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Adult Psychology

Ashley Winning, M Maria Glymour, Marie C McCormick, Paola Gilsanz, Laura D Kubzansky
OBJECTIVES: Prior research on the relationship between early adversity and adult chronic disease has often relied on retrospective reports of a limited range of exposures and has not considered childhood psychological distress as a mediator. We investigate whether distress in childhood is one pathway by which early social disadvantage leads to greater cardiometabolic risk in middle adulthood. METHODS: Data are from the 1958 British Birth Cohort study (sample n = 6027)...
October 19, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Najith Amarasena, Kostas Kapellas, Michael R Skilton, Louise J Maple-Brown, Alex Brown, Mark Bartold, Kerin O'Dea, David Celermajer, Lisa M Jamieson
OBJECTIVES: To determine factors associated with routine dental attendance in Aboriginal Australians. METHODS: Data of 271 Aboriginal adults residing in Australia's Northern Territory were used. Routine dental attendance was defined as last visiting a dentist less than one year ago or visiting a dentist for a check-up. Both bivariate and multivariable analytical techniques were used. RESULTS: While 27% visited a dentist in the past year, 29% of these visited for a check-up...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Rachel H Farr
Controversy continues to surround parenting by lesbian and gay (LG) adults and outcomes for their children. As sexual minority parents increasingly adopt children, longitudinal research about child development, parenting, and family relationships is crucial for informing such debates. In the psychological literature, family systems theory contends that children's healthy development depends upon healthy family functioning more so than family structure. From the framework of family stress theory, it was expected that longitudinal outcomes for school-age children adopted in infancy could be distinct among those with same-sex versus other-sex parents (N = 96 families)...
October 20, 2016: Developmental Psychology
Tim Mitchell, Hannah Gooding, Cathy Mews, Leon Adams, Gerry MacQuillan, George Garas, Madhur Ravikumara, Ainslie Lopez, Megan Collins, Gary Jeffrey
Transition to adult care is a vulnerable period for pediatric transplant recipients and is associated with reduced medication compliance, graft loss, and increased mortality. Psychosocial outcomes in young adults differ between pediatric transplant recipients and their healthy peers. We conducted a single-center, retrospective cohort study of all pediatric liver transplant recipients who were transitioned through our center. This study aimed to assess the outcomes of transitioned pediatric liver transplant recipients at an Australian center, including mortality, adherence, and psychosocial morbidity...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
S A Stansfeld, C Clark, M Smuk, C Power, T Davidson, B Rodgers
BACKGROUND: Childhood adversity predicts adolescent suicidal ideation but there are few studies examining whether the risk of childhood adversity extends to suicidal ideation in midlife. We hypothesized that childhood adversity predicts midlife suicidal ideation and this is partially mediated by adolescent internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders and adult exposure to life events and interpersonal difficulties. METHOD: At 45 years, 9377 women and men from the UK 1958 British Birth Cohort Study participated in a clinical survey...
October 20, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Qiuyu Wang, Chuan Cao, Rui Guo, Xiaoge Li, Lele Lu, Wenping Wang, Shirong Li
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in an aesthetic surgery setting in the region of Southwest China, and to ascertain the differences in terms of body images between patients in the aesthetic setting and general Chinese population. This study tracked patient satisfaction with their body image changes while undergoing aesthetic medical procedures to identify whether the condition of patients who were presenting with BDD symptoms or their psychological symptoms could be improved by enhancing their appearance...
October 19, 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Geoffrey L Dickens, Catherine Frogley, Fiona Mason, Katina Anagnostakis, Marco M Picchioni
BACKGROUND: Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic medicine which can cause significant side-effects. It is often prescribed off-license in severe cases of borderline personality disorder contrary to national treatment guidelines. Little is known about the experiences of those who take clozapine for borderline personality disorder. We explored the lived-experience of women in secure inpatient care who were prescribed clozapine for borderline personality disorder. FINDINGS: Adult females (N = 20) participated in audio-taped semi-structured interviews...
2016: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
Michael Y Ni, Tom K Li, Herbert Pang, Brandford H Y Chan, Betty Y Yuan, Ichiro Kawachi, C Mary Schooling, Gabriel M Leung
Despite the extensive history of social movements around the world, the evolution of population mental health before, during, and after a social movement remains sparsely documented. We sought to assess over time the prevalence of depressive symptoms during and after the Occupy Central movement in Hong Kong and to examine the associations of direct and indirect exposures to Occupy Central with depressive symptoms. We longitudinally administered interviews to 909 adults who were randomly sampled from the population-representative FAMILY Cohort at 6 time points from March 2009 to March 2015: twice each before, during, and after the Occupy Central protests...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Sarah M Belcher, Emilie A Hausmann, Susan M Cohen, Heidi S Donovan, Elizabeth A Schlenk
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of multiple primary cancers (MPC) is increasing, but little is known about psychological distress in this population. The purpose of this study is to review and synthesize the literature regarding what is known about psychological distress in adults who have experienced MPC diagnoses. METHODS: All potentially eligible studies identified in PubMed and CINAHL were reviewed by two independent evaluators, and each relevant article was assessed for methodological quality...
October 18, 2016: Psycho-oncology
Nasrin Navabi, Fatemeh Ghaffari, Zahra Jannat-Alipoor
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The limitations caused by the process of aging and the prevalence of chronic diseases contribute to reduced performance in physical, psychological, and social areas of life in older people. The use of mobile phones as easily accessible portable tools with a high performance is associated with an increased health literacy, self-care, and independence in older people. The present study was conducted to determine older people's attitudes toward the use of mobile phones and the barriers to their use...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Julian N Trollor, Carmela Salomon, Catherine Franklin
Mental illness is common in people with intellectual disability. They may also have physical health problems which can affect their mental state. Difficulties in communication can contribute to mental health problems being overlooked. These may present with changes in behaviour. Psychological management is usually preferable to prescribing psychotropic drugs. Behavioural approaches are the most appropriate way to manage challenging behaviour. If a drug is considered, prescribers should complete a thorough diagnostic assessment, exclude physical and environmental contributions to symptoms, and consider medical comorbidities before prescribing...
