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microRNA biogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333004/drosha-rs642321-polymorphism-influence-susceptibility-to-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-a-preliminary-report
#1
Mohammad Hashemi, Seyed-Shahaboddin Hasani, Majid Naderi
Introduction: It has been well known that the microRNA biogenesis is involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases. We investigated the possible association between DROSHA rs642321 variant and risk of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Materials and Methods: We genotyped 75 children diagnosed with ALL and 115 age- and sex-matched children with no history of cancer of any type (as the control group) by the tetra amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327403/biogenesis-and-regulatory-hierarchy-of-phased-small-interfering-rnas-in-plants
#2
REVIEW
Pingchuan Deng, Sajid Muhammad, Min Cao, Liang Wu
Several varieties of small RNAs including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are generated in plants to regulate development, genome stability, and response to adverse environments. Phased siRNA (phasiRNA) is a type of secondary siRNA that is processed from a miRNA-mediated cleavage of RNA transcripts, increasing silencing efficiency or simultaneously suppressing multiple target genes. Trans-acting siRNAs (ta-siRNAs) are a particular class of phasiRNA produced from non-coding transcripts that silence targets in trans...
January 11, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322448/characterization-of-circular-rnas-circrna-associated-with-the-translation-machinery
#3
Deniz Bartsch, Anne Zirkel, Leo Kurian
A substantial proportion of the currently annotated genes in eukaryotes are proposed to function as RNA molecules (>200 bp) with no significant protein coding potential, currently classified as long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA). A distinct subgroup of lncRNAs is circular RNAs (circRNAs), which can be easily identified by unique junction reads, resulting from their biogenesis. CircRNAs are largely cytosolic and thought to either code for micro-peptides or facilitate gene regulation by sequestering microRNAs (miRNAs) or RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) from their targets...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317340/the-microrna-landscape-of-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#4
REVIEW
Kathryn Konicke, Argelia Lopez, José Luis Muñoz, Luis Steven Servin, Armando Flores, Edit Olasz, Zelmira Lazarova
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is a keratinocyte-derived skin tumor. It is the second-most-common cancer affecting the Caucasian population and is responsible for >20% of all skin-cancer-related deaths. The estimated incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in the USA is >1000000 cases per year, of which roughly 20-30% are squamous cell carcinoma. To better understand and treat this challenging cancer, current research focuses on development of novel strategies to improve the understanding of tumor biogenesis on an individual basis...
January 6, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301498/pcaf-mediated-acetylation-of-lin28b-increases-let-7-biogenesis-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-h1299-cells
#5
Ting-Ting Qu, Fei Chen, Jing Wang, Yan-Jun Zhang, Mo-Bin Cheng, Wen-Zheng Sun, Yu-Fei Shen, Ye Zhang
BACKGROUND: Lin28B and its paralog Lin28A are small RNA binding proteins that have similar inhibitory effects, although they target separate steps in the maturation of let-7 miRNAs in mammalian cells. Because Lin28B participates in the promotion and development of tumors mostly by blocking the let-7 tumor suppressor family members, we sought to explore the associated mechanisms to gain insights into how Lin28B might be decreased in human cancer cells to increase let-7 levels and reverse malignancy...
January 4, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280958/development-of-novel-therapeutic-agents-by-inhibition-of-oncogenic-micrornas
#6
REVIEW
Dinh-Duc Nguyen, Suhwan Chang
MicroRNAs (miRs, miRNAs) are regulatory small noncoding RNAs, with their roles already confirmed to be important for post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression affecting cell physiology and disease development. Upregulation of a cancer-causing miRNA, known as oncogenic miRNA, has been found in many types of cancers and, therefore, represents a potential new class of targets for therapeutic inhibition. Several strategies have been developed in recent years to inhibit oncogenic miRNAs. Among them is a direct approach that targets mature oncogenic miRNA with an antisense sequence known as antimiR, which could be an oligonucleotide or miRNA sponge...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277012/photoelectrochemical-biosensor-for-hen1-rna-methyltransferase-detection-using-peroxidase-mimics-ptcu-nfs-and-poly-u-polymerase-mediated-rna-extension
#7
Haiyan Wang, Libang Zhu, Junling Duan, Minghui Wang, Huanshun Yin, Po Wang, Shiyun Ai
2'-O-methyl group on the 3' terminal nucleotide in plant microRNAs, as one kind of RNA methylations, is caused by HEN1 RNA methyltransferase (HENMT1), which is thought to be crucial for ribosome biogenesis and function. Herein, a simple and label-free PEC biosensing method was proposed for assay of HENMT1 activity and inhibitor screening based on peroxidase mimic PtCu nanoframes (PtCu NFs) catalytic signal amplification. In this work, MoS2@Graphene quantum dots/Phosphorus-doped rodlike carbon nitride (MoS2@GQDs/P-RCN) heterojunction was used as photoactive materials...
