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Blue light

Shoko Ono, Satoshi Abiko, Mototsugu Kato
Gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) is a high risk for intestinal type gastric cancer; however, there is a limitation for detection of GIM using white light imaging (WLI). Image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE) is more advantageous than WLI for optical diagnosis of GIM (1). Linked color imaging (LCI) (FUJIFILM Co., Tokyo, Japan) was newly developed for advanced IEE and enables visualization of red lesions that appear redder and whitish red lesions that appear whiter during routine endoscopy (2). GIM is observed as a lavender color that is distinguishable from the circumferential mucosa without GIM by using LCI (Figure 1)...
October 22, 2016: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
Ying Zhang, Qinqin Yu, Nan Jiang, Xu Yan, Chao Wang, Qingmei Wang, Jianzhong Liu, Muyuan Zhu, Sebastian Y Bednarek, Jian Xu, Jianwei Pan
Phototropism is the process by which plants grow towards light in order to maximize the capture of light for photosynthesis, which is particularly important for germinating seedlings. In Arabidopsis, hypocotyl phototropism is predominantly triggered by blue light (BL), which has a profound effect on the establishment of asymmetric auxin distribution, essential for hypocotyl phototropism. Two auxin efflux transporters ATP-BINDING CASSETTE B19 (ABCB19) and PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3), are known to mediate the effect of BL on auxin distribution in the hypocotyl, but the details for how BL triggers PIN3 lateralization remain poorly understood...
October 22, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Daniel Shane Wright, Nicolle Demandt, Jeroen T Alkema, Ole Seehausen, Ton G G Groothuis, Martine E Maan
Local adaptation can be a potent force in speciation, with environmental heterogeneity leading to niche specialization and population divergence. However, local adaption often requires non-random mating in order to generate reproductive isolation. Population divergence in sensory properties can be particularly consequential in speciation, affecting both ecological adaptation and sexual communication. Pundamilia pundamila and Pundamilia nyererei are two closely related African cichlid species that differ in male coloration, blue vs...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
L Porrúa, N Oblanca, J J González-López
CASE REPORT: A 14 year-old boy attended our clinic complaining of a scotoma after an accidental exposure to a 10W, 450nm laser beam from a blue-light handheld laser device. Optical coherence tomography confirmed a full thickness macular hole. As visual acuity (VA) remained 20/20 Snellen, observation was decided. Spontaneous closure was confirmed after one month. DISCUSSION: Reckless use of high-power handheld laser devices may induce severe retinal lesions, including full thickness macular holes...
October 18, 2016: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
Troy A Skwor, Stephanie Klemm, Hanyu Zhang, Brianna Schardt, Stephanie Blaszczyk, Matthew A Bork
Increasing rates of antibiotic resistance coupled with the lack of novel antibiotics threatens proper clinical treatment and jeopardizes their use in prevention. A photodynamic approach appears to be an innovative treatment option, even for multi-drug resistant strains of bacteria. Three components are utilized in photodynamic inactivation: a photosensitizer, light source, and oxygen. Variations in photosensitizers strongly influence microbial binding and bactericidal activity. In this study, four different cationic metalloporphyrins (Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Pd(2+), Zn(2+)) were compared to the free-base ligand 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin regarding their electronic properties and generation of reactive oxygen species upon subsequent 405nm violet-blue irradiation...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
A W Carr, M Saffman
We analyze doubly magic trapping of Cs hyperfine transitions including previously neglected contributions from the ground state hyperpolarizability and the interaction of the laser light and a static magnetic field. Extensive numerical searches do not reveal any doubly magic trapping conditions for any pair of hyperfine states. However, including the hyperpolarizability reveals light intensity insensitive traps for a wide range of wavelengths at specific intensities. We then investigate the use of bichromatic trapping light fields...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Benoît Roubinet, Mariano L Bossi, Philipp Alt, Marcel Leutenegger, Heydar Shojaei, Sebastian Schnorrenberg, Shamil Nizamov, Masahiro Irie, Vladimir N Belov, Stefan W Hell
Reversibly photoswitchable 1,2-bis(2-ethyl-6-phenyl-1-benzothiophene-1,1-dioxide-3-yl)perfluorocyclopentenes (EBT) having fluorescent "closed" forms were decorated with four or eight carboxylic groups and attached to antibodies. Low aggregation, efficient photoswitching in aqueous buffers, specific staining of cellular structures, and good photophysical properties were demonstrated. Alternating light pulses of UV and blue light induce numerous reversible photochemical transformations between two stables states with distinct structures...
