Urology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685886/contraction-of-rat-cauda-epididymis-smooth-muscle-to-%C3%AE-1-adrenoceptor-activation-is-mediated-by-%C3%AE-1a-adrenoceptors
#6
Enio S A Pacini, Anthony C S Castilho, Flavia Hebeler-Barbosa, Andre S Pupo, Luiz R A Kiguti
The cauda epididymis (CE), the site of sperm storage until the ejaculation, is densely innervated by the sympathetic nervous system. Contraction of CE smooth muscle via α1 -adrenoceptors (α1 -ARs) plays a key role during the seminal emission phase of ejaculation and α1 -ARs antagonism has been suggested as a non-hormonal and reversible male contraceptive target. As the α1 -ARs subtype mediating contraction of rat CE is not known this study investigates the expression and role of α1 -ARs subtypes on the proximal and distal rat CE duct contraction to norepinephrine in vitro...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684476/the-dorsal-diencephalic-conduction-system-in-reward-processing-spotlight-on-the-anatomy-and-functions-of-the-habenular-complex
#7
REVIEW
Marc Fakhoury
The dorsal diencephalic conduction system (DDC) is a highly conserved pathway in vertebrates that provides a route for the neural information to flow from forebrain to midbrain structures. It contains the bilaterally paired habenular nuclei along with two fiber tracts, the stria medullaris and the fasciculus retroflexus. The habenula is the principal player in mediating the dialogue between forebrain and midbrain regions, and functional abnormalities in this structure have often been attributed to pathologies like mood disorders and substance use disorder...
April 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684232/immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-therapy-in-patients-with-autoimmune-disease
#8
Douglas B Johnson, Kathryn E Beckermann, Daniel Y Wang
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated efficacy across many cancer types in numerous clinical trials. However, because patients with preexisting autoimmune disease were excluded from these seminal trials, there are serious gaps in knowledge regarding the efficacy-and in particular the safety-of these transformative agents in patients with autoimmune disease. The safety of immune checkpoint inhibitors in this population has been an important concern, since these agents unleash immune activation, a potentially dangerous situation for patients with already heightened and aberrant immune function...
April 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681969/standardization-of-the-manufacturing-process-of-bee-venom-pharmacopuncture-containing-melittin-as-the-active-ingredient
#9
Yoonmi Lee, Sung-Geun Kim, In-Su Kim, Hwa-Dong Lee
Background: Pharmacopuncture is a unique treatment in oriental medicine that combines chemical stimulation with conventional acupuncture. However, there are no standardized methods for preparing the herbal medicines used in pharmacopuncture, and it is not clear whether the active ingredients are safe and stable. Several studies have investigated nonstandardized preparation processes, but few investigations have addressed safety and preparation methods. Pharmacopuncture may provide an alternative treatment for incurable diseases...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681790/high-mass-resolution-maldi-mass-spectrometry-imaging-reveals-detailed-spatial-distribution-of-metabolites-and-lipids-in-roots-of-barley-seedlings-in-response-to-salinity-stress
#10
Lenin D Sarabia, Berin A Boughton, Thusitha Rupasinghe, Allison M L van de Meene, Damien L Callahan, Camilla B Hill, Ute Roessner
Introduction: Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a technology that enables the visualization of the spatial distribution of hundreds to thousands of metabolites in the same tissue section simultaneously. Roots are below-ground plant organs that anchor plants to the soil, take up water and nutrients, and sense and respond to external stresses. Physiological responses to salinity are multifaceted and have predominantly been studied using whole plant tissues that cannot resolve plant salinity responses spatially...
2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680871/cystic-tumors-of-the-pituitary-infundibulum-seminal-autopsy-specimens-1899-to-1904-that-allowed-clinical-pathological-craniopharyngioma-characterization
#11
José M Pascual, Ruth Prieto, Maria Rosdolsky, Sewan Strauss, Inés Castro-Dufourny, Verena Hofecker, Eduard Winter, Rodrigo Carrasco, Walter Ulrich
A heterogeneous group of epithelial cystic tumors developed at the infundibulum and the third ventricle disconcerted pathologists at the dawn of the twentieth century. Very little was known at that time about the physiological role played by the pituitary gland, and there was almost complete ignorance regarding the function of the hypothalamus. Acromegaly, or enlargement of acral body parts, described in 1886 by Pierre Marie, was the only disease linked to primary hypertrophies of the pituitary gland, known as "pituitary strumas"...
April 21, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680123/twenty-five-years-of-investigating-the-universal-stress-protein-function-structure-and-applications
#12
Amy C Vollmer, Steven J Bark
Since the initial discovery of universal stress protein A (UspA) 25 years ago, remarkable advances in molecular and biochemical technologies have revolutionized our understanding of biology. Many studies using these technologies have focused on characterization of the uspA gene and Usp-type proteins. These studies have identified the conservation of Usp-like proteins across bacteria, archaea, plants, and even some invertebrate animals. Regulation of these proteins under diverse stresses has been associated with different stress-response genes including spoT and relA in the stringent response and the dosR two-component signaling pathways...
