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medium chain fatty acid

Mingfei Zeng, Huachuan Cao
Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and ketone bodies recently emerged as important physiological relevant metabolites because of their association with microbiota, immunology, obesity and other metabolic states. They were commonly analyzed by GC-MS with long run time and laborious sample preparation. In this study we developed a novel LC-MS/MS method using fast derivatization coupled with liquid-liquid extraction to detect SCFA and ketone bodies in plasma and feces. Several different derivatization reagents were evaluated to compare the efficiency, the sensitivity and chromatographic separation of structural isomers...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Hua Lin, Jonathan Z Long, Alexander M Roche, Katrin J Svensson, Florence Dou, Mi Ra Chang, Timothy Strutzenberg, Claudia Ruiz, Michael D Cameron, Scott J Novick, Charles M Berdan, Sharon Louie, Daniel K Nomura, Bruce M Spiegelman, Patrick R Griffin, Theodore M Kamenecka
N-acyl amino acids directly bind mitochondria and function as endogenous uncouplers of UCP1-independent respiration. We found that administration of N-acyl amino acids to mice improves glucose homeostasis and increases energy expenditure indicating that this pathway might be useful for treating obesity and associated disorders. We report the full account of the synthesis and mitochondrial uncoupling bioactivity of lipidated N-acyl amino acids and their unnatural analogs. Unsaturated fatty acid chains of medium length and neutral amino acid head groups are required for optimal uncoupling activity on mammalian cells...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
S Debruyne, A Ruiz-González, E Artiles-Ortega, B Ampe, W Van Den Broeck, E De Keyser, L Vandaele, K Goossens, V Fievez
The aim of this study was to investigate the methane (CH4) reducing potential of a combination of pre- and/or postnatal treatment with coconut oil medium chain fatty acids (CO MCFA) in goat kids. The hypothesis is that influencing rumen function during early life has more chances for success than in the adult life, related to the resilience of the mature rumen microbiota. Forty-eight pregnant does were split into 2 experimental groups: treated does (D+) received 40 g/d of CO MCFA in a test compound feed, while control does (D-) received a control compound feed, during the last 3 wk of gestation...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
P Gómez-Cortés, A Cívico, M A de la Fuente, N Núñez Sánchez, F Peña Blanco, A L Martínez Marín
Milk fat composition can be modulated by the inclusion of lipid supplements in ruminant diets. An interaction between the lipid supplement and the forage to concentrate ratio or the type of forage in the rations may affect milk fat composition. However, little is known about the effects of the starch-to-non-forage NDF ratio in the concentrate and lipid supplementation of goat diets. The aim of this work was to determine the role of dietary carbohydrates in goats rations supplemented with linseed oil on animal performance and milk fatty acid (FA) profile...
March 12, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Hironori Nagasaka, Ken-Ichi Hirano, Tohru Yorifuji, Haruki Komatsu, Tomonozumi Takatani, Ichiro Morioka, Satoshi Hirayama, Takashi Miida
OBJECTIVE: CD36 deficiency is characterized by limited cellular long chain fatty acid uptake in the skeletal and cardiac muscles and often causes energy crisis in these muscles. However, suitable treatment for CD36 deficiency remains to be established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and metabolic effects of medium chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) in two CD36-deficient preschool children who often developed fasting hypoglycemia and exercise-induced myalgia. METHODS: Fasting blood glucose, total ketone bodies, and free fatty acids were examined and compared for usual supper diets and for diets with replacement of one component with 2 g/kg of 9% MCT-containing milk (MCT milk)...
November 29, 2017: Nutrition
Nodumo Nokulunga Zulu, Krzysztof Zienkiewicz, Katharina Vollheyde, Ivo Feussner
Diatoms are the most dominant phytoplankton species in oceans and they continue to receive a great deal of attention because of their significant contributions in ecosystems and the environment. Due to triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles that are abundant in medium-chain fatty acids, diatoms have emerged to be better feed stocks for biofuel production, in comparison to the commonly studied green microalgal species (chlorophytes). Importantly, diatoms are also known for their high levels of the essential ω3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and are considered to be a promising alternative source of these components...
