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Minsoo Kwak, Seul Gi Kang, Won-Kyung Hong, Jong-In Han, Yong Keun Chang
Microalgae are regarded as a promising source of biofuels, and the concept of a microalgae-based biorefinery has attracted increasing attention in recent years. From an economic perspective, however, the process remains far from competitive with fossil fuels. This is particularly true of lipid extraction, due in part to the energy-intensive drying step. As a result, wet extraction methods have been studied as an economic alternative. In the present study, a novel extraction approach which utilizes high shear stress mixing was adopted and demonstrated for simultaneous lipid extraction and cell disruption to enable the retrieval of lipids directly from concentrated wet biomass...
February 16, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Ferdinand X Choong, Marcus Bäck, Anette Schulz, K Peter R Nilsson, Ulrica Edlund, Agneta Richter-Dahlfors
Efficient use of plant-derived materials requires enabling technologies for non-disruptive composition analysis. The ability to identify and spatially locate polysaccharides in native plant tissues is difficult but essential. Here, we develop an optical method for cellulose identification using the structure-responsive, heptameric oligothiophene h-FTAA as molecular fluorophore. Spectrophotometric analysis of h-FTAA interacting with closely related glucans revealed an exceptional specificity for β-linked glucans...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
L García-Calvo, R V Ullán, M Fernández-Aguado, A M García-Lino, R Balaña-Fouce, C Barreiro
Lignocellulosic plant biomass is the most abundant carbon source in the planet, which makes it a potential substrate for biorefinery. It consists of polysaccharides and other molecules with applications in pharmaceutical, food and feed, cosmetics, paper and textile industries. The exploitation of these resources requires the hydrolysis of the plant cell wall, which is a complex process. Aiming to discover novel fungal natural isolates with lignocellulolytic capacities, a screening for feruloyl esterase activity was performed in samples taken from different metal surfaces...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Alei Geng, Yanbing Cheng, Yongli Wang, Daochen Zhu, Yilin Le, Jian Wu, Rongrong Xie, Joshua S Yuan, Jianzhong Sun
Background: Wood-feeding termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, represents a highly efficient system for biomass deconstruction and utilization. However, the detailed mechanisms of lignin modification and carbohydrate degradation in this system are still largely elusive. Results: In order to reveal the inherent mechanisms for efficient biomass degradation, four different organs (salivary glands, foregut, midgut, and hindgut) within a complete digestive system of a lower termite, C...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Yuhao Nie, Xiaotao Bi
Background: Biofuels from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of abundantly available forest residues in British Columbia (BC) can potentially make great contributions to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. A life-cycle assessment was conducted to quantify the GHG emissions of a hypothetic 100 million liters per year HTL biofuel system in the Coast Region of BC. Three scenarios were defined and investigated, namely, supply of bulky forest residues for conversion in a central integrated refinery (Fr-CIR), HTL of forest residues to bio-oil in distributed biorefineries and subsequent upgrading in a central oil refinery (Bo-DBR), and densification of forest residues in distributed pellet plants and conversion in a central integrated refinery (Wp-CIR)...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Michael Reisinger, Özge Tirpanalan, Suwattana Pruksasri, Wolfgang Kneifel, Senad Novalin
BACKGROUND: The disintegration of destarched wheat bran in water and sulphuric acid (pH 3) under subcritical conditions (275-300 °C) and at short reaction times (1-4 min) was investigated. A cascade process comprising a stepwise separation of the liquid was applied to reduce the formation of undesired degradation products. RESULTS: The highest degree of biomass disintegration (67% dry mass solubilization) was achieved by application of a cascade process at 275 °C (pH 3)...
