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Pediatric neuropsychiatry

Marco Pozzi, Dario Cattaneo, Sara Baldelli, Serena Fucile, Annalisa Capuano, Carmela Bravaccio, Liberata Sportiello, Silvana Bertella, Fabiana Auricchio, Renato Bernardini, Carmen Ferrajolo, Giuseppe Guastella, Elisa Mani, Carla Carnovale, Simone Pisano, Concetta Rafaniello, Maria Pia Riccio, Renata Rizzo, Maria Grazia Scuderi, Serena Sperandeo, Laura Villa, Antonio Pascotto, Massimo Molteni, Francesco Rossi, Sonia Radice, Emilio Clementi
PURPOSE: Available guidelines on therapeutic drug monitoring of second-generation antipsychotics were designed for adults; therefore, they cannot be transferred as such in pediatric patients, who may have different drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination. Moreover, available tools that guide dosing in neuropsychiatric pediatric patients are scant, leading to the possibility of reduced efficacy and/or increased risks of toxicity. Here we describe the results of observational therapeutic drug monitoring conducted in three pediatric neuropsychiatry units across Italy in 2012-2014, with the following aims: (1) to describe the distribution of plasma concentrations of second-generation antipsychotics in our pediatric patients and (2) to identify clinical covariates associated with plasma drug levels...
March 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Veronica Delucchi, Elena Pavlidis, Benedetta Piccolo, Francesco Pisani
PURPOSE: Myoclonus associated with fever or following an infectious event (parainfectious myoclonic jerks) is a transient event with an abrupt onset. It is not common and often not recognized. In these reports, its clinical features and its favorable outcome are described. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified three pediatric patients with parainfectious myoclonic jerks who were treated at Children's Neuropsychiatry Unit at the University-Hospital of Parma (Italy)...
February 2015: Neuropediatrics
Kerstin Strömland, Liana O Ventura, Layla Mirzaei, Keyla Fontes de Oliveira, José Marcelino Bandim, Adriana Parente Ivo, Carlos Brandt
BACKGROUND: The objective was to investigate the frequency of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and ophthalmologic anomalies in orphanage children in Brazil. METHODS: A prospective study was performed on 94 children living in an orphanage in Brazil. The children were examined by a multidisciplinary team consisting of specialists in pediatrics, neurology, psychology, neuropsychiatry, and ophthalmology. RESULTS: The main reasons for living in the orphanage, in 61% of the children, were negligence, child abuse, and abandonment...
March 2015: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Maria Esposito, Beatrice Gallai, Michele Roccella, Rosa Marotta, Francesco Lavano, Serena Marianna Lavano, Giovanni Mazzotta, Domenico Bove, Michele Sorrentino, Francesco Precenzano, Marco Carotenuto
INTRODUCTION: Childhood obesity has become a worldwide epidemic in Western and in developing countries and has been accompanied by many serious and severe comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea syndrome, depression, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose homeostasis, steatohepatitis, and intracranial hypertension, as well as medical concerns unique to youth, such as accelerated pubertal and skeletal development and orthopedic disorders. To date, no specific studies about the psychological assessment in pediatric obesity are present...
2014: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Marie Staberg, Jörgen G Norén, Mats Johnson, Svenny Kopp, Agneta Robertson
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric condition characterized by age-inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsiveness or a combination of these. The aim of this study was to analyze parental attitudes to and experience of dental care, oral hygiene and dietary habits in children/adolescents with ADHD. Twenty- six parents of 31 subjects, 20 boys and 11 girls, aged 5-19 years with ADHD registered at the Gothenburg Child Neuropsychiatric Clinic, were invited. The parents answered a questionnaire regarding different oral problems when visiting the Clinic of Pediatric Dentistry, Gothenburg, for an oral examination of their child...
2014: Swedish Dental Journal
Jeffrey E Max
Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem. Psychiatric disorders with onset before the injury are more common than population base rates. Novel (postinjury onset) psychiatric disorders (NPD) are also common and complicate child function after injury. Novel disorders include personality change due to TBI, secondary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, other disruptive behavior disorders, and internalizing disorders. This article reviews preinjury psychiatric disorders as well as biopsychosocial risk factors and treatments for NPD...
