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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934188/nanostructured-montmorillonite-clay-for-controlling-the-lipase-mediated-digestion-of-medium-chain-triglycerides
#1
Tahnee J Dening, Paul Joyce, Shasha Rao, Nicky Thomas, Clive A Prestidge
Biocompatible lipid hybrid particles composed of montmorillonite and medium chain triglycerides were engineered for the first time by spray drying oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by montmorillonite platelets to form montmorillonite-lipid hybrid (MLH) microparticles containing up to 75% w/w lipid. In vitro lipolysis studies under simulated intestinal conditions indicated that the specific porous nanoarchitecture and surface chemistry of MLH particles significantly increased the rate (>10-fold) and extent of lipase-mediated digestion compared to that of coarse and homogenized submicrometer triglyceride emulsions...
December 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931031/round-table-discussion
#2
Susan Winter, Neil R M Buist, Nicola Longo, Saro H Armenian, Gary Lopaschuk, Anna Wasilewska
The 1st International Carnitine Working Group concluded with a round table discussion addressing several areas of relevance. These included the design of future studies that could increase the amount of evidence-based data about the role of carnitine in the treatment of fatty acid oxidation defects, for which substantial controversy still exists. There was general consensus that future trials on the effect of carnitine in disorders of fatty acid oxidation should be randomized, double-blinded, multicentered and minimally include the following diagnoses: medium-chain acyl coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase deficiency, very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency and mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928776/the-risk-of-fatty-acid-oxidation-disorders-and-organic-acidemias-in-children-with-normal-newborn-screening
#3
Callum Wilson, Detlef Knoll, Mark de Hora, Campbell Kyle, Emma Glamuzina, Dianne Webster
New Zealand has undertaken expanded newborn screening since 2006. During that period there have been no reported cases of fatty acid oxidation disorders or organic acidemias that have been diagnosed clinically that the screening programme missed. However there may have been patients that presented clinically that were not diagnosed correctly or notified.In order to investigate the false-negative screening rate a case-control study was undertaken whereby the clinical coding data and relevant medical records were reviewed for 150 controls and 525 cases...
December 8, 2016: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927213/living-on-the-edge-substrate-competition-explains-loss-of-robustness-in-mitochondrial-fatty-acid-oxidation-disorders
#4
Karen van Eunen, Catharina M L Volker-Touw, Albert Gerding, Aycha Bleeker, Justina C Wolters, Willemijn J van Rijt, Anne-Claire M F Martines, Klary E Niezen-Koning, Rebecca M Heiner, Hjalmar Permentier, Albert K Groen, Dirk-Jan Reijngoud, Terry G J Derks, Barbara M Bakker
BACKGROUND: Defects in genes involved in mitochondrial fatty-acid oxidation (mFAO) reduce the ability of patients to cope with metabolic challenges. mFAO enzymes accept multiple substrates of different chain length, leading to molecular competition among the substrates. Here, we combined computational modeling with quantitative mouse and patient data to investigate whether substrate competition affects pathway robustness in mFAO disorders. RESULTS: First, we used comprehensive biochemical analyses of wild-type mice and mice deficient for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) to parameterize a detailed computational model of mFAO...
December 7, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913851/impact-of-oxygenation-on-the-performance-of-three-non-saccharomyces-yeasts-in-co-fermentation-with-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#5
Kirti Shekhawat, Florian F Bauer, Mathabatha E Setati
The sequential or co-inoculation of grape must with non-Saccharomyces yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains has recently become a common practice in winemaking. The procedure intends to enhance unique aroma and flavor profiles of wine. The extent of the impact of non-Saccharomyces strains depends on their ability to produce biomass and to remain metabolically active for a sufficiently long period. However, mixed-culture wine fermentations tend to become rapidly dominated by S. cerevisiae, reducing or eliminating the non-Saccharomyces yeast contribution...
December 2, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913275/dietary-fish-oil-replacement-by-linseed-oil-effect-on-growth-nutrient-utilization-tissue-fatty-acid-composition-and-desaturase-gene-expression-in-silver-barb-puntius-gonionotus-fingerlings
#6
Madhusmita Nayak, Ashis Saha, Avinash Pradhan, Mrinal Samanta, Shiba Shankar Giri
Silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) is considered a promising medium carp species for freshwater aquaculture in Asia. This study in silver barb was carried out to evaluate the effects of total or partial substitution of dietary fish oil (FO) with linseed oil (LO) on growth, nutrient utilization, whole-body composition, muscle and liver fatty acid composition. Fish (12.1±0.4g of initial body weight) were fed for 60days with five experimental iso-proteinous, iso-lipidic and iso-caloric diets in which FO (control diet) was replaced by 33...
