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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329227/fermentation-guided-natural-products-isolation-of-a-grape-berry-triacylglyceride-that-enhances-ethyl-ester-production
#1
Christopher L Blackford, Eric G Dennis, Robert A Keyzers, Claudia Schueuermann, Robert D Trengove, Paul K Boss
A full understanding of the origin, formation and degradation of volatile compounds that contribute to wine aroma is required before wine style can be effectively managed. Fractionation of grapes represents a convenient and robust method to simplify the grape matrix to enhance our understanding of the grape contribution to volatile compound production during yeast fermentation. In this study, acetone extracts of both Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries were fractionated and model wines produced by spiking aliquots of these grape fractions into model grape juice must and fermented...
January 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317722/loss-of-the-mitochondrial-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-protein-medium-chain-acyl-coenzyme-a-dehydrogenase-disrupts-oxidative-phosphorylation-protein-complex-stability-and-function
#2
Sze Chern Lim, Makiko Tajika, Masaru Shimura, Kirstyn T Carey, David A Stroud, Kei Murayama, Akira Ohtake, Matthew McKenzie
Medium-chain acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) is involved in the initial step of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO). Loss of function results in MCAD deficiency, a disorder that usually presents in childhood with hypoketotic hypoglycemia, vomiting and lethargy. While the disruption of mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism is the primary metabolic defect, secondary defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) may also contribute to disease pathogenesis. Therefore, we examined OXPHOS activity and stability in MCAD-deficient patient fibroblasts that have no detectable MCAD protein...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317401/acute-and-chronic-increases-of-circulating-fstl1-normalize-energy-substrate-metabolism-in-pacing-induced-heart-failure
#3
Mitsuru Seki, Jeffery C Powers, Sonomi Maruyama, Maria A Zuriaga, Chia-Ling Wu, Clara Kurishima, Lydia Kim, Jesse Johnson, Anthony Poidomani, Tao Wang, Eric Muñoz, Sudarsan Rajan, Joon Y Park, Kenneth Walsh, Fabio A Recchia
BACKGROUND: FSTL1 (follistatin-like protein 1) is an emerging cardiokine/myokine that is upregulated in heart failure (HF) and is found to be cardioprotective in animal models of cardiac injury. We tested the hypothesis that circulating FSTL1 can affect cardiac function and metabolism under baseline physiological conditions and in HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: FSTL1 was acutely (10 minutes) or chronically (2 weeks) infused to attain clinically relevant blood levels in conscious dogs with cardiac tachypacing-induced HF...
January 2018: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310893/effect-of-fat-composition-in-enteral-nutrition-for-crohn-s-disease-in-adults-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Sarah M Ajabnoor, Alastair Forbes
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The role of enteral nutrition (EN) fat composition in regulating inflammation in Crohn's disease (CD) is not clear. There is, moreover, insufficient evidence to guide the choice of EN in CD with any confidence. We have reanalysed the findings of previous studies in a systematic review focussing on the relationship between EN fat content and remission rates (RR). METHODS: A systematic search with no language restriction was undertaken in Medline and Embase databases supplemented by a manual search in the reference lists of identified studies...
December 28, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306619/comparative-study-between-conventional-fasting-versus-overnight-infusion-of-lipid-or-carbohydrate-on-insulin-and-free-fatty-acids-in-obese-patients-undergoing-elective-on-pump-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-a-prospective-randomized-trial
#5
Hisham Hosny, Mohamed Ibrahim, Wael El-Siory, Amr Abdel-Monem
OBJECTIVES: Postoperative insulin resistance represents a major component of postoperative metabolic disorder. The authors compared the effects of preoperative infusion of lipid emulsion or carbohydrate to conventional preoperative fasting on postoperative insulin and free fatty acid (FFA) levels. DESIGN: A prospective randomized double-blinded study. SETTINGS: Tertiary university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-three patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304274/controlling-ethanol-use-in-chain-elongation-by-co2-loading-rate
#6
Mark Roghair, Tim Hoogstad, David P B T B Strik, Caroline M Plugge, Peer Timmers, Ruud A Weusthuis, Marieke E Bruins, Cees J N Buisman
Chain elongation is an open-culture biotechnological process which converts volatile fatty acids (VFAs) into medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) using ethanol and other reduced substrates. The objective of this study was to investigate the quantitative effect of CO2 loading rate on ethanol usages in a chain elongation process. We supplied different rates of CO2 to a continuously stirred anaerobic reactor, fed with ethanol and propionate. Ethanol was used to upgrade ethanol itself into caproate or to upgrade the supplied VFA (propionate) into heptanoate...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303261/difference-in-binding-of-long-and-medium-chain-fatty-acids-with-serum-albumin-the-role-of-macromolecular-crowding-effect
#7
Tian-Tian Zhu, Yan Zhang, Xing-An Luo, Shen-Zhi Wang, Ming-Qiang Jia, Zhongxiu Chen
Fatty acids (FAs) are transported by serum albumin in plasma. Studies have been undertaken to address the binding of MCFAs or LCFAs to human plasma albumin (HPA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) by characterizing the binding affinities. Previous research on FA binding to serum albumin was usually performed in dilute solutions that are not sufficiently concentrated for interpretation the significance of the results under normal physiological conditions. How macromolecular crowded media affect fatty acids and bovine serum albumin (BSA) binding remains unknown...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301869/astragaloside-iv-inhibits-ventricular-remodeling-and-improves-fatty-acid-utilization-in-rats-with-chronic-heart-failure
#8
Bin Tang, Jin-Guo Zhang, Hong-Yong Tan, Xi-Qing Wei
Chronic heart failure (CHF) is the end-stage of many cardiovascular diseases and severely affects the patients' lifespan. Inhibiting ventricular remodeling is thus a primary treatment target for CHF patients. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) can improve cardiac function and protect myocardial cells. The study aims to investigate the effects of AS-IV on ventricular remodeling and explore its role in regulating energy metabolism using a rat CHF model. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups (N=20 per group):  CHF + benazepril hydrochloride, CHF + low-dose (30 mg...
