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Clostridium difficile infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331160/reduction-in-rate-of-nosocomial-respiratory-virus-infections-in-a-children-s-hospital-associated-with-enhanced-isolation-precautions
#1
Lorry G Rubin, Nina Kohn, Susan Nullet, Margaret Hill
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the use of enhanced isolation precautions (droplet and contact precautions) for inpatients with respiratory tract viral infections is associated with a reduction in rate of nosocomial viral respiratory infections. DESIGN Quasi-experimental study with the rate of nosocomial respiratory virus infection as the primary dependent variable and rate of nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection as a nonequivalent dependent variable comparator. SETTING Cohen Children's Medical Center of NY, a tertiary-care children's hospital attached to a large general hospital...
January 14, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329918/trends-in-incidence-of-long-term-care-facility-onset-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-10-us-geographic-locations-during-2011-2015
#2
Alice Y Guh, Yi Mu, James Baggs, Lisa G Winston, Wendy Bamberg, Carol Lyons, Monica M Farley, Lucy E Wilson, Stacy M Holzbauer, Erin C Phipps, Zintars G Beldavs, Marion A Kainer, Maria Karlsson, Dale N Gerding, Ghinwa Dumyati
During 2011-2015, the adjusted long-term-care facility onset Clostridium difficile infection incidence rate in persons aged ≥65 years decreased annually by 17.45% (95% confidence interval, 14.53%-20.43%) across 10 US sites. A concomitant decline in inpatient fluoroquinolone use and the C difficile epidemic strain NAP1/027 among persons aged ≥65 years may have contributed to the decrease in long-term-care facility-onset C difficile infection incidence rate.
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329346/evaluation-of-bloodstream-infections-clostridium-difficile-infections-and-gut-microbiota-in-pediatric-oncology-patients
#3
Bryan T Nycz, Samuel R Dominguez, Deborah Friedman, Joanne M Hilden, Diana Ir, Charles E Robertson, Daniel N Frank
Bloodstream infections (BSI) and Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in pediatric oncology/hematology/bone marrow transplant (BMT) populations are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to explore possible associations between altered microbiome composition and the occurrence of BSI and CDI in a cohort of pediatric oncology patients. Stool samples were collected from all patients admitted to the pediatric oncology floor from Oct.-Dec. 2012. Bacterial profiles from patient stools were determined by bacterial 16S rRNA gene profiling...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326959/use-of-antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-tooth-extractions-dental-implants-and-periodontal-surgical-procedures
#4
Katie J Suda, Heather Henschel, Ursula Patel, Margaret A Fitzpatrick, Charlesnika T Evans
Background: Guidelines for antibiotics prior to dental procedures for patients with specific cardiac conditions and prosthetic joints have changed, reducing indications for antibiotic prophylaxis. In addition to guidelines focused on patient comorbidities, systematic reviews specific to dental extractions and implants support preprocedure antibiotics for all patients. However, data on dentist adherence to these recommendations are scarce. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of veterans undergoing tooth extractions, dental implants, and periodontal procedures...
January 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324599/risk-factors-incidence-and-morbidity-associated-with-obstetric-clostridium-difficile-infection
#5
Jacob Ruiter-Ligeti, Sophie Vincent, Nicholas Czuzoj-Shulman, Haim Arie Abenhaim
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk factors, incidence, and morbidity associated with the diagnosis of obstetric Clostridium difficile infection. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study on women admitted for delivery using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample from the United States. The delivery admission records of pregnant women were reviewed between 1999 and 2013. After adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, we assessed risk factors for the diagnosis of C difficile infection using unconditional logistic regression...
January 9, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323607/efficacy-of-oral-vancomycin-in-primary-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-elderly-patients-treated-with-systemic-antibiotic-therapy
#6
Neven Papic, Lorna Stemberger Maric, Adriana Vince
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2018: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322624/nasogastric-tube-and-outcomes-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Karn Wijarnpreecha, Suthanya Sornprom, Charat Thongprayoon, Parkpoom Phatharacharukul, Wisit Cheungpasitporn
AIMS: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major concern for public health worldwide. Interestingly, the risk of poor clinical outcomes of CDI in patients with nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion is still controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of CDI in patients with NGT insertion. METHODS: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception through November 2017. Studies that reported relative risks, odds ratios, or hazard ratios comparing the clinical outcome of CDI in patients with NGT versus those who did not were included...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321120/evaluating-vancomycin-and-piperacillin-tazobactam-in-emergency-department-patients-with-severe-sepsis-and-septic-shock
#8
Christina Le, Frank Chu, Ronald Dunlay, Julian Villar, Peter Fedullo, Gabriel Wardi
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and cause of inadequate initial antibiotic therapy with vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock in the emergency department (ED), characterize its impact on patient outcomes, and identify patients who would benefit from an alternative initial empiric regimen. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study conducted between 2012 and 2015 in which 342 patients with culture-positive severe sepsis or septic shock who received initial vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam were reviewed to determine appropriateness of antimicrobial therapy, risk factors for inappropriate use, and outcome data...
