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Adult Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434211/health-conditions-and-motivations-for-marijuana-use-among-young-adult-medical-marijuana-patients-and-non-patient-marijuana-users
#1
Stephen E Lankenau, Janna Ataiants, Salini Mohanty, Sheree Schrager, Ellen Iverson, Carolyn F Wong
INTRODUCTION: While marijuana has been legal for medical purposes in California since 1996, little is known about the health histories of young adult medical marijuana patients who are a significant proportion of medical marijuana patients. We examined whether young adult medical marijuana patients reported health conditions and motivations for use that were consistent with medical use of marijuana in California. METHODS: Young adults (N = 366) aged 18 to 26 years were sampled in Los Angeles in 2014-2015 and segmented into medical marijuana 'patients' (n = 210), marijuana users with a current recommendation, and non-patient users or 'non-patients' (n = 156), marijuana users who never had a medical marijuana recommendation...
April 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433868/effects-of-attentional-focus-on-walking-stability-in-elderly
#2
Jonathan L A de Melker Worms, John F Stins, Erwin E H van Wegen, Sabine M P Verschueren, Peter J Beek, Ian D Loram
INTRODUCTION: Balance performance in the elderly is related to psychological factors such as attentional focus. We investigated the effects of internal vs. external focus of attention and fall history on walking stability in healthy older adults. METHOD: Walking stability of twenty-eight healthy older adults was assessed by applying random unilateral decelerations on a split-belt treadmill and analysing the resulting balance recovery movements. The internal focus instruction was: concentrate on the movement of your legs, whereas the external focus instruction was: concentrate on the movement of the treadmill...
April 4, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433408/don-t-need-help-don-t-want-help-can-t-get-help-how-patients-with-brain-tumors-account-for-not-using-rehabilitation-psychosocial-and-community-services
#3
Danette Langbecker, Stuart Ekberg, Patsy Yates
OBJECTIVE: To understand why some adults with primary brain tumors do not use support services despite indications of a need for help. METHODS: Nineteen adults recently diagnosed with primary brain tumors participated in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis was used to identify recurrent ways participants explained their non-use of support services. RESULTS: Some patients indicated that they did not use support services as they did not need help, in particular reporting positive experiences relative to their expectations or to others, that their needs were met, or difficulties recognizing their needs...
April 14, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432961/diurnal-patterns-and-relationships-between-physiological-and-self-reported-stress-in-patients-with-epilepsy-and-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures
#4
Barbora Novakova, Peter R Harris, Markus Reuber
PURPOSE: Patients with epilepsy and those with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) experience high levels of stress and stress is one of the most frequently self-identified seizure precipitants. Although stress is a multifaceted phenomenon, few studies have systematically examined its different components in patients with seizures. The aim of this study was therefore to describe diurnal patterns of psychological and physiological measures of stress in patients with epilepsy and patients with PNES, and explore their relationships to each other in order to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying stress and seizure occurrence in these patients...
April 19, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432577/implicit-reasons-for-disclosure-of-the-use-of-complementary-health-approaches-cha-a-consumer-commitment-perspective
#5
Fuschia M Sirois, Helene Riess, Dawn M Upchurch
BACKGROUND: Disclosure of the use of complementary health approaches (CHA) is an important yet understudied health behavior with important implications for patient care. Yet research into disclosure of CHA has been atheoretical and neglected the role of health beliefs. PURPOSE: Using a consumer commitment model of CHA use as a guiding conceptual framework, the current study tests the hypotheses that perceived positive CHA outcomes (utilitarian values) and positive CHA beliefs (symbolic values) are associated with disclosure of CHA to conventional care providers in a nationally representative US sample...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430588/chronic-grouped-social-restriction-triggers-long-lasting-immune-system-adaptations
#6
Rui Tian, Gonglin Hou, Liuwei Song, Jianming Zhang, Ti-Fei Yuan
Chronic stress triggers rigorous psychological and physiological changes, including immunological system adaptations. However, the effects of long-term social restriction on human immune system have not been investigated. The present study is to investigate the effect of chronic stress on immune changes in human blood, with the stress stimuli controlled.10 male volunteers were group isolated from the modern society in a 50-meter-square room for 150 days, with enriched nutrition and good living conditions provided...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429176/the-log-linear-response-function-of-the-bounded-number-line-task-is-unrelated-to-the-psychological-representation-of-quantity
#7
Dale J Cohen, Philip T Quinlan
The bounded number-line task has been used extensively to assess the numerical competence of both children and adults. One consistent finding has been that young children display a logarithmic response function, whereas older children and adults display a more linear response function. Traditionally, these log-linear functions have been interpreted as providing a transparent window onto the nature of the participants' psychological representations of quantity (termed here a direct response strategy). Here we show that the direct response strategy produces the log-linear response function regardless of whether the psychological representation of quantity is compressive or expansive...
