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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535459/spectra-structure-correlations-of-saturated-and-unsaturated-medium-chain-fatty-acids-near-infrared-and-anharmonic-dft-study-of-hexanoic-acid-and-sorbic-acid
#1
Justyna Grabska, Krzysztof B Beć, Mika Ishigaki, Marek J Wójcik, Yukihiro Ozaki
Quantum chemical reproduction of entire NIR spectra is a new trend, enabled by contemporary advances in the anharmonic approaches. At the same time, recent increase of the importance of NIR spectroscopy of biological samples raises high demand for gaining deeper understanding of NIR spectra of biomolecules, i.e. fatty acids. In this work we investigate saturated and unsaturated medium-chain fatty acids, hexanoic acid and sorbic acid, in the near-infrared region. By employing fully anharmonic density functional theory (DFT) calculations we reproduce the experimental NIR spectra of these systems, including the highly specific spectral features corresponding to the dimerization of fatty acids...
May 13, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529330/dietary-medium-chain-saturated-fatty-acids-induce-gene-expression-of-energy-metabolism-related-pathways-in-adipose-tissue-of-abdominally-obese-subjects
#2
J C Matualatupauw, M Bohl, S Gregersen, K Hermansen, L A Afman
BACKGROUND: Dietary medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MC-SFAs) have been shown to reduce total body fat. Previously, we showed that MC-SFAs prevent body fat accumulation, despite weight gain. Here, we aim to explore potential molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effect of MC-SFAs on body fat gain. METHODS: The DairyHealth study examined the long-term effects of milk protein and milk fat with a low or high content of MC-SFA. In this 12 week, randomized, double-blind, diet intervention study, participants consumed 60 g milk protein (whey or casein) and 63 g milk fat (high MC-SFA or low MC-SFA) daily in a 2 by 2 factorial design...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512781/developmental-regulation-and-localization-of-carnitine-palmitoyltransferases-cpts-in-rat-brain
#3
Jennifer N Jernberg, Caitlyn E Bowman, Michael J Wolfgang, Susanna Scafidi
While the brain's high energy demands are largely met by glucose, brain is also equipped with the ability to oxidize fatty acids for energy and metabolism. The brain expresses the carnitine palmitoyltransferases (CPTs) that mediate carnitine-dependent entry of long-chain acyl-CoAs into the mitochondrial matrix for β-oxidation - CPT1a and CPT2 located on the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes, respectively. Their developmental profile, regional distribution and activity as well as cell type expression remain unknown...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510703/long-chain-fatty-acid-triglyceride-tg-metabolism-disorder-impairs-male-fertility-a-study-using-adipose-triglyceride-lipase-deficient-mice
#4
Hidetake Masaki, Namhyo Kim, Hitomi Nakamura, Keiichi Kumasawa, Eriko Kamata, Ken-Ichi Hirano, Tadashi Kimura
STUDY QUESTION: Does the deletion of adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) gene impair male fertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: The deletion of Atgl gene impaired male fertility but the effect was partially reversed by a low long chain triglyceride (TG) diet. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: ATGL specifically hydrolyses long-chain fatty acid triglyceride (TG) to diacylglycerol and a high level of expression of ATGL in testes has been reported. However, the role of ATGL in male fertility is unknown...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508410/lipid-distribution-composition-and-uptake-in-bovine-articular-cartilage-studied-using-raman-micro-spectrometry-and-confocal-microscopy
#5
Jessica Claire Mansfield, C Peter Winlove
The distribution and composition of endogenous lipids in articular cartilage and transport of exogenous fatty acids have been investigated on a microscopic scale in fresh bovine articular cartilage. To investigate the distribution and composition of the endogenous lipids, hyperspectral Raman maps were taken of chondrocytes and their surrounding matrix in both the deep and superficial zones. These revealed differences in both lipid distribution and composition between the two zones. Extracellular lipid was observed surrounding the cells in the superficial zone but not in the deep zone...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505101/dairy-propionibacteria-versatile-probiotics
#6
REVIEW
Houem Rabah, Fillipe Luiz Rosa do Carmo, Gwénaël Jan
Dairy propionibacteria are used as cheese ripening starters, as biopreservative and as beneficial additives, in the food industry. The main species, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, is known as GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe, USA, FDA). In addition to another dairy species, Propionibacterium acidipropionici, they are included in QPS (Qualified Presumption of Safety) list. Additional to their well-known technological application, dairy propionibacteria increasingly attract attention for their promising probiotic properties...
May 13, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502064/optimization-of-water-oil-surfactant-system-for-preparation-of-medium-chain-length-poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates-mcl-pha-incorporated-nanoparticles-via-nanoemulsion-templating-technique
#7
K A Ishak, M Suffian M Annuar, N Ahmad
Polymeric nanoparticles gain a widespread interest in food and pharmaceutical industries as delivery systems that encapsulate, protect, and release lipophilic compounds such as omega-3 fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins, carotenoids, carvedilol, cyclosporine, and ketoprofen. In this study, medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA)-incorporated nanoparticle was developed via facile organic solvent-free nanoemulsion templating technique. The water content (W/surfactant-to-oil (S/O)), S/O, and Cremophor EL-to-Span 80 (Cremo/Sp80) ratios were first optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain nanoemulsion template prior to incorporation of mcl-PHA...
