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Kun Yang, Yun Gao, Mingfu Yang, Zuoshang Xu, Qian Chen
Because the function of most non-coding (nc) RNAs is unknown, Cre-lox transgenic mice are useful tools to determine their functions in a tissue or developmental stage-specific manner. However, the technology faces challenges because expression of ncRNA-transgene lacks protein product. No antibody or peptide-tag can be used to trace ncRNA expression in mouse tissues in real time. Furthermore, transgene integration at different locus or orientations in the genome may result in recombination of genomic fragments in the Cre-lox system...
October 20, 2016: Connective Tissue Research
Sandip K Boss, Irina Hutson, Charles Harris
Exogenous glucocorticoid (GC) administration results in hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hepatic dyslipidemia and hypertension, a constellation of findings known as Cushing's syndrome. These effects are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Since GR activation in liver and adipose has been implicated in metabolic syndrome we wanted to determine the role of GR in these tissues in the development of metabolic syndrome. Since GRKO mice (whole body KO) exhibit perinatal lethality due to respiratory failure, we generated tissue specific (liver or adipose) GRKO mice using cre-lox technology...
October 18, 2016: Endocrinology
Yan-Lun Ju, Min Liu, Hui Zhao, Jiang-Fei Meng, Yu-Lin Fang
The anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, and volatile aromas are important for Cabernet Sauvignon grape quality. This study evaluated the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on the anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, lipoxygenase activity, and the volatile compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries. Exogenous ABA and MeJA improved the content of total anthocyanins (TAC) and individual anthocyanins. Lipoxygenase (LOX) activity also increased after treatment. Furthermore, 16 fatty acids were detected...
October 12, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
David Harrison
Hypertension remains an enormous health care burden that affects one third of the population. Despite its prevalence the cause of most cases of hypertension remains unknown. Our laboratory has defined a novel mechanism for hypertension involving adaptive immunity. We found that mice lacking lymphocytes (RAG-1 mice) develop blunted hypertensive responses to a variety of stimuli including chronic angiotensin II infusion, DOCA-salt challenge and norepinephrine infusion. Adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells, restores the hypertensive responses to these stimuli...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jing-Jing Tian, Cai-Xia Lei, Hong Ji, Li-Qiao Chen, Zhen-Yu Du
In this study, we explored the function of arachidonic acid (ARA) in adipogenesis in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) using in vivo and in vitro models. An 8-week feeding trial was performed using three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic purified diets: ARA-free, ARA, and ARA + acetylsalicylic acid [ASA, a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor]. Fish were sampled after 4 and 8 weeks of feeding. Results showed that ARA-fed fish had a significantly lower intraperitoneal fat index (IPFI) and smaller adipocytes; these decreases were reversed by ASA after 8 weeks of feeding...
October 17, 2016: Lipids
Zhu Chen, Danmei Chen, Wenyuan Chu, Dongyue Zhu, Hanwei Yan, Yan Xiang
Whole-genome duplication events have occurred more than once in the genomes of some rosids and played a significant role over evolutionary time. Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are involved in many developmental and resistance processes in plants. Our study concerns the subject of the LOX gene family; we tracked the evolutionary process of ancestral LOX genes in four modern rosids. Here we show that some members of the LOX gene family in the Arabidopsis genome are likely to be lost during evolution, leading to a smaller size than that in Populus, Vitis, and Carica...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
Caroline Reynaud, Laura Ferreras, Paola Di Mauro, Casina Kan, Martine Croset, Edith Bonnelye, Floriane Pez, Clémence Thomas, Géraldine Aimont, Antoine E Karnoub, Marie Brevet, Philippe Clezardin
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a secreted copper-dependent amine oxidase whose primary function is to drive collagen crosslinking and extracellular matrix stiffness. LOX in colorectal cancer (CRC) synergizes with hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1alpha to promote tumor progression. Here we investigated whether LOX/HIF1 endows CRC cells with full competence for aggressive colonization in bone. We show that a high LOX expression in primary tumors from CRC patients was associated with poor clinical outcome, irrespective of HIF-1...
