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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044082/rickettsial-retinitis-direct-bacterial-infection-or-an-immune-mediated-response
#1
Rohan Chawla, Gadkar Amit Pundlik, Rama Chaudhry, Chandan Thakur
Infectious retinitis postfebrile illness is known to be caused by chikungunya, dengue, West Nile virus, Bartonella, Lyme's disease, Rift Valley fever, rickettsia, Herpes viruses etc. Rickettsia is Gram-negative bacteria transmitted by arthropods vectors. Ocular involvement is common including conjunctivitis, keratitis, anterior uveitis, panuveitis, retinitis, retinal vascular changes, and optic nerve involvement. Retinitis lesions in rickettsia can occur because of an immunological response to the bacteria or because of direct invasion and proliferation of bacteria in the inner retina...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040182/variable-clinical-presentations-of-babesiosis-a-case-series
#2
Pamela Paparone, Philip W Paparone
Human babesiosis continues to spread in multiple regions of the United States. It is transmitted by Ixodes species ticks, as are Lyme disease and anaplasmosis. Its variable clinical presentations, together with serologic detection limitations, require that a high index of clinical suspicion be present for prompt diagnosis. This article discusses case presentations showing the wide range of symptoms and presentations that are possible with babesiosis.
November 16, 2017: Nurse Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032558/recombinant-e-coli-dualistic-role-as-an-antigen-adjuvant-delivery-vehicle-for-oral-immunization
#3
Maria Gomes-Solecki, Luciana Richer
Escherichia coli is the mainstay tool for fundamental microbiology research due to its ease of cultivation and safety. Auxotrophic strains of the K-12 and B lineages of E. coli are the organisms of choice to produce recombinant proteins. Components present in the cell envelope of bacteria are also potent immune modulators and have been used to develop adjuvants. We used live E. coli, after induction of recombinant protein expression, to develop a vehicle which has a dualistic function of producing vaccine while presenting itself as the adjuvant to deliver oral vaccines against a number of infectious diseases, including Lyme disease...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032557/xenodiagnosis-using-ixodes-scapularis-larval-ticks-in-humans
#4
Siu-Ping Turk, Carla Williams, Adriana Marques
Xenodiagnosis is the use of a natural vector to detect the presence of an organism, and xenodiagnosis using Ixodes ticks has long been used by entomologists in Lyme disease research to provide evidence of the host's infectious status with Borrelia burgdorferi. We developed the methodology and performed the first human research study using uninfected larval Ixodes scapularis ticks to assess evidence of B. burgdorferi infection. Here, we describe in detail the methodology used for the procedure. Xenodiagnosis using Ixodes ticks in humans remains an experimental method and must be performed under an approved clinical research protocol...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032555/in-vitro-models-of-cutaneous-inflammation
#5
Quentin Bernard, Benoît Jaulhac, Nathalie Boulanger
The skin plays an essential role in the transmission of Lyme borreliosis since it is the first interface between the Ixodes tick and the host during the inoculation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. A better understanding of the inflammatory reaction at this location is key to develop better strategies (e.g., vaccine and diagnosis) to fight this disease. In vitro cell culture of resident skin cells might constitute an approach to decipher the complex interplay between the tick, the pathogen, and the vertebrate host...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032553/phagocytosis-assays-for-borrelia-burgdorferi
#6
Juan Anguita, Ana Carreras-González, Nicolás Navasa
Phagocytosis of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is a poorly understood process, despite its importance during the host immune response to infection. Thus, macrophages infiltrate the infected tissues, including the base of the heart and phagocytose the spirochete, therefore contributing to their elimination from infected tissues and leading to inflammation. An impaired bacterial clearance will result in bacterial persistence that may interfere with normal physiology of the heart, such as electrical signals from the heart, resulting in an impaired coordination of the beating of the heart or "heart block...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032551/two-photon-intravital-microscopy-of-lyme-borrelia-in-mice
#7
Alexia A Belperron, Jialing Mao, Linda K Bockenstedt
Two-photon intravital microscopy is a powerful tool that allows visualization of cells in intact tissues in a live animal in real time. In recent years, this advanced technology has been applied to understand pathogen-host interactions using fluorescently labeled bacteria. In particular, infectious fluorescent transformants of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, an Ixodes tick-transmitted pathogen, have been imaged by two-photon intravital microscopy to study bacterial motility and interactions of the pathogen with feeding ticks and host tissues...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032549/detection-of-bioluminescent-borrelia-burgdorferi-from-in-vitro-cultivation-and-during-murine-infection
