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Anne Grosen, Jacob Nersting, Mona Bungum, Lisbet Ambrosius Christensen, Kjeld Schmiegelow, Marcello Spanò, Mette Julsgaard, Eugenia Cordelli, Giorgio Leter, Peter Braad Larsen, Christian Lodberg Hvas, Jens Kelsen
Background & Aims: Sperm DNA integrity, concentration and motility are suspected to be altered by thiopurines (azathioprine (AZA) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP)). We investigated the impact of thiopurines on semen quality in men with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by a comprehensive panel of semen analyses. Methods: Semen from 40 men with IBD in remission on AZA/6-MP therapy was prospectively collected and compared with samples from 40 healthy volunteers. Paired samples (off and on AZA/6-MP) were obtained from a subset of IBD patients, and blood and semen were collected to determine 6-MP transmission to the ejaculate...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Simone Regina Barros de Macêdo, Luiz André Rodrigues de Lima, Sandra Maria de Torres, Vinícius Vasconcelos Gomes de Oliveira, Rosana Nogueira de Morais, Christina Alves Peixoto, Bruno Mendes Tenorio, Valdemiro Amaro da Silva Junior
Aim: Chemical sterilization is a non-surgical method of contraception based on compounds injected into the testis to induce infertility. However, these injections can cause discomfort and pain able to impair the recovery of animals after this treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate if anti-inflammatories or pain relievers inhibited the sterilizing effect of zinc gluconate-based solution on the testis. Materials and Methods: Adult rats were treated in groups: G1 (control), G2 (dimethyl sulfoxide + dipyrone); G3 (dipyrone/zinc); G4 (dipyrone + celecoxib/zinc); G5 (dipyrone + meloxicam/zinc), and G6 (dipyrone + dexamethasone/zinc) in a single dose per day during 7 days...
May 2018: Veterinary World
Gün R Semin, Tomás Palma, Cengiz Acartürk, Aleksandra Dziuba
Based on research in physical anthropology, we argue that brightness marks the abstract category of gender, with light colours marking the female gender and dark colours marking the male gender. In a set of three experiments, we examine this hypothesis, first in a speeded gender classification experiment with male and female names presented in black and white. As expected, male names in black and female names in white are classified faster than the reverse gender-colour combinations. The second experiment relies on a gender classification task involving the disambiguation of very briefly appearing non-descript stimuli in the form of black and white 'blobs'...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Amena Khatun, Kyu-Ho Kang, Do-Yeal Ryu, Md Saidur Rahman, Woo-Sung Kwon, Myung-Geol Pang
Aminopeptidase N (APN) is defined as a multifunctional enzyme, which regulate cellular physiology of a wide variety of cells in human. Earlier studies reported that mammalian semen shares this common enzyme as a major protein of seminal plasma that has correlation with male fertility, while the regulatory mechanisms of APN in spermatozoa are still far from being well understood. Present study was designed to investigate the role of APN in biological and chemical functions of spermatozoa using an in vitro antagonistic approach...
June 12, 2018: Theriogenology
Taylor Pini, Tamara Leahy, Simon P de Graaf
Semen cryopreservation is an important tool for artificial breeding, species conservation and human reproductive medicine. However, sublethal freezing damage remains an important limitation of the cryopreservation process, inevitably leading to reduced fertility in vivo. This review explores several facets of sublethal freezing damage, touching on cryocapacitation, the generation of reactive oxygen species and alterations to sperm proteins, lipids and sugars. The effects of sublethal freezing damage on sperm performance in vivo are also discussed, examining fertile lifespan and interaction with female reproductive tract immune cells, mucus and oviductal cells...
June 11, 2018: Theriogenology
Arash Salemi, Andrea De Micheli, Abdullah Aftab, Adham Elmously, Regis Chang, S Chiu Wong, Berhane M Worku
OBJECTIVES: Left atrial appendage thrombus (LAT) was an exclusion criterion in the seminal transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) trials; however, such patients do undergo TAVR in the 'real-world' setting. This study sought to analyse outcomes after TAVR in patients with LAT or spontaneous echo contrast (SEC). METHODS: All patients undergoing TAVR at our institution between March 2009 and December 2014 were prospectively analysed. The presence of LAT or SEC was determined via a retrospective chart review...