April 20, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428892/a-comparison-of-earlier-and-enhanced-rehabilitation-of-mechanically-ventilated-patients-in-critical-care-compared-to-standard-care-rehab-study-protocol-for-a-single-site-randomised-controlled-feasibility-trial
#8
Catherine Snelson, Charlotte Jones, Gemma Atkins, James Hodson, Tony Whitehouse, Tonny Veenith, David Thickett, Emma Reeves, Aisling McLaughlin, Lauren Cooper, David McWilliams
BACKGROUND: Mortality from critical illness is improving, but survivors suffer from prolonged weakness and psychological and cognitive impairments. Maximising the recovery after critical illness has been highlighted as a research priority, especially in relation to an ageing population who present with higher rates of pre-morbid disability. Small studies have shown that starting rehabilitation early within the intensive care unit (ICU) improves short-term outcomes. Systematic reviews have highlighted the need for robust multicentre randomised controlled trials with longer term follow-up...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426917/internet-cognitive-behaviour-therapy-for-depression-in-older-adults-with-knee-osteoarthritis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Kathleen A O'Moore, Jill M Newby, Gavin Andrews, David J Hunter, Kim Bennell, Jessica Smith, Alishia D Williams
Objective To determine the efficacy of an internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) program for depression in older adults with osteoarthritis of the knee and comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD). We conducted a RCT in sixty-nine adults (≥ 50 years) meeting criteria for MDD and osteoarthritis of the knee with 1-week post intervention (week 11) and 3-month follow-up (week 24) end points. Patients were allocated to either a 10-week iCBT program for depression added to treatment as usual (TAU) or to a TAU control group...
April 20, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426537/supportive-care-needs-and-association-with-quality-of-life-of-mexican-adults-with-solid-cancers
#10
Svetlana V Doubova, Maria Guadalupe Casales-Hernández, Ricardo Perez-Cuevas
BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer have supportive care needs. Studies that analyze the relationship between supportive care needs and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are scarce. Cultural differences in supportive care needs and perceived QoL are also worth analyzing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the association between supportive care needs and HRQoL of Mexican adults given a diagnosis of solid cancers. METHODS: We performed a secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional survey of 825 adult patients with cancer treated at the Oncology Hospital of the Mexican Institute of Social Security...
April 20, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426378/ostracism-and-physiological-arousal-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Michelle Kelly, Skye McDonald, Jacqueline Rushby
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the psychological and physiological effects of ostracism in adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI). RESEARCH DESIGN: A within-subject, counterbalanced design was used. The two conditions, inclusion and ostracism, were examined across two groups (between subjects). METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A group of 21 adults with TBI and 17 matched controls participated in the Cyberball paradigm. This task is a computerised task that exposes participants to a game of catch and throw...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426116/portuguese-expatriates-health-in-angola-and-mozambique-a-cross-sectional-study-increasing-awareness-and-need-for-more-surveillance
#12
Ana Glória Fonseca, Sara S Dias, João Luis Baptista, Jorge Torgal
Background: Increasing numbers of expatriates are working in sub-Saharan Africa. There is little published data on the complex population and this survey aimed at understanding expatriate morbidity by accessing self-reported health problems and malaria preventive practices. Methods: A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted targeting Portuguese expatriates in Angola and Mozambique. Logistic regression analysis explored factors associated with self-reported health problems and psychological symptoms in the previous 3 months...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425778/meditation-awareness-training-for-the-treatment-of-workaholism-a-controlled-trial
#13
William Van Gordon, Edo Shonin, Thomas J Dunn, Javier Garcia-Campayo, Marcelo M P Demarzo, Mark D Griffiths
Background and aims Workaholism is a form of behavioral addiction that can lead to reduced life and job satisfaction, anxiety, depression, burnout, work-family conflict, and impaired productivity. Given the number of people affected, there is a need for more targeted workaholism treatments. Findings from previous case studies successfully utilizing second-generation mindfulness-based interventions (SG-MBIs) for treating behavioral addiction suggest that SG-MBIs may be suitable for treating workaholism. This study conducted a controlled trial to investigate the effects of an SG-MBI known as meditation awareness training (MAT) on workaholism...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425618/classifying-adults-with-binge-eating-disorder-based-on-severity-levels
#14
Antonios Dakanalis, Giuseppe Riva, Silvia Serino, Fabrizia Colmegna, Massimo Clerici
The clinical utility of the severity criterion for binge eating disorder (BED), introduced in the DSM-5 as a means of addressing heterogeneity and variability in the severity of this disorder, was evaluated in 189 treatment-seeking adults with (DSM-5) BED. Participants classified with mild, moderate, severe and extreme severity of BED, based on their weekly frequency of binge eating episodes, differed significantly from each other in body mass index (BMI), eating disorder features, putative factors involved in the maintenance process of the disorder, comorbid mood, anxiety and personality disorders, psychological distress, social maladjustment and illness-specific functional impairment (medium-to-large effect sizes)...
