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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137150/in-vitro-fermentation-patterns-of-rice-bran-components-by-human-gut-microbiota
#1
Tung Pham, Keat Thomas Teoh, Brett J Savary, Ming-Hsuan Chen, Anna McClung, Sun-Ok Lee
Whole grain rice is a rich source of fiber, nutrients, and phytochemicals that may promote gastrointestinal health, but such beneficial components are typically removed with the bran during polishing. Soluble feruloylated arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (FAXO) and polyphenols (RBPP) isolated from rice bran are hypothesized to have positive impacts on human gut microbiota through a prebiotic function. Using an in vitro human fecal fermentation bioassay, FAXO and RBPP treatments were assessed for short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production patterns and by evaluating their impacts on the phylogentic composition of human gut microbiota by 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
November 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130306/evaluating-in-vitro-culture-medium-of-gut-microbiome-with-orthogonal-experimental-design-and-metaproteomics-approach
#2
Leyuan Li, Xu Zhang, Zhibin Ning, Janice Mayne, Jasmine I Moore, James Butcher, Cheng-Kang Chiang, David R Mack, Alain Stintzi, Daniel Figeys
In vitro culture-based approaches are time- and cost-effective solutions for rapidly evaluating the effects of drugs or natural compounds against microbiomes. The nutritional composition of the culture medium is an important determinant for effectively maintaining the gut microbiome in vitro. This study combines orthogonal experimental design and a metaproteomics approach to obtain functional insights into the effects of different medium components on the microbiome. Our results show that the metaproteomic profile respond differently to medium components, including inorganic salts, bile salts, mucin and short chain fatty acids...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122703/improving-metabolic-efficiency-of-the-reverse-beta-oxidation-cycle-by-balancing-redox-cofactor-requirement
#3
Junjun Wu, Xia Zhang, Peng Zhou, Jiaying Huang, Xiudong Xia, Wei Li, Ziyu Zhou, Yue Chen, Yinghao Liu, Mingsheng Dong
Previous studies have made many exciting achievements on pushing the functional reversal of beta-oxidation cycle (r-BOX) to more widespread adoption for synthesis of a wide variety of fuels and chemicals. However, the redox cofactor requirement for the efficient operation of r-BOX remains unclear. In this work, the metabolic efficiency of r-BOX for medium-chain fatty acid (C6-C10, MCFA) production was optimized by redox cofactor engineering. Stoichiometric analysis of the r-BOX pathway and further experimental examination identified NADH as a crucial determinant of r-BOX process yield...
November 6, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121639/a-subset-of-sweet-sensing-neurons-identified-by-ir56d-are-necessary-and-sufficient-for-fatty-acid-taste
#4
John M Tauber, Elizabeth B Brown, Yuanyuan Li, Maria E Yurgel, Pavel Masek, Alex C Keene
Fat represents a calorically potent food source that yields approximately twice the amount of energy as carbohydrates or proteins per unit of mass. The highly palatable taste of free fatty acids (FAs), one of the building blocks of fat, promotes food consumption, activates reward circuitry, and is thought to contribute to hedonic feeding underlying many metabolism-related disorders. Despite a role in the etiology of metabolic diseases, little is known about how dietary fats are detected by the gustatory system to promote feeding...
