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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777751/evaluating-the-susceptibility-of-ago2-loaded-micrornas-to-degradation-by-nucleases-in-vitro
#1
Reyad Elbarbary, Lynne E Maquat
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) comprise a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate the stability and/or translatability of most protein-coding transcripts. Steady-state levels of mature miRNAs can be controlled through mechanisms that influence their biogenesis and/or decay rates. Pathways that mediate mature miRNA decay are less well understood than those that mediate miRNA biogenesis. We recently described Tudor-staphylococcal/micrococcal-like nuclease (TSN)-mediated miRNA decay (TumiD) as a cellular pathway that promotes the sequence-specific endonucleolytic decay of miRNAs that harbor a CA and/or UA dinucleotide...
May 16, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770436/all-i-s-on-the-radar-role-of-adar-in-gene-regulation
#2
REVIEW
Galina Shevchenko, Kevin V Morris
Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) editing is the most abundant form of RNA modification in mammalian cells, which is catalyzed by adenosine deaminase acting on the double-stranded RNA (ADAR) protein family. A-to-I editing is currently known to be involved in the regulation of the immune system, RNA splicing, protein recoding, microRNA biogenesis, and formation of heterochromatin. Editing occurs within regions of double-stranded RNA, particularly within inverted Alu repeats, and is associated with many diseases including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic syndromes...
May 16, 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765080/distinguishing-mirtrons-from-canonical-mirnas-with-data-exploration-and-machine-learning-methods
#3
Grzegorz Rorbach, Olgierd Unold, Bogumil M Konopka
Mirtrons are non-canonical microRNAs encoded in introns the biogenesis of which starts with splicing. They are not processed by Drosha and enter the canonical pathway at the Exportin-5 level. Mirtrons are much less evolutionary conserved than canonical miRNAs. Due to the differences, canonical miRNA predictors are not applicable to mirtron prediction. Identification of differences is important for designing mirtron prediction algorithms and may help to improve the understanding of mirtron functioning. So far, only simple, single-feature comparisons were reported...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764990/ire1%C3%AE-prevents-hepatic-steatosis-by-processing-and-promoting-the-degradation-of-select-micrornas
#4
Jie-Mei Wang, Yining Qiu, Zhao Yang, Hyunbae Kim, Qingwen Qian, Qinghua Sun, Chunbin Zhang, Lei Yin, Deyu Fang, Sung Hong Back, Randal J Kaufman, Ling Yang, Kezhong Zhang
Obesity or a high-fat diet represses the endoribonuclease activity of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), a transducer of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cells under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. An impaired UPR is associated with hepatic steatosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is caused by lipid accumulation in the liver. We found that IRE1α was critical to maintaining lipid homeostasis in the liver by repressing the biogenesis of microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate lipid mobilization...
May 15, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760712/the-function-of-micrornas-in-b-cell-development-lymphoma-and-their-potential-in-clinical-practice
#5
REVIEW
Bing Zheng, Zhijiang Xi, Rong Liu, Wei Yin, Zhiwei Sui, Boxu Ren, Heather Miller, Quan Gong, Chaohong Liu
B-cell formation, development, and differentiation are complex processes regulated by several mechanisms. Recently, there has been growing evidence indicating that microRNAs (miRNAs) are important for normal B-cell lineage development. miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules, about 20-22 nucleotide in length, that play an important role in regulating gene expression. They pair with specific messenger RNAs (mRNAs), resulting in mRNAs translational repression or degradation. Here, we review current research about the function of miRNAs in the aspects of B-cell physiology and pathology...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760646/dgcr8-promotes-neural-progenitor-expansion-and-represses-neurogenesis-in-the-mouse-embryonic-neocortex
#6
Nadin Hoffmann, Stefan C Weise, Federica Marinaro, Tanja Vogel, Davide De Pietri Tonelli
DGCR8 and DROSHA are the minimal functional core of the Microprocessor complex essential for biogenesis of canonical microRNAs and for the processing of other RNAs. Conditional deletion of Dgcr8 and Drosha in the murine telencephalon indicated that these proteins exert crucial functions in corticogenesis. The identification of mechanisms of DGCR8- or DROSHA-dependent regulation of gene expression in conditional knockout mice are often complicated by massive apoptosis. Here, to investigate DGCR8 functions on amplification/differentiation of neural progenitors cells (NPCs) in corticogenesis, we overexpress Dgcr8 in the mouse telencephalon, by in utero electroporation ( IU Ep)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755439/dicer-like-proteins-regulate-sexual-development-via-the-biogenesis-of-perithecium-specific-micrornas-in-a-plant-pathogenic-fungus-fusarium-graminearum
#7
Wenping Zeng, Jie Wang, Ying Wang, Jing Lin, Yanping Fu, Jiatao Xie, Daohong Jiang, Tao Chen, Huiquan Liu, Jiasen Cheng
Ascospores act as the primary inoculum of Fusarium graminearum , which causes the destructive disease Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported in the F. graminearum vegetative stage, and Fgdcl2 is involved in microRNA-like RNA (milRNA) biogenesis but has no major impact on vegetative growth, abiotic stress or pathogenesis. In the present study, we found that ascospore discharge was decreased in the Fgdcl1 deletion mutant, and completely blocked in the double-deletion mutant of Fgdcl1 and Fgdcl2 ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751497/epigenetic-regulation-of-atp-binding-cassette-protein-a1-abca1-gene-expression-a-new-era-to-alleviate-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease
#8
Mohamed Zaiou, Ahmed Bakillah
The most important function of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is its ability to remove cholesterol from cells and tissues involved in the early stages of atherosclerosis back to the liver for excretion. The ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 are responsible for the major part of cholesterol efflux to HDL in macrophage foam cells. Thus, promoting the process of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) by upregulating mainly ABCA1 remains one of the potential targets for the development of new therapeutic agents against atherosclerosis...