January 4, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291154/in-vitro-fermentation-of-copra-meal-hydrolysate-by-chicken-microbiota
#9
Phatcharin Prayoonthien, Sunee Nitisinprasert, Suttipun Keawsompong
The aim of this study was to carry out preliminary investigations on the in vitro fermentation selectivity of copra meal hydrolysate (CMH) by chicken gut microbiota. The ileum and cecum contents from three 35-day-old birds were used as inocula. Yeast mannooligosaccharide (yeast-MOS) or α-mannan was selected as a positive control. Batch culture fermentation with fecal bacteria was performed at 42 °C for 24 h in an anaerobic chamber. Samples were collected at 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h of fermentation and evaluated using real-time PCR and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) analysis...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290399/comprehensive-quantitative-analysis-of-fatty-acyl-coenzyme-a-species-in-biological-samples-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-harmonizing-hydrophilic-interaction-and-reversed-phase-chromatography
#10
László Abrankó, Gary Williamson, Samantha Gardner, Asimina Kerimi
Fatty acyl-Coenzyme A species (acyl-CoAs) are key biomarkers in studies focusing on cellular energy metabolism. Existing analytical approaches are unable to simultaneously detect the full range of short-, medium-, and long-chain acyl-CoAs, while chromatographic limitations encountered in the analysis of limited amounts of biological samples are an often overlooked problem. We report the systematic development of a UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method which incorporates reversed phase (RP) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) separations in series, in an automated mode...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260181/reshaped-fecal-gut-microbiota-composition-by-the-intake-of-high-molecular-weight-persimmon-tannin-in-normal-and-high-cholesterol-diet-fed-rats
#11
Wei Zhu, Kuan Lin, Kaikai Li, Xiangyi Deng, Chunmei Li
It has been proposed that the gut microbiome may be related to obesity, and diet-induced obesity may induce changes in the gut microbiota composition. Our previous studies suggested that persimmon tannin (PT), which is highly polymerized and non-absorbable in the intestine, showed anti-hyperlipidemic and cholesterol-lowering effects in animal models. Considering that the possible composition modification effects of PT on intestinal bacteria might contribute to its anti-hyperlipidemic and cholesterol-lowering effects in vivo, in this study, we determined whether the PT administration could modify the gut microbiota in both normal diet-fed and high-cholesterol (HC) diet-fed rats, and how PT altered the bacterial composition in both normal and HC fed rats...
December 20, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248464/decanoic-acid-suppresses-proliferation-and-invasiveness-of-human-trophoblast-cells-by-disrupting-mitochondrial-function
#12
Changwon Yang, Whasun Lim, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
Decanoic acid (DA) is a medium-chain fatty acid used in the manufacture of various products including plastics, cosmetics, and lubricants. In addition to antiviral and antibacterial effects, DA's, reported biological activities include regulation of signaling pathways and redox homeostasis in various human cell types. The influence of DA on functional properties of human trophoblasts, including proliferation, invasion and apoptosis is currently unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-proliferative and anti-invasive effects of DA on the human trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo...
December 14, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247333/medium-chain-fatty-acids-mcfa-production-through-anaerobic-fermentation-using-clostridium-kluyveri-effect-of-ethanol-and-acetate
#13
M Venkateswar Reddy, S Venkata Mohan, Young-Cheol Chang
Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are saturated monocarboxylic acids and can be used as antimicrobials, corrosion inhibitors, precursors in biodiesel, and bioplastic production. In the present study, MCFA production was evaluated with acetate and ethanol using the bacteria Clostridium kluyveri. Effects of substrate, electron donor, and methane inhibitor on MCFA production were evaluated. Bacteria successfully converted the ethanol and acetate to butyrate (C4), caproate (C6), and caprylate (C8) by chain elongation process...
