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Adult Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684063/do-self-reported-stress-and-depressive-symptoms-effect-endothelial-function-in-healthy-youth-the-look-longitudinal-study
#1
Lisa S Olive, Walter P Abhayaratna, Don Byrne, Alice Richardson, Richard D Telford
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endothelial dysfunction is thought to be an early indicator of risk for cardiovascular disease and has been associated with both stress and depression in adults and adolescents. Less is known of these relationships in younger populations, where the origins of CVD is thought to manifest. This study examined the effects of questionnaire derived psychosocial stress and depressive symptoms on endothelial function among children, following them through to adolescence. METHOD: Participants were 203 grade 2 children (111 girls; M age = 7...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683227/risk-for-use-of-antidepressants-anxiolytics-and-hypnotics-in-partners-of-glioma-patients-a-nationwide-study-covering-19-years-of-prescriptions
#2
Maria R N Jansson, Annika B von Heymann-Horan, Birthe K Rasmussen, Vanna Albieri, Kirsten Frederiksen, Nis Suppli, Susanne O Dalton, Christoffer Johansen, Pernille E Bidstrup
OBJECTIVE: Suffering from malignant brain tumor is a stressful condition, for patients and their partners. In a retrospective cohort study using nationwide registries, we examined partners' risk for first use of antidepressants, anxiolytics, or hypnotics. METHODS: We followed all 4,373 partners of adults with glioma, diagnosed in 1998-2013 in Denmark and a cohort of 43,808 partners of glioma-free persons matched (1:10). In Cox proportional hazard models, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for a first prescription of psychotropic medications (antidepressants, anxiolytics, or hypnotics) according to the partner's glioma status...
April 23, 2018: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682228/physical-activity-and-depression-in-older-adults-with-and-without-cognitive-impairment
#3
Kornanong Yuenyongchaiwat, Khajonsak Pongpanit, Somrudee Hanmanop
Low physical activity and depression may be related to cognitive impairment in the elderly. Objetive: To determine depression and physical activity (PA) among older adults with and without cognitive impairment. Methods: 156 older adults, both males and females, aged ≥60 years, were asked to complete the Thai Mini-Mental State Examination (Thai-MMSE), a global cognitive impairment screening tool. Seventy-eight older adults with cognitive impairment and 78 older adults without cognitive impairment were then separately administered two questionnaires (i...
January 2018: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681975/mind-body-therapies-for-african-american-women-at-risk-for-cardiometabolic-disease-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Candace C Johnson, Karen M Sheffield, Roy E Brown
Background: A major determinant in cardiometabolic health is metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of symptoms that portend the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). As mind-body therapies are thought to help in lowering physiological and environmental CVD risk factors including blood pressure and psychological stress, they may also be beneficial for the primary prevention of CVD. Objectives: To synthesize and summarize existing knowledge on the effectiveness of mind-body therapies on MetS outcomes in African-American (AA) women, a US subpopulation at high risk for CVD...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681194/exposure-to-different-intrauterine-environments-implications-for-telomere-attrition-in-early-life
#5
Isabel Cristina Ribas Werlang, Monique Cabral Hahn, Juliana Rombaldi Bernardi, Martha Nast, Marcelo Zubaran Goldani, Mariana Bohns Michalowski
OBJECTIVE: Studies focusing on telomere attrition in newborns and what factors could be involved in this issue are sparse; most reports have been in adult populations. Thereby, the aim of this study was to present an overview of what is currently known about the relationship between environmental exposure of the fetus during pregnancy and telomere length outcomes in early life. METHODS: The MEDLINE (via PubMed) and Bireme databases were searched for studies published until 1 June, 2016...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681082/worries-and-needs-of-adults-and-parents-of-adults-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#6
Andre B Rietman, Hanneke van Helden, Pauline H Both, Walter Taal, Jeroen S Legerstee, AnneLoes van Staa, Henriette A Moll, Rianne Oostenbrink, Agnies M van Eeghen
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a neurocutaneous disorder associated with lifelong tumor growth propensity and neurocognitive impairments. Although follow-up of adults with NF1 often focuses on tumor growth, follow-up of cognitive or social problems and other NF1-related comorbidity is often not a part of standardized care. In order to provide optimal care services for these patients, we explored the care needs of adults with NF1. A qualitative study was performed using semi-structured group interviews, exploring worries and care needs in medical, psychological, and socioeconomic domains, also focusing on the transition from pediatric to adult care...