May 3, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749606/interactions-between-short-and-long-noncoding-rnas
#9
REVIEW
Igor Ulitsky
It is now evident that noncoding RNAs play key roles in regulatory networks determining cell fate and behavior, in a myriad of different conditions, and across all species. Among these noncoding RNAs are short RNAs, such as microRNAs, snoRNAs, and piRNAs, and the functions of those are relatively well understood. Other noncoding RNAs are longer, and their modes of action and functions are also increasingly explored and deciphered. Short RNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) interact with each other with reciprocal consequences for their fates and functions...
May 10, 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739315/a-deeper-view-into-the-significance-of-simple-sequence-repeats-in-pre-mirnas-provides-clues-for-its-possible-roles-in-determining-the-function-of-micrornas
#10
Nisha Joy, Y P Maimoonath Beevi, E V Soniya
BACKGROUND: The central tenet of 'genome content' has been that the 'non-coding' parts are highly enriched with 'microsatellites' or 'Simple Sequence Repeats' (SSRs). We presume that the presence and change in number of repeat unit (n) of SSRs in different genomic locations may or may not become beneficial, depending on the position of SSRs in a gene. Very few studies have looked into the existence of SSRs in the hair-pin precursors of miRNAs (pre-miRNAs). The interplay between SSRs and miRNAs is not yet clearly understood...
May 9, 2018: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732466/novel-insights-into-the-regulation-of-mirna-transcriptional-control-implications-for-t2d-and-related-complications
#11
Lucia La Sala, Stefano Micheloni, Valeria De Nigris, Francesco Prattichizzo, Antonio Ceriello
In recent years, epigenetics has emerged as an important form of biological regulation involving chromatin control of gene expression. The mechanisms of this fine-tuned regulation are susceptible to changes forced by environmental stimuli and nutritional factors and may be potentially reversible. Dysregulation of epigenetic processes has important consequences for the pathogenesis of complex and multifactorial diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) and vascular complications. Along with DNA methylation (DNA-me), histone modifications and RNA-based mechanisms as the major epigenetic controllers, small non-coding RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs) have their own important implications for the pathogenesis of diabetes...
May 7, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723684/the-role-of-exportin-5-in-microrna-biogenesis-and-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Ke Wu, Juan He, Wenchen Pu, Yong Peng
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are conserved small non-coding RNAs that play an important role in the regulation of gene expression and participate in a variety of biological processes. The biogenesis of miRNAs is tightly controlled at multiple steps, such as transcription of miRNA genes, processing by Drosha and Dicer, and transportation of precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by exportin-5 (XPO5). Given the critical role of nuclear export of pre-miRNAs in miRNA biogenesis, any alterations of XPO5, resulting from either genetic mutation, epigenetic change, abnormal expression level or posttranslational modification, could affect miRNA expression and thus have profound effects on tumorigenesis...
April 30, 2018: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718424/psrnatarget-a-plant-small-rna-target-analysis-server-2017-release
#13
Xinbin Dai, Zhaohong Zhuang, Patrick Xuechun Zhao
Plant regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs), which include most microRNAs (miRNAs) and a subset of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), such as the phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs), play important roles in regulating gene expression. Although generated from genetically distinct biogenesis pathways, these regulatory sRNAs share the same mechanisms for post-translational gene silencing and translational inhibition. psRNATarget was developed to identify plant sRNA targets by (i) analyzing complementary matching between the sRNA sequence and target mRNA sequence using a predefined scoring schema and (ii) by evaluating target site accessibility...