June 14, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Michelle Jo Semins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Minh P Lê, Marie-Laure Chaix, Sylvie Chevret, Julie Bertrand, François Raffi, Sébastien Gallien, El Mountacer Billah El Abbassi, Christine Katlama, Pierre Delobel, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Juliette Saillard, Jean-Michel Molina, Gilles Peytavin
Background: In the ANRS 165 DARULIGHT study (NCT02384967) carried out in HIV-infected patients, the use of a darunavir/ritonavir-containing regimen with a switch to a reduced dose of darunavir maintained virological efficacy (≤50 copies/mL) for 48 weeks with a good safety profile. Objectives: To assess the total and unbound blood plasma pharmacokinetics of darunavir and associated antiretrovirals, and their penetration into semen before and after dose reduction...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Deng'e Xie, Chen Lu, Ying Zhu, Sulan Zhu, Er-Jiang Yang, Xin Jin
We conducted this study to analyze the sperm DNA fragmentation index, conventional semen parameters, blood microelements and seminal plasma reactive oxygen species (ROS) in patients with male infertility to determine the association between each of the above male physiological parameters and DNA fragmentation index and infertility. Eighty cases of infertile males and 20 cases of normal males with children were divided into the infertility and control groups, respectively. Sperm DNA fragmentation index, conventional semen parameters, serum microelement content and seminal plasma ROS levels were detected, and the existing correlation between sperm DNA fragmentation index and the various physiological parameters were studied...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Erin L Macartney, Angela J Crean, Russell Bonduriansky
It is now recognized that post-copulatory traits, such as sperm and ejaculate production can impose metabolic costs, and such traits are therefore expected to exhibit condition-dependent expression, whereby, low condition individuals experience a greater marginal cost of investment compared to high condition individuals. Ejaculates are especially costly in species where males invest in offspring quality through nutrient-rich spermatophores or other seminal nuptial gifts. However, recent evidence shows that, in species where males do not provision females or offspring, males can still influence offspring development through paternal effects mediated by epigenetic factors, such as non-coding RNAs, DNA methylation and chromatin structure...
June 14, 2018: Heredity
Deldar Morad Abdulah, Alan Bapeer Hassan, Farsat Saeed Saadi, Ary Habeeb Mohammed
OBJECTIVES: Dietary and physical activity advice have been considered to be seminal ingredients in prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this regard, the impacts of a three-month self-management intervention on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes were examined in the present study. STUDY DESIGN: A Double-arm post-test intervention study. METHODS: In the current post-test intervention study, three two-hour educational sessions on dietary habits and physical activity designed according to Health Belief Model were presented to 16 non-complicated type 2 diabetic patients and their dietary, physical activities, and biochemical outcomes were compared to a 23 patient-control arm in Iraq in 2017...
June 7, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Gerrit Glas
This paper gives an analysis of some conceptual issues in the neuroscientific study of empathy. The focus will almost exclusively be on a seminal paper by Decety and Jackson (2004) on the functional architecture of empathy. The authors withstand reductionistic tendencies in the exposition of what their findings might mean for the psychology of social cognition. They are aware of the thorny conceptual issues that arise when attempting to bridge intuitive folk psychological conceptions of empathy with explanations offered by social psychology, developmental science, and, most of all, neuroscience...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Ksenia Chezar, Geoffrey Gotto, Shaun Medlicott, Kiril Trpkov
The presence of urothelial epithelial metaplasia in a seminal vesicle is an exceptionally rare finding. We describe a unique case of urothelial metaplasia of the seminal vesicle and ejaculatory duct, found in a radical prostatectomy specimen from a patient with complex urogenital anatomy. A 70-year-old patient with organ confined (pT2) prostatic adenocarcinoma (Gleason score 3+4 = 7) had a right-sided Hutch diverticulum and a left crossed-fused renal ectopia. Although the histogenesis of urothelial metaplasia in the seminal vesicle remains unclear, in the patient presented herein it likely developed as a consequence of the previously unrecognized malformation...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Urology
Amelia McCartney, Erica Moretti, Giuseppina Sanna, Marta Pestrin, Emanuela Risi, Luca Malorni, Laura Biganzoli, Angelo Di Leo
Until recently, the mainstay of treatment in the majority of hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor 2 receptor (HER2)-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC) has consisted of single-agent endocrine therapy (ET). However, as understanding of endocrine resistance has grown, newer targeted agents have come to the fore. Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase complexes 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) combined with ET has shown significant activity in HR+ HER2- ABC, with impressive results in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) when compared with ET alone...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
Paula Domingo, Maite Olaciregui, Noelia González, Ignacio DE Blas, Lydia Gil
The purpose of this research was to assess whether the presence of seminal plasma (SP) can improve sperm quality of rabbit spermatozoa stored at 16ºC for 72 hours and moreover evaluate the cryoprotectant effects of glycerol, N-N-Dimethylformamide (DMF), and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Semen samples were pooled and divided in eight fractions. Four of them were diluted with INRA (extender A), INRA with 6% glycerol (extender B), INRA with 6% DMF (extender C), or INRA with 6% NMP (extender D), respectively. The other four fractions were centrifuged, and the supernatant was removed in order to eliminate SP...
