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medium chain fatty acid

Mohammad A Alwashih, Roland H Stimson, Ruth Andrew, Brian R Walker, David G Watson
With the aim of identifying biomarkers of glucocorticoid action and their relationship with biomarkers of insulin action, metabolomic profiling was carried out in plasma samples from twenty healthy men who were administered either a low or medium dose insulin infusion (n = 10 each group). In addition, all subjects were given metyrapone (to inhibit adrenal cortisol secretion) + /- hydrocortisone (HC) in a randomised crossover design to produce low, medium and high glucocorticoid levels. The clearest effects of insulin were to reduce plasma levels of the branched chain amino acids (BCAs) leucine/isoleucine and their deaminated metabolites, and lowered free fatty acids and acylcarnitines...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jan B Król, Łukasz Niczke, Karol J Kowalski
Bitumen is a commonly used material for road construction. According to environmental regulations, vegetable-based materials are applied for binder modification. Fluxed road bitumen containing a bio-flux oxidation product increases the consistency over time. The efficiency of crosslinking depends on the number of double bonds and their position in the aliphatic chain of fatty acid. The main goal of this paper was to examine the structural changes taking place during hardening bitumen with bio-flux additives...
September 9, 2017: Materials
Rajneet Kaur Khurana, Sarwar Beg, Andrea Julie Burrow, Rakesh K Vashishta, O P Katare, Satvinder Kaur, Prashant Kesherwani, Kamalinder K Singh, Bhupinder Singh
The aim of this study was to develop polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) long chain glyceride (LCG) enriched self-nanoemulsifying lipidic nanomicelles systems (SNELS) for augmenting lymphatic uptake and enhancing oral bioavailability of docetaxel and compare its biopharmaceutical performance with a medium-chain fatty acid glyceride (MCG) SNELS. Equilibrium solubility and pseudo ternary phase studies facilitated the selection of suitable LCG and MCG. The critical material attributes (CMAs) and critical process parameters (CPPs) were earmarked using Placket-Burman Design (PBD) and Fractional Factorial Design (FFD) for LCG- and MCG-SNELS respectively, and nano micelles were subsequently optimized using I- and D-optimal designs...
September 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Bora Kim, Jieon Lee, Kwang-Hee Shin, SeungHwan Lee, Kyung-Sang Yu, In-Jin Jang, Joo-Youn Cho
Quantitative models of endogenous metabolites are useful in predicting CYP3A-mediated drug-drug interactions. This study aimed to identify novel predictive markers for the magnitude of CYP3A induction and inhibition in male and female subjects using an untargeted metabolomics approach. Here, we report five ω- or (ω-1)-hydroxylated medium-chain acylcarnitines as novel CYP3A4 markers. As CYP4 catalyzes the ω- or (ω-1)-hydroxylation of various medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), recombinant enzyme assays were used to determine the ω- and (ω-1)-hydroxylation activities of CYP3A4, CYP4A11, and CYP4F2...
September 6, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Kai Hu, Guo-Jie Jin, Wen-Chao Mei, Ting Li, Yong-Sheng Tao
Medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) ethyl esters, as yeast secondary metabolites, significantly contribute to the fruity aroma of foods and beverages. To improve the MCFA ethyl ester content of wine, mixed fermentations with Hanseniaspora uvarum Yun268 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were performed. Final volatiles were analyzed by gas solid phase microextraction-chromatography-mass spectrometry, and aroma characteristics were quantitated by sensory analysis. Results showed that mixed fermentation increased MCFA ethyl ester content by 37% in Cabernet Gernischt wine compared to that obtained by pure fermentation...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Melanie B Gillingham, Stephen B Heitner, Julie Martin, Sarah Rose, Amy Goldstein, Areeg Hassan El-Gharbawy, Stephanie Deward, Michael R Lasarev, Jim Pollaro, James P DeLany, Luke J Burchill, Bret Goodpaster, James Shoemaker, Dietrich Matern, Cary O Harding, Jerry Vockley
BACKGROUND: Observational reports suggest that supplementation that increases citric acid cycle intermediates via anaplerosis may have therapeutic advantages over traditional medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) treatment of long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders (LC-FAODs) but controlled trials have not been reported. The goal of our study was to compare the effects of triheptanoin (C7), an anaplerotic seven-carbon fatty acid triglyceride, to trioctanoin (C8), an eight-carbon fatty acid triglyceride, in patients with LC-FAODs...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Patricia Widmayer, Soumya Kusumakshi, Franziska A Hägele, Ulrich Boehm, Heinz Breer