October 14, 2016: Cancer Research
Ruobing Xu, Shu Wang, Weishan Li, Zhen Liu, Jiaxin Tang, Xiaobo Tang
OBJECTIVE In this study, the authors investigated the involvement of 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE) in the regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and its effects on hemorrhage-induced inflammatory response and oxidative stress in an experimental rodent model. METHODS To simulate ICH in a rat model, the authors injected autologous whole blood into the right striatum of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The distribution and expression of 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) were determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, respectively...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Suraj S Pradhan, Kirstie Salinas, Alexis C Garduno, Jenny U Johansson, Qian Wang, Amy Manning-Bog, Katrin I Andreasson
Inflammation is a ubiquitous factor accompanying normal aging and neurodegeneration, and recent studies indicate a major contribution of inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and its downstream prostaglandin signaling pathways in modulating neuroinflammatory responses and neuronal function. We have previously shown that the prostaglandin PGE2 receptor EP4 suppresses innate immune responses in models of systemic inflammation. Here we investigated the role of the EP4 receptor in models of Parkinson's disease (PD)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Natasha Pahuja, Nimisha R Kumar, Rushad Shroff, Rohit Shetty, Rudy M M A Nuijts, Anuprita Ghosh, Abhijit Sinha-Roy, Shyam S Chaurasia, Rajiv R Mohan, Arkasubhra Ghosh
Purpose: In this study, we elucidated the differential expression of a set of local molecular factors in ectatic cone area of the cornea to uncover a functional cause for focal corneal weakening characteristic of the keratoconus (KC) disease. Methods: All human corneal samples were collected after approval of Institutional Ethics Committee and informed consent. Keratoconus patients were classified based on clinical parameters, topographical features, and structural deformity...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Hui Song, Pengfei Wang, Changsheng Li, Suoyi Han, Javier Lopez-Baltazar, Xinyou Zhang, Xingjun Wang
Lipoxygenase (LOX) genes are widely distributed in plants and play crucial roles in resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. Although they have been characterized in various plants, little is known about the evolution of legume LOX genes. In this study, we identified 122 full-length LOX genes in Arachis duranensis, Arachis ipaënsis, Cajanus cajan, Cicer arietinum, Glycine max, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula. In total, 64 orthologous and 36 paralogous genes were identified. The full-length, polycystin-1, lipoxygenase, alpha-toxin (PLAT) and lipoxygenase domain sequences from orthologous and paralogous genes exhibited a signature of purifying selection...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Richard E Heinz, Michael C Rudolph, Palani Ramanathan, Nicole S Spoelstra, Kiel T Butterfield, Patricia G Webb, Beatrice L Babbs, Hongwei Gao, Shang Chen, Michael A Gordon, Steve M Anderson, Margaret C Neville, Haihua Gu, Jennifer K Richer
Profiling of RNA from mouse mammary epithelial cells (MECs) isolated on pregnancy day 14 (P14) and lactation day 2 (L2) revealed that the majority of differentially expressed microRNA declined precipitously between late pregnancy and lactation. The decline in miR-150, which exhibited the greatest fold decrease, was verified quantitatively and qualitatively. To test the hypothesis that the decline in miR-150 is critical for lactation, MEC-specific constitutive miR-150 was achieved by crossing ROSA26-lox-STOP-lox-miR-150 mice with WAP-driven Cre recombinase mice...
October 11, 2016: Development
Yueshui Zhao, Xue Gu, Ningyan Zhang, Mikhail G Kolonin, Zhiqiang An, Kai Sun
Endotrophin is a cleavage product of collagen 6 (Col6) in adipose tissue (AT). Previously, we demonstrated that endotrophin serves as a costimulator to trigger fibrosis and inflammation within the unhealthy AT milieu. However, how endotrophin affects lipid storage and breakdown in AT and how different cell types in AT respond to endotrophin stimulation remain unknown. In the current study, by using a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible mouse model, we observed significant upregulation of adipogenic genes in the WAT of endotrophin Tg mice...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Lingman Ma, Lifen Qian, Qidi Ying, Yan Zhang, Changlin Zhou, Guanzhong Wu
Here, we investigated whether I4, which was initially developed as a hypoglycemic agent, possesses anti-atherosclerotic activity and attempted to elucidate the probable mechanism of action underlying this activity. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a Western diet and simultaneously administered I4, glimepiride, or pioglitazone once daily for 12 weeks, and the atherosclerotic vascular lesions, lipid content, and expression levels of LOX-1, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and Bax/Bcl-2 in mouse aortas were assessed. RAW264.7 macrophage-derived foam cells were obtained via ox-LDL stimulation to investigate the lipid-lowering, anti-atherosclerotic inflammation and anti-apoptotic effect of I4...
