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E Y Artamonova, T Vasskog, H C Eilertsen
In the current study two novel psychrophilic diatoms Porosira glacialis and Attheya longicornis were tested for suitability to CO2 mitigation coupled with production of the physiologically requisite omega- 3 fatty acids. This study is in line with the worldwide conducted research aimed at applying biorefinery concept to heavy polluting industries. Since the production of algal high value compounds, i.e. essential fatty acids, relies on utilization of residual CO2 emissions coming from industry, the costs of such production maybe substantially reduced...
2017: PloS One
Wenya Wang, Chao Zhang, Xinxiao Sun, Sisi Su, Qiang Li, Robert J Linhardt
Lignin is the second most abundant bio-resource in nature. It is increasingly important to convert lignin into high value-added chemicals to accelerate the development of the lignocellulose biorefinery. Over the past several decades, physical and chemical methods have been widely explored to degrade lignin and convert it into valuable chemicals. Unfortunately, these developments have lagged because of several difficulties, of which high energy consumption and non-specific cleavage of chemical bonds in lignin remain the greatest challenges...
June 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Mariateresa Ferone, Francesca Raganati, Giuseppe Olivieri, Piero Salatino, Antonio Marzocchella
Succinic acid (SA) is a well-established chemical building block. Actinobacillus succinogenes fermentation is by far the most investigated route due to very promising high SA yield and titer on several sugars. This study contributes to include the SA production within the concept of biorefinery of lignocellulose biomass. The study was focused on the SA production by A. succinogenes DSM 22257 using sugars representative from lignocellulose hydrolysis-glucose, mannose, arabinose, and xylose-as carbon source. Single sugar batch fermentation tests and mixture sugar fermentation tests were carried out...
May 24, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Danay Carrillo-Nieves, Héctor A Ruiz, Cristóbal N Aguilar, Anna Ilyina, Roberto Parra-Saldivar, J Antonio Torres, José L Martínez Hernández
Three alternatives for bioethanol production from pretreated mango stem bark after maceration (MSBAM) were evaluated as a biorefinery component for the mango agroindustry. These included separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), and pre-saccharification followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF). The effects on ethanol concentration, yield and productivity of pretreated MSBAM solids loading, Tween 20 addition, and temperature were used for process comparisons...
May 3, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Vinuselvi Parisutham, Sathesh-Prabu Chandran, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay, Sung Kuk Lee, Jay D Keasling
Complete hydrolysis of cellulose has been a key characteristic of biomass technology because of the limitation of industrial production hosts to use cellodextrin, the partial hydrolysis product of cellulose. Cellobiose, a β-1,4-linked glucose dimer, is a major cellodextrin of the enzymatic hydrolysis (via endoglucanase and exoglucanase) of cellulose. Conversion of cellobiose to glucose is executed by β-glucosidase. The complete extracellular hydrolysis of celluloses has several critical barriers in biomass technology...
May 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Thomas Pielhop, Janick Amgarten, Michael H Studer, Philipp Rudolf von Rohr
BACKGROUND: Steam explosion pretreatment has been examined in many studies for enhancing the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass and is currently the most common pretreatment method in commercial biorefineries. It is however not effective for overcoming the extremely high recalcitrance of softwood to biochemical conversion. Recent fundamental research in small-scale liquid hot water pretreatment has shown, though, that the addition of a carbocation scavenger like 2-naphthol can prevent lignin repolymerization and thus enhance the enzymatic digestibility of softwood cellulose...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Diptarka Dasgupta, Debashish Ghosh, Sheetal Bandhu, Dilip K Adhikari
Optimum utilization of fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass to deliver multiple products under biorefinery concept has been reported in this work. Alcohol fermentation has been carried out with multiple cell recycling of Kluyveromyces marxianus IIPE453. The yeast utilized xylose-rich fraction from acid and steam treated biomass for cell generation and xylitol production with an average yield of 0.315±0.01g/g while the entire glucose rich saccharified fraction had been fermented to ethanol with high productivity of 0...