During weaning, the ingested food of mouse pups changes from exclusively milk to solid food. In contrast to the protein- and carbohydrate-rich solid food, high fat milk is characterized primarily by fatty acids of medium chain length particularly important for the suckling pups. Therefore, it seems conceivable that the stomach mucosa may be specialized for detecting these important nutrients during the suckling phase. Here, we analyzed the expression of the G protein coupled receptors GPR84 and GPR120 (FFAR4), which are considered to be receptors for medium and long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Jussi P Posti, Alex M Dickens, Matej Orešič, Tuulia Hyötyläinen, Olli Tenovuo
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex disease with a multifaceted pathophysiology. Impairment of energy metabolism is a key component of secondary insults. This phenomenon is a consequence of multiple potential mechanisms including diffusion hypoxia, mitochondrial failure, and increased energy needs due to systemic trauma responses, seizures, or spreading depolarization. The degree of disturbance in brain metabolism is affected by treatment interventions and reflected in clinical patient outcome. Hence, monitoring of these secondary events in peripheral blood will provide a window into the pathophysiological course of severe TBI...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Marine S Da Silva, Dominic Chartrand, Marie-Claude Vohl, Olivier Barbier, Iwona Rudkowska
Dairy product intake and a person's genetic background have been reported to be associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The objective of this study was to examine the interaction between dairy products and genes related to T2D on glucose-insulin homeostasis parameters. A validated food frequency questionnaire, fasting blood samples, and glucokinase (GCK) genotypes were analyzed in 210 healthy participants. An interaction between rs1799884 in GCK and dairy intake on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was identified...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
Li Xiang, Juntong Wei, Xiao Yu Tian, Bei Wang, Wan Chan, Shangfu Li, Zhi Tang, Hongsong Zhang, Wai San Cheang, Qian Zhao, Hongzhi Zhao, Zhiyi Yang, Yanjun Hong, Yu Huang, Zongwei Cai
Acylcarnitines are exerting a variety of biological functions depending on the differences in lengths, saturation levels, and conjugation groups, which to a great extent contribute to the challenges of acylcarnitines quantifications due to various kinds of isomers. Here, we describe a novel method by using high-resolution parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Both reversed-phase and normal-phase column were used in order to get accurate, reliable, widespread quantification of acylcarnitines, and without tedious sample preparation procedure...
September 12, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Hiroki Kageshima, Kazumi Hayama, Miki Takahashi, Miho Abe, Tsuyoshi Yamada, Akira Saito, Shoichiro Hirano, Yoichi Murakami, Shigeru Abe
A lysozyme-chitosan conjugate preparation (LYZOX), produced from egg white lysozyme and chitosan by Maillard reaction, is a commercial product developed as a cosmetic ingredient or food additive. Effects of LYZOX on in vitro growth of Candida albicans were examined. C. albicans cells were treated with LYZOX for 3 hrs, and then washed and cultured for an additional 16 hrs in modified RPMI1640 medium. Mycelial growth of C. albicans was clearly inhibited by more than 100 μg/ml of LYZOX in a concentration-dependent manner...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
F Castellani, A Vitali, N Bernardi, E Marone, F Palazzo, L Grotta, G Martino
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary integration of dried olive pomace (DOP), a by-product of olive oil separation, on nutritional and aromatic properties of milk and cheese. Twenty dairy cows were divided into 2 groups that were balanced for milk yield, parity, and days in milk. The control group was fed a conventional diet (20 kg of dry matter/head per day), whereas the experimental group (EG) received the conventional diet supplemented with DOP as 10% of dry matter. During the trial, milk yield was recorded and the samples of milk, cheese, total mixed rations, and DOP were collected and analyzed to determine the chemical-nutritional composition and aromatic profile...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Ji-Hyun Lee, Su-Jin Kim, Sul Lee, Jin-Kyu Rhee, Soo Young Lee, Yun-Cheol Na
A sensitive and selective capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) method for determination of saturated fatty acids (FAs) was developed by using dicationic ion-pairing reagents forming singly charged complexes with anionic FAs. For negative ESI detection, 21 anionic FAs at pH 10 were separated using ammonium formate buffer containing 40% acetonitrile modifier in normal polarity mode in CE by optimizing various parameters. This method showed good separation efficiency, but the sensitivity of the method to short-chain fatty acids was quite low, causing acetic and propionic acids to be undetectable even at 100 mgL(-1) in negative ESI-MS detection...
