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medium chain fatty acid

Antonella Santillo, Lucia Figliola, Maria G Ciliberti, Mariangela Caroprese, Rosaria Marino, Marzia Albenzio
We report the fatty acid profile of raw milk and of the corresponding digested milk from different sources (human milk, formula milk and donkey, bovine, ovine and caprine milk) to gain information on the nutritional quality of different milk sources in infant nutrition.Short chain fatty acids (SC-FA) were higher in bovine and caprine milk, intermediate in ovine and donkey and lower in human and formula milk. Medium chain fatty acids (MC-FA) showed the highest values for bovine and caprine milk and the lowest for donkey and formula milk, whereas long chain fatty acids (LC-FA) were the highest in donkey and formula milk and intermediate in human milk...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Kiran B Tiwari, Craig Gatto, Brian J Wilkinson
Fatty acids play a major role in determining membrane biophysical properties. Staphylococcus aureus produces branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) and straight-chain saturated fatty acids (SCSFAs), and can directly incorporate exogenous SCSFAs and straight-chain unsaturated fatty acids (SCUFAs). Many S. aureus strains produce the triterpenoid pigment staphyloxanthin, and the balance of BCFAs, SCSFAs and staphyloxanthin determines membrane fluidity. Here, we investigated the relationship of fatty acid and carotenoid production in S...
May 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Fuguang Xue, Xiaohua Pan, Linshu Jiang, Yuming Guo, Benhai Xiong
Introduction: Thiamine is known to attenuate high-concentrate diet induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in dairy cows, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Objectives: The major objective of this study was to investigate the metabolic mechanisms of thiamine supplementation on high-concentrate diet induced SARA. Methods: Six multiparous, rumen-fistulated Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design...
2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Stephanie Krauß, Vanessa Darwisch, Walter Vetter
Tocopheryl fatty acid esters (TFAE) consist of tocopherols esterified to fatty acids, but only little is known about this substance class. In this study, twelve vegetable groups were screened on TFAE and contents of (free) tocopherols and TFAE were determined in red bell pepper, red chili pepper, cucumber and walnut (n = 5, respectively). Intact TFAE were separated by solid phase extraction from free tocopherols and analyzed by GC/MS. Highest TFAE values were determined in chili pepper (4.0-16 mg/100 g fresh weight, FW) and walnut (4...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yoo-Mi Kim, Geena Kim, Hoon Ko, Han-Wook Yoo, Hyoung Doo Lee
RATIONALE: Infantile-onset hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCMP) should be considered a largely genetic condition, although its onset is most often triggered by infection. Very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation that often causes severe cardiomyopathy and/or sudden death during the neonatal period. PATIENT CONCERNS: Herein, we report an infant with VLCAD deficiency who presented with severe cardiac manifestations, including massive pericardial effusion and HCMP...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
S Li, J Zheng, K Deng, L Chen, X L Zhao, X M Jiang, Z F Fang, L Q Che, S Y Xu, B Feng, J Li, Y Lin, Y Y Wu, Y M Han, De Wu
Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of organic acid (OA) supplementation in a highly digestible (Exp. 1) or a less digestible diet (Exp. 2) on the growth performance and intestinal health of weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of 240 pigs weaned at day 21 were assigned to one of five dietary treatments: negative control (NC) (basal diet, 3,000 ppm ZnO in the first 2 weeks only); positive control (PC) (NC plus 10 mg/kg zinc bacitracin, 5 mg/kg colistin sulfate, and 5 mg/kg olaquindox); OA1 (NC plus a 0...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Mark Roghair, Yuchen Liu, David P B T B Strik, Ruud A Weusthuis, Marieke E Bruins, Cees J N Buisman
Introduction: Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs), such as n-caproate, are potential valuable platform chemicals. MCFAs can be produced from low-grade organic residues by anaerobic reactor microbiomes through two subsequent biological processes: hydrolysis combined with acidogenesis and chain elongation. Continuous chain elongation with organic residues becomes effective when the targeted MCFA(s) are produced at high concentrations and rates, while excessive ethanol oxidation and base consumption are limited. The objective of this study was to develop an effective continuous chain elongation process with hydrolyzed and acidified food waste and additional ethanol...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Kaede Takahashi, Kaori Fukushima, Yuka Onishi, Kanako Minami, Shiho Otagaki, Kaichi Ishimoto, Nobuyuki Fukushima, Kanya Honoki, Toshifumi Tsujiuchi
Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) and FFA4 mediate a variety of biological responses through binding of medium- and long-chain free fatty acids. The aim of this study was to investigate an involvement of FFA1 and FFA4 in the regulation of cellular functions during tumor progression in colon cancer cells. The long-term fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (CDDP) treated cells were generated from DLD1 cells (DLD-5FU and DLD-CDDP cells, respectively). FFAR1 expressions were lower in DLD-5FU and DLD-CDDP cells than in DLD1 cells...