May 13, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475191/effects-of-different-oligosaccharides-at-various-dosages-on-the-composition-of-gut-microbiota-and-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-mice-with-constipation
#8
Linlin Wang, Lujun Hu, Shuang Yan, Tian Jiang, Shuguang Fang, Gang Wang, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different kinds of oligosaccharides (a fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) formulation consisting of 95% FOS (FOS95); a galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) formulation consisting of 90% GOS (GOS90) and an isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMO) formulation consisting of 90% IMO (IMO90)) at dosages of 0.8, 4 g per d per kg bw and 8 g per d per kg bw on the composition and activity of the microbiota in the gut of mice with constipation induced by loperamide. Oligosaccharides were intragastrically administered to specific pathogen-free BALB/c mice once per day for 17 days...
May 5, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462771/shifts-in-microbial-populations-in-rusitec-fermenters-as-affected-by-the-type-of-diet-and-impact-of-the-method-for-estimating-microbial-growth-15n-v-microbial-dna
#9
I Mateos, M J Ranilla, C Saro, M D Carro
Rusitec fermenters are in vitro systems widely used to study ruminal fermentation, but little is known about the microbial populations establishing in them. This study was designed to assess the time evolution of microbial populations in fermenters fed medium- (MC; 50% alfalfa hay : concentrate) and high-concentrate diets (HC; 15 : 85 barley straw : concentrate). Samples from solid (SOL) and liquid (LIQ) content of fermenters were taken immediately before feeding on days 3, 8 and 14 of incubation for quantitative polymerase chain reaction and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis analyses...
May 2, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460931/bioaccessibility-and-antioxidant-activity-of-curcumin-after-encapsulated-by-nano-and-pickering-emulsion-based-on-chitosan-tripolyphosphate-nanoparticles
#10
Bakht Ramin Shah, Chunlan Zhang, Yan Li, Bin Li
In the current study the influence of different lipid-based formulations (Pickering and nanoemulsions) and their droplet size on curcumin encapsulation and bioaccessibility, as well as on its anti-oxidant activity was investigated. Oil-in-water Pickering emulsion stabilized by chitosan-tripolyphosphate (CS-TPP) nanoparticles and nanoemulsions containing an organic phase (Span80:Tween80), were prepared with either medium chain triglyceride (MCT) or corn oil as long chain triglyceride (LCT). An in vitro gastrointestinal (GIT) model consisting of mouth, gastric and intestinal phases was used to characterize the rate and extent of lipid phase digestion of the ingested samples...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455617/progressive-response-of-large-intestinal-bacterial-community-and-fermentation-to-the-stepwise-decrease-of-dietary-crude-protein-level-in-growing-pigs
#11
Yu Peng, Kaifan Yu, Chunlong Mu, Suqin Hang, Lianqiang Che, Weiyun Zhu
The study aimed to determine the effects of reduction of dietary crude protein (CP) level with balanced essential amino acids (EAA) on intestinal bacteria and their metabolites of growing pigs. Forty pigs (initial BW 13.50 ± 0.50 kg, 45 ± 2 days of age) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments containing CP levels at 20.00% (normal crude protein, NP); 17.16% (medium crude protein, MP); 15.30% (low crude protein, LP); and 13.90% (extremely low crude protein, ELP), respectively. Crystalline AAs were added to meet the EAA requirement of pigs...
April 29, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452961/relationship-of-the-reported-intakes-of-fat-and-fatty-acids-to-body-weight-in-us-adults
#12
Susan K Raatz, Zach Conrad, LuAnn K Johnson, Matthew J Picklo, Lisa Jahns
Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categories (1) for the US adult population and, (2) by sociodemographic groups. Reported dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and What We Eat in America (WWEIA) surveys in the years 2005-2012 were analyzed...
