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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445051/potential-air-pollutant-emissions-and-permitting-classifications-for-two-biorefinery-process-designs-in-the-united-states
#1
Annika Eberle, Arpit Bhatt, Yimin Zhang, Garvin A Heath
Advanced biofuel production facilities (biorefineries), such as those envisioned by the United States (U.S.) Renewable Fuel Standard and U.S. Department of Energy's research and development programs, often lack historical air pollutant emissions data, which can pose challenges for obtaining air emission permits that are required for construction and operation. To help fill this knowledge gap, we perform a thorough regulatory analysis and use engineering process designs to assess the applicability of federal air regulations and quantify air pollutant emissions for two feasibility-level biorefinery designs...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443658/dceo-biotechnology-tools-to-design-construct-evaluate-and-optimize-the-metabolic-pathway-for-biosynthesis-of-chemicals
#2
Xiulai Chen, Cong Gao, Liang Guo, Guipeng Hu, Qiuling Luo, Jia Liu, Jens Nielsen, Jian Chen, Liming Liu
Chemical synthesis is a well established route for producing many chemicals on a large scale, but some drawbacks still exist in this process, such as unstable intermediates, multistep reactions, complex process control, etc. Biobased production provides an attractive alternative to these challenges, but how to make cells into efficient factories is challenging. As a key enabling technology to develop efficient cell factories, design-construction-evaluation-optimization (DCEO) biotechnology, which incorporates the concepts and techniques of pathway design, pathway construction, pathway evaluation, and pathway optimization at the systems level, offers a conceptual and technological framework to exploit potential pathways, modify existing pathways and create new pathways for the optimal production of desired chemicals...
April 26, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440054/a-new-approach-to-obtain-cellulose-nanocrystals-and-ethanol-from-eucalyptus-cellulose-pulp-via-the-biochemical-pathway
#3
Thalita J Bondancia, Luiz Henrique C Mattoso, José M Marconcini, Cristiane S Farinas
The feasibility of integration of cellulosic ethanol production with the manufacture of cellulose nanofibers and cellulose nanocrystals was evaluated using eucalyptus cellulose pulp as feedstock and employing the biochemical route alone. For the enzymatic hydrolysis step, experimental central composite design (CCD) methodology was used as a tool to evaluate the effects of solids loading (SL) and enzymatic loading (EL) on glucose release and cellulose conversion. Glucose concentrations from 45 to 125 g/L were obtained after 24 h, with cellulose conversions from 35 to 96%...
April 25, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439294/impact-of-lignin-polymer-backbone-esters-on-ionic-liquid-pretreatment-of-poplar
#4
Kwang Ho Kim, Tanmoy Dutta, John Ralph, Shawn D Mansfield, Blake A Simmons, Seema Singh
BACKGROUND: Biomass pretreatment remains an essential step in lignocellulosic biofuel production, largely to facilitate the efficient removal of lignin and increase enzyme accessibility to the polysaccharides. In recent years, there have been significant efforts in planta to reduce lignin content or modify its composition to overcome the inherent recalcitrance that it imposes on lignocellulosic biomass during processing. Here, transgenic poplar lines in which monolignol ferulate conjugates were synthesized during cell wall development to introduce, during lignification, readily cleavable ester linkages into the lignin polymer backbone (i...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437478/metal-accumulation-by-sunflower-helianthus-annuus-l-and-the-efficacy-of-its-biomass-in-enzymatic-saccharification
#5
Saurabh Sudha Dhiman, Xin Zhao, Jinglin Li, Dongwook Kim, Vipin C Kalia, In-Won Kim, Jae Young Kim, Jung-Kul Lee
Accumulation of metal contaminants in soil as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic activities has reduced soil fertility significantly. Phytoextraction of metal contaminants can improve soil fertility and provide inexpensive feedstock for biorefineries. We investigated the hyperaccumulation capacity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) biomass by cultivating these plants in various concentrations of metal contaminants. Sunflowers were grown in soils contaminated with various levels of heavy metals (10-2,000 mg/kg dry soil)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432390/biomass-resources-agriculture
#6
Ingeborg N Kluts, Marnix L J Brinkman, Sierk A de Jong, H Martin Junginger
Bioenergy is the single largest source of renewable energy in the European Union (EU-28); of this, 14% was produced from agricultural feedstocks in 2012. This chapter provides an overview of the current use (for bioenergy) and future potential of agricultural feedstocks for (amongst others) biorefinery purposes in the European Union. The main application of these feedstocks is currently the production of biofuels for road transport. Biodiesel makes up 80% of the European biofuel production, mainly from rapeseed oil, and the remaining part is bioethanol from wheat and sugar beet...
