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microRNA biogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523344/role-of-g3bp1-in-glucocorticoid-receptor-mediated-microrna-15b-and-microrna-23a-biogenesis-in-endothelial-cells
#1
Hoi-Hin Kwok, Po-Ying Poon, Kylie Hin-Man Mak, Lin-Yao Zhang, Pei Liu, Huoming Zhang, Nai-Ki Mak, Patrick Ying-Kit Yue, Ricky Ngok-Shun Wong
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles in regulating various normal cellular responses. Recent studies revealed that the canonical miRNA biogenesis pathway is subject to sophisticated regulation. Hormonal control of miRNA biogenesis by androgen and estrogen has been demonstrated, but the direct effects of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) on miRNA biogenesis are unknown. This study revealed the role of GR in miRNA maturation. We showed that two GR agonists, dexamethasone and ginsenoside-Rg1 rapidly suppressed the expression of mature miR-15b, miR-23a, and miR-214 in human endothelial cells...
May 18, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507561/deletion-extents-are-not-the-cause-of-clinical-variability-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-does-the-interaction-between-dgcr8-and-mirna-cnvs-play-a-major-role
#2
Veronica Bertini, Alessia Azzarà, Annalisa Legitimo, Roberta Milone, Roberta Battini, Rita Consolini, Angelo Valetto
In humans, the most common genomic disorder is the hemizygous deletion of the chromosome 22q11.2 region, that results in the "22q11.2 deletion syndrome" (22q11.2DS). A peculiarity of 22q11.2DS is its great phenotypic variability that makes this pathology a classic example of a syndrome with variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance. The reasons for this variability have not been elucidated yet, and the molecular substrates underlying the different clinical features of 22q11.2DS are still debated. A cohort of 21 patients has been analyzed by array CGH in order to detect some of the genetic differences that may influence this variability...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494721/m6a-modification-and-implications-for-micrornas
#3
Ayse Elif Erson-Bensan, Oguzhan Begik
RNA is chemically modified with over 100 distinct reactions. Among these reactions, methylation is probably the most extensively studied modification on the RNA molecule. Studies suggest methylation of Adenine residues (m6A) to be widespread in the transcriptome with potentially important roles in biological processes. Here, we review recent literature on m6A modification and potential implications for microRNA (miRNA) mediated gene expression regulation. These implications involve miRNA biogenesis, mRNA-miRNA interactions and m6A target selection...
May 10, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483648/oleic-acid-induces-mir-7-processing-through-remodelling-of-pri-mir-7-protein-complex
#4
Santosh Kumar, Angela Downie Ruiz Velasco, Gracjan Michlewski
MicroRNAs (miRs) play a vital role in governing cell function, with their levels tightly controlled at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Different sets of RNA-binding proteins (RNA-BPs) interact with primary (pri-) miRs and precursor (pre-) miR transcripts, controlling their biogenesis post-transcriptionally. The Hu antigen R (HuR)-mediated binding of Musashi homolog2 (MSI2) to the Conserved Terminal Loop (CTL) of pri-miR-7 regulates the levels of brain-enriched miR-7 formation in a tissue specific manner...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473628/molecular-mechanisms-of-dicer-endonuclease-and-enzymatic-activity
#5
REVIEW
Min-Sun Song, John J Rossi
The enzyme Dicer is best known for its role as a riboendonuclease in the small RNA pathway. In this canonical role, Dicer is a critical regulator of the biogenesis of microRNA and small interfering RNA, as well as a growing number of additional small RNAs derived from various sources. Emerging evidence demonstrates that Dicer's endonuclease role extends beyond the generation of small RNAs; it is also involved in processing additional endogenous and exogenous substrates, and is becoming increasingly implicated in regulating a variety of other cellular processes, outside of its endonuclease function...
May 4, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469844/the-roles-of-micrornas-in-regulation-of-mammalian-spermatogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Xiaoxu Chen, Xueliang Li, Jiayin Guo, Pengfei Zhang, Wenxian Zeng
Mammalian spermatogenesis contains three continuous and organized processes, by which spermatogonia undergo mitosis and differentiate to spermatocytes, follow on meiosis to form haploid spermatids and ultimately transform into spermatozoa. These processes require an accurately, spatially and temporally regulated gene expression patterns. The microRNAs are a novel class of post-transcriptional regulators. Cumulating evidences have demonstrated that microRNAs are expressed in a cell-specific or stage-specific manner during spermatogenesis...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469300/bladder-cancer-micro-rnas-as-biomolecules-for-prognostication-and-surveillance
#7
REVIEW
Nilay Mitash, Swasti Tiwari, Shalini Agnihotri, Anil Mandhani
INTRODUCTION: Bladder cancer (BC) has varied clinical behavior in terms of recurrence and progression. Current pathological characteristics are insufficient to prognosticate the outcome of a given treatment. Cellular metabolic regulatory molecules, such as micro RNA (miRNA), could be a potential biomarker to prognosticate the treatment outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched for publications from 1990 to 2016, related to miRNA biogenesis, its function, and role in the pathogenesis of bladder as well as other cancers...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468937/rna-metabolism-in-neurodegenerative-disease
#8
REVIEW
Elaine Y Liu, Christopher P Cali, Edward B Lee
Aging-related neurodegenerative diseases are progressive and fatal neurological diseases that are characterized by irreversible neuron loss and gliosis. With a growing population of aging individuals, there is a pressing need to better understand the basic biology underlying these diseases. Although diverse disease mechanisms have been implicated in neurodegeneration, a common theme of altered RNA processing has emerged as a unifying contributing factor to neurodegenerative disease. RNA processing includes a series of distinct processes, including RNA splicing, transport and stability, as well as the biogenesis of non-coding RNAs...
