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Medicinal Cannabis

José A S Crippa, Ana C S Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak, Rocio Martín-Santos, Antonio W Zuardi
Animal studies and preliminary clinical trials have shown that cannabidiol (CBD)-enriched extracts may have beneficial effects for children with treatment-resistant epilepsy. However, these compounds are not yet registered as medicines by regulatory agencies. We describe the cases of two children with treatment-resistant epilepsy (Case A with left frontal dysplasia and Case B with Dravet Syndrome) with initial symptom improvement after the introduction of CBD extracts followed by seizure worsening after a short time...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Adam S Cheifetz, Robert Gianotti, Raphael Luber, Peter R Gibson
Patients and physicians often have many questions regarding the role of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs), or non-allopathic therapies, for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). CAMs of various forms are used by more than half of patients with IBD during some point in their disease course. We summarize the available evidence for the most commonly used and discussed CAMs. We discuss evidence for the effects of herbs (such as cannabis and curcumin), probiotics, acupuncture, exercise, and mind-body therapy...
October 12, 2016: Gastroenterology
Mads Uffe Pedersen, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Michael Mulbjerg Pedersen, Morten Hesse
BACKGROUND: In adolescence, psychological problems and regular use of alcohol, cigarettes, cannabis and other drugs (AOD) tend to cluster together, strongly indicating that certain groups of young people are at elevated risk of developing a problematic use of AOD. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to develop an easy-to-implement screening instrument to identify subgroups of young people with different psychological problems at risk of problem use of AOD...
September 23, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Katalin Solymosi, Attila Köfalvi
Cannabis is one of the earliest cultivated plants. Cannabis of industrial utility and culinary value is generally termed as hemp. Conversely, cannabis that is bred for medical, spiritual and recreational purposes is called marijuana. The female marijuana plant produces a significant quantity of bio- and psychoactive phytocannabinoids, which regained the spotlight with the discovery of the endocannabinoid system of the animals in the early 90's. Nevertheless, marijuana is surrounded by controversies, debates and misconceptions related to its taxonomic classification, forensic identification, medical potential, legalization and its long-term health consequences...
October 4, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Susan I Woodruff, Cameron T McCabe, Melinda Hohman, John D Clapp, Audrey M Shillington, Kimberly Eisenberg, C Beth Sise, Edward M Castillo, Theodore C Chan, Michael J Sise
Emergency department (ED) settings have gained interest as venues for illegal drug misuse prevention and intervention, with researchers and practitioners attempting to capitalize on the intersection of need and opportunity within these settings. This study of 686 adult patients visiting two EDs for various reasons who admitted drug use compared daily cannabis-only users, nondaily cannabis-only users, and other drug users on sociodemographic and drug-related severity outcomes. The three drug use groups did not differ on most sociodemographic factors or medical problem severity scores...
2016: Cannabis Cannabinoid Res
Ethan B Russo
This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration "Botanical Guidance." The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Bruna Tassi Borille, Marcelo Caetano Alexandre Marcelo, Rafael Scorsatto Ortiz, Kristiane de Cássia Mariotti, Marco Flôres Ferrão, Renata Pereira Limberger
Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis, Cannabaceae), popularly called marijuana, is one of the oldest plants known to man and it is the illicit drug most used worldwide. It also has been the subject of increasing discussions from the scientific and political points of view due to its medicinal properties. In recent years in Brazil, the form of cannabis drug trafficking has been changing and the Brazilian Federal Police has exponentially increased the number of seizures of cannabis seeds sent by the mail. This new form of trafficking encouraged the study of cannabis seeds seized germinated in a greenhouse through NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics...
September 22, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Jarosław Pinkas, Piotr Jabłoński, Michal Kidawa, Waldemar Wierzba
Cannabis is the most popular illicit drug on the European market. Over 16 million young Europeans have used it at least once in the last few years. The recent trends in the consumption of marihuana differ between countries. Some countries face an increase in the prevalence of cannabis use, including Poland, where the level cannabis use has been systematically increasing since the 1990's. According to a recent ESPAD study, 19% of Polish adolescents aged 15-16 have used cannabis in the last year. Marihuana is also a leading substance when analyzing the data of seizures and crimes...
September 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Atheer Zgair, Jonathan Cm Wong, Jong Bong Lee, Jatin Mistry, Olena Sivak, Kishor M Wasan, Ivo M Hennig, David A Barrett, Cris S Constantinescu, Peter M Fischer, Pavel Gershkovich
There has been an escalating interest in the medicinal use of Cannabis sativa in recent years. Cannabis is often administered orally with fat-containing foods, or in lipid-based pharmaceutical preparations. However, the impact of lipids on the exposure of patients to cannabis components has not been explored. Therefore, the aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of oral co-administration of lipids on the exposure to two main active cannabinoids, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). In this study, oral co-administration of lipids enhanced the systemic exposure of rats to THC and CBD by 2...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Anne Gulland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Brian F Thomas, Gerald T Pollard
Cannabis is classified as a schedule I controlled substance by the US Drug Enforcement Agency, meaning that it has no medicinal value. Production is legally restricted to a single supplier at the University of Mississippi, and distribution to researchers is tightly controlled. However, a majority of the population is estimated to believe that cannabis has legitimate medical or recreational value, numerous states have legalized or decriminalized possession to some degree, and the federal government does not strictly enforce its law and is considering rescheduling...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Alessia Ligresti, Luciano De Petrocellis, Vincenzo Di Marzo
Apart from having been used and misused for at least four millennia for, among others, recreational and medicinal purposes, the cannabis plant and its most peculiar chemical components, the plant cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids), have the merit to have led humanity to discover one of the most intriguing and pleiotropic endogenous signaling systems, the endocannabinoid system (ECS). This review article aims to describe and critically discuss, in the most comprehensive possible manner, the multifaceted aspects of 1) the pharmacology and potential impact on mammalian physiology of all major phytocannabinoids, and not only of the most famous one Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and 2) the adaptive pro-homeostatic physiological, or maladaptive pathological, roles of the ECS in mammalian cells, tissues, and organs...