November 9, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121091/effects-of-four-different-antihypertensive-drugs-on-plasma-metabolomic-profiles-in-patients-with-essential-hypertension
#5
Timo P Hiltunen, Jenni M Rimpelä, Robert P Mohney, Steven M Stirdivant, Kimmo K Kontula
OBJECTIVE: In order to search for metabolic biomarkers of antihypertensive drug responsiveness, we measured >600 biochemicals in plasma samples of subjects participating in the GENRES Study. Hypertensive men received in a double-blind rotational fashion amlodipine, bisoprolol, hydrochlorothiazide and losartan, each as a monotherapy for one month, with intervening one-month placebo cycles. METHODS: Metabolomic analysis was carried out using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118979/the-effects-of-starter-microbiota-and-the-early-life-feeding-of-medium-chain-triglycerides-on-the-gastric-transcriptome-profile-of-2-or-3-week-old-cesarean-delivered-piglets
#6
Paolo Trevisi, Davide Priori, Vincenzo Motta, Diana Luise, Alfons J M Jansman, Sietse-Jan Koopmans, Paolo Bosi
Background: The stomach is an underestimated key interface between the ingesta and the digestive system, affecting the digestion and playing an important role in several endocrine functions. The quality of starter microbiota and the early life feeding of medium chain triglycerides may affect porcine gastric maturation. Two trials (T1, T2) were carried out on 12 and 24 cesarean-delivered piglets (birth, d0), divided over two microbiota treatments, but slaughtered and sampled at two or three weeks of age, respectively...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103713/short-communication-circulating-fatty-acylcarnitines-are-elevated-in-overweight-periparturient-dairy-cows-in-association-with-sphingolipid-biomarkers-of-insulin-resistance
#7
J E Rico, Y Zang, N J Haughey, A G Rius, J W McFadden
Defects in mitochondrial fatty acid processing are associated with the development of fatty liver disease, inflammation, and insulin resistance in overweight nonruminants. Surplus fatty acids (FA) and defects in FA oxidation favor the accumulation of fatty acylcarnitines (FAC) and the sphingolipid ceramide. Moreover, elevated circulating FAC and ceramide concentrations are inversely related to insulin action. Because we have previously demonstrated that plasma ceramide levels increase during the transition from gestation to lactation, our aim was to determine whether changes in plasma medium- and long-chain FAC levels are related to circulating FA and sphingolipids in peripartal dairy cows...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101059/the-mycobacterial-rv1551-glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase-enhances-phospholipid-biosynthesis-in-cell-lysates-of-escherichia-coli
#8
Jamison D Law, Jaiyanth Daniel
Latent tuberculosis is caused by dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that is phenotypically tolerant to antibiotics. Dormant Mtb accumulates triacylglycerol (TAG) utilizing fatty acids obtained from macrophage lipid droplets. The Rv1551 (PlsB1) gene is annotated as a putative glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) in the Mtb genome. GPAT catalyzes the first step of the glycerophospholipid biosynthetic pathway that synthesizes the lipid precursors for triacylglycerol biosynthesis. Although triacylglycerol biosynthesis is associated with Mtb dormancy, the functionality of the Rv1551 acyltransferase has not been investigated...
October 31, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096635/combination-of-ester-biosynthesis-and-%C3%AF-oxidation-for-production-of-mono-ethyl-dicarboxylic-acids-and-di-ethyl-esters-in-a-whole-cell-biocatalytic-setup-with-escherichia-coli
#9
Youri M van Nuland, Gerrit Eggink, Ruud A Weusthuis
BACKGROUND: Medium chain length (C6-C12) α,ω-dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) and corresponding esters are important building blocks for the polymer industry. For DCAs of 12 carbon atoms and longer, a sustainable process based on monooxygenase catalyzed ω-oxidation of fatty-acids has been realized. For medium-chain DCAs with a shorter chain length however, such a process has not been developed yet, since monooxygenases poorly ω-oxidize medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). On the contrary, esterified MCFAs are ω-oxidized well by the AlkBGTHJ proteins from Pseudomonas putida GPo1...
November 2, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094997/-lipid-emulsion-selection-in-parenteral-nutrition-biochemical-and-hematological-paramaters
#10
Josep Llop Talaveron, Elisabet Leiva Badosa, Ana Novak, Núria Sanmarti Martinez, Ramon Jódar Masanes, Josep Maria Suñé Negre, Josep Ramon Ticó Grau, Maria Badia Tahull
INTRODUCTION: Lipid emulsions (LE) are a component of parenteral nutrition (PN) and its fatty acid (FA) profile determines various physiological responses. OBJECTIVES: To assess the adequacy of a clinical not restricted protocol in the choice of LE by studying complementary biochemical and hematological parameters (BHP) at the beginning of the PN. METHODS: A 4-year retrospective observational study of LE administered to patients with PN. Demographic, clinical, nutritional and analytical variables at the beginning of the PN were collected...
