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medium chain fatty acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325847/specialized-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-contributes-to-extreme-fatty-acid-content-of-cuphea-seed-oil
#1
Umidjon Iskandarov, Jillian E Silva, Hae Jin Kim, Mariette Andersson, Rebecca E Cahoon, Keithanne Mockaitis, Edgar B Cahoon
Seed oils of many Cuphea sp. contain >90% of medium-chain fatty acids, such as decanoic acid (10:0). These seed oils, which are among the most compositionally variant in the plant kingdom, arise from specialized fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes and specialized acyltransferases. These include lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (LPAT) and diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) that are required for successive acylation of medium-chain fatty acids in the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of seed triacylglycerols (TAGs)...
March 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325324/influence-of-fatty-chain-length-and-starch-composition-on-structure-and-properties-of-fully-substituted-fatty-acid-starch-esters
#2
Audrey Vanmarcke, Lise Leroy, Gregory Stoclet, Lucie Duchatel-Crépy, Jean-Marc Lefebvre, Nicolas Joly, Valérie Gaucher
A series of almost fully substituted Fatty Acid Starch Esters (FASEs) has been obtained in a homogeneous LiCl/DMAc medium by grafting octanoyl (C8), lauroyl (C12) and palmitoyl (C16) chlorides onto 3 starch species: Amylo-Maize, Potato and Waxy Maize. Structure-property relationships of FASEs are investigated as a function of both fatty acid chain length and amylose/amylopectin ratio of the starch. The structural study has revealed a layered type organization in which starch chain planes are separated by fatty chains...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317774/development-of-an-up-grading-process-to-produce-mlm-structured-lipids-from-sardine-discards
#3
R Morales-Medina, M Munio, A Guadix, E M Guadix
The aim of the work was to produce MLM structured lipids with caprylic acid (M) as medium chain fatty acid located at the external bonds of the glycerol backbone and concentrated polyunsaturated fatty acids (L) from sardine discards (Sardine pilchardus) in the central bond of the glycerol. To that end, the following steps were conducted: (i) fish oil extraction, (ii) Omega-3 free fatty acids (FFA) concentration (low temperature winterization), (iii) two-steps enzymatic esterification and (iv) triacylglycerols (TAG) purification (liquid column chromatography)...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304245/kineothrix-alysoides-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-saccharolytic-butyrate-producer-within-the-family-lachnospiraceae
#4
Kelly Nicole Haas, Jeffrey L Blanchard
An anaerobic, saccharolytic, spore-forming, butyrate-producing bacterium, strain KNHs209T, was isolated from a switchgrass microcosm seeded with forest soil. Cells were highly motile rods, often forming long filamentous chains which were easily observed moving under the microscope. Its closest phylogenetic relative was Eisenbergiella tayi (16S rRNA gene sequence identity 94.2 %), although it was easily distinguishable based on its morphology and physiology. Whole-genome sequencing enabled development of a minimal medium, and also suggested that the organism is capable of fixing nitrogen...
February 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301719/a-reconfigured-kennedy-pathway-which-promotes-efficient-accumulation-of-medium-chain-fatty-acids-in-leaf-oils
#5
Kyle B Reynolds, Matthew C Taylor, Darren P Cullerne, Christopher L Blanchard, Craig C Wood, Surinder P Singh, James R Petrie
Medium chain fatty acids (MCFA, C6-14 fatty acids) are an ideal feedstock for biodiesel and broader oleochemicals. In recent decades, several studies have used transgenic engineering to produce MCFA in seeds oils, though these modifications result in unbalance membrane lipid profiles that impair oil yields and agronomic performance. Given the ability to engineer non-seed organs to produce oils, we have previously demonstrated that MCFA profiles can be produced in leaves, but this also results in unbalanced membrane lipid profiles and undesirable chlorosis and cell death...