December 21, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276984/genetic-polymorphisms-offer-insight-into-the-causal-role-of-microrna-in-coronary-artery-disease
#8
REVIEW
Andrea Borghini, Maria Grazia Andreassi
There is growing interest in the potential of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small and noncoding RNA molecules, as diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers in coronary artery disease (CAD). Despite this promising role, there are still widespread inconsistencies among studies, and important obstacles must be overcome before miRNAs can enter clinical practice. The study of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the miRNA regulatory network could help shed light on the causality of associations as well as validate the value of cardiovascular miRNAs...
December 15, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258963/secretory-micrornas-as-biomarkers-of-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Kazuharu Kai, Rachel L Dittmar, Subrata Sen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression predominantly by inhibiting transcription and/or promoting degradation of target mRNAs also in addition to being involved in non-canonical mechanisms regulating transcription, translation and cell signaling processes. Extracellular secretory miRNAs, either in complex with specific proteins or encapsulated in microvesicles called exosomes, are transported between cells as means of intercellular communication. Secretory miRNAs in circulation remain functional after delivery to recipient cells, regulating target genes and their corresponding signaling pathways...
December 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250093/xap5-circadian-timekeeper-positively-regulates-resistance-to-powdery-mildew8-1-mediated-immunity-in-arabidopsis
#10
Yong-Ju Xu, Yang Lei, Ran Li, Ling-Li Zhang, Zhi-Xue Zhao, Jing-Hao Zhao, Jing Fan, Yan Li, Hui Yang, Jing Shang, Shunyuan Xiao, Wen-Ming Wang
Ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW8.1 (RPW8.1) boosts pattern-triggered immunity leading to enhanced resistance to different pathogens in Arabidopsis and rice. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism remains largely elusive. Here, we report that XAP5 CIRCADIAN TIMEKEEPER (XCT, At2g21150) positively regulates RPW8.1-mediated cell death and disease resistance. Forward genetic screen identified the b3-17 mutant that exhibited less cell death and susceptibility to powdery mildew and bacterial pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244865/the-arabidopsis-thaliana-f-box-gene-hawaiian-skirt-is-a-new-player-in-the-microrna-pathway
#11
Xuebin Zhang, Dasuni Jayaweera, Janny L Peters, Judit Szecsi, Mohammed Bendahmane, Jeremy A Roberts, Zinnia H González-Carranza
In Arabidopsis, the F-box HAWAIIAN SKIRT (HWS) protein is important for organ growth. Loss of function of HWS exhibits pleiotropic phenotypes including sepal fusion. To dissect the HWS role, we EMS-mutagenized hws-1 seeds and screened for mutations that suppress hws-1 associated phenotypes. We identified shs-2 and shs-3 (suppressor of hws-2 and 3) mutants in which the sepal fusion phenotype of hws-1 was suppressed. shs-2 and shs-3 (renamed hst-23/hws-1 and hst-24/hws-1) carry transition mutations that result in premature terminations in the plant homolog of Exportin-5 HASTY (HST), known to be important in miRNA biogenesis, function and transport...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241457/impaired-regeneration-in-calpain-3-null-muscle-is-associated-with-perturbations-in-mtorc1-signaling-and-defective-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#12
Mehmet E Yalvac, Jakkrit Amornvit, Cilwyn Braganza, Lei Chen, Syed-Rehan A Hussain, Kimberly M Shontz, Chrystal L Montgomery, Kevin M Flanigan, Sarah Lewis, Zarife Sahenk
BACKGROUND: Previous studies in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) have suggested that calpain-3 (CAPN3) mutations result in aberrant regeneration in muscle. METHODS: To gain insight into pathogenesis of aberrant muscle regeneration in LGMD2A, we used a paradigm of cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced cycles of muscle necrosis and regeneration in the CAPN3-KO mice to simulate the early features of the dystrophic process in LGMD2A. The temporal evolution of the regeneration process was followed by assessing the oxidative state, size, and the number of metabolic fiber types at 4 and 12 weeks after last CTX injection...
December 14, 2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233922/deep-experimental-profiling-of-microrna-diversity-deployment-and-evolution-across-the-drosophila-genus
#13
Jaaved Mohammed, Alex S Flynt, Alexandra M Panzarino, Md Mosharrof Hussein Mondal, Matthew DeCruz, Adam Siepel, Eric C Lai
To assess miRNA evolution across the Drosophila genus, we analyzed several billion small RNA reads across 12 fruit fly species. These data permit comprehensive curation of species- and clade-specific variation in miRNA identity, abundance, and processing. Among well-conserved miRNAs, we observed unexpected cases of clade-specific variation in 5' end precision, occasional antisense loci, and putatively noncanonical loci. We also used strict criteria to identify a large set (649) of novel, evolutionarily restricted miRNAs...