March 7, 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
Eungu Kang, Yoon-Myung Kim, Minji Kang, Sun-Hee Heo, Gu-Hwan Kim, In-Hee Choi, Jin-Ho Choi, Han-Wook Yoo, Beom Hee Lee
BACKGROUND: Fatty acid oxidation disorders (FAODs) include more than 15 distinct disorders with variable clinical manifestations. After the introduction of newborn screening using tandem mass spectrometry, early identification of FAODs became feasible. This study describes the clinical, biochemical and molecular characteristics of FAODs patients detected by newborn screening (NBS) compared with those of 9 patients with symptomatic presentations. METHODS: Clinical and genetic features of FAODs patients diagnosed by NBS and by symptomatic presentations were reviewed...
March 8, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Jamie A Meadows, Graham G Willsey, Matthew J Wargo
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa can metabolize carnitine and O-acylcarnitines, which are abundant in host muscle and other tissues. Acylcarnitines are metabolized to carnitine and a fatty acid. The liberated carnitine and its catabolic product, glycine betaine, can be used as osmoprotectants, to induce the secreted phospholipase C PlcH, and as sole carbon, nitrogen and energy sources. P. aeruginosa is incapable of de novo synthesis of carnitine and acylcarnitines, therefore they must be imported from an exogenous source...
March 8, 2018: Microbiology
Ming Gao, Jun Wang, Xiukai Song, Xin He, Randy A Dahlgren, Zhenzhong Zhang, Shaoguo Ru, Xuedong Wang
This study developed a new effervescence-assisted switchable fatty acid-based microextraction combined with solidification of a floating organic-droplet (EA-SFAM-SFO) for simple and rapid determination of fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines in seawater, sediment, and seafood. Five medium-chain fatty acids (pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid, heptanoic acid, octanoic acid, and nonanoic acid) were tested as an extraction solvent, given their ability to change between hydrophobic and hydrophilic forms by pH adjustment...
March 6, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Mitchell S Cappell, Ahmed Edhi, Mitual Amin
RATIONALE: Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare, presumably congenital lesion that is usually diagnosed in patients < 3 years old, is rarely first diagnosed in adulthood, and when first diagnosed in adulthood typically presents with symptoms for many years. Although PIL is often identified by endoscopic abnormalities, it must be emphasized that the jejunoileum/distal duodenum must be intubated for diagnosis because the lesions are present in these regions. This work demonstrates that 1)-PIL can occur in an octogenarian; 2)-shows that the characteristic endoscopic findings are not found at colonoscopy without terminal ileal intubation; and 3)-may be missed at standard EGD without distal duodenal intubation...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Areeg El-Gharbawy, Jerry Vockley
Fatty acid oxidation disorders (FAODs) and carnitine shuttling defects are inborn errors of energy metabolism with associated mortality and morbidity due to cardiomyopathy, exercise intolerance, rhabdomyolysis, and liver disease with physiologic stress. Hypoglycemia is characteristically hypoketotic. Lactic acidemia and hyperammonemia may occur during decompensation. Recurrent rhabdomyolysis is debilitating. Expanded newborn screening can detect most of these disorders, allowing early, presymptomatic treatment...
April 2018: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Kay Nguo, Catherine E Huggins, Helen Truby, Andrew J Sinclair, Rachel E Clarke, Maxine P Bonham
Monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acids have been shown to induce greater meal-induced thermogenesis (MIT) than saturated fatty acids (SFA) in some studies, however, the effect of SFA chain length has not been examined. We hypothesized that a meal rich in short- to medium-chain SFA would elicit a greater MIT than one rich in long-chain SFA, and that MIT responses would be comparable between the short- to medium-chain SFA and the MUFA rich meal. A 3-arm crossover study was conducted with healthy overweight men, aged 18 to 40 years...