October 2016: Physiological Reviews
Chih-Wei Chang, Chun-Wei Tung, Chin-Chuan Tsai, Yu-Tse Wu, Mei-Chich Hsu
Hemp nuts are mature cannabis seeds obtained after hulling and stir-frying that are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating functional constipation. In this work, we screened hemp nut products, classified them, and verified the legality of consuming them. A total of 18 products were purchased from Taiwan, China and Canada. Validated high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry methods were developed for analyzing the cannabinoid (i.e., Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabinol) content of the products and the concentration of urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC...
September 2, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Amélie Daveluy, Elisabeth Frauger, Hélène Peyrière, Christophe Moracchini, Françoise Haramburu, Joëlle Micallef
Addiction to illicit substances or medicines is influenced by cultural, religious, ethnic factors as well as local availability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the profile of drug users and characteristics of the psychoactive substances used in French overseas territories, using data from the OPPIDUM survey. OPPIDUM is an annual, nationwide, multicentric, cross-sectional study based on specialized care centres that included subjects presenting a drug addiction or under opiate maintenance treatment...
September 1, 2016: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Edward J Hoffenberg, Heike Newman, Colm Collins, Kristina Leinwand, Sally Tarbell
The trend towards decriminalization of cannabis (marijuana) continues sweeping across the United States. Colorado has been a leader of legalization of medical and recreational cannabis use. The growing public interest in the medicinal properties of cannabis and its use by patients with a variety of illnesses including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) makes it important for pediatric gastroenterologists to understand this movement and its potential impact on patients. This article describes the path to legalization and "medicalization" of cannabis in Colorado as well as the public perception of safety despite the known adverse health effects of use...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Ester Aso, Pol Andrés-Benito, Isidro Ferrer
Previous reports have demonstrated that the combination of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) botanical extracts, which are the components of an already approved cannabis-based medicine, reduce the Alzheimer-like phenotype of AβPP/PS1 transgenic mice when chronically administered during the early symptomatic stage. Here, we provide evidence that such natural cannabinoids are still effective in reducing memory impairment in AβPP/PS1 mice at advanced stages of the disease but are not effective in modifying the Aβ processing or in reducing the glial reactivity associated with aberrant Aβ deposition as occurs when administered at early stages of the disease...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
C Hasenoehrl, U Taschler, M Storr, R Schicho
BACKGROUND: In ancient medicine, extracts of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa were used against diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Today, our knowledge of the ingredients of the Cannabis plant has remarkably advanced enabling us to use a variety of herbal and synthetic cannabinoid (CB) compounds to study the endocannabinoid system (ECS), a physiologic entity that controls tissue homeostasis with the help of endogenously produced CBs and their receptors. After many anecdotal reports suggested beneficial effects of Cannabis in GI disorders, it was not surprising to discover that the GI tract accommodates and expresses all the components of the ECS...
August 26, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Tim Luckett, Jane Phillips, Nicholas Lintzeris, David Allsop, Jessica Lee, Nadia Solowij, Jennifer Martin, Lawrence Lam, Rajesh Aggarwal, Nicola McCaffrey, David Currow, Richard Chye, Melanie Lovell, Iain McGregor, Meera Agar
BACKGROUND: Australian clinical trials are planned to evaluate medicinal cannabis in a range of clinical contexts. AIMS: To explore the preferences, attitudes and beliefs of patients eligible and willing to consider participation in a clinical trial of medicinal cannabis for poor appetite and appetite-related symptoms from advanced cancer. METHODS: A cross-sectional anonymous survey was administered from July to December 2015 in 8 adult outpatient palliative care and/or cancer services, and online...
August 17, 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
Michaela Kuhlen, Jessica I Hoell, Gabriele Gagnon, Stefan Balzer, Prasad T Oommen, Arndt Borkhardt, Gisela Janßen
BACKGROUND: Cannabis extracts have a wide therapeutic potential but in many countries they have not been approved for treatment in children so far. OBJECTIVE: We conducted an open, uncontrolled, retrospective study on the administration of dronabinol to determine the value, efficacy, and safety of cannabis-based medicines in the treatment of refractory spasticity in pediatric palliative care. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen children, adolescents and young adults having complex neurological conditions with spasticity (aged 1...
November 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Suzanne L Taylor
BACKGROUND: Cannabis was introduced to the UK as a medical product in the nineteenth century. However, with questions over its safety, efficacy, and possible harms its medical role diminished and by the 1950s it was viewed as a drug of misuse. Nonetheless, scientific and lay knowledge around cannabis expanded from the 1960s and cannabis re-appeared in different therapeutic forms. In re-medicalizing cannabis, science-policy transfer proved important and was enabled by the developing mechanism of expert committees, most notably the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD)...
May 3, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
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