April 22, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428821/genome-wide-search-for-candidate-genes-for-yeast-robustness-improvement-against-formic-acid-reveals-novel-susceptibility-trk1-and-positive-regulators-and-resistance-haa1-regulon-determinants
#7
Sílvia F Henriques, Nuno P Mira, Isabel Sá-Correia
BACKGROUND: Formic acid is an inhibitory compound present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Understanding the complex molecular mechanisms underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to this weak acid at the system level is instrumental to guide synthetic pathway engineering for robustness improvement of industrial strains envisaging their use in lignocellulosic biorefineries. RESULTS: This study was performed to identify, at a genome-wide scale, genes whose expression confers protection or susceptibility to formic acid, based on the screening of a haploid deletion mutant collection to search for these phenotypes in the presence of 60, 70 and 80 mM of this acid, at pH 4...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421330/regulation-of-coniferaldehyde-5-hydroxylase-expression-to-modulate-cell-wall-lignin-structure-in-rice
#8
Yuri Takeda, Taichi Koshiba, Yuki Tobimatsu, Shiro Suzuki, Shinya Murakami, Masaomi Yamamura, Md Mahabubur Rahman, Toshiyuki Takano, Takefumi Hattori, Masahiro Sakamoto, Toshiaki Umezawa
Regulation of a gene encoding coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase leads to substantial alterations in lignin structure in rice cell walls, identifying a promising genetic engineering target for improving grass biomass utilization. The aromatic composition of lignin greatly affects utilization characteristics of lignocellulosic biomass and, therefore, has been one of the primary targets of cell wall engineering studies. Limited information is, however, available regarding lignin modifications in monocotyledonous grasses, despite the fact that grass lignocelluloses have a great potential for feedstocks of biofuel production and various biorefinery applications...
April 18, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411048/development-of-cellulase-nanoconjugates-with-enhanced-ionic-liquid-and-thermal-stability-for-in-situ-lignocellulose-saccharification
#9
Jasneet Grewal, Razi Ahmad, S K Khare
The present work aimed to improve catalytic efficiency of Trichoderma reesei cellulase for enhanced saccharification. The cellulase was immobilized on two nanomatrices i.e. magnetic and silica nanoparticles with immobilization efficiency of 85% and 76% respectively. The nanobioconjugates exhibited increase in Vmax, temperature optimum, pH and thermal stability as compared with free enzyme. These could be efficiently reused for five repeated cycles and were stable in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazoliumacetate [EMIM][Ac], an ionic liquid...
April 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410609/engineered-microbial-biosensors-based-on-bacterial-two-component-systems-as-synthetic-biotechnology-platforms-in-bioremediation-and-biorefinery
#10
REVIEW
Sambandam Ravikumar, Mary Grace Baylon, Si Jae Park, Jong-Il Choi
Two-component regulatory systems (TCRSs) mediate cellular response by coupling sensing and regulatory mechanisms. TCRSs are comprised of a histidine kinase (HK), which serves as a sensor, and a response regulator, which regulates expression of the effector gene after being phosphorylated by HK. Using these attributes, bacterial TCRSs can be engineered to design microbial systems for different applications. This review focuses on the current advances in TCRS-based biosensors and on the design of microbial systems for bioremediation and their potential application in biorefinery...
April 14, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407438/process-intensification-for-cellulosic-biorefineries
#11
Sunitha Sadula, Abhay Athaley, Weiqing Zheng, Marianthi Ierapetritou, Basudeb Saha
Utilization of renewable carbon source, especially non-food biomass is critical to address the climate change and future energy challenge. Current chemical and enzymatic processes for producing cellulosic sugars are multistep, and energy- and water-intensive. Techno-economic analysis (TEA) suggests that upstream lignocellulose processing is a major hurdle to the economic viability of the cellulosic biorefineries. Process intensification, which integrates processes and uses less water and energy, has the potential to overcome the aforementioned challenges...
April 13, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405217/bioprocessing-of-tea-oil-fruit-hull-with-acetic-acid-organosolv-pretreatment-in-combination-with-alkaline-h2o2
#12
Song Tang, Rukuan Liu, Fubao Fuelbiol Sun, Chunying Dong, Rui Wang, Zhongyuan Gao, Zhanying Zhang, Zhihong Xiao, Changzhu Li, Hui Li
BACKGROUND: As a natural renewable biomass, the tea oil fruit hull (TOFH) mainly consists of lignocellulose, together with some bioactive substances. Our earlier work constructed a two-stage solvent-based process, including one aqueous ethanol organosolv extraction and an atmospheric glycerol organosolv (AGO) pretreatment, for bioprocessing of the TOFH into diverse bioproducts. However, the AGO pretreatment is not as selective as expected in removing the lignin from TOFH, resulting in the limited delignification and simultaneously high cellulose loss...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400858/multi-product-biorefineries-from-lignocelluloses-a-pathway-to-revitalisation-of-the-sugar-industry
#13
Somayeh Farzad, Mohsen Ali Mandegari, Miao Guo, Kathleen F Haigh, Nilay Shah, Johann F Görgens
BACKGROUND: Driven by a range of sustainability challenges, e.g. climate change, resource depletion and expanding populations, a circular bioeconomy is emerging and expected to evolve progressively in the coming decades. South Africa along with other BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) represents the emerging bioeconomy and contributes significantly to global sugar market. In our research, South Africa is used as a case study to demonstrate the sustainable design for the future biorefineries annexed to existing sugar industry...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400172/a-biorefinery-based-approach-for-the-production-of-ethanol-from-enzymatically-hydrolysed-cotton-stalks
#14
Meera Christopher, Anil K Mathew, M Kiran Kumar, Ashok Pandey, Rajeev K Sukumaran
Cotton post-harvest residue/cotton stalk (CS) - a major agro-residue in south asian countries was evaluated as a feed stock for bioethanol production. The common thermochemical pretreatment strategies based on dilute acid and alkali and different combinations of biomass hydrolyzing enzymes were evaluated for saccharification of CS biomass. A hydrolytic efficiency of 80% was achieved for alkali treated biomass using cellulase supplemented with beta glucosidase. Recycling of undigested/residual biomass and/or enzyme supported same final sugar concentration as for fresh hydrolytic experiments...
