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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100786/inositol-depletion-induced-by-acute-treatment-of-the-bipolar-disorder-drug-valproate-increases-levels-of-phytosphingosine
#1
Shyamalagauri Jadhav, Sarah Russo, L Ashley Cowart, Miriam L Greenberg
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric illness affecting ~2% of the world population. Valproate (VPA) and lithium, though widely used for the treatment of BD, are not universally effective. These drugs have been shown to cause inositol depletion, but translating this observation to a specific therapeutic mechanism has been difficult, hampering the development of more effective therapies. We have shown previously in yeast that chronic VPA treatment induces the unfolded protein response due to increasing ceramide levels...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088408/the-effects-of-adding-fat-to-diets-of-lactating-dairy-cows-on-total-tract-neutral-detergent-fiber-digestibility-a-meta-analysis
#2
K A Weld, L E Armentano
The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effects of supplemental fat on fiber digestibility in lactating dairy cattle. Published papers that evaluated the effects of adding fat to the diets of lactating dairy cattle on total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility (ttNDFd) and dry matter intake (DMI) were compiled. The final data set included 108 fat-supplemented treatment means, not including low-fat controls, from 38 publications. The fat-supplemented treatment means exhibited a wide range of ttNDFd (49...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065757/fats-for-thoughts-an-update-on-brain-fatty-acid-metabolism
#3
Adele Romano, Justyna Barbara Koczwara, Cristina Anna Gallelli, Daniele Vergara, Maria Vittoria Micioni Di Bonaventura, Silvana Gaetani, Anna Maria Giudetti
Brain fatty acid (FA) metabolism deserves a close attention not only for its energetic aspects but also because FAs and their metabolites/derivatives are able to influence many neural functions, contributing to brain pathologies or representing potential targets for pharmacological and/or nutritional interventions. Glucose is the preferred energy substrate for the brain, whereas the role of FAs is more marginal. In conditions of decreased glucose supply ketone bodies, mainly formed by FA oxidation, are the alternative main energy source...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065480/influence-of-different-intravenous-lipid-emulsions-on-fatty-acid-status-and-laboratory-and-clinical-outcomes-in-adult-patients-receiving-home-parenteral-nutrition-a-systematic-review
#4
Charis J Jones, Philip C Calder
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intravenous lipid emulsions (IVLEs) are a key component in long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN), providing energy and essential fatty acids (EFAs). Modification of the fatty acid (FA) composition of IVLEs may lead to changes in metabolic responses and cell and tissue function, providing opportunity for clinical improvements. Studies have suggested that, in place of conventional pure soybean oil (SO)-based IVLEs, which have a high omega-6 FA content, alternative IVLEs with different FA profiles may have beneficial effects...
December 31, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062415/cardiomyocyte-specific-ablation-of-cd36-accelerates-the-progression-from-compensated-cardiac-hypertrophy-to-heart-failure
#5
Miranda M Sung, Nikole J Byrne, Ty T Kim, Jody Levasseur, Grant Masson, Jamie Boisvenue, Maria Febbraio, Jason R B Dyck
Previous studies have shown that loss of CD36 protects the heart from dysfunction induced by pressure overload in the presence of diet-induced insulin resistance and/or obesity. The beneficial effects of CD36 ablation in this context are mediated by preventing excessive cardiac fatty acid (FA) entry and reducing lipotoxic injury. However, whether or not the loss of CD36 can prevent pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction in the absence of chronic exposure to high circulating FAs is currently unknown. To address this, we utilized a tamoxifen inducible cardiomyocyte-specific CD36 knockout (icCD36KO) mouse and genetically deleted CD36 in adulthood...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054477/acute-treatment-with-lauric-acid-reduces-blood-pressure-and-oxidative-stress-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#6
Naiane Ferraz Bandeira Alves, Thyago Moreira de Queiroz, Rafael de Almeida Travassos, Marciane Magnani, Valdir de Andrade Braga
The effects of acute administration of lauric acid (LA), the most abundant medium-chain fatty acid of coconut oil, on blood pressure, heart rate and oxidative stress were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Intravenous doses of LA reduced blood pressure in a dose-dependent fashion (1, 3, 4, 8 and 10 mg/kg) in both SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats. LA (10(-8) to 3 × 10(-3) M) induced vasorelaxation in isolated superior mesenteric artery rings of SHR in the presence (n = 7) or absence (n = 8) of functional endothelium [maximum effect (ME) = 104 ± 3 versus 103 ± 4%]...
