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microRNA biogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769895/micrornas-as-important-players-in-host-adenovirus-interactions
#1
REVIEW
Diogo Piedade, José M Azevedo-Pereira
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are powerful regulators of gene expression and fine-tuning genes in all tissues. Cellular miRNAs can control 100s of biologic processes (e.g., morphogenesis of embryonic structures, differentiation of tissue-specific cells, and metabolic control in specific cell types) and have been involved in the regulation of nearly all cellular pathways. Inherently to their involvement in different physiologic processes, miRNAs deregulation has been associated with several diseases. Moreover, several viruses have been described as either, avoid and block cellular miRNAs or synthesize their own miRNA to facilitate infection and pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766295/inducible-expression-of-eukaryotic-circular-rnas-from-plasmids
#2
Deirdre C Tatomer, Dongming Liang, Jeremy E Wilusz
Thousands of eukaryotic protein-coding genes are noncanonically spliced to generate circular RNAs. Because they have covalently linked ends, circular RNAs are resistant to degradation by exonucleases and some accumulate to higher levels than their associated linear mRNAs. The functions of most circular RNAs are still unknown, but recent work has revealed key insights into how the pre-mRNA splicing machinery catalyzes backsplicing. Exons that circularize are often flanked by intronic repeat sequences that are complementary to one another, and backsplicing is triggered when these repeats base pair and bring the intervening splice sites into close proximity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753462/micrornas-and-rna-binding-protein-regulators-of-micrornas-in-the-control-of-pluripotency-and-reprogramming
#3
REVIEW
Jing Hao, Fei-Fei Duan, Yangming Wang
Post-transcriptional and translational regulations play essential roles during cellular reprogramming and in the maintenance and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control cell cycle, glycolysis, chromatin state, survival and pluripotency of ESCs. Likewise, many miRNAs assist or act as a barrier for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Recent studies also reveal exciting new directions on miRNA functions in regulating the switch between naive and primed pluripotent states as well as the establishment of totipotent-like state...
July 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751161/new-perspectives-of-physiological-and-pathological-functions-of-nucleolin-ncl
#4
REVIEW
Wenyu Jia, Zhenyu Yao, Jiajun Zhao, Qingbo Guan, Ling Gao
Nucleolin (NCL) is a multifunctional protein that mainly localized in the nucleolus, it is also found in the nucleoplasm, cytoplasm and cell membrane. The three main structural domains allow the interaction of NCL with different proteins and RNA sequences. Moreover, specific post-translational modifications and its shuttling property also contribute to its multifunctionality. NCL has been demonstrated to be involved in a variety of aspects such as ribosome biogenesis, chromatin organization and stability, DNA and RNA metabolism, cytokinesis, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, apoptosis regulation, stress response and microRNA processing...
July 24, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743859/let-7-microrna-dependent-control-of-leukotriene-signaling-regulates-the-transition-of-hematopoietic-niche-in-mice
#5
Xuan Jiang, John S Hawkins, Jerry Lee, Carlos O Lizama, Frank L Bos, Joan P Zape, Prajakta Ghatpande, Yongbo Peng, Justin Louie, Giorgio Lagna, Ann C Zovein, Akiko Hata
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells arise from the vascular endothelium of the dorsal aorta and subsequently switch niche to the fetal liver through unknown mechanisms. Here we report that vascular endothelium-specific deletion of mouse Drosha (Drosha (cKO)), an enzyme essential for microRNA biogenesis, leads to anemia and death. A similar number of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells emerge from Drosha-deficient and control vascular endothelium, but Drosha (cKO)-derived hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells accumulate in the dorsal aorta and fail to colonize the fetal liver...
July 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741379/tiny-rnas-and-their-voyage-via-extracellular-vesicles-secretion-of-bacterial-small-rna-and-eukaryotic-microrna
#6
Ji-Woong Choi, Jee-Hyun Um, Jin-Hyun Cho, Heon-Jin Lee
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that bind to the 3'-untranslated region of target mRNAs and have transcriptional or translational inhibitory function in eukaryotes. Before microRNAs were widely known, bacterial non-coding small RNAs around 50-200 nt in length were discovered whose mechanism of action resembled that of microRNAs. Recently, RNAs that are of similar size to or smaller than microRNAs have been discovered in bacteria and indeed, this class of small RNAs have been found throughout all domains of life...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740544/interleukin-32%C3%AE-inhibits-endothelial-inflammation-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-activation-and-atherosclerosis-by-upregulating-timp3-and-reck-through-suppressing-microrna-205-biogenesis
#7
Dong Ju Son, Yu Yeon Jung, Young Sik Seo, Heonyong Park, Dong Hun Lee, Sanghyeon Kim, Yoon-Seok Roh, Sang Bae Han, Do Young Yoon, Jin Tae Hong
Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is a multifaceted cytokine that promotes inflammation and regulates vascular endothelial cell behavior. Although some IL-32 isoforms have been reported to contribute to vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis, the functional role of IL-32α in vascular inflammation and atherogenesis has not been studied. Methods: IL-32α function was assessed in cells with transient IL-32α overexpression or treated with recombinant human IL-32α by western blotting and mRNA expression analysis. Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration was examined by BrdU incorporation and wound healing assays, respectively...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738828/unraveling-multifaceted-contributions-of-small-regulatory-rnas-to-photomorphogenic-development-in-arabidopsis
#8
Meng-Chun Lin, Huang-Lung Tsai, Sim-Lin Lim, Shih-Tong Jeng, Shu-Hsing Wu
BACKGROUND: Post-transcriptional control of gene expression mediated by small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) is vital for growth and development of diverse organisms. The biogenesis of sRNAs is regulated by both positive and negative regulators known to regulate photomorphogenic development. Two microRNAs (miRNAs), miR157 and miR319, also regulate photomorphogenesis. However, genome-wide profiling of sRNAs and their regulation of target genes during photomorphogenesis has been missing. We provide a comprehensive view of sRNA-controlled gene expression in this developmental process...