December 29, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317259/adherence-to-contact-precautions-among-different-types-of-healthcare-workers-through-video-monitoring-in-a-tertiary-hospital
#9
Yuichi Katanami, Kayoko Hayakawa, Takeshi Shimazaki, Yuko Sugiki, Saho Takaya, Kei Yamamoto, Satoshi Kutsuna, Yasuyuki Kato, Norio Ohmagari
BACKGROUND: Contact precautions are required to prevent transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms; however, reports on adherence rates vary. Through video monitoring, we evaluated adherence to the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) among different types of healthcare workers. METHODS: This study was an observational study conducted in a 781-bed tertiary hospital from July 2016 to March 2017. We installed cameras in areas where staff don PPE. Infection control teams observed the videos and assessed adherence rates...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316555/intestinal-dysbiosis-secondary-to-proton-pump-inhibitor-use
#10
Yuji Naito, Kaori Kashiwagi, Tomohisa Takagi, Akira Andoh, Ryo Inoue
BACKGROUND: Gut dysbiosis associated with the use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) has been found to lead to the occurrence of infectious and inflammatory adverse events. A longitudinal observational cohort study has demonstrated the heightened risk of death associated with PPI use. SUMMARY: We evaluated meta-analyses to determine the association between PPI use and infectious and inflammatory diseases. Meta-analyses showed that PPI use is a potential risk for the development of enteric infections caused by Clostridium difficile, as well as small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, community-acquired pneumonia, hepatic encephalopathy, and adverse outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease...
January 6, 2018: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305285/national-healthcare-safety-network-laboratory-identified-clostridium-difficile-event-reporting-a-need-for-diagnostic-stewardship
#11
Clare Rock, Zoi Pana, Surbhi Leekha, Polly Trexler, Jennifer Andonian, Avinash Gadala, Karen C Carroll, Lisa L Maragakis
We describe the proportion of health care facility-onset Clostridium difficile infection (HO-CDI) National Healthcare Safety Network laboratory-identified events at our facility that were deemed nontrue HO-CDIs. Reasons included testing in a patient without significant diarrhea or with recent laxative use, or delayed testing. Standardized infection ratios using only true HO-CDI in the numerator were improved compared with publically reported standardized infection ratios. A prioritization matrix identifies which clinical services could benefit most from directed diagnostic stewardship interventions...
January 2, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305281/impact-of-real-time-notification-of-clostridium-difficile-test-results-and-early-initiation-of-effective-antimicrobial-therapy
#12
Christian B Polen, William R Judd, Patrick D Ratliff, Gregory S King
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a prominent nosocomial pathogen and is the most common causative organism of health care-associated diarrhea. To our knowledge, no studies have investigated the impact of real-time notification of culture results with rapid antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) intervention in the setting of C difficile infection (CDI). The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of real-time notification of detection of toxigenic C difficile by DNA amplification results in patients with confirmed CDI...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299697/oral-teicoplanin-versus-oral-vancomycin-for-the-treatment-of-severe-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-prospective-observational-study
#13
Natasa Popovic, Milos Korac, Zorica Nesic, Branko Milosevic, Aleksandar Urosevic, Djordje Jevtovic, Nikola Mitrovic, Aleksandar Markovic, Jelena Jordovic, Natasa Katanic, Aleksandra Barac, Ivana Milosevic
The aim of this study was to compare clinical cure rate, recurrence rate and time to resolution of diarrhea in patients with severe and severe-complicated Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) treated with teicoplanin or vancomycin. This two-year prospective observational study included patients with first episode or first recurrence of CDI who had severe or severe-complicated CDI and were treated with teicoplanin or vancomycin. Primary outcomes of interest were clinical cure rate at discharge and recurrence rate after eight weeks follow up, and secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality and time to resolution of diarrhea...