February 10, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Zhi-Hua Liu, Shangxian Xie, Furong Lin, Mingjie Jin, Joshua S Yuan
Background: Lignin valorization has recently been considered to be an essential process for sustainable and cost-effective biorefineries. Lignin represents a potential new feedstock for value-added products. Oleaginous bacteria such as Rhodococcus opacus can produce intracellular lipids from biodegradation of aromatic substrates. These lipids can be used for biofuel production, which can potentially replace petroleum-derived chemicals. However, the low reactivity of lignin produced from pretreatment and the underdeveloped fermentation technology hindered lignin bioconversion to lipids...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Huan Zhou, Liuyang Wang, Yun Liu
Background: Efficient enzymatic conversion of recalcitrant crystalline cellulose is critical for enabling cost-effective industrial conversion of cellulosic biomass to biofuels and chemicals. Fully understanding enzyme digestion mechanism is paving a new way to design efficient process for biomass conversion. Accordingly, a continuing drive is inspiring to discover new routes to promote crystalline cellulose disruption. Results: Herein, a physico-chemical oxidative cleavage strategy of irradiation oxidation/post-reduction (IOPR) was employed to treat crystalline cellulose I to cleave glycosidic bonds association with some new oxidized and reduced chain ends, thus boosting downstream degradation by cellulases from Trichoderma reesei...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Edgard Gnansounou
This study revisited the fundamentals of allocation to joint products and proposed new models for allocating common greenhouse gases emissions among coproducts of biorefineries. These emissions may account for more than 80% of the total emissions of greenhouse gases of the biorefineries. The proposed models optimize the reward of coproducts for their compliance to environmental requirements. They were illustrated by a case study of wheat straw biorefinery built on the literature. Several scenarios were considered with regard to the grain yield, field emissions of greenhouse gases, allocation between grain and straw and policy requirements...
January 16, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Amanda M Teekens, Marieke E Bruins, Johannes Mn van Kasteren, Wouter H Hendriks, Johan Pm Sanders
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Marie Couturier, Simon Ladevèze, Gerlind Sulzenbacher, Luisa Ciano, Mathieu Fanuel, Céline Moreau, Ana Villares, Bernard Cathala, Florence Chaspoul, Kristian E Frandsen, Aurore Labourel, Isabelle Herpoël-Gimbert, Sacha Grisel, Mireille Haon, Nicolas Lenfant, Hélène Rogniaux, David Ropartz, Gideon J Davies, Marie-Noëlle Rosso, Paul H Walton, Bernard Henrissat, Jean-Guy Berrin
Wood biomass is the most abundant feedstock envisioned for the development of modern biorefineries. However, the cost-effective conversion of this form of biomass into commodity products is limited by its resistance to enzymatic degradation. Here we describe a new family of fungal lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) prevalent among white-rot and brown-rot basidiomycetes that is active on xylans-a recalcitrant polysaccharide abundant in wood biomass. Two AA14 LPMO members from the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus coccineus substantially increase the efficiency of wood saccharification through oxidative cleavage of highly refractory xylan-coated cellulose fibers...
January 29, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
Flavia Squeglia, Rita Berisio, Alessia Ruggiero
Cellulose-based products constitute the great majority of municipal waste, and applications of cellulases in the conversion of waste biomass to biofuels will be a key technology in future biorefineries. Currently, multi-enzymatic pre-treatment of biomass is a crucial step in making carbohydrates more accessible for subsequent fermentation. Using bioinformatics analysis, endo-β-(1,4)-glucanase from Dictyoglomus thermophilum (DtCel5H) was identified as a new member of glycosyl hydrolase family 5. The gene encoding DtCel5H was cloned and the recombinant protein was overexpressed for crystallization and biophysical studies...
January 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
Carlos A Flores-Gómez, Eleazar M Escamilla Silva, Cheng Zhong, Bruce E Dale, Leonardo da Costa Sousa, Venkatesh Balan
Background: Agave-based alcoholic beverage companies generate thousands of tons of solid residues per year in Mexico. These agave residues might be used for biofuel production due to their abundance and favorable sustainability characteristics. In this work, agave leaf and bagasse residues from species Agave tequilana and Agave salmiana were subjected to pretreatment using the ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) process. The pretreatment conditions were optimized using a response surface design methodology...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Paula Pérez-López, Mahdokht Montazeri, Gumersindo Feijoo, María Teresa Moreira, Matthew J Eckelman
The economic and environmental performance of microalgal processes has been widely analyzed in recent years. However, few studies propose an integrated process-based approach to evaluate economic and environmental indicators simultaneously. Biodiesel is usually the single product and the effect of environmental benefits of co-products obtained in the process is rarely discussed. In addition, there is wide variation of the results due to inherent variability of some parameters as well as different assumptions in the models and limited knowledge about the processes...
