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Atg12 mitophagy

Cristian Setz, Anne-Sophie Benischke, Anna Catharina Pinho Ferreira Bento, Yves Brand, Soledad Levano, Franziska Paech, Katharina Leitmeyer, Daniel Bodmer
Autophagy is a highly evolutionary conserved quality control defense mechanism within cells, which has also been implicated in cell death processes. In the mammalian inner ear, autophagy has been shown to play a role during early morphogenesis as well as in adult cochlear hair cells exposed to ototoxic insults. Mitophagy, a selective autophagic cell process targeting mitochondria, hasn't been studied in the inner ear so far. On this work, we searched for molecular indicators of mitophagy within House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti-1 (HEI-OC1) cells as well as in the organ of Corti (OC)...
April 2018: Hearing Research
Xu Cao, Haiqiong Wang, Zhao Wang, Qingyao Wang, Shuang Zhang, Yuanping Deng, Yanshan Fang
Mitophagy is thought to be a critical mitochondrial quality control mechanism in neurons and has been extensively studied in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. However, little is known about how mitochondria are maintained in the lengthy neuronal axons in the context of physiological aging. Here, we utilized the unique Drosophila wing nerve model and in vivo imaging to rigorously profile changes in axonal mitochondria during aging. We revealed that mitochondria became fragmented and accumulated in aged axons...
October 2017: Aging Cell
Hong-Ik Cho, Min-Jong Seo, Sun-Mee Lee
Alcoholic fatty liver (AFL) is susceptible to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, responding with inflammation and extensive hepatocellular damage. Autophagy maintains cellular homeostasis and regulates inflammation and lipid metabolism. 2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME2), an endogenous metabolite of estradiol, exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study examined the cytoprotective mechanisms of 2-ME2 on hepatic I/R in AFL, focusing on autophagy signaling. C57BL/6 mice were fed an ethanol diet (ED) to induce AFL, or a control diet (CD) for 6weeks, and then subjected to 60min of ischemia and 5h of reperfusion...
May 1, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
Alicia K Au, Yaming Chen, Lina Du, Craig M Smith, Mioara D Manole, Sirine A Baltagi, Charleen T Chu, Rajesh K Aneja, Hülya Bayır, Patrick M Kochanek, Robert S B Clark
Increased autophagy/mitophagy is thought to contribute to cerebellar dysfunction in Purkinje cell degeneration mice. Intriguingly, cerebellar Purkinje cells are highly vulnerable to hypoxia-ischemia (HI), related at least in part to their high metabolic activity. Whether or not excessive or supraphysiologic autophagy plays a role in Purkinje cell susceptibility to HI is unknown. Accordingly, we evaluated the role of autophagy in the cerebellum after global ischemia produced by asphyxial cardiac arrest in postnatal day (PND) 16-18 rats, using siRNA-targeted inhibition of Atg7, necessary for microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3-II) and Atg12-Atg5 complex formation...
September 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Rikke Kruse, Birgitte F Vind, Stine J Petersson, Jonas M Kristensen, Kurt Højlund
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Autophagy is a catabolic process that maintains cellular homeostasis by degradation of protein aggregates and selective removal of damaged organelles, e.g. mitochondria (mitophagy). Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle has been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and altered protein metabolism. Here, we investigated whether abnormalities in autophagy are present in human muscle in obesity and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Using a case-control design, skeletal muscle biopsies obtained in the basal and insulin-stimulated states from patients with type 2 diabetes during both euglycaemia and hyperglycaemia, and from glucose-tolerant lean and obese individuals during euglycaemia, were used for analysis of mRNA levels, protein abundance and phosphorylation of autophagy-related proteins...
September 2015: Diabetologia
Yuki Tamura, Yu Kitaoka, Yutaka Matsunaga, Daisuke Hoshino, Hideo Hatta
KEY POINTS: Traumatic nerve injury or nerve disease leads to denervation and severe muscle atrophy. Recent evidence shows that mitochondrial loss could be a key mediator of skeletal muscle atrophy. Here, we show that daily heat stress treatment rescues denervation-induced loss of mitochondria and concomitant muscle atrophy. We also found that denervation-activated autophagy-dependent mitochondrial clearance (mitophagy) was suppressed by daily heat stress treatment. The molecular basis of this observation is explained by our results showing that heat stress treatment attenuates the increase of key proteins that regulate the tagging step for mitochondrial clearance and the intermediate step of autophagosome formation in denervated muscle...
June 15, 2015: Journal of Physiology
Yuko Hirota, Shun-ichi Yamashita, Yusuke Kurihara, Xiulian Jin, Masamune Aihara, Tetsu Saigusa, Dongchon Kang, Tomotake Kanki
In cultured cells, not many mitochondria are degraded by mitophagy induced by physiological cellular stress. We observed mitophagy in HeLa cells using a method that relies on the pH-sensitive fluorescent protein Keima. With this approach, we found that mitophagy was barely induced by carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone treatment, which is widely used as an inducer of PARK2/Parkin-related mitophagy, whereas a small but modest amount of mitochondria were degraded by mitophagy under conditions of starvation or hypoxia...
