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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225172/mir-144-affects-fatty-acid-composition-by-regulating-elovl6-expression-in-duck-hepatocytes
#1
Jun He, Yong Tian, Yan Zhao, Yali Liu, Zhengrong Tao, Guoqin Li, Dong Niu, Lizhi Lu, Yingru Lu
Lipid metabolism in duck is very important for both raisers and people's health. In our previous studies, we have detected that miR-144 is related to duck lipid metabolism and validated one of its target genes, elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 6 (ELOVL6). In the present study, we isolated, cultured and identified duck hepatocytes, and transfected with miR-144 mimics/inhibitor to mediate the miR-144 level. The qRT-PCR results showed that the ELOVL6 expression in duck hepatocytes was down-/up-regulated, respectively...
February 22, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222147/the-desert-gerbil-psammomys-obesus-as-a-model-for-metformin-sensitive-nutritional-type-2-diabetes-to-protect-hepatocellular-metabolic-damage-impact-of-mitochondrial-redox-state
#2
Inès Gouaref, Dominique Detaille, Nicolas Wiernsperger, Naim Akhtar Khan, Xavier Leverve, Elhadj-Ahmed Koceir
INTRODUCTION: While metformin (MET) is the most widely prescribed antidiabetic drug worldwide, its beneficial effects in Psammomys obesus (P. obesus), a rodent model that mimics most of the metabolic features of human diabetes, have not been explored thoroughly. Here, we sought to investigate whether MET might improve insulin sensitivity, glucose homeostasis, lipid profile as well as cellular redox and energy balance in P. obesus maintained on a high energy diet (HED). MATERIALS AND METHODS: P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218911/expanding-the-product-portfolio-of-fungal-type-i-fatty-acid-synthases
#3
Zhiwei Zhu, Yongjin J Zhou, Anastasia Krivoruchko, Martin Grininger, Zongbao K Zhao, Jens Nielsen
Fungal type I fatty acid synthases (FASs) are mega-enzymes with two separated, identical compartments, in which the acyl carrier protein (ACP) domains shuttle substrates to catalytically active sites embedded in the chamber wall. We devised synthetic FASs by integrating heterologous enzymes into the reaction chambers and demonstrated their capability to convert acyl-ACP or acyl-CoA from canonical fatty acid biosynthesis to short/medium-chain fatty acids and methyl ketones.
February 20, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212845/safety-assessment-of-medium-and-long-chain-triacylglycerols-containing-30-w-w-medium-chain-fatty-acids-in-mice-and-rats
#4
Shengmin Zhou, Yueqiang Wang, Yuanrong Jiang, Liangli Lucy Yu
A novel medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT), with 30% (w/w) medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) was evaluated for its safety as a dietary fat in mice and rats. The subacute oral toxicity study showed that the maximum tolerated dose exceeded 54.33 g/kg body weight (kg bw)/day. In the 90-day feeding study, no dose-related adverse effects were observed in rats administered diets formulated with different levels of MLCT (2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 g/kg bw/day) as compared to the rapeseed oil control diet. Further safety assessment in pregnant rats did not reveal any significant difference relative to the control at a treatment level up to 8...