November 7, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054209/long-term-outcome-of-expanded-newborn-screening-at-boston-children-s-hospital-benefits-and-challenges-in-defining-true-disease
#7
Yuval E Landau, Susan E Waisbren, Lawrence M A Chan, Harvey L Levy
INTRODUCTION: There is no universal consensus of the disorders included in newborn screening programs. Few studies so far, mostly short-term, have compared the outcome of disorders detected by expanded newborn screening (ENBS) to the outcome of the same disorders detected clinically. METHODS: We compared the clinical and neurodevelopmental outcomes in patients with metabolic disorders detected by ENBS, including biotinidase testing, with those detected clinically and followed at the Metabolism Clinic at Boston Children's Hospital...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045125/metabolic-heterogeneity-of-activated-beige-brite-adipocytes-in-inguinal-adipose-tissue
#8
Yun-Hee Lee, Sang-Nam Kim, Hyun-Jung Kwon, James G Granneman
Sustained β3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) activation simultaneously upregulates fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in mouse brown, beige, and white adipose tissues; however, the cellular basis of this dual regulation is not known. Treatment of mice with the ADRB3 agonist CL316,243 (CL) increased expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) protein within the same cells in classic brown and white adipose tissues. Surprisingly, in inguinal adipose tissue, CL-upregulated FASN and MCAD in distinct cell populations: high MCAD expression occurred in multilocular adipocytes that co-expressed UCP1+, whereas high FASN expression occurred in paucilocular adipocytes lacking detectable UCP1...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044232/lipid-emulsions-containing-medium-chain-triacylglycerols-blunt-bradykinin-induced-endothelium-dependent-relaxation-in-porcine-coronary-artery-rings
#9
Said Amissi, Julie Boisramé-Helms, Mélanie Burban, Sherzad K Rashid, Antonio J León-González, Cyril Auger, Florence Toti, Ferhat Meziani, Valérie B Schini-Kerth
Lipid emulsions for parenteral nutrition are used to provide calories and essential fatty acids for patients. They have been associated with hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and metabolic stress, which may promote the development of endothelial dysfunction in patients. The aim of the present study was to determine whether five different industrial lipid emulsions may affect the endothelial function of coronary arteries. Porcine coronary artery rings were incubated with lipid emulsions 0.5, 1, or 2% (v/v) for 30 min before the determination of vascular reactivity in organ chambers and the level of oxidative stress using electron paramagnetic resonance...
January 2, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024890/assessment-of-cell-viability-and-permeation-enhancement-in-presence-of-lipid-based-self-emulsifying-drug-delivery-systems-using-caco-2-cell-model-polysorbate-80-as-the-surfactant
#10
Pengli Bu, Yue Ji, Silpa Narayanan, Damon Dalrymple, Xingguo Cheng, Abu T M Serajuddin
PURPOSE: Lipid-based self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) are commonly used for solubilizing and enhancing oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. However, their effects on viability of intestine epithelial cells and influence on membrane permeation are poorly understood. The present study was undertaken for safety assessment of lipid-based formulations containing medium-chain fatty acid esters as lipids and polysorbate 80 as the surfactant using the Caco-2 in vitro model...
December 24, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012280/whey-and-casein-proteins-and-medium-chain-saturated-fatty-acids-from-milk-do-not-increase-low-grade-inflammation-in-abdominally-obese-adults
#11
Mette Bohl, Ann Bjørnshave, Søren Gregersen, Kjeld Hermansen
BACKGROUND: Low-grade inflammation is involved in the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Inflammation can be modulated by dietary factors. Dairy products are rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA), which are known to possess pro-inflammatory properties. However, different fatty acid compositions may exert different effects. Other components such as milk proteins may exert anti-inflammatory properties which may compensate for the potential negative effects of SFAs. Generally, the available data suggest a neutral role of dairy product consumption on inflammation...
July 2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012009/hydrolase-bioh-knockout-in-e-coli-enables-efficient-fatty-acid-methyl-ester-bioprocessing
#12
Marvin Kadisch, Andreas Schmid, Bruno Bühler
Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) originating from plant oils are most interesting renewable feedstocks for biofuels and bio-based materials. FAMEs can also be produced and/or functionalized by engineered microbes to give access to, e.g., polymer building blocks. Yet, they are often subject to hydrolysis yielding free fatty acids, which typically are degraded by microbes. We identified BioH as the key enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of medium-chain length FAME derivatives in different E. coli K-12 strains...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011707/fatty-acid-binding-profile-of-the-liver-x-receptor-alpha
#13
Shimpi Bedi, Genesis Victoria Hines, Valery V Lozada-Fernandez, Camila de Jesus Piva, Alagammai Kaliappan, S Dean Rider, Heather A Hostetler
Liver X receptor (LXR) alpha is a nuclear receptor that responds to oxysterols and cholesterol overload by stimulating cholesterol efflux, transport, conversion to bile acids, and excretion. LXR alpha binds to and is regulated by synthetic (T-0901317, GW3695) and endogenous (oxysterols) ligands. LXR alpha activity is also modulated by fatty acids (FA) but the ligand binding specificity of FA and acyl-CoA derivatives for LXR alpha remains unknown. We investigated whether LXR alpha binds FA or FA acyl-CoA with affinities that mimic in vivo concentrations, examined the effect of FA chain length and the degree of unsaturation on binding, and investigated if FA regulate LXR alpha activation...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009872/medium-chain-fatty-acids-reduce-serum-cholesterol-by-regulating-the-metabolism-of-bile-acid-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#14
Yinghua Liu, Yong Zhang, Xinsheng Zhang, Qing Xu, Xueyan Yang, Changyong Xue
Hypercholesterolemia is one of the important risk factors of atherosclerosis (AS). The aim of this study is to explore the effect of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) on serum cholesterol levels and their mechanism of action. Hyperlipemia, as a model of abnormal lipid hypermetabolism, was established by using a high fat diet in C57BL/6J mice. Forty eight mice with dyslipidemia were randomly divided into 4 groups, 12 mice per group, including the control group, the 2% caprylic acid (C8:0)-treated group, 2% capric acid (C10:0)-treated group, and 2% oleic acid (C18:1)-treated group...