April 28, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447464/impact-of-lipid-phase-on-the-bioavailability-of-vitamin-e-in-emulsion-based-delivery-systems-relative-importance-of-bioaccessibility-absorption-and-transformation
#13
Ying Yang, Hang Xiao, David Julian McClements
A simulated gastrointestinal tract/Caco-2 cell culture model was used to investigate the effects of lipid phase type on vitamin E (VE) bioavailability. Oil-in-water emulsions fortified with α-tocopherol acetate were fabricated using a natural emulsifier (quillaja saponin) and long or medium chain triglycerides (LCTs or MCTs) as lipids. The impact of lipid type on VE bioaccessibility, absorption, and transformation was determined. VE bioaccessibility was greater for LCT (46%) than MCT (19%) due to greater solubilization in mixed micelles assembled from longer fatty acids...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434722/prediction-of-milk-fatty-acid-content-with-mid-infrared-spectroscopy-in-canadian-dairy-cattle-using-differently-distributed-model-development-sets
#14
A Fleming, F S Schenkel, J Chen, F Malchiodi, V Bonfatti, R A Ali, B Mallard, M Corredig, F Miglior
The fatty acid profile of milk is a prevailing issue due to the potential negative or positive effects of different fatty acids to human health and nutrition. Mid-infrared spectroscopy can be used to obtain predictions of otherwise costly fatty acid phenotypes in a widespread and rapid manner. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prediction of fatty acid content for the Canadian dairy cattle population from mid-infrared spectral data and to compare the results produced by altering the partial least squares (PLS) model development set used...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434221/characterization-of-mesocarp-and-kernel-lipids-from-elaeis-guineensis-jacq-elaeis-oleifera-kunth-cort%C3%A3-s-and-their-interspecific-hybrids
#15
Veronika M Lieb, Margarete R Kerfers, Amrei Kronmüller, Patricia Esquivel, Amancio Alvarado, Víctor M Jiménez, Hans-Georg Schmarr, Reinhold Carle, Ralf M Schweiggert, Christof B Steingass
Morphological traits, total lipid contents, and fatty acid profiles were assessed in fruits of several accessions of Elaeis oleifera [Kunth] Cortés, Elaeis guineensis Jacq., and their interspecific hybrids. The latter featured the highest mesocarp-to-fruit ratios (77.9-78.2%). The total lipid contents of both E. guineensis mesocarp and kernel were significantly higher than for E. oleifera accessions. Main fatty acids comprised C16:0, C18:1n9, and C18:2n6 in mesocarp and C12:0, C14:0, and C18:1n9 in kernels...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429080/effect-of-gpr84-deletion-on-obesity-and-diabetes-development-in-mice-fed-long-chain-or-medium-chain-fatty-acid-rich-diets
#16
Eugene Du Toit, Liam Browne, Helen Irving-Rodgers, Helen M Massa, Nicolette Fozzard, Michael P Jennings, Ian R Peak
PURPOSE: Although there is good evidence showing that diets rich in medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have less marked obesogenic and diabetogenic effects than diets rich in long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), the role of the pro-inflammatory, medium chain fatty acid receptor (GPR84) in the aetiology of obesity and glucose intolerance is not well characterised. We set out to determine whether GPR84 expression influences obesity and glucose intolerance susceptibility in MCFA and LCFA rich diet fed mice...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424507/heat-stress-in-dairy-cattle-alters-lipid-composition-of-milk
#17
Z Liu, V Ezernieks, J Wang, N Wanni Arachchillage, J B Garner, W J Wales, B G Cocks, S Rochfort
Heat stress, potentially affecting both the health of animals and the yield and composition of milk, occurs frequently in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate regions. A simulated acute heat stress experiment was conducted in controlled-climate chambers and milk samples collected before, during and after the heat challenge. Milk lipid composition, surveyed using LC-MS, showed significant changes in triacylglycerol (TAG) and polar lipid profiles. Heat stress (temperature-humidity index up to 84) was associated with a reduction in TAG groups containing short- and medium-chain fatty acids and a concomitant increase in those containing long-chain fatty acids...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420087/skeletal-muscle-nucleo-mitochondrial-crosstalk-in-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#18
REVIEW
Prasad P Devarshi, Sean M McNabney, Tara M Henagan
Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction, evidenced by incomplete beta oxidation and accumulation of fatty acid intermediates in the form of long and medium chain acylcarnitines, may contribute to ectopic lipid deposition and insulin resistance during high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. The present review discusses the roles of anterograde and retrograde communication in nucleo-mitochondrial crosstalk that determines skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations, specifically alterations in mitochondrial number and function in relation to obesity and insulin resistance...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412883/polyphenols-of-virgin-coconut-oil-prevent-pro-oxidant-mediated-cell-death
#19
Soorya Parathodi Illam, Arunaksharan Narayanankutty, Achuthan C Raghavamenon
Virgin coconut oil (VCO), extracted from the fresh coconut kernel, is a food supplement enriched with medium chain saturated fatty acids and polyphenolic antioxidants. It is reported to have several health benefits including lipid lowering, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The pharmacological benefits of VCO have been attributed to its polyphenol content (VCOP), the mechanistic basis of which is less explored. Liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) analysis of VCOP documented the presence of gallic acid, ferulic acid (FA), quercetin, methyl catechin, dihydrokaempferol and myricetin glycoside...
April 26, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405814/effects-of-coconut-oil-consumption-on-energy-metabolism-cardiometabolic-risk-markers-and-appetitive-responses-in-women-with-excess-body-fat
#20
Flávia Xavier Valente, Flávia Galvão Cândido, Lílian Lelis Lopes, Desirrê Morais Dias, Samantha Dalbosco Lins Carvalho, Patrícia Feliciano Pereira, Josefina Bressan
PURPOSE: Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is a medium-chain fatty acid source with popularly attributed benefits on obesity management. However, its role on obesity requires elucidation due to its saturated nature. In the study herein, we investigated acute effects of VCO consumption on energy metabolism, cardiometabolic risk markers, and appetitive responses in women with excess body fat. METHODS: Fifteen adult women with excess body fat (37.43 ± 0.83%) participated in this randomized, crossover, controlled study...
April 12, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
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