April 20, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425000/medical-care-screening-and-regularization-of-sub-saharan-irregular-migrants-affected-by-hepatitis-b-in-france-and-italy
#15
Cecilia Santilli
Both in France and in Italy hepatitis B is present mostly among the migrant population coming from sub-Saharan Africa and mainly among those migrants having a poor socio-economic background. This article is aimed at assaying the impact of public policies adopted by France and Italy for migrants' health on the treatment of migrants with HBV. The article is based on semi-structured interviews conducted with 30 immigrant adults taken into care by two associations dealing with medical, psychological and social issues of immigrants applying for a residence permit, mainly asylum seekers...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424888/posttraumatic-growth-and-well-being-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-ayas-with-cancer-a-longitudinal-study
#16
O Husson, B Zebrack, R Block, L Embry, C Aguilar, B Hayes-Lattin, S Cole
PURPOSE: This study examines posttraumatic growth (PTG) among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer, as well as its correlates and trajectories over time. The study also explores the buffering role of PTG on the associations between posttraumatic stress (PTS), health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and psychological distress. METHODS: A multicenter, longitudinal, prospective study was conducted among AYA cancer patients aged 14-39 years. One hundred sixty-nine patients completed a self-report measure of PTG (PTGI) and PTS (PDS) 6, 12, and 24 months after baseline (within the first 4 months of diagnosis)...
April 19, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424799/role-of-psychological-resilience-on-health-outcomes-in-hospitalized-patients-with-acute-illness-a-scoping-review
#17
Elen Marged Bradley-Roberts, Christian P Subbe
Recovery from Acute Illness is dependent on severity of illness. We aimed to investigate whether resilience as the 'ability to bounce back' might also affect recovery. We conducted a scoping review to identify gaps in the existing literature. We used emergency care, intensive care, critical care and trauma as surrogates for acute illness. We mapped synonyms for resilience and selected 'resilience' and 'robustness'. The search was limited to adult patients admitted to hospitals. We found strong evidence for psychological sequelae of acute illness but no research focusing specifically on the concepts of resilience or robustness and no interventional studies in the acute hospital setting...
2017: Acute Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424378/-recognition-care-and-prevention-of-suicidal-behaviour-in-adults
#18
Zoltán Rihmer, Attila Németh, Tamás Kurimay, Dóra Perczel-Forintos, György Purebl, Péter Döme
Suicide is a major public health problem everywhere in the world and in the WHO European Region suicide accounts for over 120,000 deaths per year. 1. Recognition and diagnosis: An underlying psychiatric disorder is present in up to 90% of people who completed suicide. Comorbidity with depression, anxiety, substance abuse and personality disorders is high. In order to achieve successful prevention of suicidality, adequate diagnostic procedures and appropriate treatment for the underlying disorder are essential...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423371/subjective-technology-adaptivity-predicts-technology-use-in-old-age
#19
Stefan T Kamin, Frieder R Lang, Anja Beyer
BACKGROUND: To date, not much is known about the psychological and motivational factors underlying technology use in late life. What are the interindividual determinants that lead older adults to invest in using technological innovations despite the age-related physiological changes that impose challenges on behavioral plasticity in everyday life? OBJECTIVE: This research explores interindividual differences in subjective technology adaptivity - a general technology-related motivational resource that accounts for technology use in late life...
April 20, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422369/what-impact-do-questionnaire-length-and-monetary-incentives-have-on-mailed-health-psychology-survey-response
#20
Kathryn A Robb, Lauren Gatting, Jane Wardle
OBJECTIVES: Response rates to health-related surveys are declining. This study tested two strategies to improve the response rate to a health psychology survey mailed through English general practices: (1) sending a shortened questionnaire and (2) offering a monetary incentive to return a completed questionnaire. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Adults (n = 4,241) aged 45-59 years, from four General Practices in South-East England, were mailed a survey on attitudes towards bowel cancer screening...
April 19, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
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