2015: Autophagy
Luis Bonet-Ponce, Sara Saez-Atienzar, Carmen da Casa, Miguel Flores-Bellver, Jorge M Barcia, Javier Sancho-Pelluz, Francisco J Romero, Joaquín Jordan, María F Galindo
We have explored the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced mitochondrial dynamics disruption and mitophagy. Ethanol increases mitochondrial fission in a concentration-dependent manner through Drp1 mitochondrial translocation and OPA1 proteolytic cleavage. ARPE-19 (a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line) cells challenged with ethanol showed mitochondrial potential disruptions mediated by alterations in mitochondrial complex IV protein level and increases in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production...
July 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jing Zou, Fei Yue, Wenjiao Li, Kun Song, Xianhan Jiang, Jinglin Yi, Leyuan Liu
Autophagy plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Mitochondrion-associated protein LRPPRC interacts with MAP1S that interacts with LC3 and bridges autophagy components with microtubules and mitochondria to affect autophagy flux. Dysfunction of LRPPRC and MAP1S is associated with poor survival of ovarian cancer patients. Furthermore, elevated levels of LRPPRC predict shorter overall survival in patients with prostate adenocarcinomas or gastric cancer. To understand the role of LRPPRC in tumor development, previously we reported that LRPPRC forms a ternary complex with Beclin 1 and Bcl-2 to inhibit autophagy...
2014: PloS One
Faqiang Li, Taijoon Chung, Richard D Vierstra
Autophagy-mediated turnover removes damaged organelles and unwanted cytoplasmic constituents and thus plays critical roles in cellular housekeeping and nutrient recycling. This "self eating" is tightly regulated by the AUTOPHAGY-RELATED1/13 (ATG1/13) kinase complex, which connects metabolic and environmental cues to the vacuolar delivery of autophagic vesicles. Here, we describe the Arabidopsis thaliana accessory proteins ATG11 and ATG101, which help link the ATG1/13 complex to autophagic membranes. ATG11 promotes vesicle delivery to the vacuole but is not essential for synthesizing the ATG12-ATG5 and ATG8-phosphatidylethanolamine adducts that are central to autophagic vesicle assembly...
February 2014: Plant Cell
Cécile Jamart, Damien Naslain, Hélène Gilson, Marc Francaux
Activation of autophagy in skeletal muscle has been reported in response to endurance exercise and food deprivation independently. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether autophagy was more activated when both stimuli were combined, namely when endurance exercise was performed in a fasted rather than a fed state. Mice performed a low-intensity running exercise (10 m/min for 90min) in both dietary states after which the gastrocnemius muscles were removed. LC3b-II, a marker of autophagosome presence, increased in both conditions, but the increase was higher in the fasted state...
October 15, 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Qiao Jiang, Li Zhao, Junbiao Dai, Qingyu Wu
BACKGROUND: Microalgae, with the ability to mitigate CO(2) emission and produce carbohydrates and lipids, are considered one of the most promising resources for producing bioenergy. Recently, we discovered that autophagy plays a critical role in the metabolism of photosynthetic system and lipids production. So far, more than 30-autophagy related (ATG) genes in all subtypes of autophagy have been identified. However, compared with yeast and mammals, in silico and experimental research of autophagy pathways in microalgae remained limited and fragmentary...
2012: PloS One
Cécile Jamart, Marc Francaux, Guillaume Y Millet, Louise Deldicque, Delphine Frère, Léonard Féasson
In this study, the coordinated activation of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP), autophagy-lysosomal pathway (ALP), and mitochondrial remodeling including mitophagy was assessed by measuring protein markers during ultra-endurance running exercise in human skeletal muscle. Eleven male, experienced ultra-endurance athletes ran for 24 h on a treadmill. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle 2 h before starting and immediately after finishing exercise. Athletes ran 149.8 ± 16.3 km with an effective running time of 18 h 42 min ( ± 41 min)...
May 2012: Journal of Applied Physiology
Sören Mai, Britta Muster, Jürgen Bereiter-Hahn, Marina Jendrach
Mitochondrial health is maintained by the quality control mechanisms of mitochondrial dynamics (fission and fusion) and mitophagy. Decline of these processes is thought to contribute to aging and neurodegenerative diseases. To investigate the role of mitochondrial quality control in aging on the cellular level, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were subjected to mitochondria-targeted damage by combining staining of mitochondria and irradiation. This treatment induced a short boost of reactive oxygen species, which resulted in transient fragmentation of mitochondria followed by mitophagy, while mitochondrial dynamics were impaired...
January 2012: Autophagy
Isei Tanida
Autophagy (macroautophagy), or the degradation of large numbers of cytoplasmic components, is induced by extracellular and intracellular signals, including oxidative stress, ceramide, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. This dynamic process involves membrane formation and fusion, including autophagosome formation, autophagosome-lysosome fusion, and the degradation of intra-autophagosomal contents by lysosomal hydrolases. Autophagy is associated with tumorigenesis, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiomyopathy, Crohn's disease, fatty liver, type II diabetes, defense against intracellular pathogens, antigen presentation, and longevity...
June 2011: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Hui-Yu Liu, Jianmin Han, Sophia Y Cao, Tao Hong, Degen Zhuo, Jianbo Shi, Zhenqi Liu, Wenhong Cao
Autophagy is essential for maintaining both survival and health of cells. Autophagy is normally suppressed by amino acids and insulin. It is unclear what happens to the autophagy activity in the presence of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. In this study, we examined the autophagy activity in the presence of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia and the associated mechanism. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia were induced in mice by a high fat diet, followed by measurements of autophagy markers...
November 6, 2009: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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