February 2, 2018: Nutrition Research
Eun Ju Yun, James Lee, Do Hyoung Kim, Jungyeon Kim, Sooah Kim, Yong-Su Jin, Kyoung Heon Kim
Lipid production by oleaginous Yarrowia lipolytica depends highly on culture environments, such as carbon sources, carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios, types of media, and cellular growth phases. In this study, the effects of media and carbon sources on lipid and metabolite production were investigated by profiling fatty acids and intracellular metabolites of Y. lipolytica grown in various media. The highest total fatty acid yield 114.04 ± 6.23 mg/g dry cell weight was achieved by Y. lipolytica grown in minimal medium with glycerol (SCG) in the exponential phase...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Wei Yang, Maaria Katariina Kortesniemi, Baoru Yang, Jie Zheng
Cyanidin-3-O-galactoside (cy-gal) isolated from alpine bearberry (Arctostaphylos alpina) was enzymatically acylated with saturated fatty acids of different chain lengths with Candida antarctica lipase immobilized on acrylic resin (Novozyme 435). The acylation reaction was optimized by considering reaction medium, acyl donor, substrate molar ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time. The highest conversion yields of 73% was obtained by reacting cy-gal with lauric acid (molar ratio, 1:10) in tert-butanol at 60 °C for 72 h...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Cong Sun, Wei Wei, Xiaoqiang Zou, Jianhua Huang, Qingzhe Jin, Xingguo Wang
Triacylglycerol (TAG) composition in 180 commercial infant, follow-on and growing-up formulas with different fat sources (plant oil, cow's milk and goat's milk) were analyzed and compared with mature human milk (MHM). TAGs in formulas were greatly affected by fat source. Formulas contained higher proportions of TAGs with short-chain/medium-chain saturated fatty acids, OOO and acyl carbon number (ACN) 54, and lower proportions of ACN 52 than MHM. There were significant differences in the content and stereochemical structure of OPL and OPO between formulas and MHM...
June 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Martina Sundqvist, Karin Christenson, André Holdfeldt, Michael Gabl, Jonas Mårtensson, Lena Björkman, Regis Dieckmann, Claes Dahlgren, Huamei Forsman
GPR84 is a recently de-orphanized member of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family recognizing medium chain fatty acids, and has been suggested to play important roles in inflammation. Due to the lack of potent and selective GPR84 ligands, the basic knowledge related to GPR84 functions is very limited. In this study, we have characterized the GPR84 activation profile and regulation mechanism in human phagocytes, using two recently developed small molecules that specifically target GPR84 agonistically (ZQ16) and antagonistically (GLPG1205), respectively...
February 22, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
A Fleming, F S Schenkel, F Malchiodi, R A Ali, B Mallard, M Sargolzaei, J Jamrozik, J Johnston, F Miglior
The objective of this research was to estimate the genetic correlations between milk mid-infrared-predicted fatty acid groups and production traits in first-parity Canadian Holsteins. Contents of short-chain, medium-chain, long-chain, saturated, and unsaturated fatty acid groupings in milk samples can be predicted using mid-infrared spectral data for cows enrolled in milk recording programs. Predicted fatty acid group contents were obtained for 49,127 test-day milk samples from 10,029 first-parity Holstein cows in 810 herds...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Ibragim Gaidarov, Todd Anthony, Joel Gatlin, Xiaohua Chen, David Mills, Michelle Solomon, Sangdon Han, Graeme Semple, David J Unett
GPR84 is an orphan G-protein coupled receptor, expressed on monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils and is significantly upregulated by inflammatory stimuli. The physiological role of GPR84 remains largely unknown. Medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) activate the receptor and have been proposed to be its endogenous ligands, although the high concentrations of MCFAs required for receptor activation generally exceed normal physiological levels. We identified the natural product embelin as a highly potent and selective surrogate GPR84 agonist (originally disclosed in patent application WO2007027661A2, 2007) and synthesized close structural analogs with widely varying receptor activities...
February 19, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Yanbin Feng, Yunxiu Zhang, Yayue Wang, Jiao Liu, Yinghui Liu, Xupeng Cao, Song Xue
Medium-chain fatty acids have attracted significant attention as sources of biofuels in recent years. Acyl-ACP thioesterase, which is considered as the key enzyme to determine the carbon chain length, catalyzes the termination of de novo fatty acid synthesis. Although recombinant medium-chain acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) affects the fatty acid profile in heterologous cells, tailoring of the fatty acid composition merely by engineering a specific TE is still intractable. In this study, the activity of a C8-C10-specific thioesterase FatB2 from Cuphea hookeriana on C10-ACP was quantified twice as high as that on C8-ACP based on a synthetic C8-C16 acyl-ACP pool in vitro...
February 22, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Kang Xiao, Xiu-Hong Yue, Wen-Chao Chen, Xue-Rong Zhou, Lian Wang, Lin Xu, Feng-Hong Huang, Xia Wan
Medium chain hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) at ω-1, 2, or 3 positions (ω-1/2/3) are rare in nature but are attractive due to their potential applications in industry. They can be metabolically engineered in Escherichia coli , however, the current yield is low. In this study, metabolic engineering with P450BM3 monooxygenase was applied to regulate both the chain length and sub-terminal position of HFA products in E. coli , leading to increased yield. Five acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases from plants and bacteria were first evaluated for regulating the chain length of fatty acids...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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