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microRNA biogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204845/mirnas-target-databases-developmental-methods-and-target-identification-techniques-with-functional-annotations
#1
REVIEW
Nagendra Kumar Singh
PURPOSE: microRNA (miRNA) regulates diverse biological mechanisms and metabolisms in plants and animals. Thus, the discoveries of miRNA has revolutionized the life sciences and medical research.The miRNA represses and cleaves the targeted mRNA by binding perfect or near perfect or imperfect complementary base pairs by RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) formation during biogenesis process. One miRNA interacts with one or more mRNA genes and vice versa, hence takes part in causing various diseases...
February 15, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202520/evolution-of-cancer-stem-like-cells-in-endocrine-resistant-metastatic-breast-cancers-is-mediated-by-stromal-microvesicles
#2
Pasquale Sansone, Marjan Berishaj, Vinagolu K Rajasekhar, Claudio Ceccarelli, Qing Chang, Antonio Strillacci, Claudia Savini, Lauren Shapiro, Robert Bowman, Chiara Mastroleo, Sabrina De Carolis, Laura Daly, Alberto Benito-Martin, Fabiana Perna, Nicola Fabbri, John H Healey, Enzo Spisni, Monica Cricca, David Lyden, Massimiliano Bonafé, Jacqueline Bromberg
The hypothesis that microvesicle (MV)-mediated microRNA transfer converts non-cancer stem cells into cancer stem cells (CSCs) leading to therapy resistance remains poorly investigated. Here we provide direct evidence supporting this hypothesis, by demonstrating how MV derived from cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF) transfer miR-221 to promote hormonal therapy resistance (HTR) in models of luminal breast cancer. We determined that CAF-derived MV horizontally transferred miR221 to tumor cells and, in combination with hormone therapy activated an ERlo/Notchhi feed-forward loop responsible for the generation of CD133hi CSC...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187419/dynamics-of-mirna-biogenesis-and-nuclear-transport
#3
Aneesh Kotipalli, Ravikumar Gutti, Chanchal K Mitra
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNA sequences ~22 nucleotides in length that play an important role in gene regulation-transcription and translation. The processing of these miRNAs takes place in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm while the final maturation occurs in the cytoplasm. Some mature miRNAs with nuclear localisation signals (NLS) are transported back to the nucleus and some remain in the cytoplasm. The functional roles of these miRNAs are seen in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In the nucleus, miRNAs regulate gene expression by binding to the targeted promoter sequences and affect either the transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) or transcriptional gene activation (TGA)...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185365/circrnas-biogenesis-properties-roles-and-their-relationships-with-liver-diseases-running-title-circular-rnas-and-liver-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Ting Yao, Qingqing Chen, Liyun Fu, Junming Guo
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of new found RNA molecules that have a special covalent loop structure without 5' cap and 3' tail. Researchers have found that circRNAs may be generated by intron-pairing-driven or lariat-driven circularization. They are cleared up via extracellular vesicles. They have some advantages such as stable, conservation, tissue specificity and so on. By severing as sponge of microRNAs, interacting with long non-coding RNAs, mRNA, or proteins, circRNAs regulate gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels and contribute carcinogenesis...
February 10, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180281/large-scale-analysis-of-microrna-expression-epi-transcriptomic-features-and-biogenesis
#5
Dimitrios M Vitsios, Matthew P Davis, Stijn van Dongen, Anton J Enright
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174252/trbp-maintains-mammalian-embryonic-neural-stem-cell-properties-by-enhancing-the-notch-signaling-pathway-as-a-novel-transcriptional-coactivator
#6
Sung-Hyun Byun, Juwan Kim, Dasol Han, Mookwang Kwon, Jae Youl Cho, Hui Xuan Ng, Samuel J Pleasure, Keejung Yoon
Transactivation response element RNA-binding protein (TRBP) is known to play important roles in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication and microRNA biogenesis. However, recent studies implicate TRBP in a variety of biological processes as a mediator for cross-talk between signal transduction pathways. Here, we provide the first evidence that TRBP is required for efficient neurosphere formation, and expression of neural stem cell markers and Notch target genes in primary neural progenitor cells in vitro Consistent with this, introduction of TRBP into the mouse embryonic brain in utero increased the fraction of cells expressing Sox2 in the ventricular zone (VZ)...