#8
Jenny A Hyde, Jon T Skare
Borrelia burgdorferi, etiologic agent of Lyme disease, is the leading tick-borne disease in the United States with approximately 300,000 cases diagnosed annually. Disease occurs in stages beginning localized infection at the site of a tick bite and progresses to disseminated infection when antibiotic treatment is not administered in a timely manner. A multi-systemic infection develops following dissemination to numerous immunoprotective tissues, such as the heart, bladder, and joints, resulting in late Lyme disease...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032546/genetic-transformation-and-complementation
#9
D Scott Samuels, Dan Drecktrah, Laura S Hall
The disciplines of Borrelia (Borreliella) burgdorferi microbiology and Lyme disease pathogenesis have come to depend on the genetic manipulation of the spirochete. Generating mutants in these recalcitrant bacteria, while not straightforward, is routinely accomplished in numerous laboratories, although there are several crucial caveats to consider. This chapter describes the design of basic molecular genetic experiments as well as the detailed methodologies to prepare and transform competent cells, select for and isolate transformants, and complement or genetically restore mutants...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032543/selection-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-promoter-sequences-active-during-mammalian-infection-using-in-vivo-expression-technology
#10
Philip P Adams, Mollie W Jewett
In vivo expression technology (IVET) has been applied to a variety of organisms to identify active promoters in specific environments or growth conditions of interest. Here, we describe modifications to employ this genome-wide screening method for Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, during an active murine infection. Utilization of this technique provides valuable insights into the B. burgdorferi transcriptome during infection, despite the low bacterial numbers in the mammalian host environment...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032540/artificial-infection-of-ticks-with-borrelia-burgdorferi-using-a-microinjection-method-and-their-detection-in-vivo-using-quantitative-pcr-targeting-flab-rna
#11
Alexis A Smith, Xiuli Yang, Erol Fikrig, Utpal Pal
Borrelia burgdorferi is maintained in nature by a tick-rodent infection cycle where it traverses and colonizes a variety of host and vector tissues. A tick-borne murine model has been developed to study Lyme disease in the laboratory, which has a substantial impact in advancing our knowledge of spirochete infectivity and pathogenesis. Here, we detail a microinjection-based method for rapid and efficient infection of ticks with B. burgdorferi. While laboratory generation of B. burgdorferi-infected nymphs via natural larval engorgement on infected hosts and subsequent molting could take several weeks to months, the microinjection-based infection procedure requires only a few hours to generate infected ticks and allows introduction of defined quantities of spirochetes, including mutant isolates that are attenuated for infection in mice and thus cannot be naturally acquired by ticks...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032538/trace-element-analysis-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-by-inductively-coupled-plasma-sector-field-mass-spectrometry
#12
Xin Li, Peng Wang, Anthony Lutton, John Olesik
Transition metal ions play important structural, regulatory, and catalytic roles in all biological systems by serving as cofactors for proteins. Due to their relatively low levels in the cell compared to abundant metal ions such as potassium and magnesium, transition metals are often considered micronutrients and referred to as trace elements. Manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) are the most prevalent transition metals in the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Here, we describe a method for the accurate measurement of these trace elements in B...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032537/analysis-of-lipids-and-lipid-rafts-in-borrelia
#13
Alvaro Toledo, Zhen Huang, Jorge L Benach, Erwin London
Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains that are involved in cellular processes such as protein trafficking and signaling processes, and which play a fundamental role in membrane fluidity and budding. The lipid composition of the membrane and the biochemical characteristics of the lipids found within rafts define the ability of cells to form microdomains and compartmentalize the membrane. In this chapter, we describe the biophysical, biochemical, and molecular approaches used to define and characterize lipid rafts in the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032536/characterization-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-binding-to-mammalian-cells-and-extracellular-matrix
#14
Yi-Pin Lin, John M Leong