May 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680578/the-effects-of-psychological-distress-and-its-interaction-with-socioeconomic-position-on-risk-of-developing-four-chronic-diseases
#7
Kyle J J McLachlan, Catharine R Gale
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between psychological distress and risk of developing arthritis, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes across the range of distress severity, investigate the mediating roles of health behaviours and explore whether the associations vary with socioeconomic position. METHODS: Participants were 16,485 adults from the UK Household Longitudinal Study We examined prospective relationships between psychological distress at baseline (measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire) and incidence of arthritis, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes (measured using self-report) over 3 years using logistic regression...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678427/the-psychological-impact-of-adult-traumatic-brachial-plexus-injury
#8
Zoe A Landers, Rishabh Jethanandani, Steve K Lee, Carol A Mancuso, Mavis Seehaus, Scott W Wolfe
PURPOSE: There is a high incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, suicide risk, and psychological distress after orthopedic trauma and hand and upper-extremity injury. Although patients with traumatic adult brachial plexus injury are particularly vulnerable to psychologic distress, minimal clinical data exist about this cohort of patients. In this study, we sought to discover the prevalence of depression, PTSD, suicidal ideation, and substance abuse. METHODS: Between February, 2013 and July, 2014, during scheduled preoperative and/or postoperative appointments, the social worker at a metropolitan brachial plexus center conducted psychosocial assessments and questionnaire assessments of 21 patients evaluating for PTSD, depression, and substance use using 3 validated scales: PTSD Checklist-Specific, Patient Health Questionnaire-8, and National Institute on Drug Abuse Quick Screen...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678156/development-and-validation-of-pozqol-a-scale-to-assess-quality-of-life-of-plhiv
#9
Graham Brown, Gosia Mikołajczak, Anthony Lyons, Jennifer Power, Fraser Drummond, Aaron Cogle, Brent Allan, Craig Cooper, Simon O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Advances in medical treatment for HIV are driving major changes in HIV policy and practice, including the encouragement of intake and adherence to HIV antiretroviral treatment (ART) by people living with HIV (PLHIV) for both personal and public health benefits. However, there is increasing recognition that achieving these goals will require a concurrent focus on the broader psychological and social wellbeing of PLHIV. Increasingly calls are being been made to incorporate a stronger focus on quality of life (QoL) of PLHIV into HIV prevention policy...
April 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677619/associations-of-early-childhood-adversities-with-mental-disorders-psychological-functioning-and-suitability-for-psychotherapy-in-adulthood
#10
Erkki Heinonen, Paul Knekt, Tommi Härkänen, Esa Virtala, Olavi Lindfors
Childhood adversities frequently precede adulthood depression and anxiety. Yet, how they impact needed treatment duration, type or focus in these common disorders, is unclear. For developing more individualized and precise interventions, we investigated whether specific early adversities associate with patients' distinct psychiatric problems, psychological vulnerabilities, and suitability for psychotherapy. A total of 221 depressed and anxious adult outpatients (excluding psychotic, severe personality, bipolar, and substance abuse disorders) referred from community, student, occupational, and private healthcare services filled the Childhood Family Atmosphere Questionnaire (CFAQ)...
April 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674287/self-perceived-gait-stability-modulates-the-effect-of-daily-life-gait-quality-on-prospective-falls-in-older-adults
#11
R H A Weijer, M J M Hoozemans, J H van Dieën, M Pijnappels
BACKGROUND: Quality of gait during daily life activities and perceived gait stability are both independent risk factors for future falls in older adults. RESEARCH QUESTION: We investigated whether perceived gait stability modulates the association between gait quality and falling in older adults. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we used one-week daily-life trunk acceleration data of 272 adults over 65 years of age. Sample entropy (SE) of the 3D acceleration signals was calculated to quantify daily life gait quality...
April 4, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673929/sleep-disorders-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-insights-into-types-relationship-to-obesity-and-high-altitude-and-possible-lines-of-management
#12
REVIEW
Ahmed M Kabel, Amani M Al Thumali, Khayriah A Aldowiala, Raghad D Habib, Shoroq S Aljuaid, Huda A Alharthi
A sleep disorder is a medical disorder of the sleep pattern of a person that may be serious enough to interfere with normal physical, mental and emotional functioning. Disruptions in sleep can be caused by a variety of causes, from teeth grinding to night terrors. Sleep disorders are usually prevalent among adolescents and young adults, possibly due to factors related to life style, dietary habits, hormonal and emotional disturbances. Other factors that may precipitate sleep disorders include environmental, psychological and genetic factors...
April 11, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673620/effects-of-opioid-and-non-opioid-analgesics-on-responses-to-psychosocial-stress-in-humans
#13
Anya K Bershad, Melissa A Miller, Greg J Norman, Harriet de Wit
Both preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that the endogenous opioid system is involved in responses to stress. For example, in animal models opioid agonists reduce isolation distress whereas opioid antagonists increase isolation distress. We recently reported that the mixed mu agonist and kappa antagonist buprenorphine dampened responses to acute psychosocial stress in humans. Now we extend this to study the effects of a pure mu-opioid agonist, hydromorphone, and a non-opioid analgesic, acetaminophen, on response to social stress...