February 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174021/biogenesis-and-function-of-ago-associated-rnas
#7
REVIEW
Iben Daugaard, Thomas Birkballe Hansen
Numerous sophisticated high-throughput sequencing technologies have been developed over the past decade, and these have enabled the discovery of a diverse catalog of small non-coding (nc)RNA molecules that function as regulatory entities by associating with Argonaute (Ago) proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are currently the best-described class of post-transcriptional regulators that follow a specific biogenesis pathway characterized by Drosha/DGCR8 and Dicer processing. However, more exotic miRNA-like species that bypass particular steps of the canonical miRNA biogenesis pathway continue to emerge, with one of the most recent additions being the agotrons, which escape both Drosha/DGCR8- and Dicer-processing...
February 4, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158788/a-novel-role-for-gsk3%C3%AE-as-a-modulator-of-drosha-microprocessor-activity-and-microrna-biogenesis
#8
Claire E Fletcher, Jack D Godfrey, Akifumi Shibakawa, Martin Bushell, Charlotte L Bevan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158767/active-5%C3%AE-splice-sites-regulate-the-biogenesis-efficiency-of-arabidopsis-micrornas-derived-from-intron-containing-genes
#9
Katarzyna Knop, Agata Stepien, Maria Barciszewska-Pacak, Michal Taube, Dawid Bielewicz, Michal Michalak, Jan W Borst, Artur Jarmolowski, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulinska
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148795/hepatitis-b-virus-encoded-mirna-controls-viral-replication
#10
Xi Yang, Hongfeng Li, Huahui Sun, Hongxia Fan, Yaqi Hu, Min Liu, Xin Li, Hua Tang
: microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small single-stranded non-coding functional RNAs. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped DNA virus with virions and subviral forms of particles that lack a core. It was not known whether HBV encodes miRNAs. Here, we identified an HBV-encoded miRNA (called HBV-miR-3) by deep sequencing and northern blot. HBV-miR-3 is located at nts 373-393 of the HBV genome and was generated from 3.5Kb, 2,4Kb and 2.1Kb HBV in classic miRNA biogenesis (Drosha-Dicer dependent) manner...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143407/widespread-changes-in-mrna-stability-contribute-to-quiescence-specific-gene-expression-patterns-in-a-fibroblast-model-of-quiescence
#11
Elizabeth L Johnson, David G Robinson, Hilary A Coller
BACKGROUND: Quiescence, reversible exit from the cell division cycle, is characterized by large-scale changes in steady-state gene expression, yet mechanisms controlling these changes are in need of further elucidation. In order to characterize the effects of post-transcriptional control on the quiescent transcriptome in human fibroblasts, we determined mRNA decay rates for over 10,000 genes using a transcription shut-off time-course. RESULTS: We found that ~500 of the genes monitored exhibited significant changes in decay rate upon quiescence induction...
February 1, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134598/circular-rnas-an-emerging-type-of-rna-in-cancer
#12
Li-Dan Hou, Jing Zhang
Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel type of widespread and diverse endogenous non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which are different from the linear RNAs, form a covalently closed continuous loop without 5' or 3' polarities. The majority of circRNAs are abundant, conserved and stable across different species, and exhibit tissue/developmental-stage-specific characteristics. They are generated primarily through a type of alternative RNA splicing called "back-splicing," in which a downstream splice donor is joined to an upstream splice acceptor through splice skipping or direct splice...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124559/biodegradable-mno2-nanosheet-mediated-signal-amplification-in-living-cells-enables-sensitive-detection-of-down-regulated-intracellular-microrna
#13
Jing Li, Daxiu Li, Ruo Yuan, Yun Xiang
The monitoring of intracellular microRNAs plays important roles in elucidating the biological function and biogenesis of miRNAs in living cells. However, because of their sequence similarity, low abundance and small size, it is of great challenge to detect intracellular miRNAs, especially for those with much lower expression levels. To address this issue, we have developed an in cell signal amplification approach for monitoring down-regulated miRNAs in living cells based on biodegradable MnO2 nanosheet-mediated and target-triggered assembly of hairpins...
January 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119422/non-canonical-targets-destabilize-micrornas-in-human-argonautes
#14
June Hyun Park, Sang-Yoon Shin, Chanseok Shin
Although much is known about microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and the mechanism by which miRNAs regulate their targets, little is known about the regulation of miRNA stability. Mature miRNAs are stabilized by binding to Argonaute (Ago) proteins, the core components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Recent studies suggest that interactions between miRNAs and their highly complementary target RNAs promote release of miRNAs from Ago proteins, and this in turn can lead to destabilization of miRNAs. However, the physiological triggers of miRNA destabilization with molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown...