July 2017: Microbiological Research
Muhammad Hariadi Nawawi, Rosfarizan Mohamad, Paridah Md Tahir, Wan Zuhainis Saad
Microbial xylanase and pectinase are two extremely valuable enzymes, which have captivated much attention. This can be seen from the increased demand for these enzymes by many industrial sectors. This study investigates the isolation and screening of extracellular xylanopectinolytic enzymes-producing bacteria in a submerged fermentation (SmF). Samples are collected from the compost of empty fruit bunch (EFB) at Biocompost Pilot Plant, located at Biorefinery Plant, Universiti Putra Malaysia. From the experiment, out of 20 isolates, 11 isolates show xylanase or/and pectinase activity, and only one isolate (EFB-11) shows the concurrent activities of xylanase and pectinase...
2017: International Scholarly Research Notices
Dong-Yeon Kim, Kyubock Lee, Jiye Lee, Young-Hee Lee, Jong-In Han, Ji-Yeon Park, You-Kwan Oh
Chemical flocculation is considered to be an overall low-cost and up-scalable process for harvesting of microalgae. In this study a new flocculation approach utilizing metal coagulant (Fe2(SO4)3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) was introduced for harvesting of Chlorella sp. KR-1, which overcome two main issues of contamination and reuse of coagulant. Reduction of pH successfully released precipitates attached to the microalgae, and the remaining acidic solution containing recovered ferric ions could be reused for harvesting up to three times with high, better-than 98% efficiencies...
May 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Wei-Shan Chen, David P B T B Strik, Cees J N Buisman, Carolien Kroeze
Caproic acid is an emerging platform chemical with diverse applications. Recently, a novel biorefinery process, i.e. chain elongation, was developed to convert mixed organic waste and ethanol into renewable caproic acids. In the coming years, this process may become commercialised, and continuing to improve on the basis of numerous ongoing technological and microbiological studies. This study aims to analyse the environmental performance of caproic acid production from mixed organic waste via chain elongation at this current, early stage of technological development...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
P Chiranjeevi, S Venkata Mohan
In this study, a biorefinery process integrating dark fermentation with microalgae cultivation (dual phase metabolic transition) was demonstrated with real-field wastewater. Acid rich fermented effluents (distillery waste (FDW1); dairy waste (FDW2)) were used as feedstock for microalgae cultivation. Experiments were performed with FDW1 during growth phase (GP) in mixotrophic mode and FDW2 during stress phase (SP) in both mixotrophic and heterotrophic modes. Mixotrophic cultivation with FDW1 documented significantly higher biomass productivity (5...
April 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Faiz Ahmad Ansari, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Amritanshu Shriwastav, Abhishek Guldhe, Ismail Rawat, Faizal Bux
Microalgae have tremendous potential to grow rapidly, synthesize, and accumulate lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The effects of solvent extraction of lipids on other metabolites such as proteins and carbohydrates in lipid-extracted algal (LEA) biomass are crucial aspects of algal biorefinery approach. An effective and economically feasible algae-based oil industry will depend on the selection of suitable solvent/s for lipid extraction, which has minimal effect on metabolites in lipid-extracted algae. In current study, six solvent systems were employed to extract lipids from dry and wet biomass of Scenedesmus obliquus...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Somayeh Farzad, Mohsen Ali Mandegari, Johann F Görgens
In this study, lignocellulose biorefineries annexed to a typical sugar mill were investigated to produce either ethanol (EtOH) or 1,3-butadiene (BD), utilizing bagasse and trash as feedstock. Aspen simulation of the scenarios were developed and evaluated in terms of economic and environmental performance. The minimum selling prices (MSPs) for bio-based BD and EtOH production were 2.9-3.3 and 1.26-1.38-fold higher than market prices, respectively. Based on the sensitivity analysis results, capital investment, Internal Rate of Return and extension of annual operating time had the greatest impact on the MSP...
May 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Jim Philp
During the Industrial Revolution, it became clear that wood was unsuited as an energy source for industrial production, especially iron smelting. However, the transition to coal was the effort of decades. Similarly, the transition from coal to oil was neither a smooth nor rapid process. The transition to an energy and materials production regime based on renewable resources can similarly be expected to be fraught with many setbacks and obstacles, technically and politically. Those earlier transitions, however, were not complicated by the so-called grand challenges faced today...