July 24, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729028/micrornas-as-key-effectors-in-the-p53-network
#9
Frauke Goeman, Sabrina Strano, Giovanni Blandino
The guardian of the genome p53 is embedded in a fine-spun network of MicroRNAs. p53 is able to activate or repress directly the transcription of MicroRNAs that are participating in the tumor-suppressive mission of p53. On the other hand, the expression of p53 is under tight control of MicroRNAs that are either targeting directly p53 or factors that are modifying its protein level or activity. Although the most important function of p53 is suggested to be transcriptional regulation, there are several nontranscriptional functions described...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728902/role-of-mirnas-in-development-and-disease-lessons-learnt-from-small-organisms
#10
REVIEW
Swati Chandra, Divya Vimal, Divya Sharma, Vipin Rai, Subash Chandra Gupta, D Kar Chowdhuri
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a class of small (21-24 nucleotides) non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and many other small organisms have been instrumental in deciphering the biological functions of miRNAs. While some miRNAs from small organisms are highly conserved across the taxa, others are organism specific. The miRNAs are known to play a crucial role during development and in various cellular functions such as cell survival, cell proliferation, and differentiation...
July 17, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721157/micrornas-and-metabolic-disorders-where-are-we-heading
#11
Agnieszka Sliwinska, Marta A Kasinska, Jozef Drzewoski
MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are short, non-coding molecules engaged in normal functioning of eukaryotic cells, as negative regulators of gene expression. Since the first discovery of miRNA in the early 1990s, hundreds of different miRNAs and their targets have been identified. A growing number of studies have aimed to search for microRNAs which have a key role in the regulation of insulin signaling and metabolic homeostasis. Recent evidence indicates that dysregulation of miRNA expression is involved in the development of various diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity and cardiovascular diseases...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717872/stress-induced-changes-in-mirna-biogenesis-and-functioning
#12
REVIEW
Marta Olejniczak, Anna Kotowska-Zimmer, Wlodzimierz Krzyzosiak
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that play key roles in the regulation of cellular homeostasis in eukaryotic organisms. There is emerging evidence that some of these processes are influenced by various forms of cellular stresses, including DNA damage, pathogen invasion or chronic stress associated with diseases. Many reports over the last decade demonstrate examples of stress-induced miRNA deregulation at the level of transcription, processing, subcellular localization and functioning. Moreover, core miRNA biogenesis proteins and their interactions with partners can be selectively regulated in response to stress signaling...
July 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709951/microrna-basic-concepts-and-implications-for-regeneration-and-repair-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Cláudia Saraiva, Marta Esteves, Liliana Bernardino
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding molecules that revolutionized our knowledge about the regulation of gene expression. Capable to target a large number of mRNA, miRNA are thought to regulate around 30% of the entire human genome. Therefore, these molecules are able to regulate several biological processes, including neuronal survival, differentiation and regeneration. Additionally, miRNA might act as valuable clinical agents in brain pathological conditions: their specific expression patterns in the brain parenchyma and/or in circulating fluids have been highlighted as potential biomarkers while the modulation of their activity may have therapeutic value for several neurodegenerative diseases...