May 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466845/genetic-variation-and-rna-structure-regulate-microrna-biogenesis
#9
Noemi Fernandez, Ross A Cordiner, Robert S Young, Nele Hug, Sara Macias, Javier F Cáceres
MiRNA biogenesis is highly regulated at the post-transcriptional level; however, the role of sequence and secondary RNA structure in this process has not been extensively studied. A single G to A substitution present in the terminal loop of pri-mir-30c-1 in breast and gastric cancer patients had been previously described to result in increased levels of mature miRNA. Here, we report that this genetic variant directly affects Drosha-mediated processing of pri-mir-30c-1 in vitro and in cultured cells. Structural analysis of this variant revealed an altered RNA structure that facilitates the interaction with SRSF3, an SR protein family member that promotes pri-miRNA processing...
May 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461238/functional-analysis-of-microrna-pathway-genes-in-the-somatic-gonad-and-germ-cells-during-ovulation-in-c-elegans
#10
Carmela Rios, David Warren, Benjamin Olson, Allison L Abbott
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that play critical roles in animal development and physiology, though functions for most miRNAs remain unknown. Worms with reduced miRNA biogenesis due to loss of Drosha or Pasha/DGCR8 activity are sterile and fail to ovulate, indicating that miRNAs are required for the process of oocyte maturation and ovulation. Starting with this penetrant sterile phenotype and using new strains created to perform tissue specific RNAi, we characterized the roles of the C...
April 28, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455989/polymorphisms-of-pri-mir-219-1-are-associated-with-the-susceptibility-and-prognosis-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-a-northeast-chinese-population
#11
Chang Zheng, Xuelian Li, Lingzi Xia, Xue Fang, Xiaowei Quan, Zhihua Yin, Yuxia Zhao, Baosen Zhou
Occurrence and development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a complex process affected both by gene and environment. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs' (miRNAs) biogenesis influenced the expression of mature miRNAs, further had an impact on risk of NSCLC. Our study focused on the correlation between rs213210, rs421446 or rs107822 polymorphisms in pri-miR-219-1 and susceptibility or prognosis of NSCLC in Chinese. A case-control study of 405 new-diagnosis patients and 405 controls was performed...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453394/expression-of-mir-23a-by-apoptotic-regulators-in-human-cancer-a-review
#12
Rabih Roufayel, Seifedine Kadry
MicroRNAs play fundamental roles in mammalian development, differentiation and cellular homeostasis by regulating essential processes such as proliferation, migration, metabolism, migration and cell death. These small non-coding RNAs are also responsible in RNA silencing, and in many developmental and pathological processes. Not surprisingly, miR-23a misexpression contributes to numerous diseases including cancer where certain miRNA genes have been classified as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Since a single microRNA is capable of targeting a large number of mRNA sequences, de-regulated miRNA expression has the ability to alter various transcripts and activate a wide range of cancer-related pathways...