March 2014: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Adam G Dunn, Kenneth D Mandl, Enrico Coiera, Florence T Bourgeois
Pediatric populations continue to be understudied in clinical drug trials despite the increasing use of pharmacotherapy in children, particularly with psychotropic drugs. Most pertinent to the clinical selection of drug interventions are trials directly comparing drugs against other drugs. The aim was to measure the prevalence of active drug comparators in neuropsychiatric drug trials in children and identify the effects of funding source on comparator selection. We analyzed the selection of drugs and drug comparisons in clinical trials registered between January 2006 and May 2012...
2013: PloS One
Ivana Olivieri, Matteo Chiappedi, Paolo Meriggi, Marcella Mazzola, Attilia Grandi, Lucia Angelini
BACKGROUND: A wide range of treatments have been used to improve upper arm motor performances in children with congenital hemiplegia. Recent findings are suggesting that virtual reality based intervention could be a promising tool also in pediatric rehabilitation. METHODS: Six patients with congenital hemiplegia (age: 4-16 years) were recruited among those treated in the Child Neuropsychiatry and Rehabilitation Unit of the IRCCS "Santa Maria Nascente" (Milan, Italy), for a preliminary investigation about using nonimmersive virtual reality for upper limb rehabilitation...
2013: BioMed Research International
Andrea E Cavanna, Stefano Seri
Over the last few years, zonisamide has been proposed as a potentially useful medication for patients with focal seizures, with or without secondary generalization. Since psychiatric adverse effects, including mania, psychosis, and suicidal ideation, have been associated with its use, it was suggested that the presence of antecedent psychiatric disorders is an important factor associated with the discontinuation of zonisamide therapy in patients with epilepsy. We, therefore, set out to assess the tolerability profile of zonisamide in a retrospective chart review of 23 patients with epilepsy and comorbid mental disorders, recruited from two specialist pediatric (n=11) and adult (n=12) neuropsychiatry clinics...
November 2013: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
H Umit Luleyap, Dilge Onatoglu, M Bertan Yilmaz, Davut Alptekin, Aysegul Y Tahiroglu, Salih Cetiner, Ayfer Pazarbasi, Ilker Unal, Ayse Avci, Gamze Comertpay
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS) is a newly defined disease in neuropsychiatry and occurs with an autoimmune mechanism after Group A Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS) infection. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), encoded by TNF-α gene has an important role in the apoptotic mechanisms of autoimmune diseases. Recently, TNF-α polymorphisms and autoimmune/psychiatric disorders have been reported to be related. In this regard, we focused on to investigate a possible relation between the TNF-α gene promoter region-308 G/A and - 850 C/T polymorphisms and PANDAS...
April 2013: Indian Journal of Human Genetics
Maria Esposito, Beatrice Gallai, Lucia Parisi, Laura Castaldo, Rosa Marotta, Serena Marianna Lavano, Giovanni Mazzotta, Michele Roccella, Marco Carotenuto
INTRODUCTION: Self-esteem is related to the broadly understood concept of self-schemas and is a crucial mechanism for a correct psychological development in children and adolescents. The impact of the many psychological difficulties linked to the migraine without aura (MoA) and recurrent headache attacks, such as anger and separation anxiety, on self-esteem has not yet been well investigated. The aims of the present study were to assess self-esteem levels in an objective way and to verify their possible relationship and correlation with the frequency and intensity of migraine attacks, in a population of children and adolescents affected by MoA...
2013: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Maria Esposito, Pasquale Parisi, Silvia Miano, Marco Carotenuto
BACKGROUND: The relationships between sleep and headaches are complex and manifold. About the variety of phenomena that can disrupt the sleep macrostructure and can impact its restorative function, the periodic limb movements disorder (PLMd) can be considered as the most powerful.No studies are known about the role of PLMd in the pathophysiology of migraine in children.Aim of study is to assess the prevalence of PLMd and migraine and their relationship with disability and pain intensity in a pediatric sample, referred for migraine without aura by pediatricians...
2013: Journal of Headache and Pain
Jan N M Schieveld, Anton M H Wolters, Roos J Blankespoor, Emma H C W van de Riet, Gijs D Vos, Piet L J M Leroy, Jim van Os
Examination and comparison of the current DSM-IV-TR and the proposed revisions for the forthcoming DSM-5, with regard to neuropsychiatric aspects of critical illness, identified five important issues. These remain to be addressed in order to improve the care of critically ill patients. These are 1) sickness behavior, as part of the organic reaction types of the brain; 2) delirium in children and the "Differential Diagnosis of Mental Disorders Due to a General Medical Condition" in children; 3) catatonia; 4) regressive disorders in childhood in relation to somatic disorders (e...