October 7, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Slađana Žilić, Marijana Janković, Miroljub Barać, Mirjana Pešić, Aleksandra Konić-Ristić, Vesna Hadži-Tašković Šukalović
The aim was to determine the effect of steeping and sprouting on wheat grain proteins and the functional consequences in this regard. The solubility of proteins and the polypeptide composition of albumins, globulins, gliadins and glutenins were determined, as well as the content of non-protein nitrogen and free sulfhydryl groups (-SH), and the activity of peroxidase (POD) and lipoxygenase (LOX). In addition, the pasting viscosity of flour and protein bioactivity such as antioxidant capacity and immunoreactivity were evaluated...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Holly R Yeatman, Anthony L Albiston, Peta Burns, Siew Yeen Chai
Central infusion of Insulin-Regulated Aminopeptidase (IRAP) inhibitors improves memory in both normal rodents and in models of memory deficit. However, in contrast, the global IRAP knockout mice (KO) demonstrate age-accelerated spatial memory deficits and no improvements in performance in any memory tasks. Potentially, the observed memory deficit could be due to the absence of IRAP in the developing brain. We therefore generated apostnatal forebrain neuron-specific IRAP knockout mouse line (CamKIIalphaCre; IRAPlox/lox)...
October 3, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Erik W Holy, Alexander Akhmedov, Thimoteus Speer, Giovanni G Camici, Stephen Zewinger, Nicole Bonetti, Jürg H Beer, Thomas F Lüscher, Felix C Tanner
BACKGROUND: Carbamylation alters low-density lipoprotein (LDL) structure and is thought to promote vascular inflammation and dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether carbamylated LDL (cLDL) exerts prothrombotic effects in vascular cells and platelets and whether cLDL enhances arterial thrombus formation in vivo. METHODS: LDL was isolated from healthy subjects or patients with CKD by sequential ultracentrifugation...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Tiago Santos-Ferreira, Sílvia Llonch, Oliver Borsch, Kai Postel, Jochen Haas, Marius Ader
Pre-clinical studies provided evidence for successful photoreceptor cell replacement therapy. Migration and integration of donor photoreceptors into the retina has been proposed as the underlying mechanism for restored visual function. Here we reveal that donor photoreceptors do not structurally integrate into the retinal tissue but instead reside between the photoreceptor layer and the retinal pigment epithelium, the so-called sub-retinal space, and exchange intracellular material with host photoreceptors...
October 4, 2016: Nature Communications
Jason C Gardenier, Geoffrey E Hespe, Raghu P Kataru, Ira L Savetsky, Jeremy S Torrisi, Gabriela D García Nores, Joseph J Dayan, David Chang, Jamie Zampell, Inés Martínez-Corral, Sagrario Ortega, Babak J Mehrara
Development of novel treatments for lymphedema has been limited by the fact that the pathophysiology of this disease is poorly understood. It remains unknown, for example, why limb swelling resulting from surgical injury resolves initially, but recurs in some cases months or years later. Finding answers for these basic questions has been hampered by the lack of adequate animal models. In the current study, we used Cre-lox mice that expressed the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) driven by a lymphatic-specific promoter in order to noninvasively ablate the lymphatic system of the hind limb...
September 22, 2016: JCI Insight
Sebina Shrestha, Michael J Serafino, Jesus Rico-Jimenez, Jesung Park, Xi Chen, Siqin Zhaorigetu, Brian L Walton, Javier A Jo, Brian E Applegate
Multimodal imaging probes a variety of tissue properties in a single image acquisition by merging complimentary imaging technologies. Exploiting synergies amongst the data, algorithms can be developed that lead to better tissue characterization than could be accomplished by the constituent imaging modalities taken alone. The combination of optical coherence tomography (OCT) with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) provides access to detailed tissue morphology and local biochemistry. The optical system described here merges 1310 nm swept-source OCT with time-domain FLIM having excitation at 355 and 532 nm...
September 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
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