March 16, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294288/engineering-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-fatty-acid-composition-for-increased-tolerance-to-octanoic-acid
#6
Pamela B Besada-Lombana, Ruben Fernandez-Moya, Jacob Fenster, Nancy A Da Silva
Biorenewable chemicals such as short and medium chain fatty acids enable functional or direct substitution of petroleum-derived building blocks, allowing reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gases while meeting market needs of high-demand products like aliphatic alcohols and alpha olefins. However, producing these fatty acids in microorganisms can be challenging due to toxicity issues. Octanoic acid (C8) can disrupt the integrity of the cell membrane in yeast, and exogenous supplementation of oleic acid has been shown to help alleviate this...
March 14, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284119/a-review-on-bio-electrochemical-systems-bess-for-the-syngas-and-value-added-biochemicals-production
#7
Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Rijuta Ganesh Saratale, Abudukeremu Kadier, Periyasamy Sivagurunathan, Guangyin Zhen, Sang-Hyoun Kim, Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale
Bio-electrochemical systems (BESs) are the microbial systems which are employed to produce electricity directly from organic wastes along with some valuable chemicals production such as medium chain fatty acids; acetate, butyrate and alcohols. In this review, recent updates about value-added chemicals production concomitantly with the production of gaseous fuels like hydrogen and methane which are considered as cleaner for the environment have been addressed. Additionally, the bottlenecks associated with the conversion rates, lower yields and other aspects have been mentioned...
February 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283530/identification-of-enzymes-involved-in-oxidation-of-phenylbutyrate
#8
Neža Palir, Jos P N Ruiter, Ronald J A Wanders, Riekelt H Houtkooper
In recent years the short-chain fatty acid 4-phenylbutyrate (PB) has emerged as a promising drug for various clinical conditions. In fact, PB is FDA-approved for urea cycle disorders since 1996. PB is more potent and less toxic than its metabolite phenylacetate (PA), and not just a pro-drug for PA as it was initially assumed. The metabolic pathway of PB, however, has remained unclear. Therefore, we set out to identify the enzymes involved in the β-oxidation of PB. We used cells deficient in specific steps of fatty acid β-oxidation, and used ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to measure to which enzymes are able to convert PB or its downstream products...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270609/ablation-of-cytochrome-p450-omega-hydroxylase-4a14-gene-attenuates-hepatic-steatosis-and-fibrosis
#9
Xiaoyan Zhang, Sha Li, Yunfeng Zhou, Wen Su, Xiongzhong Ruan, Bing Wang, Feng Zheng, Margaret Warner, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, Youfei Guan
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by simple hepatic steatosis (SS), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), hepatic fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Dysregulated fatty acid metabolism in the liver plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Cytochrome P450 omega-hydroxylase 4A14 (CYP4A14) is a homolog of human CYP4A hydroxylase that catalyzes omega-hydroxylation of medium-chain fatty acids and arachidonic acid in mice. The goal of this study was to determine the role of CYP4A14 in the development and the progression of NAFLD...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265558/a-clostridium-group-iv-species-dominates-and-suppresses-a-mixed-culture-fermentation-by-tolerance-to-medium-chain-fatty-acids-products
#10
Stephen J Andersen, Vicky De Groof, Way Cern Khor, Hugo Roume, Ruben Props, Marta Coma, Korneel Rabaey
A microbial community is engaged in a complex economy of cooperation and competition for carbon and energy. In engineered systems such as anaerobic digestion and fermentation, these relationships are exploited for conversion of a broad range of substrates into products, such as biogas, ethanol, and carboxylic acids. Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs), for example, hexanoic acid, are valuable, energy dense microbial fermentation products, however, MCFA tend to exhibit microbial toxicity to a broad range of microorganisms at low concentrations...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263610/correlating-membrane-morphological-responses-with-micellar-aggregation-behavior-of-capric-acid-and-monocaprin
#11
Bo Kyeong Yoon, Joshua A Jackman, Min Chul Kim, Tun Naw Sut, Nam-Joon Cho
The interaction of single-chain lipid amphiphiles with phospholipid membranes is relevant to many scientific fields, including molecular evolution, medicine, and biofuels. Two widely studied compounds within this class are the medium-chain saturated fatty acid, capric acid, and its monoglyceride derivative, monocaprin. To date, most studies about these compounds have involved in vitro evaluation of their biological activities, while mechanistic details of how capric acid and monocaprin interact with phospholipid bilayers remain elusive...