November 29, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903579/medium-chain-acyl-coenzyme-a-dehydrogenase-deficiency-mcadd-a-cause-of-severe-hypoglycaemia-in-an-apparently-well-child
#7
Kene Ebuka Maduemem
Medium-chain acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is a disorder of fatty acid β oxidation inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. The enzyme is useful in hepatic ketogenesis, a major source of energy once hepatic glycogen stores become depleted during prolonged fasting. It is a cause of hypoketotic hypoglycaemia in a previously well child. MCADD is not part of newborn screening in Ireland; children are likely to be missed if routine hypoglycaemic screen is not instituted when blood glucose level is below 2...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902265/oharaeibacter-diazotrophicus-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-diazotrophic-and-facultatively-methylotrophic-bacterium-isolated-from-rice-rhizosphere
#8
Haoxin Lv, Sachiko Masuda, Yoshiko Fujitani, Nurettin Sahin, Akio Tani
A new facultative methanol-utilizing bacterial strain SM30T was isolated from rice rhizosphere. Strain SM30T was Gram-stain negative, aerobic, motile, short rod, and grows optimally at pH 7 and at 28°C. It can tolerate 0 to 2% concentration of NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, strain SM30T was most closely related to Pleomorphomonas oryzae DSM 16300T, with low similarity of 94.17%. As one of the lanthanide metals, lanthanum could enhance its growth on methanol slightly. Phylogenetic trees based on mxaF, xoxF, and cpn60 genes of SM30T showed its distinct phylogenetic positions with known species...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902233/promicromonospora-kermanensis-sp-nov-a-new-actinobacterium-isolated-from-soil
#9
Fatemeh Mohammadipanah, Maria Del Carmen Montero-Calasanz, Peter Schumann, Cathrin Spröer, Hans-Peter Klenk, Manfred Rohde
A novel Promicromonospora strain, designated HM 533T, was isolated from soil in Kerman Province, Iran. It produced long and branched hyphae on ISP 2 medium that developed into a large number of irregular shaped spores. It showed optimal growth at 25-30 °C and pH 5.0-8.0 with 0-4% (w/v) NaCl. The peptidoglycan type of strain HM 533T is A4α L-Lys - L-Ala - D-Glu. Whole cell hydrolyzates of strain HM 533T contained the sugars ribose, glucose and galactose. The main phospholipids were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, two unknown glycolipids and an unknown phospholipid...
November 8, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899916/estdz3-a-new-esterolytic-enzyme-exhibiting-remarkable-thermostability
#10
Dimitra Zarafeta, Zalan Szabo, Danai Moschidi, Hien Phan, Evangelia D Chrysina, Xu Peng, Colin J Ingham, Fragiskos N Kolisis, Georgios Skretas
Lipolytic enzymes that retain high levels of catalytic activity when exposed to a variety of denaturing conditions are of high importance for a number of biotechnological applications. In this study, we aimed to identify new lipolytic enzymes, which are highly resistant to prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures. To achieve this, we searched for genes encoding for such proteins in the genomes of a microbial consortium residing in a hot spring located in China. After performing functional genomic screening on a bacterium of the genus Dictyoglomus, which was isolated from this hot spring following in situ enrichment, we identified a new esterolytic enzyme, termed EstDZ3...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896927/a-retrospective-review-of-anesthesia-and-perioperative-care-in-children-with-medium-chain-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficiency
#11
Claire Allen, Russell Perkins, Bernd Schwahn
BACKGROUND: Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency is the most common genetically determined disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Decompensation can result in hypoglycemia, seizures, coma, and death but may be prevented by ensuring glycogen stores do not become depleted. Perioperative care is of interest as surgery, fasting, and infection may all trigger decompensation and the safety of anesthetic agents has been questioned. Current guidelines from the British Inherited Metabolic Disease Group advise on administering fluid containing 10% glucose during the perioperative period...
November 29, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895203/a-palmitic-acid-elongase-affects-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-plastidal-monogalactosyldiacylglcerol-levels-in-nannochloropsis
#12
Lina Juana Dolch, Camille Rak, Giorgio Perin, Guillaume Tourcier, Richard Broughton, Marina Leterrier, Tomas Morosinotto, Frédérique Tellier, Jean-Denis Faure, Denis Falconet, Juliette Jouhet, Olga Sayanova, Frederic Beaudoin, Eric Marechal
Nannochloropsis species are oleaginous eukaryotes containing a plastid limited by four membranes, deriving from a secondary endosymbiosis. In Nannochloropsis, thylakoid lipids including monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) are enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The need for EPA in MGDG is not understood. Fatty acids are de novo synthesized in the stroma, then converted into very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids at the ER. The production of MGDG relies therefore on an EPA supply from the ER to the plastid, following an unknown process...