April 30, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706542/cryo-em-structure-of-human-dicer-and-its-complexes-with-a-pre-mirna-substrate
#14
Zhongmin Liu, Jia Wang, Hang Cheng, Xin Ke, Lei Sun, Qiangfeng Cliff Zhang, Hong-Wei Wang
Human Dicer (hDicer) is a multi-domain protein belonging to the RNase III family. It plays pivotal roles in small RNA biogenesis during the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway by processing a diverse range of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) precursors to generate ∼22 nt microRNA (miRNA) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) products for sequence-directed gene silencing. In this work, we solved the cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of hDicer in complex with its cofactor protein TRBP and revealed the precise spatial arrangement of hDicer's multiple domains...
April 20, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697794/non-coding-rnas-in-endometriosis-a-narrative-review
#15
Kavita Panir, John E Schjenken, Sarah A Robertson, M Louise Hull
BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a benign gynaecological disorder, which affects 10% of reproductive-aged women and is characterized by endometrial cells from the lining of the uterus being found outside the uterine cavity. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms causing the development of this heterogeneous disease remain enigmatic, and a lack of effective biomarkers necessitates surgical intervention for diagnosis. There is international recognition that accurate non-invasive diagnostic tests and more effective therapies are urgently needed...
April 25, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697284/biological-and-immunological-aspects-of-iron-deficiency-anemia-in-cancer-development-a-narrative-review
#16
Fatema Zohora, Katayoon Bidad, Zahra Pourpak, Mostafa Moin
Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) is a universal health problem and a risk factor for the development of cancer. IDA changes the microenvironment of the human body by affecting both the biological and immunological systems. It increases DNA damage and genomic instability by different mechanisms. IDA is one of the leading causes of the imbalance between different antioxidant enzymes as well as enzymes involved in DNA damage and DNA repair systems of the body. It can affect the biogenesis/expression of microRNAs. IDA interrupts the oxidative phosphorylation energy metabolism and intestinal Cytochrome-P450 systems...
April 26, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694248/adar1-attenuates-allogeneic-graft-rejection-by-suppressing-mir-21-biogenesis-in-macrophages-and-promoting-m2-polarization
#17
Junjie Li, Jiangang Xie, Shanshou Liu, Xiao Li, Dongliang Zhang, Xianqi Wang, Jinquan Jiang, Wei Hu, Yuan Zhang, Boquan Jin, Ran Zhuang, Wen Yin
ADAR1 (adenosine deaminase acting on double-stranded RNA 1) is an RNA-editing enzyme that mediates adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing events, an important post-transcriptional modification mechanism that can alter the coding properties of mRNA or regulate microRNA biogenesis. ADAR1 also regulates the innate immune response. Here, we have demonstrated that ADAR1 expression increased in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Silencing ADAR1 by using small interfering RNA in macrophages resulted in the pronounced polarization of macrophages to M1, whereas ADAR1 overexpression promoted M2 polarization, which indicated that ADAR1 can inhibit macrophage hyperpolarization and prevent immune hyperactivity...
April 25, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683487/regulation-of-primary-microrna-processing
#18
REVIEW
Antoine Creugny, Aurélie Fender, Sébastien Pfeffer
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved small regulatory RNAs that participate in the fine-tuning of many, if not all, fundamental biological processes. Molecular mechanisms involved in miRNA biogenesis and mode of action have been elucidated in the past two decades. Similar to many cellular pathways, miRNA processing and function can be globally or specifically regulated at several levels and by numerous proteins and RNAs. Given their role as fine-tuning molecules, it is essential for miRNA expression to be tightly regulated in order to maintain cellular homeostasis...
April 23, 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681008/micromanaging-freeze-tolerance-the-biogenesis-and-regulation-of-neuroprotective-micrornas-in-frozen-brains
#19
Hanane Hadj-Moussa, Kenneth B Storey
When temperatures plummet below 0 °C, wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) can endure the freezing of up to ~ 65% of their body water in extracellular ice masses, displaying no measurable brain activity, no breathing, no movement, and a flat-lined heart. To aid survival, frogs retreat into a state of suspended animation characterized by global suppression of metabolic functions and reprioritization of energy usage to essential survival processes that is elicited, in part, by the regulatory controls of microRNAs...
April 21, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674166/microrna-hsa-mir-19b-2-5p-targets-key-mitochondrial-biogenesis-genes-a-bioinformatics-analysis
#20
Sunil Kumar Saini, Ponnusamy Kalaiarasan, Rajnish Kumar Singh, Siddharth Manvati, R N K Bamezai
The present study on the basis of a detailed bioinformatics analysis proposed a potential role of a miRNA, hsa-miR-19b-2-5p, in regulating the mitochondrial biogenesis. The miRNA has shown to be involved in important biological processes of cellular metabolic, cellular macromolecule biosynthetic processes and gene expression pathways. The miRNA, hsa-miR-19b-2-5p, was predicted to regulate the molecular function of nucleic acid, organic/heterocyclic compound, nucleic acid binding transcription factor activity...
April 16, 2018: Mitochondrion
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