December 23, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005145/-nutrition-and-mental-diseases-focus-depressive-disorders
#15
L Libuda, J Antel, J Hebebrand, M Föcker
Dietary interventions are currently being discussed as additional treatment options for mental disorders. The pathological mechanisms are not yet fully understood. It is hypothesized that certain nutrients and dietary pattern influence immune and inflammatory processes, the microbiome, the leptin-melanocortinergic axis and hypothalamic-pituitary axis, as well as neurotransmitters of the cholinergic, noradrenergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic signaling cascades and neurotrophins. Observational studies have shown that traditional dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet have a protective effect on mental health...
December 22, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000430/metabolites-distinguishing-visceral-fat-obesity-and-atherogenic-traits-in-individuals-with-overweight
#16
Seung Han Baek, Minkyung Kim, Minjoo Kim, Miso Kang, Hye Jin Yoo, Nan Hee Lee, Yong Hwan Kim, Min Song, Jong Ho Lee
OBJECTIVE: To screen the metabolomes of both overweight subjects with low visceral fat area (LFO) and high visceral fat area (HFO) to identify potential metabolites that are associated with the different metabolic characteristics. METHODS: The metabolic characteristics of 112 overweight (25 kg/m(2)  ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m(2) ) Korean individuals aged 30 to 65 years were examined. Plasma metabolomic profiling of HFO [visceral fat area (VFA) at L4 ≥ 100 cm(2) ] and LFO (L4 VFA <100 cm(2) ) individuals matched for age, gender, and BMI was performed...
December 21, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996272/il-6-linkage-to-exercise-induced-shifts-in-lipid-related-metabolites-a-metabolomics-based-analysis
#17
David C Nieman, Wei Sha, Kirk L Pappan
Metabolomics profiling and bioinformatics technologies were used to determine the relationship between exercise-induced increases in IL-6 and lipid-related metabolites. Twenty-four male runners (age 36.5±1.8 y) ran on treadmills to exhaustion (2.26±0.01 h, 24.9±1.3 km, 69.7±1.9% VO2max). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsy and blood samples were collected before and immediately after running, and showed a 33.7±4.2% decrease in muscle glycogen, 39.0±8.8-, 2.4±0.3-, and 1.4±0.1-fold increases in plasma IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1, respectively, and 95...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991516/metagenomic-mining-for-thermostable-esterolytic-enzymes-uncovers-a-new-family-of-bacterial-esterases
#18
Dimitra Zarafeta, Danai Moschidi, Efthymios Ladoukakis, Sergey Gavrilov, Evangelia D Chrysina, Aristotelis Chatziioannou, Ilya Kublanov, Georgios Skretas, Fragiskos N Kolisis
Biocatalysts exerting activity against ester bonds have a broad range of applications in modern biotechnology. Here, we have identified a new esterolytic enzyme by screening a metagenomic sample collected from a hot spring in Kamchatka, Russia. Biochemical characterization of the new esterase, termed EstDZ2, revealed that it is highly active against medium chain fatty acid esters at temperatures between 25 and 60 °C and at pH values 7-8. The new enzyme is moderately thermostable with a half-life of more than six hours at 60 °C, but exhibits exquisite stability against high concentrations of organic solvents...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990737/tailoring-the-composition-of-novel-wax-esters-in-the-seeds-of-transgenic-camelina-sativa-through-systematic-metabolic-engineering
#19
Noemi Ruiz-Lopez, Richard Broughton, Sarah Usher, Joaquin J Salas, Richard P Haslam, Johnathan A Napier, Frédéric Beaudoin
The functional characterisation of wax biosynthetic enzymes in transgenic plants has opened the possibility of producing tailored wax esters (WEs) in the seeds of a suitable host crop. In this study, in addition to systematically evaluating a panel of WE biosynthetic activities, we have also modulated the acyl-CoA substrate pool, through the co-expression of acyl-ACP thioesterases, to direct the accumulation of medium chain fatty acids. Using this combinatorial approach, we determined the additive contribution of both the varied acyl-CoA pool and also biosynthetic enzyme substrate-specificity to the accumulation of non-native WEs in the seeds of transgenic Camelina plants...
December 19, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980502/granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-alters-the-systemic-metabolomic-profile-in-healthy-donors
#20
Kimberley Joanne Hatfield, Guro Kristin Melve, Øystein Bruserud
INTRODUCTION: Peripheral blood stem cells mobilized by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) from healthy donors are commonly used for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The effect of G-CSF administration on global serum metabolite profiles has not been investigated before. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine the systemic metabolomic profiles prior to and following administration of G-CSF in healthy adults. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 15 healthy stem cell donors prior to and after administration of G-CSF 10 µg/kg/day for 4 days...
2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
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