November 28, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884962/triheptanoin-long-term-effects-in-the-very-long-chain-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-vlcad-deficient-mouse
#13
Sara Tucci, Ulrich Floegel, Frauke Beermann, Sidney Behringer, Ute Spiekerkoetter
A rather new approach in the treatment of long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders is represented by triheptanoin, a triglyceride with three medium-odd-chain heptanoic acid (C7) due to its anaplerotic potential. We here investigate the effects of a one-year triheptanoin-based diet on the clinical phenotype of very long-chain-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase-deficient (VLCAD-/-) mice. The cardiac function was assessed in VLCAD-/- mice by in vivo MRI. Metabolic adaptations were identified by the expression of genes regulating energy metabolism and anaplerotic processes using real-time-PCR and the results were correlated with the measurement of the glycolytic enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and pyruvate kinase (PK)...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880889/milk-composition-of-free-ranging-red-hartebeest-giraffe-southern-reedbuck-and-warthog-and-a-phylogenetic-comparison-of-the-milk-of-african-artiodactyla
#14
G Osthoff, A Hugo, M Madende, F Deacon, P J Nel
The composition of major nutrients and fatty acids of the milk of three species, red hartebeest, Southern reedbuck and warthog, and milk fatty acids of giraffe, that have not been published before, are reported, and together with the same parameters of 11 species previously published, were incorporated in a phylogenetic comparison. Unique properties of milk composition have been observed. Southern reedbuck milk seems to have a complex casein composition, similar to that of sheep. Milk composition varies between species...
November 20, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878786/enhancing-poly-3-hydroxyalkanoate-production-in-escherichia-coli-by-the-removal-of-the-regulatory-gene-arca
#15
Ryan A Scheel, Liyuan Ji, Benjamin R Lundgren, Christopher T Nomura
Recombinant Escherichia coli is a desirable platform for the production of many biological compounds including poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates), a class of naturally occurring biodegradable polyesters with promising biomedical and material applications. Although the controlled production of desirable polymers is possible with the utilization of fatty acid feedstocks, a central challenge to this biosynthetic route is the improvement of the relatively low polymer yield, a necessary factor of decreasing the production costs...
December 2016: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873088/anti-inflammatory-and-insulin-sensitizing-effects-of-free-fatty-acid-receptors
#16
Junki Miyamoto, Mayu Kasubuchi, Akira Nakajima, Ikuo Kimura
Chronic low-grade inflammation in macrophages and adipose tissues can promote the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Free fatty acids (FFAs) have important roles in various tissues, acting as both essential energy sources and signaling molecules. FFA receptors (FFARs) can modulate inflammation in various types of cells and tissues; however the underlying mechanisms mediating these effects are unclear. FFARs are activated by specific FFAs; for example, GPR40 and GPR120 are activated by medium and long chain FFAs, GPR41 and GPR43 are activated by short chain FFAs, and GPR84 is activated by medium-chain FFAs...
November 22, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871288/tissue-specific-expression-of-human-fatty-acid-oxidation-enzyme-genes-in-late-pregnancy
#17
Jose L Bartha, Fernando Bugatto, Álvaro Fernández-Deudero, Rosa Fernández-Macías, Germán Perdomo
BACKGROUND: Abnormal fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is associated with maternal and fetal complications during pregnancy. The contribution of maternal and fetal tissues to FAO capacity during late pregnancy is important to understand the pathophysiology of pregnancy-associated complications. The aim of this study was to determine the expression levels of mitochondrial FAO enzymes in maternal and fetal tissues during late normal pregnancy. METHODS: We have measured by Real-time PCR the levels of long- and medium -chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD and MCAD), two acyl-CoA dehydrogenases that catalyze the initial step in the mitochondrial FAO spiral...
November 21, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856258/aspirin-increases-mitochondrial-fatty-acid-oxidation
#18
Radha Uppala, Brianne Dudiak, Megan E Beck, Sivakama S Bharathi, Yuxun Zhang, Donna B Stolz, Eric S Goetzman
The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin...
November 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856190/screening-of-mcad-deficiency-in-japan-16years-experience-of-enzymatic-and-genetic-evaluation
#19
Go Tajima, Keiichi Hara, Miyuki Tsumura, Reiko Kagawa, Satoshi Okada, Nobuo Sakura, Ikue Hata, Yosuke Shigematsu, Masao Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is a representative disorder of fatty acid oxidation and is one of the most prevalent inborn errors of metabolism among Caucasian populations. In Japan, however, it was as late as 2000 when the first patient was found, and enzymatic and genetic evaluation of MCAD deficiency began. METHODS: We measured octanoyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity in lymphocytes of symptomatic children and newborn screening (NBS)-positive subjects who showed elevated levels of C8-acylcarnitine in blood...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855077/long-chain-fatty-acyl-coa-ligase-fadd2-mediates-intrinsic-pyrazinamide-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#20
Brandon C Rosen, Nicholas A Dillon, Nicholas D Peterson, Yusuke Minato, Anthony D Baughn
Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a first-line tuberculosis (TB) drug that has been in clinical use for sixty years yet still has an unresolved mechanism of action. Based upon the observation that the minimum concentration of PZA required to inhibit growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is approximately 1000-fold higher than for other first-line drugs, we hypothesized that M. tuberculosis expresses factors that mediate intrinsic resistance to PZA. To identify genes associated with intrinsic PZA resistance, a library of transposon mutagenized Mycobacterium bovis BCG was screened for strains showing hyper-susceptibility to the active form of PZA, pyrazinoic acid (POA)...
November 14, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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