April 28, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448529/a-genome-wide-analysis-of-the-rna-guided-silencing-pathway-in-coffee-reveals-insights-into-its-regulatory-mechanisms
#13
Christiane Noronha Fernandes-Brum, Pâmela Marinho Rezende, Thales Henrique Cherubino Ribeiro, Raphael Ricon de Oliveira, Thaís Cunha de Sousa Cardoso, Laurence Rodrigues do Amaral, Matheus de Souza Gomes, Antonio Chalfun-Junior
microRNAs (miRNAs) are derived from self-complementary hairpin structures, while small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are derived from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or hairpin precursors. The core mechanism of sRNA production involves DICER-like (DCL) in processing the smallRNAs (sRNAs) and ARGONAUTE (AGO) as effectors of silencing, and siRNA biogenesis also involves action of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (RDR), Pol IV and Pol V in biogenesis. Several other proteins interact with the core proteins to guide sRNA biogenesis, action, and turnover...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442996/structural-characteristics-of-simple-rna-repeats-associated-with-disease-and-their-deleterious-protein-interactions
#14
REVIEW
Adam Ciesiolka, Magdalena Jazurek, Karolina Drazkowska, Wlodzimierz J Krzyzosiak
Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) are frequent entities in many transcripts, however, in some cases, pathological events occur when a critical repeat length is reached. This phenomenon is observed in various neurological disorders, such as myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, C9orf72-related amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (C9ALS/FTD), and polyglutamine diseases, such as Huntington's disease (HD) and spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA). The pathological effects of these repeats are triggered by mutant RNA transcripts and/or encoded mutant proteins, which depend on the localization of the expanded repeats in non-coding or coding regions...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441533/a-global-view-of-rna-protein-interactions-identifies-post-transcriptional-regulators-of-root-hair-cell-fate
#15
Shawn W Foley, Sager J Gosai, Dongxue Wang, Nur Selamoglu, Amelia C Sollitti, Tino Köster, Alexander Steffen, Eric Lyons, Fevzi Daldal, Benjamin A Garcia, Dorothee Staiger, Roger B Deal, Brian D Gregory
The Arabidopsis thaliana root epidermis is comprised of two cell types, hair and nonhair cells, which differentiate from the same precursor. Although the transcriptional programs regulating these events are well studied, post-transcriptional factors functioning in this cell fate decision are mostly unknown. Here, we globally identify RNA-protein interactions and RNA secondary structure in hair and nonhair cell nuclei. This analysis reveals distinct structural and protein binding patterns across both transcriptomes, allowing identification of differential RNA binding protein (RBP) recognition sites...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439828/interrogation-of-functional-mirna-target-interactions-by-crispr-cas9-genome-engineering
#16
Yale S Michaels, Qianxin Wu, Tudor A Fulga
Post-transcriptional silencing by microRNAs (miRNAs) is a critical constituent of eukaryotic gene regulation. miRNAs are short (~22nt) noncoding RNAs capable of specifically targeting the miRNA-induced-silencing-complex (miRISC) to transcripts bearing a complementary miRNA response element (MRE). Although recent methodological advances have greatly improved our understanding of miRNA biogenesis and the mechanisms by which miRNAs repress their cognate targets, exploring the physiological relevance of direct miRNA-target interactions in vivo has remained an outstanding challenge...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437065/a-macrocyclic-peptide-ligand-binds-the-oncogenic-microrna-21-precursor-and-suppresses-dicer-processing
#17
Matthew D Shortridge, Matthew J Walker, Tom Pavelitz, Yu Chen, Wen Yang, Gabriele Varani
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) help orchestrate cellular growth and survival through post-transcriptional mechanisms. The dysregulation of miRNA biogenesis can lead to cellular growth defects and chemotherapeutic resistance and plays a direct role in the development of many chronic diseases. Among these RNAs, miR-21 is consistently overexpressed in most human cancers, leading to the down-regulation of key tumor-suppressing and pro-apoptotic factors, suggesting that inhibition of miR-21 biogenesis could reverse these negative effects...
May 2, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433632/role-of-microrna-130b-in-placental-pgc-1%C3%AE-tfam-mitochondrial-biogenesis-pathway
#18
Shaoning Jiang, April M Teague, Jeanie B Tryggestad, Steven D Chernausek
Diabetes during pregnancy is associated with abnormal placenta mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress, which affect fetal development and offspring long-term health. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism. The molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of PGC-1α in placenta in the context of diabetes remain unclear. The present study examined the role of microRNA 130b (miR-130b-3p) in regulating PGC-1α expression and oxidative stress in a placental trophoblastic cell line (BeWo)...
June 3, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433598/mir-590-5p-a-density-sensitive-microrna-inhibits-tumorigenesis-by-targeting-yap1-in-colorectal-cancer
#19
Chunlin Ou, Zhenqiang Sun, Xiayu Li, Xiaoling Li, Weiguo Ren, Zailong Qin, Xuemei Zhang, Weitang Yuan, Jia Wang, Wentao Yu, Shiwen Zhang, Qiu Peng, Qun Yan, Wei Xiong, Guiyuan Li, Jian Ma
YAP1, a transcription co-activator, mediates the biological functions of the Hippo pathway. YAP1 inactivation is involved in cell-cell contact inhibition. In various tumors, YAP1 is upregulated through multiple mechanisms, and it functions as an oncogene. Here, we provided evidence that YAP1 influenced multiple signaling pathways in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. We reported that miR-590-5p directly targets YAP1 and inhibits tumorigenesis in CRC cells both in vitro and in vivo xenograft model. We analyzed different cell densities and found that increased density caused increased expression of miR-590-5p, and decreased expression of its precursors (pri- and pre-miR-590)...
April 19, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431233/a-compendium-of-rna-binding-proteins-that-regulate-microrna-biogenesis
#20
Thomas Treiber, Nora Treiber, Uwe Plessmann, Simone Harlander, Julia-Lisa Daiß, Norbert Eichner, Gerhard Lehmann, Kevin Schall, Henning Urlaub, Gunter Meister
During microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis, two endonucleolytic reactions convert stem-loop-structured precursors into mature miRNAs. These processing steps can be posttranscriptionally regulated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Here, we have used a proteomics-based pull-down approach to map and characterize the interactome of a multitude of pre-miRNAs. We identify ∼180 RBPs that interact specifically with distinct pre-miRNAs. For functional validation, we combined RNAi and CRISPR/Cas-mediated knockout experiments to analyze RBP-dependent changes in miRNA levels...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Cell
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