May 6, 2017: New Biotechnology
Wael Sabra, Rajesh Reddy Bommareddy, Garima Maheshwari, Seraphim Papanikolaou, An-Ping Zeng
BACKGROUND: Unlike the well-studied backer yeast where catabolite repression represents a burden for mixed substrate fermentation, Yarrowia lipolytica, an oleaginous yeast, is recognized for its potential to produce single cell oils and citric acid from different feedstocks. These versatilities of Y. lipolytica with regards to substrate utilization make it an attractive host for biorefinery application. However, to develop a commercial process for the production of citric acid by Y. lipolytica, it is necessary to better understand the primary metabolism and its regulation, especially for growth on mixed substrate...
May 8, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
Mariela P Mezzina, Daniela Álvarez, Diego Egoburo, Rocío Díaz Peña, Pablo I Nikel, M Julia Pettinari
The microbial production of biofuels and other added-value chemicals is often limited by the intrinsic toxicity of these compounds. Phasin PhaP from the soil bacterium Azotobacter sp. strain FA8 is a polyhydroxyalkanoate granule-associated protein that protects recombinant Escherichia coli against several kinds of stress. PhaP enhances growth and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) synthesis in polymer-producing recombinant strains and reduces the formation of inclusion bodies during overproduction of heterologous proteins...
May 5, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Osvaldo D Frutos, Irene Cortes, Sara Cantera, Esther Arnaiz, Raquel Lebrero, Raúl Muñoz
N2O represents ∼6% of the global greenhouse gas emission inventory and the most important O3-depleting substance emitted in this 21st century. Despite its environmental relevance, little attention has been given to cost-effective and environmentally friendly N2O abatement methods. Here we examined, the potential of a bubble column (BCR) and an internal loop airlift (ALR) bioreactors of 2.3 L for the abatement of N2O from a nitric acid plant emission. The process was based on the biological reduction of N2O by Paracoccus denitrificans using methanol as a carbon/electron source...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Christian Hutterer, Gerhard Kliba, Manuel Punz, Karin Fackler, Antje Potthast
The high-yield separation of polymeric parts from wood-derived lignocellulosic material is indispensable in biorefinery concepts. For the separation of cellulose and xylan from hardwood paper pulps to obtain pulps of high cellulose contents, simple alkaline extractions were found to be the most suitable technology, although having certain limitations. These are embodied by residual alkali resistant xylan incorporated in the pulp matrix. Further purification in order to produce pure cellulose with a low uniformity could be achieved selectively degrading residual xylan and depolymerizing the cellulose macromolecules by xylanase and cellulase...
July 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Wei-Jing Chen, Sheng Yang, Yun Zhang, Yun-Yan Wang, Tong-Qi Yuan, Run-Cang Sun
A clear elucidation of structural feature of whole lignin in plant cell wall is of great importance for understanding lignin biosynthesis mechanism and developing lignin based chemicals or materials under the current biorefinery scenario. Swollen residual enzyme lignin (SREL) has been identified as an ideal representative for native lignin in the plant walls. To investigate the influence of preswelling conditions on the structural features, the SREL obtained through preswelling the ball-milled Eucalyptus wood powder in 2, 4 and 8% NaOH solutions and subsequent in-situ enzymatic hydrolysis were thoroughly characterized...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
Thomas Zweckmair, Sonja Schiehser, Thomas Rosenau, Antje Potthast
A novel method for the precise and accurate quantification of wood monosaccharides by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry in complex lignocellulosic biomass matrices is presented. Instead of using the syn- or the anti-peak obtained by blocking the anomeric center using e.g. oximation, the sum of each syn- and anti-peak pair is used for quantification rendering the approach of the apparently constant syn- and anti-peak area ratio. Each wood monosaccharide syn- and anti-peak could essentially be distinguished upon O-ethoximation followed by trifluoroacetylation and separation on a 14% cyanopropyl/phenyl- 86% dimethylpoly-siloxane column...
April 13, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
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