Lyme disease Borreliae produces outer surface adhesins to confer bacterial attachment to the extracellular matrix (ECM) components on the surface of mammalian cells. Here, we describe protocols to characterize the activity and specificity of these adhesins by flow cytometry or measurement of the binding of radiolabeled spirochetes to immobilized ECM or mammalian cells.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032532/genotyping-strains-of-lyme-disease-agents-directly-from-ticks-blood-or-tissue
#15
Alan G Barbour, Vanessa J Cook
The tick-borne spirochetes that cause Lyme disease in North America and Eurasia display strong linkage disequilibrium between certain chromosomal and plasmid loci within each three major geographic areas of their distribution. For strain typing for epidemiologic and ecologic purposes, the commonly used genotypes based on a single locus are the spacer between the 16S-23S ribosomal RNA and the ospC gene of a plasmid. A simple genotyping scheme based on the two loci allows for discrimination between strains representing all the areas of distribution...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029041/long-term-effects-of-berberis-thunbergii-ranunculales-berberidaceae-management-on-ixodes-scapularis-acari-ixodidae-abundance-and-borrelia-burgdorferi-spirochaetales-spirochaetaceae-prevalence-in-connecticut-usa
#16
Scott C Williams, Megan A Linske, Jeffrey S Ward
Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii de Candolle; Ranunculales: Berberidaceae) is an exotic invasive shrub that escaped cultivation in the United States and is now permanently established in many eastern and midwestern states. This study examined the long-term impacts of Japanese barberry management on blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis Say; Acari: Ixodidae) abundances and associated prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, and Brenner; Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), the etiologic agent of Lyme disease...
September 26, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026617/cerebral-vasculitis-and-intracranial-multiple-aneurysms-in-a-child-with-lyme-neuroborreliosis
#17
Elisa Kortela, Jukka Hytönen, Jussi Numminen, Margit Overmyer, Harri Saxen, Jarmo Oksi
Introduction. Lyme borreliosis is a multisystem tick-borne disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. Neurological manifestations are reported in up to 15 % of adult patients with Lyme disease, while the frequency among children is higher. The most common manifestations are painful radiculopathy, facial nerve paresis and lymphocytic meningitis. Epileptic seizures and cerebral vasculitis with stroke or aneurysms are very rare complications. Case presentation. We describe a paediatric patient with sensorineural auditory dysfunction, headache, fatigue and epileptic seizures as sequelae of meningoencephalitis/Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) caused by B...
April 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021088/the-impact-of-strain-specific-immunity-on-lyme-disease-incidence-is-spatially-heterogeneous
#18
Camilo E Khatchikian, Robert B Nadelman, John Nowakowski, Ira Schwartz, Gary P Wormser, Dustin Brisson
Lyme disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common tick-borne infection in the US. Recent studies have demonstrated that the incidence of human Lyme disease would have been even greater were it not for the presence of strain-specific immunity, which protects previously infected patients against subsequent infections by the same B. burgdorferi strain. Here, spatial heterogeneity is incorporated into epidemiological models to accurately estimate the impact of strain-specific immunity on human Lyme disease incidence...
August 25, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020278/depressive-symptoms-in-patients-referred-to-a-tertiary-lyme-center-high-prevalence-in-those-without-evidence-of-lyme-borreliosis
#19
Tizza P Zomer, Yolande M Vermeeren, Gijs W Landman, Marlies Zwerink, Babette C van Hees, Thomas van Bemmel, Barend van Kooten
Background: Controversy exists whether mood disorders, such as depression, are associated with Lyme borreliosis (LB). The study objective was to assess prevalence of depressive symptoms in subgroups of patients referred to a tertiary Lyme center, to investigate whether depressive symptoms can be used in clinical practice to discriminate for LB. Methods: This cohort study included adult patients who visited a tertiary Lyme center between January 2008 and December 2014...
July 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992325/congenital-babesiosis-after-maternal-infection-with-borrelia-burgdorferi-and-babesia-microti
#20
Kirsten Saetre, Neetu Godhwani, Mazen Maria, Darshan Patel, Guiqing Wang, Karl I Li, Gary P Wormser, Sheila M Nolan
We describe the cases of 2 infants with congenital babesiosis born to mothers with prepartum Lyme disease and subclinical Babesia microti infection. The infants both developed anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia, and 1 infant required red blood cell transfusion. Both infants recovered with treatment. Additional studies are warranted to define the optimal management strategy for pregnant women with early Lyme disease in geographic areas in which B microti infection is endemic.
September 16, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
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