February 14, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212406/accumulation-of-medium-chain-saturated-fatty-acyl-moieties-in-seed-oils-of-transgenic-camelina-sativa
#5
Zhaohui Hu, Qian Wu, Jyoti Dalal, Naresh Vasani, Harry O Lopez, Heike W Sederoff, Rongda Qu
With its high seed oil content, the mustard family plant Camelina sativa has gained attention as a potential biofuel source. As a bioenergy crop, camelina has many advantages. It grows on marginal land with low demand for water and fertilizer, has a relatively short life cycle, and is stress tolerant. As most other crop seed oils, camelina seed triacylglycerols (TAGs) consist of mostly long, unsaturated fatty acyl moieties, which is not desirable for biofuel processing. In our efforts to produce shorter, saturated chain fatty acyl moieties in camelina seed oil for conversion to jet fuel, a 12:0-acyl-carrier thioesterase gene, UcFATB1, from California bay (Umbellularia californica Nutt...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193175/genome-wide-association-mapping-for-milk-fat-composition-and-fine-mapping-of-a-qtl-for-de-novo-synthesis-of-milk-fatty-acids-on-bovine-chromosome-13
#6
Hanne Gro Olsen, Tim Martin Knutsen, Achim Kohler, Morten Svendsen, Lars Gidskehaug, Harald Grove, Torfinn Nome, Marte Sodeland, Kristil Kindem Sundsaasen, Matthew Peter Kent, Harald Martens, Sigbjørn Lien
BACKGROUND: Bovine milk is widely regarded as a nutritious food source for humans, although the effects of individual fatty acids on human health is a subject of debate. Based on the assumption that genomic selection offers potential to improve milk fat composition, there is strong interest to understand more about the genetic factors that influence the biosynthesis of bovine milk and the molecular mechanisms that regulate milk fat synthesis and secretion. For this reason, the work reported here aimed at identifying genetic variants that affect milk fatty acid composition in Norwegian Red cattle...
February 13, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179471/metabolomic-biomarkers-as-strong-correlates-of-parkinson-disease-progression
#7
Peter A LeWitt, Jia Li, Mei Lu, Lining Guo, Peggy Auinger
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a Parkinson disease (PD)-specific biochemical signature might be found in the total body metabolic milieu or in the CSF compartment, especially since this disorder has systemic manifestations beyond the progressive loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. METHODS: Our goal was to discover biomarkers of PD progression. Using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography linked to gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, we measured concentrations of small-molecule (≤1...
February 8, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177691/caffeine-intake-increases-plasma-ketones-an-acute-metabolic-study-in-humans
#8
Camille Vandenberghe, Valerie St-Pierre, Alexandre Courchesne-Loyer, Marie Hennebelle, Christian-Alexandre Castellano, Stephen C Cunnane
Brain glucose uptake declines during aging and is significantly impaired in Alzheimer's disease. Ketones are the main alternative brain fuel to glucose so they represent a potential approach to compensate for the brain glucose reduction. Caffeine is of interest as a potential ketogenic agent owing to its actions on lipolysis/ lipid oxidation but whether it is ketogenic in humans is unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the acute ketogenic effect of two doses of caffeine in healthy adults (2.5; 5.0 mg/kg) during a 4-hour metabolic study period...
November 25, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177375/production-composition-fatty-acid-profile-and-sensory-analysis-of-goat-milk-in-goats-fed-buriti-oil
#9
J S Morais, L R Bezerra, A M A Silva, M J Araújo, R L Oliveira, R L Edvan, J N C Torreão, D P D Lanna
This study evaluated the effects of replacing ground corn with buriti oil ( L.) on feed intake and digestibility and on the production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of goat milk. A double Latin square (4 × 4) was used; eight goats were distributed in a completely randomized design. The square comprised four periods and four buriti oil concentration (0.00; 1.50; 3.00 and 4.50% of total DM) replacing corn. Intakes of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, non-fibrous carboydrates (NFC) and TDN were not affected by the replacement of corn with oil in the diet...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174083/medium-chain-length-polyhydroxyalkanoates-biosynthesis-in-pseudomonas-putida-mt-2-is-enhanced-by-co-metabolism-of-glycerol-octanoate-or-fatty-acids-mixtures
#10
Paul Fontaine, Ridha Mosrati, David Corroler
The synthesis of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs) by Pseudomonas putida mt-2 was investigated under nitrogen-rich then deficient conditions with glycerol/octanoate or long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) as carbon sources. When mixed, glycerol and octanoate were co-assimilated regardless of nitrogen availability but provided that glycerol uptake has been already triggered under non-limiting nutrient conditions. This concomitant consumption allowed to enhance mcl-PHAs accumulation (up to 57% of cell dry weight (CDW)) under both non-limiting and nitrogen deficient conditions...