July 11, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705953/micrornas-in-the-skin-role-in-development-homoeostasis-and-regeneration
#14
REVIEW
Steven Horsburgh, Nicola Fullard, Mathilde Roger, Abbie Degnan, Stephen Todryk, Stefan Przyborski, Steven O'Reilly
The skin is the largest organ of the integumentary system and possesses a vast number of functions. Due to the distinct layers of the skin and the variety of cells which populate each, a tightly regulated network of molecular signals control development and regeneration, whether due to programmed cell termination or injury. MicroRNAs (miRs) are a relatively recent discovery; they are a class of small non-coding RNAs which possess a multitude of biological functions due to their ability to regulate gene expression via post-transcriptional gene silencing...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704808/enhanced-reactive-oxygen-species-production-acidic-cytosolic-ph-and-upregulated-na-h-exchanger-nhe-in-dicer-deficient-cd4-t-cells
#15
Yogesh Singh, Yuetao Zhou, Shaqiu Zhang, Khalid N M Abdelazeem, Bernat Elvira, Madhuri S Salker, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) negatively regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. Dicer, a cytoplasmic RNase III enzyme, is required for the maturation of miRNAs from precursor miRNAs. Dicer, therefore, is a critical enzyme involved in the biogenesis and processing of miRNAs. Several biological processes are controlled by miRNAs, including the regulation of T cell development and function. T cells generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) with parallel H+ extrusion accomplished by the Na+/H+-exchanger 1 (NHE1)...
July 14, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696509/an-l-rna-aptamer-with-expanded-chemical-functionality-that-inhibits-microrna-biogenesis
#16
Adam Michael Kabza, Jonathan Thomas Sczepanski
In order to facilitate isolation of L-aptamers with novel RNA-binding properties, we have employed a cationic nucleotide, 5-aminoallyl-uridine, during the mirror image in vitro selection process. In this effort, we identified a modified L-RNA aptamer (MLRA) capable of binding oncogenic pre-miR-19a with exceptional affinity, and we show that the cationic modification is absolutely critical for binding. Furthermore, formation of the MLRA-pre-miR-19a complex inhibits Dicer-mediated cleavage of the pre-miR, thus blocking formation of the mature functional microRNA...
July 11, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689377/-exosomal-micrornas-as-a-part-of-the-cell-cell-communication-in-cancer
#17
Agnieszka Wesołowska, Katarzyna Piwocka
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles released by several types of cells into the extracellular matrix. They contain both, proteins and nucleic acids, including DNA fragments, mRNAs, microRNAs, and other non-coding RNAs, that can be transported to the recipient cells. They are one of the key elements of intercellular communication that occurs in the tumor microenvironment. Recently studies have shown that exosomal microRNAs are involved in the regulation of cell migration and invasiveness, angiogenesis, metastasis, and the modulation of immune response against cancer...
2017: Postepy Biochemii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684614/ubiquinol-effects-on-antiphospholipid-syndrome-prothrombotic-profile-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#18
Carlos Pérez-Sánchez, María Ángeles Aguirre, Patricia Ruiz-Limón, María Carmen Abalos-Aguilera, Yolanda Jiménez-Gómez, Iván Arias-de la Rosa, Antonio Rodriguez-Ariza, Lucía Fernández-Del Río, José Antonio Gonzalez-Reyes, Pedro Segui, Eduardo Collantes-Estévez, Nuria Barbarroja, Francisco Velasco, Savino Sciascia, Irene Cecchi, María José Cuadrado, José Manuel Villalba, Chary López-Pedrera
OBJECTIVE: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) leukocytes exhibit an oxidative perturbation, directly linked to alterations in mitochondrial dynamics and metabolism. This disturbance is related to the patients' prothrombotic status and can be prevented by in vitro treatment with coenzyme Q10. Our aim was to investigate short-term effects of in vivo ubiquinol (reduced coenzyme Q10[Qred]) supplementation on markers related to inflammation and thrombosis in APS through a prospective, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled trial...
July 6, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684423/the-rna-binding-protein-hur-contributes-to-neuroinflammation-by-promoting-c-c-chemokine-receptor-6-ccr6-expression-on-th17-cells
#19
Jing Chen, Jennifer L Martindale, Carole Cramer, Myriam Gorospe, Ulus Atasoy, Paul D Drew, Shiguang Yu
In both multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the C C chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) is critical for pathogenic T helper 17 (Th17) cell migration to the central nervous system (CNS). While many cytokines and their receptors are potently regulated via posttranscriptional mechanisms in response to various stimuli, how CCR6 expression is posttranscriptionally regulated in Th17 cells is unknown. Here, using RNA binding protein HuR conditional knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice, we present evidence that HuR posttranscriptionally regulates CCR6 expression by binding to and stabilizing Ccr6 mRNA and by promoting CCR6 translation...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671666/multi-domain-utilization-by-tut4-and-tut7-in-control-of-let-7-biogenesis
#20
Christopher R Faehnle, Jack Walleshauser, Leemor Joshua-Tor
The uridyl transferases TUT4 and TUT7 (collectively called TUT4(7)) switch between two modes of activity, either promoting expression of let-7 microRNA (monoU) or marking it for degradation (oligoU). Lin28 modulates the switch via recruitment of TUT4(7) to the precursor pre-let-7 in stem cells and human cancers. We found that TUT4(7) utilize two multidomain functional modules during the switch from monoU to oligoU. The catalytic module (CM) is essential for both activities, while the Lin28-interacting module (LIM) is indispensable for oligoU...
August 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
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