March 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261474/expression-of-fatty-acid-sensing-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-peripartal-holstein-cows
#12
Alea Agrawal, Abdulrahman Alharthi, Mario Vailati-Riboni, Zheng Zhou, Juan J Loor
BACKGROUND: G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), also referred as Free Fatty Acid Receptors (FFAR), are widely studied within human medicine as drug targets for metabolic disorders. To combat metabolic disorders prevalent in dairy cows during the transition period, which co-occur with negative energy balance and changes to lipid and glucose metabolism, it may be helpful to identify locations and roles of FFAR and other members of the GPCR family in bovine tissues. RESULTS: Quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) of subcutaneous adipose, liver, and PMNL samples during the transition period (-10, +7, and +20 or +30 d) were used for expression profiling of medium- (MCFA) and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) receptors GPR120 and GPR40, MCFA receptor GPR84, and niacin receptor HCAR2/3...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249211/thermodynamic-and-physiological-study-of-caproate-and-1-3-propanediol-co-production-through-glycerol-fermentation-and-fatty-acids-chain-elongation
#13
Ling Leng, Peixian Yang, Yanping Mao, Zhuoying Wu, Tong Zhang, Po-Heng Lee
An alternative process for anaerobic wastewater treatment with methane recovery is to elongate the carbon chain of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) with a formation of medium chain carboxylic acids (MCCAs), e.g. n-caproic acid with higher monetary value. A potential electron donor is glycerol as a surplus byproduct from the rapid growth of waste-derived biodiesel industry. In the current approach, an industrial chemical, 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) is produced from crude glycerol along with a formation of other soluble byproducts including ethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFAs), which necessitates a significant amount of energy input for separation and purification...
February 15, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247148/very-long-chain-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-vlcad-deficiency-studies-on-treatment-effects-and-long-term-outcomes-in-mouse-models
#14
REVIEW
Sara Tucci
Very-long-chain-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase deficiency is the most common disorder of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation, with an incidence of 1:50,000-1:100,000 in newborns. Catabolic situations contribute to the aggravation of symptoms and induce severe metabolic derangement. Treatment for VLCAD-deficiency includes avoidance of fasting and a long-chain fat-restricted and fat-modified diet in which LCFAs are fully or partially replaced by medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). The aim of this work was to investigate the outcome and the effects of long-term treatment in a mouse model of VLCAD-deficiency...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235645/modification-of-the-fatty-acid-composition-of-an-obesogenic-diet-improves-the-maternal-and-placental-metabolic-environment-in-obese-pregnant-mice
#15
Martina Gimpfl, Jan Rozman, Maik Dahlhoff, Raphaela Kübeck, Andreas Blutke, Birgit Rathkolb, Martin Klingenspor, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Soner Öner-Sieben, Annette Seibt, Adelbert A Roscher, Eckhard Wolf, Regina Ensenauer
Peri-conceptional exposure to maternal obesogenic nutrition is associated with in utero programming of later-life overweight and metabolic disease in the offspring. We aimed to investigate whether dietary intervention with a modified fatty acid quality in an obesogenic high-calorie (HC) diet during the preconception and gestational phases can improve unfavourable effects of an adipogenic maternal environment. In NMRI mice, peri-conceptional and gestational obesity was induced by feeding a HC diet (controls), and they were compared with dams on a fat-modified (Fat-mod) HC diet of the same energy content but enriched with medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and adjusted to a decreased ratio of n-6 to n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs)...