June 13, 2018: Experimental Animals
Keita Matsuno, Masahiro Kajihara, Ryo Nakao, Naganori Nao, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Mieko Muramatsu, Yongjin Qiu, Shiho Torii, Manabu Igarashi, Nodoka Kasajima, Keita Mizuma, Kentaro Yoshii, Hirofumi Sawa, Chihiro Sugimoto, Ayato Takada, Hideki Ebihara
The recent emergence of novel tick-borne RNA viruses has complicated the epidemiological landscape of tick-borne infectious diseases, posing a significant challenge to public health systems that seek to counteract tick-borne diseases. The identification of two novel tick-borne phleboviruses (TBPVs), severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) and Heartland virus (HRTV), as causative agents of severe illness in humans has accelerated the investigation and discoveries of novel TBPVs. In the present study, we isolated a novel TBPV designated Mukawa virus (MKWV) from host-questing Ixodes persulcatus females captured in Japan...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Jean Fan, Hae-Ock Lee, Soohyun Lee, Da-Eun Ryu, Semin Lee, Catherine Xue, Seok Jin Kim, Kihyun Kim, Nikolas Barkas, Peter J Park, Woong-Yang Park, Peter V Kharchenko
Characterization of intratumoral heterogeneity is critical to cancer therapy, as presence of phenotypically diverse cell populations commonly fuels relapse and resistance to treatment. Although genetic variation is a well-studied source of intratumoral heterogeneity, the functional impact of most genetic alterations remains unclear. Even less understood is the relative importance of other factors influencing heterogeneity, such as epigenetic state or tumor microenvironment. To investigate the relationship between genetic and transcriptional heterogeneity in a context of cancer progression, we devised a computational approach called HoneyBADGER to identify copy number variation and loss-of-heterozygosity in individual cells from single-cell RNA-sequencing data...
June 13, 2018: Genome Research
Bénédicte Michel, Anurag K Sinha, David R F Leach
In all organisms, replication impairments are an important source of genome rearrangements, mainly because of the formation of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) ends at inactivated replication forks. Three reactions for the formation of dsDNA ends at replication forks were originally described for Escherichia coli and became seminal models for all organisms: the encounter of replication forks with preexisting single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) interruptions, replication fork reversal, and head-to-tail collisions of successive replication rounds...
September 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Hannah M Schneider, Tobias Wojciechowski, Johannes A Postma, Kathleen M Brown, Jonathan P Lynch
Background and Aims: Root cortical senescence (RCS) is a poorly understood phenomenon with implications for adaptation to edaphic stress. It was hypothesized that RCS in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is (1) accelerated by exogenous ethylene exposure; (2) accompanied by differential expression of ethylene synthesis and signalling genes; and (3) associated with differential expression of programmed cell death (PCD) genes. Methods: Gene expression of root segments from four barley genotypes with and without RCS was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
April 20, 2018: Annals of Botany
Annalena Venneri, Caroline Jahn-Carta, Matteo De Marco, Davide Quaranta, Camillo Marra
Relatively spared during most of the timeline of normal aging, semantic memory shows a subtle yet measurable decline even during the pre-clinical stage of Alzheimer's disease. This decline is thought to reflect early neurofibrillary changes and impairment is detectable using tests of language relying on lexical-semantic abilities. A promising approach is the characterization of semantic parameters such as typicality and age of acquisition of words, and propositional density from verbal output. Seminal research like the Nun Study or the analysis of the linguistic decline of famous writers and politicians later diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease supports the early diagnostic value of semantic processing and semantic memory...
June 13, 2018: Biomarkers in Medicine
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