January 19, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Shir Reen Chia, Kit Wayne Chew, Pau Loke Show, Yee Jiun Yap, Hwai Chyuan Ong, Tau Chuan Ling, Jo-Shu Chang
Microalgae are considered promising feedstock for the production of biofuels and other bioactive compounds, yet there are still challenges on commercial applications of microalgae-based products. This review focuses on the economic analysis, environmental impact and industrial potential of biofuels production from microalgae. The cost of biofuels production remains higher compared to conventional fuel sources. However, integration of biorefinery pathways with biofuels production for the recovery of value-added products (such as antioxidants, natural dyes, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, polyunsaturated fatty acids and so forth) could substantially reduce the production costs...
January 22, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Eduarda S Morais, Patrícia V Mendonça, Jorge F J Coelho, Mara G Freire, Carmen S R Freire, João A P Coutinho, Armando J D Silvestre
This work contributes to the development of integrated lignocellulosic-based biorefineries by the pioneering exploitation of hardwood xylans by solubilization and extraction in deep eutectic solvents (DES). DES formed by choline chloride and urea or acetic acid were initially evaluated as solvents for commercial xylan as a model compound. The effects of temperature, molar ratio, and concentration of the DES aqueous solutions were evaluated and optimized by using a response surface methodology. The results obtained demonstrated the potential of these solvents, with 328...
January 18, 2018: ChemSusChem
Vânia G Zuin, Luize Z Ramin
New generations of biorefinery combine innovative biomass waste resources from different origins, chemical extraction and/or synthesis of biomaterials, biofuels, and bioenergy via green and sustainable processes. From the very beginning, identifying and evaluating all potentially high value-added chemicals that could be removed from available renewable feedstocks requires robust, efficient, selective, reproducible, and benign analytical approaches. With this in mind, green and sustainable separation of natural products from agro-industrial waste is clearly attractive considering both socio-environmental and economic aspects...
January 17, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Ryoko Ohno, Hiroshi Teramura, Chiaki Ogino, Akihiko Kondo, Shigeo Takumi
Wheat straw is one of the major attractive resources for low-cost raw materials for renewable energy, biofuels and biochemicals. However, like other sources of lignocellulosic biomass, straw is a heterogeneous material due to its mixed origin from different tissue and cell types. Here, to examine the genotypic effects on biorefinery usage of wheat straw, straw obtained from different wheat cultivars and experimental lines was pretreated with dilute acid. Significant differences between cultivars were observed in the concentrations of glucose and toxic by-products of the liquid hydrolysates...
January 17, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Jiajin Liang, Xiuxiu Fang, Yunqin Lin, Dehan Wang
Recalcitrance limits biomass application in biorefinery. It is even more so when toxic chlorophenols are present. In this study, we screened a microbial consortium, OEM2, for lignocellulose deconstruction and chlorophenols detoxification through a short-term and efficient screening process. Microbial consortium OEM2 had a good buffer capability in the cultivation process and exhibited a high xylanase activity, with over 85% hemicellulose degradation within 12 days. Throughout the treatment process, 41.5% rice straw decomposition on day 12 and around 75% chlorophenols (MCP, 2,4-DCP, 2,4,6-TCP) removal on day 9, were recorded...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Ryosuke Kadoya, Ken'ichiro Matsumoto, Kenji Takisawa, Toshihiko Ooi, Seiichi Taguchi
Lignocellulose-utilizing biorefinery is a promising strategy for the sustainable production of value-added products such as bio-based polymers. Simultaneous consumption of glucose and xylose in Escherichia coli was achieved by overexpression of the gene encoding Mlc, a multiple regulator of glucose and xylose uptake. This catabolite derepression gave the enhancement in the production of poly (15 mol% lactate-co-3-hydroxybutyrate), up to 65% from 50% (wild-type strain) in the cellular contents, of the Mlc-overexpressing strain of E...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
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