October 21, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Gaigai Yu, Hiroyuki Onodera, Yuki Aono, Fuun Kawano, Yoshibumi Ueda, Akihiro Furuya, Hideyuki Suzuki, Moritoshi Sato
Alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins (Gα) are involved in a variety of cellular functions. Here we report an optogenetic strategy to spatially and temporally manipulate Gα in living cells. More specifically, we applied the blue light-induced dimerization system, known as the Magnet system, and an alternative red light-induced dimerization system consisting of Arabidopsis thaliana phytochrome B (PhyB) and phytochrome-interacting factor 6 (PIF6) to optically control the activation of two different classes of Gα (Gαq and Gαs)...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jingyi Zhu, Tilo Mathes, Yusaku Hontani, Maxime T A Alexandre, Kee Chua Toh, Peter Hegemann, John T M Kennis
The two Light, Oxygen, and Voltage domains of phototropin are blue-light photoreceptor domains which control various functions in plants and green algae. The key step of the light-driven reaction is the formation of a photoadduct between its FMN chromophore and a conserved cysteine, where the canonical reaction proceeds through the FMN triplet state. Here, complete photoreaction mapping of CrLOV2 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii phototropin and AsLOV2 from Avena sativa phototropin-1 was realized by ultrafast broadband spectroscopy from femtoseconds to microseconds...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Roger Duarte de Melo, Daniel Acosta-Avalos
'Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis' is the most studied multicellular magnetotactic prokaryote. It presents a light-dependent photokinesis: green light decreases the translation velocity whereas red light increases it, in comparison to blue and white light. The present article shows that radio-frequency electromagnetic fields cancel the light effect on photokinesis. The frequency to cancel the light effect corresponds to the Zeeman resonance frequency (DC magnetic field of 4 Oe and radio-frequency of 11...
October 20, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Liang Chen, Cornelis Johannes Kleverlaan, Kunneng Liang, Deqin Yang
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Polyvinyl siloxane impression material has been widely used as a lingual matrix for rebuilding missing tooth structure with composite resin. The composite resin is light polymerized in contact with the polyvinyl siloxane impression material. However, polyvinyl siloxane impression material has been shown to interact with other dental materials. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials on the polymerization of composite resins by assessing the Vickers microhardness and degree of conversion of polyvinyl siloxane...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Juliana Marioni, María Angel da Silva, José Luis Cabrera, Susana C Núñez Montoya, María Gabriela Paraje
BACKGROUND: Candida tropicalis is increasingly becoming among the most commonly isolated pathogens causing fungal infections with an important biofilm-forming capacity. PURPOSE: This study addresses the antifungal effect of rubiadin (AQ1) and rubiadin 1-methyl ether (AQ2), two photosensitizing anthraquinones (AQs) isolated from Heterophyllaea pustulata, against C. tropicalis biofilms, by studying the cellular stress and antioxidant response in two experimental conditions: darkness and irradiation...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Grzegorz Fila, Anna Kawiak, Mariusz Grinholc
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is among the most common pathogens responsible for both acute and chronic infections of high incidence and severity. Additionally, P. aeruginosa resistance to conventional antimicrobials has increased rapidly over the past decade. Therefore, it is crucial to explore new therapeutic options, particularly options that specifically target the pathogenic mechanisms of this microbe. The ability of a pathogenic bacterium to cause disease is dependent upon the production of agents termed 'virulence factors', and approaches to mitigate these agents have gained increasing attention as new antibacterial strategies...