August 2016: Australian Prescriber
Yong Yang, Ana V Diez-Roux
PURPOSE: Studies on how the interaction of psychological and environmental characteristics influences walking are limited, and the results are inconsistent. Our aim is to examine how the attitude toward walking and neighborhood environments interacts to influence walking. DESIGN: Cross-sectional phone and mail survey. SETTING: Participants randomly sampled from 6 study sites including Los Angeles, Chicago, Baltimore, Minneapolis, Manhattan, and Bronx Counties in New York City, and Forsyth and Davidson Counties in North Carolina...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Nicola M Grissom, Robert George, Teresa M Reyes
Nutritional conditions in early life can have a lasting impact on health and disease risk, though the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. In the healthy individual, physiological and behavioral responses to stress are coordinated in such a way as to mobilize resources necessary to respond to the stressor and to terminate the stress response at the appropriate time. Induction of proinflammatory gene expression within the brain is one such example that is initiated in response to both physiological and psychological stressors, and is the focus of the current study...
October 15, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Suzie Bond, Catherine Gourlay, Alexandra Desjardins, Paule Bodson-Clermont, Marie-Ève Boucher
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety, depression and PTSD-related symptoms reported by spouses and close relatives of adult burn survivors. Potential associations between these symptoms and variables such as the severity of the burn were also explored. METHOD: Participants were spouses (n=31) and close relatives (n=25) of hospitalized patients with acute burns. Anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed by the Hospital Distress Anxiety and Depression Scale and PTSD-related symptoms by the Modified PTSD Symptom Scale at both admission to and discharge from the burn unit...
October 15, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Angeline Traynor, Eimear Morrissey, Jonathan Egan, Brian E McGuire
BACKGROUND: Resource and geographic barriers are the commonly cited constraints preventing the uptake of psychological treatment for chronic pain management. For adults, there is some evidence to support the use of information and communication technology (ICT) as a mode of treatment delivery. However, mixed findings have been reported for the effectiveness and acceptability of psychological interventions delivered using information and communication technology for children and adolescents...
October 18, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Rachel G Curtis, Tim D Windsor, Jacqueline A Mogle, Allison A M Bielak
BACKGROUND: Participation in activities is associated with a range of positive outcomes in adulthood. Research has shown that pain and physical symptoms are associated with less activity in older adults, whereas higher self-efficacy is associated with more activity. Such research tends to examine cross-sectional or long-term between-person change, limiting the opportunity to explore dynamic within-person processes that unfold over shorter time periods. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to (1) replicate previous between-person associations of self-efficacy with engagement in activity and (2) examine whether daily variation in pain, physical symptoms, and self-efficacy corresponded with daily within-person variation in different types of activity...
October 19, 2016: Gerontology
Susana Vacas, Vincent Degos, Mervyn Maze
BACKGROUND: Sleep is integral to biologic function, and sleep disruption can result in both physiological and psychologic dysfunction including cognitive decline. Surgery activates the innate immune system, inducing neuroinflammatory changes that interfere with cognition. Because surgical patients with sleep disorders have an increased likelihood of exhibiting postoperative delirium, an acute form of cognitive decline, we investigated the contribution of perioperative sleep fragmentation (SF) to the neuroinflammatory and cognitive responses of surgery...
October 11, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Kim Tran, Chaim Bell, Nathan Stall, George Tomlinson, Allison McGeer, Andrew Morris, Michael Gardam, Howard B Abrams
BACKGROUND: Isolation precautions have negative effects on patient safety, psychological well-being, and healthcare worker contact. However, it is not known whether isolation precautions affect certain hospital-related outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of isolation precautions on hospital-related outcomes and cost of care. DESIGN: Retrospective, propensity-score matched cohort study of inpatients admitted to general internal medicine (GIM) services at three academic hospitals in Toronto, Ontario, Canada between January 2010 and December 2012...
October 17, 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Drew A Kingston, Franklyn J Graham, Raymond A Knight
Hypersexuality, or extreme normophilic sexual urges and behaviors, is a controversial construct that was recently considered as a candidate disorder for the DSM-5 and was rejected. It was also rejected for inclusion in Section III (Conditions for Further Study). Nonetheless, it has been found to be an important predictor of recidivism among sex offenders, and it continues to be discussed widely in the literature. In the present study, we investigated the developmental roots of this construct in a sample of 529 adult male sexual offenders, who were administered the Multidimensional Assessment of Sex and Aggression...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Susan Young, Brynjar Emilsson, Jon Fridrik Sigurdsson, Mizanur Khondoker, Florence Philipp-Wiegmann, Gisli Baldursson, Halldora Olafsdottir, Gisli Gudjonsson
Studies assessing psychological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults are increasingly reported. However, functional outcomes are often neglected in favour of symptom outcomes. We investigated functional outcomes in 95 adults with ADHD who were already treated with medication and randomized to receive treatment as usual (TAU/MED) or psychological treatment (CBT/MED) using a cognitive-behavioural programme, R&R2ADHD, which employs both group and individual modalities. RATE-S functional outcomes associated with ADHD symptoms, social functioning, emotional control and antisocial behaviour were given at baseline, end of treatment and three-month follow-up...
October 17, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
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