April 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396124/lactobacilli-and-pediococci-as-versatile-cell-factories-evaluation-of-strain-properties-and-genetic-tools
#15
REVIEW
Elleke F Bosma, Jochen Forster, Alex Toftgaard Nielsen
This review discusses opportunities and bottlenecks for cell factory development of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), with an emphasis on lactobacilli and pediococci, their metabolism and genetic tools. In order to enable economically feasible bio-based production of chemicals and fuels in a biorefinery, the choice of product, substrate and production organism is important. Currently, the most frequently used production hosts include Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but promising examples are available of alternative hosts such as LAB...
April 7, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396036/coordination-of-metabolic-pathways-enhanced-carbon-conservation-in-1-3-propanediol-production-by-coupling-with-optically-pure-lactate-biosynthesis
#16
Bo Xin, Fei Tao, Yu Wang, Hongyu Liu, Cuiqing Ma, Ping Xu
Metabolic engineering has emerged as a powerful tool for bioproduction of both fine and bulk chemicals. The natural coordination among different metabolic pathways contributes to the complexity of metabolic modification, which hampers the development of biorefineries. Herein, the coordination between the oxidative and reductive branches of glycerol metabolism was rearranged in Klebsiella oxytoca to improve the 1,3-propanediol production. After deliberating on the product value, carbon conservation, redox balance, biological compatibility and downstream processing, the lactate-producing pathway was chosen for coupling with the 1,3-propanediol-producing pathway...
April 7, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394095/lignin-hydrogenolysis-improving-lignin-disassembly-through-formaldehyde-stabilization
#17
Markus Kärkäs
Lignocellulosic biomass is available in large quantities and constitutes an attractive feedstock for the sustainable production of bulk and fine chemicals. While methods have been established for conversion of the cellulosic fractions, valorization of lignin has proven to be challenging. The difficulty in disassembling lignin originates from its heterogeneous structure and its propensity to undergo skeletal rearrangements and condensation reactions during biorefinery fractionation or biomass pretreatment processes...
April 10, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391363/anaerobic-digestion
#18
Jan Liebetrau, Heike Sträuber, Jörg Kretzschmar, Velina Denysenko, Michael Nelles
The term anaerobic digestion usually refers to the microbial conversion of organic material to biogas, which mainly consists of methane and carbon dioxide. The technical application of the naturally-occurring process is used to provide a renewable energy carrier and - as the substrate is often waste material - to reduce the organic matter content of the substrate prior to disposal.Applications can be found in sewage sludge treatment, the treatment of industrial and municipal solid wastes and wastewaters (including landfill gas utilization), and the conversion of agricultural residues and energy crops...
April 9, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386158/valorisation-to-biogas-of-macroalgal-waste-streams-a-circular-approach-to-bioproducts-and-bioenergy-in-ireland
#19
Silvia Tedesco, Joseph Stokes
Seaweeds (macroalgae) have been recently attracting more and more interest as a third generation feedstock for bioenergy and biofuels. However, several barriers impede the deployment of competitive seaweed-based energy. The high cost associated to seaweed farming and harvesting, as well as their seasonal availability and biochemical composition currently make macroalgae exploitation too expensive for energy production only. Recent studies have indicated a possible solution to aforementioned challenges may lay in seaweed integrated biorefinery, in which a bioenergy and/or biofuel production step ends an extractions cascade of high-value bioproducts...
2017: Chemické Zvesti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374283/valorisation-of-biowastes-for-the-production-of-green-materials-using-chemical-methods
#20
REVIEW
Thomas I J Dugmore, James H Clark, Julen Bustamante, Joseph A Houghton, Avtar S Matharu
With crude oil reserves dwindling, the hunt for a sustainable alternative feedstock for fuels and materials for our society continues to expand. The biorefinery concept has enjoyed both a surge in popularity and also vocal opposition to the idea of diverting food-grade land and crops for this purpose. The idea of using the inevitable wastes arising from biomass processing, particularly farming and food production, is, therefore, gaining more attention as the feedstock for the biorefinery. For the three main components of biomass-carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins-there are long-established processes for using some of these by-products...
April 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
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