July 28, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094671/reducing-agent-can-be-omitted-in-the-incubation-medium-of-the-batch-in-vitro-fermentation-model-of-the-pig-intestines
#11
C Poelaert, G Nollevaux, C Boudry, B Taminiau, C Nezer, G Daube, Y-J Schneider, D Portetelle, A Théwis, J Bindelle
Over the past decade, in vitro methods have been developed to study intestinal fermentation in pigs and its influence on the digestive physiology and health. In these methods, ingredients are fermented by a bacterial inoculum diluted in a mineral buffer solution. Generally, a reducing agent such as Na2S or cysteine-HCl generates the required anaerobic environment by releasing metabolites similar to those produced when protein is fermented, possibly inducing a dysbiosis. An experiment was conducted to study the impact of two reducing agents on results yielded by such in vitro fermentation models...
November 2, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083064/fatty-acid-chain-shortening-by-a-fungal-peroxygenase
#12
Andrés Olmedo, José C Del Río, Jan Kiebist, René Ullrich, Martin Hofrichter, Katrin Scheibner, Angel T Martínez, Ana Gutiérrez
A recently discovered peroxygenase from the fungus Marasmius rotula (MroUPO) is able to catalyze the progressive one-carbon shortening of medium and long-chain mono- and dicarboxylic acids by itself alone, in the presence of H2O2. The mechanism, analyzed using H218O2, starts with an α-oxidation catalyzed by MroUPO generating an α-hydroxy acid, which is further oxidized by the enzyme to a reactive α-keto intermediate whose decarboxylation yields the one-carbon shorter fatty acid. Compared with the previously characterized peroxygenase of Agrocybe aegerita, a wider heme access channel, enabling fatty acid positioning with the carboxylic end near the heme cofactor (as seen in one of the crystal structures available) would be at the origin of the unique ability of MroUPO shortening carboxylic acid chains...
October 30, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082238/coliform-bacteria-for-bioremediation-of-waste-hydrocarbons
#13
Majida Khanafer, Husain Al-Awadhi, Samir Radwan
Raw, domestic sewage of Kuwait City contained about 10(6) ml(-1) colony forming units of Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. oharae (56.6%), Klebsiella spp. (36%), and Escherichia coli (7.4%), as characterized by their 16S rRNA-gene sequences. The isolated coliforms grew successfully on a mineral medium with crude oil vapor as a sole source of carbon and energy. Those strains also grew, albeit to different degrees, on individual n-alkanes with carbon chains between C9 and C36 and on the individual aromatic hydrocarbons, toluene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and biphenyl as sole sources of carbon and energy...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079969/coconut-products-improve-signs-of-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-rats
#14
Sunil K Panchal, Sharyn Carnahan, Lindsay Brown
Increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome warrants identification of potential therapeutic options for intervention. This study tested commercially available Virgin Coconut Oil and Coconut Nourish, as coconuts are rich sources of lauric and myristic acids. Male Wistar rats were fed either corn starch diet (C); high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (H); high-carbohydrate, high-virgin coconut oil diet (HV); or high-carbohydrate, high-coconut Nourish diet (HN) for 16 weeks. Metabolic, liver, and cardiovascular health parameters were measured during and at the end of the study...
October 27, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078847/involvement-of-resveratrol-and-%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-sirtuin-1-gene-expression-in-thp1-cells
#15
Takafumi Tsuchiya, Ayano Endo, Kyoko Tsujikado, Toshihiko Inukai
BACKGROUND: Resveratrol, a kind of polyphenol, has the potential to activate the longevity gene in several cells, in the same manner as calorie restriction. We investigated the effect of resveratrol and ω-3-line polyunsaturated fatty acid on surtuin 1 (SIRT1) gene expression in human monocytes (THP1) cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the gene expression of THP1 cells using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis. Resveratol, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaeanoic acid (DHA) as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid were added on THP1 cells...