October 20, 2016: Virulence
Monique Narciso Alba, Marli Gerenutti, Valquíria Miwa Hanai Yoshida, Denise Grotto
Acne vulgaris treatments usually cause sensitivity, teratogenicity and bacterial resistance. Investigations of others therapeutic techniques, such as phototherapy, is highly relevant. Thus, we compared the effectiveness of two Acne vulgaris treatments in adolescents: peeling with salicylic acid and phototherapy. Teens were randomly divided in: group I, treatment with salicylic acid peels (10 %) and group II, treatment with phototherapy (blue LED and red laser lights). Photographs were taken before and after ten sessions of each treatment, carried out weekly, and compared...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
Lu Yang, Fangyun Ye, Peng Liu, Fazhou Wang
Visible light driven Ag/AgBr/TiO2 /activated carbon (AC) composite was prepared by sol-gel method coupled with photo-reduction method. For comparison, TiO2 , TiO2 /AC and Ag/AgBr/TiO2 were also synthesized. Their characteristics were analyzed by XRD, SEM-EDS, TG-DSC and UV-Vis techniques. Photocatalytic activity and antibacterial performance under visible light irradiation were investigated by ICP-AES, ATR-FT-IR and spectrophotometry methods using methylene blue and Escherichia coli as target systems, respectively...
October 20, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Chunfeng Chen, Jie Chen, Tianyu Wang, Minghua Liu
Four kinds of commercially available diacetylene (DA) monomers with different chain length, diacetylene positions were fabricated into the organogels via mixing with a chaperone gelator, an amphiphilic L-histidine ester derivative LHC18 that can help the non-gelator to form gels. Upon photo irradiation with a 254 UV light, the white gels underwent topochemical reaction and turned into red or blue gels, depending on the DA monomer structures. Through the gel formation, the molecular chirality of LHC18 can be transferred to the polydiacetylene (PDA) and helical nanoribbon structures were obtained...
October 19, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Anton Suvorov, Nicholas O Jensen, Camilla R Sharkey, M Stanley Fujimoto, Paul Bodily, Haley M Cahill Wightman, T Heath Ogden, Mark J Clement, Seth M Bybee
Gene duplication plays a central role in adaptation to novel environments by providing new genetic material for functional divergence and evolution of biological complexity. Several evolutionary models have been proposed for gene duplication to explain how new gene copies are preserved by natural selection but these models have rarely been tested using empirical data. Opsin proteins, when combined with a chromophore, form a photopigment that is responsible for the absorption of light, the first step in the phototransduction cascade...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Ruben Machado, Nima Soltani, Suzie Dufour, Muhammad Tariqus Salam, Peter L Carlen, Roman Genov, Michael Thompson
Extracellular potassium concentration, [K⁺]o, plays a fundamental role in the physiological functions of the brain. Studies investigating changes in [K⁺]o have predominantly relied upon glass capillary electrodes with K⁺-sensitive solution gradients for their measurements. However, such electrodes are unsuitable for taking spatio-temporal measurements and are limited by the surface area of their tips. We illustrate seizures invoked chemically and in optogenetically modified mice using blue light exposure while impedimetrically measuring the response...
October 13, 2016: Biosensors
Marika Rai, David Spratt, Paola R Gomez-Pereira, Jay Patel, Sean P Nair
Oral malodour is a common condition which affects a large proportion of the population, resulting in social, emotional and psychological stress. Certain oral bacteria form a coating called a biofilm on the tongue dorsum and degrade organic compounds releasing volatile sulfur compounds that are malodourous. Current chemical treatments for oral malodour such as mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine or essential oils, are not sufficiently effective at reducing the bacterial load on the tongue. One potential alternative to current chemical treatments for oral malodour is the use of light activated antimicrobial agents (LAAAs), which display no toxicity or antimicrobial activity in the dark, but when exposed to light of a specific wavelength produce reactive oxygen species which induce damage to target cells in a process known as photodynamic inactivation...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
A Krigel, M Berdugo, E Picard, R Levy-Boukris, I Jaadane, L Jonet, M Dernigoghossian, C Andrieu-Soler, A Torriglia, F Behar-Cohen
To save energy, the European directives from the Eco-design of Energy Using Products (2005/32/CE) has recommended the replacement of incandescent lamps by more economic devices such as Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). However, the emission spectrum of these devices is enriched in blue radiations, known to be potentially dangerous to the retina. Recent studies showed that light exposure contribute to the onset of early stages of Age related macular degeneration (AMD). Here, we investigate, in albinos and pigmented rats, the effects of different exposure protocols...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience
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