May 8, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Rojeet Shrestha, Yusuke Miura, Ken-Ichi Hirano, Zhen Chen, Hiroaki Okabe, Hitoshi Chiba, Shu-Ping Hui
Fatty acid (FA) profiling of milk has important applications in human health and nutrition. Conventional methods for the saponification and derivatization of FA are time-consuming and laborious. We aimed to develop a simple, rapid, and economical method for the determination of FA in milk. We applied a beneficial approach of microwave-assisted saponification (MAS) of milk fats and microwave-assisted derivatization (MAD) of FA to its hydrazides, integrated with HPLC-based analysis. The optimal conditions for MAS and MAD were determined...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
David Grünig, Urs Duthaler, Stephan Krähenbühl
Impairment of hepatic fatty acid metabolism can lead to liver steatosis and injury. Testing drugs for interference with hepatic fatty acid metabolism is therefore important. To find out whether HepG2 cells are suitable for this purpose, we investigated the effect of three established fatty acid metabolism inhibitors and of three test compounds on triglyceride accumulation, palmitate metabolism, the acylcarnitine pool and dicarboxylic acid accumulation in the cell supernatant and on ApoB-100 excretion in HepG2 cells...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Zhe Hu, Huijuan Dong, Jin-Cheng Ma, Yonghong Yu, Kai-Hui Li, Qiao-Qiao Guo, Chao Zhang, Wen-Bin Zhang, Xinyun Cao, John E Cronan, Haihong Wang
The precursors of the diffusible signal factor (DSF) family signals of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris are 3-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein (3-hydroxyacyl-ACP) thioesters having acyl chains of 12 to 13 carbon atoms produced by the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. We report a novel 3-oxoacyl-ACP reductase encoded by the X. campestris pv. campestris XCC0416 gene ( fabG2 ), which is unable to participate in the initial steps of fatty acyl synthesis. This was shown by the failure of FabG2 expression to allow growth at the nonpermissive temperature of an Escherichia coli fabG temperature-sensitive strain...
May 8, 2018: MBio
Hannah B Gordon, Lourdes Valdez, Anthea Letsou
Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting brain white matter. The most common form of ALD is X-linked (X-ALD) and results from mutation of the ABCD1 -encoded very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) transporter. X-ALD is clinically heterogeneous, with the cerebral form being the most severe. Diagnosed in boys usually between the ages of 4 and 8, cerebral X-ALD symptoms progress rapidly (in as little as two years) through declines in cognition, learning, and behavior, to paralysis and ultimately to a vegetative state and death...
May 8, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Alessandra Mazzocchi, Veronica D'Oria, Valentina De Cosmi, Silvia Bettocchi, Gregorio Paolo Milani, Marco Silano, Carlo Agostoni
The quantity and quality of dietary lipids in infant formulae have a significant impact on health outcomes, especially when fat storing and/or absorption are limited (e.g., preterm birth and short bowel disease) or when fat byproducts may help to prevent some pathologies (e.g., atopy). The lipid composition of infant formulae varies according to the different fat sources used, and the potential biological effects are related to the variety of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. For example, since lipids are the main source of energy when the normal absorptive capacity of the digestive tract is compromised, medium-chain saturated fatty acids might cover this requirement...