October 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071976/-hypothalamic-transcription-profiles-associated-with-twirling-reducing-needling-in-rats-with-stress-induced-prehypertension
#16
Qi-Sheng Sun, Qi-Ying Guo, Wen-Rui Jia, Zong-Yu Jin, Zhi Ji, Qiu-Lei Guo, Fang-Yuan Yang, He Zhan, He Wang, Qing-Guo Liu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of twirling-reducing needling on changes of profile of differentially-expressed genes in the hypothalamus in rats with stress-induced prehypertension (SI-PHT), so as to explore its mechanism under-lying improvement of prehypertension. METHODS: Wistar male rats were randomly divided into blank control group (n=12), model group (n=12) and acupuncture group (n=10). The SI-PHT model was established by planta-electric-shock stimulation (30 V, 5 s) plus noise stimulation (80-100 db, 50 ms), twice daily, continuously for 11 days...
June 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070903/increasing-dietary-medium-chain-fatty-acid-ratio-mitigates-high-fat-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-regulating-autophagy
#17
Mu-En Wang, Brijesh K Singh, Meng-Chieh Hsu, Chien Huang, Paul M Yen, Leang-Shin Wu, De-Shien Jong, Chih-Hsien Chiu
Previous studies have demonstrated that saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are more lipotoxic than unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) in inhibiting hepatic autophagy and promoting non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, there have been few studies have investigated the effects of carbon chain length on SFA-induced autophagy impairment and lipotoxicity. To investigate whether SFAs with shorter carbon chain lengths have differential effects on hepatic autophagy and NASH development, we partially replaced lard with coconut oil to elevate the ratio of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) to long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) in a mouse high-fat diet (HFD) and fed mice for 16 weeks...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062119/effects-of-glucose-concentration-on-1-18-cis-octadec-9-enedioic-acid-biotransformation-efficiency-and-lipid-body-formation-in-candida-tropicalis
#18
Irina Funk, Volker Sieber, Jochen Schmid
The unsaturated long-chain α,ω-dicarboxylic acid 1,18-cis-octadec-9-enedioic acid (cis-ODA) is a versatile precursor of various valuable compounds, such as polymers, and can be obtained from renewable resources. This makes cis-ODA highly attractive for the chemical industry where there is a growing interest in sustainable processes. However, chemical synthesis of the cis isomers is currently not feasible. In contrast, biotechnological production allows for highly specific and selective reactions. Therefore, we developed an efficient production strategy for cis-ODA using Candida tropicalis as a whole-cell biocatalyst for the biotransformation of oleic acid, which naturally occurs in various fats and oils...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046620/the-dental-calculus-metabolome-in-modern-and-historic-samples
#19
Irina M Velsko, Katherine A Overmyer, Camilla Speller, Lauren Klaus, Matthew J Collins, Louise Loe, Laurent A F Frantz, Krithivasan Sankaranarayanan, Cecil M Lewis, Juan Bautista Rodriguez Martinez, Eros Chaves, Joshua J Coon, Greger Larson, Christina Warinner
INTRODUCTION: Dental calculus is a mineralized microbial dental plaque biofilm that forms throughout life by precipitation of salivary calcium salts. Successive cycles of dental plaque growth and calcification make it an unusually well-preserved, long-term record of host-microbial interaction in the archaeological record. Recent studies have confirmed the survival of authentic ancient DNA and proteins within historic and prehistoric dental calculus, making it a promising substrate for investigating oral microbiome evolution via direct measurement and comparison of modern and ancient specimens...
2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040817/potential-for-mcl-pha-production-from-nonanoic-and-azelaic-acids
#20
James Gillis, Kenton Ko, Juliana A Ramsay, Bruce A Ramsay
Greater than 65 % of canola and high oleic soy oil fatty acids is oleic acid, which is readily converted to nonanoic (NA) and azelaic (AzA) acids by ozonolysis. NA is an excellent substrate for medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) production but AzA has few uses. Pseudomonas citronellolis DSM 50332 and Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400, both able to produce mcl-PHA from fatty acids and able to grow on AzA as the sole source of carbon and energy were assessed for the accumulation of mcl-PHA from AzA and NA...
October 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
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