January 24, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115696/stv1-a-ribosomal-protein-binds-primary-microrna-transcripts-to-promote-their-interaction-with-the-processing-complex-in-arabidopsis
#15
Shengjun Li, Kan Liu, Shuxin Zhang, Xiaoyan Wang, Kestrel Rogers, Guodong Ren, Chi Zhang, Bin Yu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression. They are processed from primary miRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs), most of which are transcribed by DNA-dependent polymerase II (Pol II). miRNA levels are precisely controlled to maintain various biological processes. Here, we report that SHORT VALVE 1 (STV1), a conserved ribosomal protein, acts in miRNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis A portion of STV1 localizes in the nucleus and binds pri-miRNAs. Using pri-miR172b as a reporter, we show that STV1 binds the stem-loop flanked by a short 5' arm within pri-miRNAs...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104803/microrna-processing-enzymes-are-essential-for-survival-and-function-of-mature-retinal-pigmented-epithelial-cells-in-mice
#16
Thomas R Sundermeier, Sanae Sakami, Bhubanananda Sahu, Scott J Howell, Songqi Gao, Zhiqian Dong, Marcin Golczak, Akiko Maeda, Krzysztof Palczewski
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of irreversible vision loss. The neovascular or "wet" form of AMD can be treated to a varying degree with anti-angiogenic drugs, but geographic atrophy (GA) is an advanced stage of the more prevalent "dry" form of AMD for which there is no effective treatment. Development of GA has been linked to loss of the microRNA (miRNA)-processing enzyme DICER1 in the mature retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). This loss results in the accumulation of toxic transcripts of Alu transposable elements which activate the NLRP3 inflammasome and additional downstream pathways that compromise the integrity and function of the RPE...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103887/microrna-expression-patterns-and-signalling-pathways-in-the-development-and-progression-of-childhood-solid-tumours
#17
REVIEW
Anna L Leichter, Michael J Sullivan, Michael R Eccles, Aniruddha Chatterjee
The development of childhood solid tumours is tied to early developmental processes. These tumours may be complex and heterogeneous, and elucidating the aberrant mechanisms that alter the early embryonic environment and lead to disease is essential to our understanding of how these tumours function. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are vital regulators of gene expression at all stages of development, and their crosstalk via developmental signalling pathways is essential for orchestrating regulatory control in processes such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of cells...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100783/dual-functional-roles-of-molecular-beacon-a-microrna-detector-and-inhibitor
#18
Wai Ming Li, Ching-Man Chan, Andrew L Miller, Chow H Lee
MicroRNAs are essential in many cellular processes. The ability to detect microRNAs is important for understanding its function and biogenesis. This study is aimed at using a molecular beacon to detect miR-430 in developing zebrafish embryos as a proof of principle. miR-430 is crucial for the clearance of maternal mRNA during maternal zygotic transition (MZT) in embryonic development. Despite its known function, the temporal and spatial expression of miR-430 remains unclear. We used various imaging techniques, including laser scanning confocal microscopy, spinning disk and lightsheet microscopy, to study the localization of miR-430 and any developmental defects possibly caused by the molecular beacon...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100686/noncanonical-function-of-dgcr8-controls-mesc-exit-from-pluripotency
#19
Daniel Cirera-Salinas, Jian Yu, Maxime Bodak, Richard P Ngondo, Kristina M Herbert, Constance Ciaudo
Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) deficient for DGCR8, a key component of the microprocessor complex, present strong differentiation defects. However, the exact reasons impairing their commitment remain elusive. The analysis of newly generated mutant mESCs revealed that DGCR8 is essential for the exit from the pluripotency state. To dissociate canonical versus noncanonical functions of DGCR8, we complemented the mutant mESCs with a phosphomutant DGCR8, which restored microRNA levels but did not rescue the exit from pluripotency defect...
February 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095716/circrnas-a-regulator-of-cellular-stress
#20
Joseph W Fischer, Anthony K L Leung
Circular RNAs (CircRNAs) were first identified as a viroid and later found to also be an endogenous RNA splicing product in eukaryotes. In recent years, a series of RNA-sequencing analyses from a diverse range of eukaryotes have shed new light on these eukaryotic circRNAs, revealing dynamic expression patterns in various developmental stages and physiological conditions. In this review, we focus on circRNAs implicated in stress response pathways and explore potential mechanisms underlying their regulation. To date, circRNAs have been shown to act as scaffolds in the assembly of protein complexes, sequester proteins from native subcellular localization, activate transcription of parental genes, inhibit RNA-protein interactions, and function as regulators of microRNA activity...
January 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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