February 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225172/mir-144-affects-fatty-acid-composition-by-regulating-elovl6-expression-in-duck-hepatocytes
#16
Jun He, Yong Tian, Yan Zhao, Yali Liu, Zhengrong Tao, Guoqin Li, Dong Niu, Lizhi Lu, Yingru Lu
Lipid metabolism in duck is very important for both raisers and people's health. In our previous studies, we have detected that miR-144 is related to duck lipid metabolism and validated one of its target genes, elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 6 (ELOVL6). In the present study, we isolated, cultured and identified duck hepatocytes, and transfected with miR-144 mimics/inhibitor to mediate the miR-144 level. The qRT-PCR results showed that the ELOVL6 expression in duck hepatocytes was down-/up-regulated, respectively...
February 22, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222147/the-desert-gerbil-psammomys-obesus-as-a-model-for-metformin-sensitive-nutritional-type-2-diabetes-to-protect-hepatocellular-metabolic-damage-impact-of-mitochondrial-redox-state
#17
Inès Gouaref, Dominique Detaille, Nicolas Wiernsperger, Naim Akhtar Khan, Xavier Leverve, Elhadj-Ahmed Koceir
INTRODUCTION: While metformin (MET) is the most widely prescribed antidiabetic drug worldwide, its beneficial effects in Psammomys obesus (P. obesus), a rodent model that mimics most of the metabolic features of human diabetes, have not been explored thoroughly. Here, we sought to investigate whether MET might improve insulin sensitivity, glucose homeostasis, lipid profile as well as cellular redox and energy balance in P. obesus maintained on a high energy diet (HED). MATERIALS AND METHODS: P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218911/expanding-the-product-portfolio-of-fungal-type-i-fatty-acid-synthases
#18
Zhiwei Zhu, Yongjin J Zhou, Anastasia Krivoruchko, Martin Grininger, Zongbao K Zhao, Jens Nielsen
Fungal type I fatty acid synthases (FASs) are mega-enzymes with two separated, identical compartments, in which the acyl carrier protein (ACP) domains shuttle substrates to catalytically active sites embedded in the chamber wall. We devised synthetic FASs by integrating heterologous enzymes into the reaction chambers and demonstrated their capability to convert acyl-ACP or acyl-CoA from canonical fatty acid biosynthesis to short/medium-chain fatty acids and methyl ketones.
April 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212845/safety-assessment-of-medium-and-long-chain-triacylglycerols-containing-30-w-w-medium-chain-fatty-acids-in-mice-and-rats
#19
Shengmin Zhou, Yueqiang Wang, Yuanrong Jiang, Liangli Lucy Yu
A novel medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT), with 30% (w/w) medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) was evaluated for its safety as a dietary fat in mice and rats. The subacute oral toxicity study showed that the maximum tolerated dose exceeded 54.33 g/kg body weight (kg bw)/day. In the 90-day feeding study, no dose-related adverse effects were observed in rats administered diets formulated with different levels of MLCT (2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 g/kg bw/day) as compared to the rapeseed oil control diet. Further safety assessment in pregnant rats did not reveal any significant difference relative to the control at a treatment level up to 8...
February 16, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212406/accumulation-of-medium-chain-saturated-fatty-acyl-moieties-in-seed-oils-of-transgenic-camelina-sativa
#20
Zhaohui Hu, Qian Wu, Jyoti Dalal, Naresh Vasani, Harry O Lopez, Heike W Sederoff, Rongda Qu
With its high seed oil content, the mustard family plant Camelina sativa has gained attention as a potential biofuel source. As a bioenergy crop, camelina has many advantages. It grows on marginal land with low demand for water and fertilizer, has a relatively short life cycle, and is stress tolerant. As most other crop seed oils, camelina seed triacylglycerols (TAGs) consist of mostly long, unsaturated fatty acyl moieties, which is not desirable for biofuel processing. In our efforts to produce shorter, saturated chain fatty acyl moieties in camelina seed oil for conversion to jet fuel, a 12:0-acyl-carrier thioesterase gene, UcFATB1, from California bay (Umbellularia californica Nutt...
2017: PloS One
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