January 3, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299507/outpatient-management-of-cholesteatoma-with-canal-wall-reconstruction-tympanomastoidectomy
#14
Richard Kao, Todd Wannemuehler, Charles W Yates, Rick F Nelson
Objectives: The postoperative wound infection rate for canal wall reconstruction (CWR) tympanomastoidectomy with mastoid obliteration in the treatment of chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma has been reported to be 3.6%. Postoperative administration of 24-48 hours of intravenous antibiotics has been recommended. We aim to determine the infection rate of CWR with postoperative outpatient oral antibiotics. Study Design: Institutional review board-approved retrospective case review...
December 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298322/economic-evaluation-of-interventions-designed-to-reduce-clostridium-difficile-infection
#15
David Brain, Laith Yakob, Adrian Barnett, Thomas Riley, Archie Clements, Kate Halton, Nicholas Graves
INTRODUCTION: Healthcare decision-makers are increasingly expected to balance increasing demand for health services with a finite budget. The role of economic evaluation in healthcare is increasing and this research provides decision-makers with new information about the management of Clostridium difficile infection, from an economic perspective. METHODS: A model-based economic evaluation was undertaken to identify the most cost-effective healthcare intervention relating to the reduction of Clostridium difficile transmission...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290497/is-there-a-relationship-between-the-polimerase-chain-reaction-cycle-threshold-and-the-risk-of-severe-clostridium-difficile-infection
#16
Laura Sante, Yanet Pedroso, Beatriz Castro, María Lecuona
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290480/cleaning-the-air-with-ultraviolet-germicidal-irradiation-lessened-contact-infections-in-a-long-term-acute-care-hospital
#17
Tina Ethington, Sherry Newsome, Jerri Waugh, Linda D Lee
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to determine whether removing bacteria from the air with ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UV-C) at the room level would reduce infection rates. METHODS: We reviewed infection data for 12 months before and after UV-C installation in the special care unit (SCU) of a long-term acute care hospital. All patients admitted to the SCU during the study time frame were included. Microbiologic impactor air sampling was completed in August 2015...
December 29, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289484/what-do-we-know-about-the-diagnostics-treatment-and-epidemiology-of-clostridioides-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-europe
#18
REVIEW
Elisabeth Nagy
Clostridium difficile, recently reclassified as Clostridioides difficile is responsible for a significant part of diarrheal diseases in the hospitals and in the community. Besides the main pathogenic factors, toxin A, toxin B and the binary toxin, several other putative virulence factors have been investigated. This manuscript summarize recent findings in Europe concerning source of infection, epidemiology of CDI, the changing pattern of PCR ribotypes of C. difficile strains in different European countries, recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of CDI...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287077/ribotype-078-clostridium-difficile-infection-incidence-in-dutch-hospitals-is-not-associated-with-provincial-pig-farming-results-from-a-national-sentinel-surveillance-2009-2015
#19
Sofie M van Dorp, Sabine C de Greeff, Céline Harmanus, Ingrid M J G Sanders, Olaf M Dekkers, Cornelis W Knetsch, Greetje A Kampinga, Daan W Notermans, Ed J Kuijper
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the high incidence of ribotype 078 Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in the Netherlands is related to pig farming. METHODS: We used data of hospitalised CDI patients (>2yrs of age) diagnosed between May 2009 and May 2015 in 26 hospitals participating in a national sentinel surveillance. We compared clinical and geographical characteristics of 078 CDI to other CDI. We investigated the association between 078 CDI incidence and four indicators of pig farming (piglet, pig, piglet farm and pig farm density) by mixed-effects Poisson regression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285574/clostridium-difficile-related-postinfectious-ibs-a-case-of-enteroglial-microbiological-stalking-and-or-the-solution-of-a-conundrum
#20
EDITORIAL
Gabrio Bassotti, Lara Macchioni, Lanfranco Corazzi, Pierfrancesco Marconi, Katia Fettucciari
Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome is a well-defined pathological entity that develops in about one-third of subjects after an acute infection (bacterial, viral) or parasitic infestation. Only recently it has been documented that an high incidence of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome occurs after Clostridium difficile infection. However, until now it is not known why in some patients recovered from this infection the gastrointestinal disturbances persist for months or years. Based on our in vitro studies on enteric glial cells exposed to the effects of C...
December 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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