September 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
Yu Kajihara, Shota Yoshikawa, Yuichiro Cho, Toshiyuki Ito, Hirokuni Miyamoto, Hiroaki Kodama
Lactic acid produced by intestinal bacteria is fermented by lactate-utilizing bacteria. In this study, we developed a selective culture medium (KMI medium) for Megasphaera elsdenii, a lactate-utilizing bacterium that is abundant in pig intestines. Supplementation of the medium with lactate and beef extract powder was necessary for the preferential growth of M. elsdenii. In addition, we designed a species-specific primer set to detect M. elsdenii. When pig fecal samples were plated on KMI agar medium, approximately 60-100% of the resulting colonies tested positive using the M...
August 28, 2017: Anaerobe
Imran Taj Khan, Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Ayaz, Muhammad Ajmal, Muhammad Yaqoob Ellahi, Anjum Khalique
BACKGROUND: Antioxidant capacity of milk is largely due to vitamins A, E, carotenoids, zinc, selenium, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and enzyme systems. Cow milk has antioxidant capacity while the antioxidant capacity of buffalo milk has been studied in a limited way. The information regarding the effect of pasteurization and boiling on antioxidant capacity of cow and buffalo milk is also scared. METHODS: Cow and buffalo milk was exposed to two different heat treatments i...
August 24, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
Matteo Bergamaschi, Giovanni Bittante
In this research two-dimensional GC was used to analyse, for the first time, the detailed fatty acid (FA) profiles of 11 dairy matrices: raw milk (evening whole, evening partially skimmed, morning whole, and vat milk), cream, fresh cheese, whey, ricotta, scotta, 6- and 12-month-ripened cheeses, obtained across artisanal cheese- and ricotta-making trials carried out during the summer period while cows were on highland pastures. Samples were collected during 7 cheese- and ricotta-making procedures carried out at 2-week intervals from bulk milk to study possible differences in the transfer and modification of FA...
August 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
Phing-How Lou, Eliana Lucchinetti, Katrina Y Scott, Yiming Huang, Manoj Gandhi, Martin Hersberger, Alexander S Clanachan, Hélène Lemieux, Michael Zaugg
Despite the fact that skeletal muscle insulin resistance is the hallmark of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), inflexibility in substrate energy metabolism has been observed in other tissues such as liver, adipose tissue, and heart. In the heart, structural and functional changes ultimately lead to diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, little is known about the early biochemical changes that cause cardiac metabolic dysregulation and dysfunction. We used a dietary model of fructose-induced T2DM (10% fructose in drinking water for 6 weeks) to study cardiac fatty acid metabolism in early T2DM and related signaling events in order to better understand mechanisms of disease...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
Sudeepa Bhattacharyya, Mohamed Ali, William H Smith, Paul E Minkler, Maria S Stoll, Charles L Hoppel, Sean H Adams
The period around bariatric surgery offers a unique opportunity to characterize metabolism responses to dynamic shifts in energy, gut function, and anesthesia. We analyzed plasma acylcarnitines in obese women (n=17) sampled in the overnight fasted/postabsorptive state ca. 1-2 weeks prior to surgery (Condition A), the morning of surgery (prior restriction to a 48 hr. clear liquid diet coupled in some cases a standard polyethylene glycol gut evacuation: Condition B), and following induction of anesthesia (Condition C)...
August 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
T A Kellner, N K Gabler, J F Patience
The objective was to investigate the of effect chemical composition of dietary fat on transcription of genes involved in lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and the liver via transcriptional profiling in growing pigs. A total of 48 Genetiporc 6.0 × Genetiporc F25 (PIC, Inc., Hendersonville, TN) barrows (initial BW of 44.1 ± 1.2 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments. Each experimental diet included 95% of a corn-soybean meal basal diet and 5% cornstarch (control; CNTR), animal-vegetable blend (AV), coconut oil (COCO), corn oil (COIL), fish oil (FO), or tallow (TAL)...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Alaina A Esperón-Rojas, R Baeza-Jiménez, Cynthia Cano-Sarmiento, Hugo S García
In the present work, direct enzyme-catalysed esterification of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) from three different sources (Medium chain triacylglycerols, MCT; saponified MCT and a mixture of free MCFA) was evaluated to obtain structured mono- and diacylglycerols. The esterifications were carried out mixing the different sources of MCFA with glycerol at two weight ratios (1:1 and 4:1, w/w), using three immobilized lipases: Novozym 435, Lipozyme RM IM and Lipozyme TL IM; different reaction times (t = 0, 15, 30, 60, 120 min); enzyme loadings (5, 10 or 15% with respect to the total weight of substrates)...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
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