December 16, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233754/molecular-characterization-tissue-distribution-and-differential-nutritional-regulation-of-putative-elovl5-elongase-in-silver-barb-puntius-gonionotus
#14
Madhusmita Nayak, Avinash Pradhan, Shiba Shankar Giri, Mrinal Samanta, V Badireenath Konkimalla, Ashis Saha
Fatty acid desaturase (Fads) and elongase (Elovl) are two important enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) in fishes. Silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) is considered a promising medium carp species for freshwater aquaculture in Asia. Earlier, Δ6 fads cDNA was characterized to understand the molecular mechanism of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in this species. In the present study elovl5-like elongase full-length cDNA was cloned and characterized by RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends), and analyzed its basal expression in various organs/tissues by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay...
December 9, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230824/effects-of-medium-chain-triacylglycerols-on-maillard-reaction-in-bread-making
#15
Toshiyuki Toyosaki
BACKGROUND: To investigate the relationship between the fatty acid composition of medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) and the Maillard reaction induced during bread baking, a comparison with various fatty acids was conducted. RESULTS: Saturated fatty acids had a remarkable inhibitory effect on the amount of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) generated from the Maillard reaction in bread baking compared to unsaturated fatty acids. The amount of AGEs produced by each fatty acid was as follows; C18:0:18...
December 11, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228356/dietary-intervention-rescues-myopathy-associated-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#16
Matthew A Summers, Thusitha Rupasinghe, Emily R Vasiljevski, Frances J Evesson, Kathy Mikulec, Lauren Peacock, Kate Gr Quinlan, Sandra T Cooper, Ute Roessner, David A Stevenson, David G Little, Aaron Schindeler
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder with complex symptomology. In addition to a predisposition to tumors, children with NF1 can present with reduced muscle mass, global muscle weakness, and impaired motor skills, which can have a significant impact on quality of life. Genetic mouse models have shown a lipid storage disease phenotype may underlie muscle weakness in NF1. Herein we confirm that biopsy specimens from six individuals with NF1 similarly manifest features of a lipid storage myopathy, with marked accumulation of intramyocellular lipid, fibrosis, and mononuclear cell infiltrates...
December 8, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226031/sodium-salt-medium-chain-fatty-acids-and-bacillus-based-probiotic-strategies-to-improve-growth-and-intestinal-health-of-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#17
Paula Simó-Mirabet, M Carla Piazzon, Josep Alvar Calduch-Giner, Álvaro Ortiz, Mónica Puyalto, Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
Background: The increased demand for fish protein has led to the intensification of aquaculture practices which are hampered by nutritional and health factors affecting growth performance. To solve these problems, antibiotics have been used for many years in the prevention, control and treatment against disease as well as growth promoters to improve animal performance. Nowadays, the use of antibiotics in the European Union and other countries has been completely or partially banned as a result of the existence of antibiotic cross-resistance...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223758/biosynthesis-and-structural-characterization-of-polyhydroxyalkanoates-produced-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-atcc-27853-from-long-odd-chain-fatty-acids
#18
Giuseppe Impallomeni, Alberto Ballistreri, Giovanni M Carnemolla, Maria G Rizzo, Marco S Nicolò, Salvatore P P Guglielmino
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was cultured on media containing long odd-chain fatty acids. Heptadecanoic, nonadecanoic, and heneicosanoic acids sustained cell growth and resulted in polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulation when culturing was conducted under nitrogen starvation conditions. No PHA was produced using a complete or magnesium-deprived medium. The isolated polyesters were characterized by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) of methanolyzed samples, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, ESI MS of partially pyrolyzed samples, and differential scanning calorimetry...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220020/microbial-synthesis-of-medium-chain-chemicals-from-renewables
#19
Stephen Sarria, Nicholas S Kruyer, Pamela Peralta-Yahya
Linear, medium-chain (C8-C12) hydrocarbons are important components of fuels as well as commodity and specialty chemicals. As industrial microbes do not contain pathways to produce medium-chain chemicals, approaches such as overexpression of endogenous enzymes or deletion of competing pathways are not available to the metabolic engineer; instead, fatty acid synthesis and reversed β-oxidation are manipulated to synthesize medium-chain chemical precursors. Even so, chain lengths remain difficult to control, which means that purification must be used to obtain the desired products, titers of which are typically low and rarely exceed milligrams per liter...
December 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219229/characterisation-of-cyp102a25-from-b-marmarensis-and-cyp102a26-from-p-halophilus-p450-homologues-of-bm3-with-preference-towards-hydroxylation-of-medium-chain-fatty-acids
#20
Joanne L Porter, Jack Manning, Selina Sabatini, Michele Tavanti, Nicholas J Turner, Sabine L Flitsch
Cytochrome P450 monooxgenases are highly desired biocatalysts due to their ability to catalyse a wide variety of chemically challenging C-H activation reactions. The CYP102A subfamily of enzymes are natural catalytically self-sufficient proteins consisting of a haem and FMN-FAD reductase domain fused in a single component system. They catalyse the oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids to produce primarily ω-1, ω-2 and ω-3 hydroxy acids. These monooxygenases have broad applications in biotechnology however, their substrate range is still limited and there is a continued need to add diversity to this class of biocatalysts...
December 8, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
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