February 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170428/comparative-study-on-the-in-vitro-effects-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-seaweed-alginates-on-human-gut-microbiota
#11
Shaofeng Bai, Huahai Chen, Liying Zhu, Wei Liu, Hongwei D Yu, Xin Wang, Yeshi Yin
Alginates pertain to organic polysaccharides that have been extensively used in food- and medicine-related industries. The present study obtained alginates from an alginate overproducing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 mutant by screening transposon mutagenesis libraries. The interaction between bacterial and seaweed alginates and gut microbiota were further studied by using an in vitro batch fermentation system. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis indicated that both bacterial and seaweed alginates can be completely degraded by fecal bacteria isolated from study volunteers, indicating that a minor structural difference between bacterial and seaweed alginates (O-acetylation and lack of G-G blocks) didn't affect the digestion of alginates by human microbiota...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159812/right-ventricular-metabolism-during-veno-arterial-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-immature-swine-heart-in-vivo
#12
Masaki Kajimoto, Dolena R Ledee, Nancy G Isern, Michael A Portman
Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) provides hemodynamic rescue for patients encountering right or left ventricular (RV or LV) decompensation, particularly after surgery for congenital heart defects. ECMO, supported metabolically by parenteral nutrition, provides reductions in myocardial work and energy demand and therefore enhances functional recovery. The RV must often assume systemic ventricular pressures and function upon weaning from VA-ECMO. However the substrate utilization responses of the RV to VA-ECMO or stimulation are unknown...
February 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159555/different-effects-of-g-protein-coupled-receptor-120-gpr120-and-gpr40-on-cell-motile-activity-of-highly-migratory-osteosarcoma-cells
#13
Kaede Takahashi, Kaori Fukushima, Yuka Onishi, Yusuke Node, Karin Inui, Nobuyuki Fukushima, Kanya Honoki, Toshifumi Tsujiuchi
G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and GPR40 are members of free fatty acid (FFA) receptors and mediate a variety of biological responses through binding of medium- and long-chain FFAs. Recently, it has been reported that GPR120 and GPR40 regulated cellular functions of cancer cells. In the present study, to assess whether GPR120 and GPR40 are involved in the enhancement of cell motile activity of osteosarcoma cells, we established highly migratory (MG63-R7) cells from osteosarcoma MG-63 cells. The expression level of GPR120 gene was significantly higher in MG63-R7 cells than in MG-63 cells, while no change of GPR40 expression was observed...
March 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149324/exploring-eukaryotic-formate-metabolisms-to-enhance-microbial-growth-and-lipid-accumulation
#14
Zhiguo Liu, Tolutola Oyetunde, Whitney D Hollinshead, Anna Hermanns, Yinjie J Tang, Wei Liao, Yan Liu
BACKGROUND: C1 substrates (such as formate and methanol) are promising feedstock for biochemical/biofuel production. Numerous studies have been focusing on engineering heterologous pathways to incorporate C1 substrates into biomass, while the engineered microbial hosts often demonstrate inferior fermentation performance due to substrate toxicity, metabolic burdens from engineered pathways, and poor enzyme activities. Alternatively, exploring native C1 pathways in non-model microbes could be a better solution to address these challenges...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129764/maternal-intake-of-dietary-virgin-coconut-oil-modifies-essential-fatty-acids-and-causes-low-body-weight-and-spiky-fur-in-mice
#15
Renuka Gunasekaran, Mohammed Rafid Shaker, Siti Waheeda Mohd-Zin, Aminah Abdullah, Azlina Ahmad-Annuar, Noraishah Mydin Abdul-Aziz
BACKGROUND: Coconut oil is commonly used as herbal medicine worldwide. There is limited information regarding its effects on the developing embryo and infant growth. METHODS: We investigated the effect of virgin coconut oil post-natally and until 6 weeks old in mice (age of maturity). Females were fed with either standard, virgin olive oil or virgin coconut oil diets 1 month prior to copulation, during gestation and continued until weaning of pups. Subsequently, groups of pups borne of the respective diets were continuously fed the same diet as its mother from weaning until 6 weeks old...