April 16, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672097/cognitive-and-affective-mechanisms-of-pain-and-fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Anne Arewasikporn, Aaron P Turner, Kevin N Alschuler, Abbey J Hughes, Dawn M Ehde
OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent to which pain catastrophizing, fatigue catastrophizing, positive affect, and negative affect simultaneously mediated the associations between common symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS; i.e., pain, fatigue) and impact on daily life, depressive symptoms, and resilience. METHOD: Participants were community-dwelling adults with MS (N = 163) reporting chronic pain, fatigue, and/or moderate depressive symptoms. Multiple mediation path analysis was used to model potential mediators of pain and fatigue separately, using baseline data from a randomized controlled trial comparing two symptom self-management interventions...
April 19, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672079/an-examination-of-the-psychology-of-working-theory-with-racially-and-ethnically-diverse-employed-adults
#15
Ryan D Duffy, Brandon L Velez, Jessica W England, Kelsey L Autin, Richard P Douglass, Blake A Allan, David L Blustein
The present study tested key tenets of the Psychology of Working Theory (PWT) in a sample of 526 racially and ethnically diverse employed adults. The authors investigated how economic resources and marginalization predicted decent work through experiences of work volition and career adaptability. Support for the hypotheses was mixed. There was a direct, negative relation between marginalization and decent work; a direct, positive relation between economic resources and work volition; and a direct, negative relation between marginalization and work volition...
April 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671796/does-discrimination-explain-high-risk-of-depression-among-high-income-african-american-men
#16
Shervin Assari, Maryam Moghani Lankarani, Cleopatra Howard Caldwell
Background: Higher socioeconomic status is known to decrease the risk for poor mental health overall. However, African American males of higher socioeconomic status (SES) are at an increased risk for having a major depressive episode (MDE). It is not known whether perceived discrimination (PD) explains this risk. The current study used nationally representative data to explore the role of PD in explaining the association between high-SES and having MDE among African American men. Methods: The National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2003, included 4461 American adults including 1271 African American men...
April 19, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671691/committed-action-disability-and-perceived-health-in-individuals-with-fibromyalgia
#17
Santiago Galán, Rubén Roy, Ester Solé, Mélanie Racine, Rocío de la Vega, Mark P Jensen, Jordi Miró
Committed action, one of the components of psychological flexibility, has been shown to be related with measures of pain-relevant function domains in patients with chronic pain. However, the associations between measures of committed action and of physical health and function in individuals with fibromyalgia (FM) have not yet been examined. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to better understand the role that committed action plays in (1) pain-related disability and (2) mental and physical health in individuals with FM...
April 19, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671620/intergenerational-transmissions-of-mother-child-loneliness-a-moderated-mediation-model-of-familial-social-support-and-conflict-avoidance
#18
Timothy Curran
Loneliness is a psychological health issue related to deleterious physical health outcomes such as mortality and chronic disease. The aim of this research was to examine intergenerational transmissions of loneliness from mothers to adult child via a moderated mediation model of perceived familial social support and conflict avoidance. Surveys were collected from 146 (N = 292) mother-child dyads on self-reports of loneliness, familial social support, and mother-child conflict avoidance. The results showed that child perceptions of familial social support mediated the relationship between mother-child loneliness...
April 19, 2018: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670820/the-integration-between-nonsymbolic-and-symbolic-numbers-evidence-from-an-eeg-study
#19
Ruizhe Liu, Christian D Schunn, Julie A Fiez, Melissa E Libertus
Introduction: Adults can represent numerical information in nonsymbolic and symbolic formats and flexibly switch between the two. While some studies suggest a strong link between the two number representation systems (e.g., Piazza, Izard, Pinel, Le Bihan, & Dehaene, 2004 Neuron , 44(3), 547), other studies show evidence against the strong-link hypothesis (e.g., Lyons, Ansari, & Beilock, 2012 Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , 141(4), 635). This inconsistency could arise from the relation between task demands and the closeness of the link between the two number systems...
April 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670340/the-design-and-evaluation-of-psychometric-properties-for-a-questionnaire-on-elderly-abuse-by-family-caregivers-among-older-adults-on-hemodialysis
#20
Amaneh Mahmoudian, Razieh Torabi Chafjiri, Atefeh Alipour, Abbas Shamsalinia, Fatemeh Ghaffari
Introduction: Older adults with chronic disease are more vulnerable to abuse. Early and accurate detection of the elderly abuse phenomenon can help identify health-promoting solutions for the elderly, their family, and society. The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate the psychometric properties of a questionnaire on elderly abuse by family caregivers among older adults on hemodialysis. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative research methodologies were used to develop the questionnaire...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
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