May 4, 2018: Nutrients
Stephen Sarria, Thomas G Bartholow, Adam Verga, Michael D Burkart, Pamela Peralta-Yahya
Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are key intermediates in the synthesis of medium-chain chemicals including α-olefins and dicarboxylic acids. In bacteria, microbial production of MCFAs is limited by the activity and product profile of fatty acyl-ACP thioesterases. Here, we engineer a heterologous bacterial medium-chain fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase for improved MCFA production in Escherichia coli. Electrostatically matching the interface between the heterologous medium-chain Acinetobacter baylyi fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase (AbTE) and the endogenous E...
May 3, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Beatrix Jones, Ting-Li Han, Thibaut Delplancke, Elizabeth J McKenzie, Jamie V de Seymour, Mei Chien Chua, Kok Hian Tan, Philip N Baker
The fetus undergoes a crucial period of neurodevelopment in utero. The maternal hair metabolome provides an integrated record of the metabolic state of the mother prior to, and during pregnancy. We investigated whether variation in the maternal hair metabolome was associated with neurodevelopmental differences across infants. Maternal hair samples and infant neurocognitive assessments (using the Bayley III Scales of Infant Development at 24 months) were obtained for 373 infant-mother dyads between 26-28 weeks' gestation from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes cohort...
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chinedum Eleazu, Ayogu Charles, Kate Eleazu, Ngozi Achi
The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been on the increase in recent times. Although several oral treatments for T2DM are available, some of them have been found to elicit undesirable side effects. This therefore underscores the need for new treatment options with lesser side effects than the existing ones for people with T2DM. Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1), also known as GPR40, belongs to a class of G-protein coupled receptors that are encoded by FFAR1 genes in humans. It is expressed in the pancreatic β-cells and it is activated by medium- and long-chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids...
April 25, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Hans Denis Bamal, Wanping Chen, Samson Sitheni Mashele, David R Nelson, Abidemi Paul Kappo, Rebamang Anthony Mosa, Jae-Hyuk Yu, Jack A Tuszynski, Khajamohiddin Syed
Phylogenetic and structural analysis of P450 proteins fused to peroxidase/dioxygenase has not been reported yet. We present phylogenetic and in silico structural analysis of the novel P450 fusion family CYP5619 from the deadliest fish pathogenic oomycete, Saprolegnia diclina. Data-mining and annotation of CYP5619 members revealed their unique presence in oomycetes. CYP5619 members have the highest number of conserved amino acids among eukaryotic P450s. The highest number of conserved amino acids (78%) occurred in the peroxidase/dioxygenase domain compared to the P450 domain (22%)...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Y H Feng, Y L Huang, P Wang, F J Wang
Objective: To investigate the effects of short chain fatty acid (SCFA) on barrier disruption of human intestinal epithelial cell induced by endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the related mechanism. Methods: The human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2 was used to reproduce monolayer-cells. Cells were divided into control group, LPS group, and SCFA+ LPS group according to the random number table. Cells in control group were only routinely cultured with DMEM medium. Cells in LPS group were cultured with DMEM medium and LPS with final mass concentration of 10 μg/mL...
April 20, 2018: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Kevin Huynh, Gerard Pernes, Natalie A Mellett, Peter J Meikle, Andrew J Murphy, Graeme I Lancaster
Macrophages are abundant within adipose tissue depots where they are exposed to fatty acids, leading to lipid accumulation. Herein, we have determined the effects of various fatty acids on the macrophage lipidome. Using targeted mass-spectrometry, we were able to detect 641 individual lipid species in primary murine macrophages treated with a variety of saturated fatty acids and an un-saturated fatty acid, either alone or in combination. The most pronounced effects were observed for the long-chain saturated fatty acid palmitate, which increased the total abundance of numerous classes of lipids...
April 23, 2018: Metabolites
John P Gleeson, Jesús M Frías, Sinéad M Ryan, David J Brayden
The tripeptides, Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP) and Leu-Lys-Pro (LKP), inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) resulting in lowered blood pressure. Our hypothesis was that the medium chain fatty acid permeation enhancer, sodium caprate (C10 ), may prevent the decrease in permeability of the tripeptides when PepT1 is inhibited by glycyl-sarcosine (Gly-Sar), a situation that may occur in the presence of food hydrolysates. Using Caco-2 monolayers and isolated rat jejunal tissue, the apparent permeability coefficients (Papp ) of [3 H]-IPP and [3 H]-LKP were assessed in the presence of Gly-Sar with and without C10 ...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
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