2018: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679074/tunable-transmission-and-deterministic-interface-states-in-double-zero-index-acoustic-metamaterials
#13
Wei Zhao, Yuting Yang, Zhi Tao, Zhi Hong Hang
Following the seminal work by Dubois et al. (Nat. Commun. 8, 14871 (2017)), we study a double-zero-index acoustic metamaterial with triangular lattice. By varying the height and diameter of air scatterers inside a parallel-plate acoustic waveguide, acoustic dispersion of the first-order waveguide mode can be manipulated and various interesting properties are explored. With accidental degeneracy of monopolar and dipolar modes, we numerically prove the double-zero-index properties of this novel acoustic metamaterial...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678280/the-kisspeptin-receptor-a-key-g-protein-coupled-receptor-in-the-control-of-the-reproductive-axis
#14
REVIEW
Delphine Franssen, Manuel Tena-Sempere
The kisspeptin receptor, Kiss1R, also known as Gpr54, is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), deorphanized in 2001, when it was recognized as canonical receptor for the Kiss1-derived peptides, kisspeptins. In 2003, inactivating mutations of Kiss1R gene were first associated to lack of pubertal maturation and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in humans and rodents. These seminal findings pointed out the previously unsuspected, essential role of Kiss1R and its ligands in control of reproductive maturation and function...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678154/genomic-regions-responsible-for-seminal-and-crown-root-lengths-identified-by-2d-3d-root-system-image-analysis
#15
Yusaku Uga, Ithipong Assaranurak, Yuka Kitomi, Brandon G Larson, Eric J Craft, Jon E Shaff, Susan R McCouch, Leon V Kochian
BACKGROUND: Genetic improvement of root system architecture is a promising approach for improved uptake of water and mineral nutrients distributed unevenly in the soil. To identify genomic regions associated with the length of different root types in rice, we quantified root system architecture in a set of 26 chromosome segment substitution lines derived from a cross between lowland indica rice, IR64, and upland tropical japonica rice, Kinandang Patong, (IK-CSSLs), using 2D & 3D root phenotyping platforms...
April 20, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676218/vaunting-the-independent-amateur-scientific-american-and-the-representation-of-lay-scientists
#16
Sean F Johnston
This paper traces how media representations encouraged enthusiasts, youth and skilled volunteers to participate actively in science and technology during the twentieth century. It assesses how distinctive discourses about scientific amateurs positioned them with respect to professionals in shifting political and cultural environments. In particular, the account assesses the seminal role of a periodical, Scientific American magazine, in shaping and championing an enduring vision of autonomous scientific enthusiasms...
April 20, 2018: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675493/association-between-seminal-plasma-neopterin-and-oxidative-stress-in-male-infertility-a-case-control-study
#17
Tayebeh Ghiasvand, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Gholamreza Shafiee, Alireza Zamani, Jamshid Karimi, Marzieh Ghorbani, Iraj Amiri
Background: Neopterin is a significant and sensitive marker in estimating the activity of cellular immune system. Oxidative stress plays a role in the etiology of male infertility. Increased reactive oxygen species is accompanied with increase in neopterin level. Hence neopterin may be involved in male infertility. Objective: The objective of this case-control study was to determine neopterin level in idiopathic infertile and normospermic men; furthermore, to identify its relationship with oxidative stress markers including total oxidant, malondialdehyde, sperm DNA fragmentation, and total antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma...
February 2018: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673183/ten-years-experience-with-the-cyp2d6-activity-score-a-perspective-on-future-investigations-to-improve-clinical-predictions-for-precision-therapeutics
#18
REVIEW
Andrea Gaedigk, Jean C Dinh, Hyunyoung Jeong, Bhagwat Prasad, J Steven Leeder
The seminal paper on the CYP2D6 Activity Score (AS) was first published ten years ago and, since its introduction in 2008, it has been widely accepted in the field of pharmacogenetics. This scoring system facilitates the translation of highly complex CYP2D6 diplotype data into a patient’s phenotype to guide drug therapy and is at the core of all CYP2D6 gene/drug pair guidelines issued by the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC). The AS, however, only explains a portion of the variability observed among individuals and ethnicities...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670898/effects-of-withania-somnifera-on-reproductive-system-a-systematic-review-of-the-available-evidence
#19
REVIEW
Ramin Nasimi Doost Azgomi, Afshar Zomorrodi, Hossein Nazemyieh, Seyed Mohammad Bagher Fazljou, Homayoun Sadeghi Bazargani, Fatemeh Nejatbakhsh, Arezoo Moini Jazani, Yadollah Ahmadi AsrBadr
Introduction: Withania somnifera (WS) also known as ashwagandha is a well-known medicinal plant used in traditional medicine in many countries for infertility treatment. The present study was aimed at systemically reviewing therapeutic effects of WS on the reproductive system. Methods: This systematic review study was designed in 2016. Required data were obtained from PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, and manual search of articles, grey literature, reference checking, and expert contact...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670635/chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-b-cell-normal-cellular-counterpart-clues-from-a-functional-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Walaa Darwiche, Brigitte Gubler, Jean-Pierre Marolleau, Hussein Ghamlouch
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the clonal expansion of small mature-looking CD19+ CD23+ CD5+ B-cells that accumulate in the blood, bone marrow, and lymphoid organs. To date, no consensus has been reached concerning the normal cellular counterpart of CLL B-cells and several B-cell types have been proposed. CLL B-cells have remarkable phenotypic and gene expression profile homogeneity. In recent years, the molecular and cellular biology of CLL has been enriched by seminal insights that are leading to a better understanding of the natural history of the disease...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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