January 28, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129045/emerging-clinical-benefits-of-new-generation-fat-emulsions-in-preterm-neonates
#16
Gregory Guthrie, Muralidhar Premkumar, Douglas G Burrin
Soybean oil-based intravenous fat emulsions (IVFEs) have been the predominant parenteral nutrition IVFE used in the United States for neonates over the past 45 years. Even though this emulsion has proven useful in supplying infants with energy for growth and essential fatty acids, there have been concerns over its composition in the development of several morbidities, ranging from sepsis to liver disease, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and impaired neurodevelopment and growth. The exact mechanisms that drive these morbidities in preterm infants are multifactorial, but potential contributors include high omega-6 (n-6) fatty acid composition, low docosahexaenoic acid and antioxidant supplementation, and the presence of potentially harmful nonnutritive components (eg, phytosterols)...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128887/synthesis-of-medium-chain-length-polyhydroxyalkanoate-homopolymers-random-copolymers-and-block-copolymers-by-an-engineered-strain-of-pseudomonas-entomophila
#17
Ying Wang, Ahleum Chung, Guo-Qiang Chen
Medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs), widely used in medical area, are commonly synthesized by Pseudomonas spp. This study tries to use β-oxidation pathways engineered P. entomophila to achieve single source of a series of mcl-monomers for microbial production of PHA homopolymers. The effort is proven successful for the first time to obtain a wide range of mcl-PHA homopolymers from engineered P. entomophila LAC23 grown on various fatty acids, respectively, ranging from poly(3-hydroxyheptanoate) to poly(3-hydroxytetradecanoate)...
January 27, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126466/coconut-oil-protects-cortical-neurons-from-amyloid-beta-toxicity-by-enhancing-signaling-of-cell-survival-pathways
#18
F Nafar, J P Clarke, K M Mearow
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that has links with other conditions that can often be modified by dietary and life-style interventions. In particular, coconut oil has received attention as having potentially having benefits in lessening the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. In a recent report, we showed that neuron survival in cultures co-treated with coconut oil and Aβ was rescued compared to cultures exposed only to Aβ. Here we investigated treatment with Aβ for 1, 6 or 24 h followed by addition of coconut oil for a further 24 h, or treatment with coconut oil for 24 h followed by Aβ exposure for various periods...
January 23, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125600/conjugated-linoleic-acid-administration-induces-amnesia-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats-and-exacerbates-recovery-from-functional-deficits-induced-by-a-controlled-cortical-impact-injury
#19
Rastafa I Geddes, Kentaro Hayashi, Quinn Bongers, Marlyse Wehber, Icelle M Anderson, Alex D Jansen, Chase Nier, Emily Fares, Gabrielle Farquhar, Amita Kapoor, Toni E Ziegler, Sivan VadakkadathMeethal, Ian M Bird, Craig S Atwood
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids like conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are required for normal neural development and cognitive function and have been ascribed various beneficial functions. Recently, oral CLA also has been shown to increase testosterone (T) biosynthesis, which is known to diminish traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced neuropathology and reduce deficits induced by stroke in adult rats. To test the impact of CLA on cognitive recovery following a TBI, 5-6 month old male Sprague Dawley rats received a focal injury (craniectomy + controlled cortical impact (CCI; n = 17)) or Sham injury (craniectomy alone; n = 12) and were injected with 25 mg/kg body weight of Clarinol® G-80 (80% CLA in safflower oil; n = 16) or saline (n = 13) every 48 h for 4 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117025/recent-advances-in-development-of-gpr40-modulators-ffa1-ffar1-an-emerging-target-for-type-2-diabetes
#20
Nutan Sharma, Sunita Bhagat, Tejpal Singh Chundawat
GPR40, an orphan G-protein coupled receptor that is activated by medium and long-chain fatty acids and is highly expressed in pancreatic islets, adipose depots and the gastrointestinal tract are involved in energy source recognition, absorption, storage and/or metabolism. Since its deorphanization in 2003, G-protein-coupled receptor GPR40 have emerged as potential target for type II diabetes because they have been hypothesized to participate in the adverse effects of chronic fatty acid exposure on function of β-cell...
January 20, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
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