2013: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Andrea De Giacomo, Anna Linda Lamanna, Francesco Craig, Nicola Santoro, Stefania Goffredo, Valerio Cecinati
AIM: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) as a screening tool for emotional and behavioral problems in three different populations at risk. METHODS: The SDQ is a brief screening questionnaire that investigates the presence of emotional and behavioural problems in children and adolescents. We have analyzed 497 questionnaires completed by parents of children referred to Child Neuropsychiatry, Pediatric Endocrinology and Pediatric Oncology Units...
September 2012: Rivista di Psichiatria
Maria Esposito, Antonio Pascotto, Beatrice Gallai, Lucia Parisi, Michele Roccella, Rosa Marotta, Serena Marianna Lavano, Antonella Gritti, Giovanni Mazzotta, Marco Carotenuto
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive functioning of children affected by headache, pinpointing the differences in intelligence style between subjects affected by migraine without aura and subjects with tension-type headache. METHODS: The study population consisted of 147 children (mean age 10.82 ± 2.17 years) with headache, recruited from the Headache Center for Developmental Age, Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Clinic, Second University of Naples...
2012: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Antonio Clavenna, Massimo Cartabia, Marco Sequi, Maria Antonella Costantino, Angela Bortolotti, Ida Fortino, Luca Merlino, Maurizio Bonati
In order to estimate the burden of mental disorders in a representative Italian pediatric population, an epidemiological study was performed using three administrative databases: a drug prescription, a hospital discharge form, and an outpatient ambulatory visit database. The population target was 1,616,268 children and adolescents under 18 years living in the Lombardy Region, Italy. A youth was defined as a case if during 2008 he/she received at least one psychotropic drug prescription or was hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder (International Classification of Disease codes 290-319), or attended a child neuropsychiatric outpatient unit for a visit and/or a psychological intervention or rehabilitation at least once...
February 2013: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Giangennaro Coppola, Diego Ingrosso, Francesca Felicia Operto, Giuseppe Signoriello, Francamaria Lattanzio, Eugenia Barone, Sabino Matera, Alberto Verrotti
Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sulfur-containing amino acid involved in methionine metabolism. An elevated total plasma Hcy concentration (tHcy) is a risk factor for vascular disease. The present study aimed to assess the role of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHFR) polymorphisms on tHcy in pediatric patients with epilepsy treated for at least 6 months with various treatment regimens protocols including the newer AEDs. The study group was recruited from children and adolescents with epilepsy followed up in the Child Neuropsychiatry Clinic of the Second University of Naples, between January 2007 and March 2008...
June 2012: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
S G Vorsanova, Y B Yurov, I V Soloviev, I Y Iourov
Human molecular cytogenetics integrates the knowledge on chromosome and genome organization at the molecular and cellular levels in health and disease. Molecular cytogenetic diagnosis is an integral part of current genomic medicine and is the standard of care in medical genetics and cytogenetics, reproductive medicine, pediatrics, neuropsychiatry and oncology. Regardless numerous advances in this field made throughout the last two decades, researchers and practitioners who apply molecular cytogenetic techniques may encounter several problems that are extremely difficult to solve...
September 2010: Current Genomics
Cynthia Feucht, Dilip R Patel
An increasing number of studies have evaluated the role of herbal supplements in pediatric disorders, but they have numerous limitations. This review provides an overview of herbal components, regulation of supplements, and importance of product quality assurance. Use of herbal supplements is discussed with reference to factors that influence use in the pediatric population. The remainder of the article discusses the use of St John's wort, melatonin, kava, valerian, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, focusing on indications, adverse effects, and drug interactions, and providing a limited efficacy review...
February 2011: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Shana Valo, Rosemary Tannock
Using data from 123 children (aged 6-12 years) referred consecutively to a pediatric neuropsychiatry clinic by community physicians for assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and related problems, we investigated the effects of informant (parent, teacher), tool (interview, rating scale), and method for combining symptom reports ("and," "or" algorithms), on the diagnosis of ADHD and its subtypes. Results indicated that as many as 50% of cases were reclassified from one subtype to another, depending on whether information was derived from one or two informants, a semistructured clinical interview and/or rating scale, and the algorithm used to combine informant reports...
2010: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
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