December 12, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230098/circular-rnas-a-novel-type-of-non-coding-rna-and-their-potential-implications-in-antiviral-immunity
#14
REVIEW
Man Wang, Fei Yu, Wei Wu, Yuan Zhang, Wenguang Chang, Murugavel Ponnusamy, Kun Wang, Peifeng Li
Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel type of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotic cells during post-transcriptional processes. Unlike linear RNAs, circRNAs form covalent-closed continuous loops without 5' to 3' polarities and poly (A) tails. With advances in high-throughput sequencing technology, numerous circRNAs have been identified in plants, animals and humans. Notably, circRNAs display cell-type, tissue-type and developmental-stage specific expression patterns in eukaryotic transcriptome, which reveals their significant regulatory functions in gene expression...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215721/the-biological-roles-and-clinical-implications-of-micrornas-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#15
REVIEW
Ying-Hua He, Chen Chen, Zheng Shi
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) accounts for about 3% of tumors in adults as well as 85% of all primary renal carcinoma. And it is the third most predominant urological carcinoma, but it has the maximum mortality rate. Early diagnosis and proper follow-up of ccRCC patients may improve the prognosis of the illness. Thus, it is imperative to understand the new biomarkers of ccRCC and study new method for the modern therapy of this deadly disease. Furthermore, a large number of microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs, have been relevant to tumor type, stage, or survival and miRNAs might be progressed as the markers of diagnosis or prognosis in ccRCC...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207683/non-coding-rna-a-potential-biomarker-and-therapeutic-target-for-sepsis
#16
REVIEW
Tie-Ning Zhang, Da Li, Jing Xia, Qi-Jun Wu, Ri Wen, Ni Yang, Chun-Feng Liu
Sepsis, a syndrome of physiologic, pathologic, and biochemical abnormalities caused by an altered systemic host response to infection, has become the main cause of death among patients admitted to the intensive care units. Recently, genome-wide expression analysis revealed that over 80% of the essential genetic elements were altered in critically ill patients. Notably, non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs and circular RNAs, have been proven to play essential roles in innate immunity, mitochondrial dysfunction and organ dysfunction...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197026/an-expression-atlas-of-mirnas-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
Le Xu, Yugang Hu, Ying Cao, Jingrui Li, Ligeng Ma, Yan Li, Yijun Qi
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate a variety of biological processes. MiRNA expression often exhibits spatial and temporal specificity. However, genome-wide miRNA expression patterns in different organs during development of Arabidopsis thaliana have not yet been systemically investigated. In this study, we sequenced small RNA libraries generated from 27 different organ/tissue types, which cover the entire life cycle of Arabidopsis. Analysis of the sequencing data revealed that most miRNAs are ubiquitously expressed, whereas a small set of miRNAs display highly specific expression patterns...
November 29, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187591/microrna-dynamics-at-the-onset-of-primordial-germ-and-somatic-cells-sex-differentiation-during-mouse-embryonic-gonad-development
#18
Daniel Fernandez-Perez, Miguel Angel Brieño-Enriquez, Javier Isoler-Alcaraz, Eduardo Larriba, Jesus Del Mazo
IIn mammals, commitment and specification of germ cell lines implies involves complex programs that include sex differentiation, control of proliferation and meiotic initiation. Regulation of these processes is genetically controlled by fine-tuned mechanisms of gene regulation in which microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved. We have characterized, by small-RNAseq and bioinformatics analyses, the miRNA expression patterns of male and female mouse Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs) and gonadal somatic cells at embryonic stages: E11...
November 29, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177640/heat-stress-alters-genome-wide-profiles-of-circular-rnas-in-arabidopsis
#19
Ting Pan, Xiuqiang Sun, Yangxuan Liu, Hui Li, Guangbin Deng, Honghui Lin, Songhu Wang
1599 novel circRNAs and 1583 heat stress-specific circRNAs were identified in Arabidopsis. Heat stress enhanced accumulation of circRNAs remarkably. Heat stress altered the sizes of circRNAs, numbers of circularized exons and alterative circularization events. A putative circRNA-mediated ceRNA networks under heat stress was established. Heat stress retards plant growth and destabilizes crop yield. The noncoding RNAs were demonstrated to be involved in plant response to heat stress. As a newly-characterized class of noncoding RNAs, circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation...
November 24, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171334/g-quadruplexes-influence-pri-microrna-processing
#20
Samuel G Rouleau, Jean-Michel Garant, François Bolduc, Martin Bisaillon, Jean-Pierre Perreault
RNA G-Quadruplexes (G4) have been shown to possess many biological functions, including the regulation of microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and function. However, their impact on pri-miRNA processing remains unknown. We identified G4 located near the Drosha cleavage site in three distinct pri-miRNAs: pri-mir200c, pri-mir451a, and pri-mir497. The folding of the potential G4 motifs was determined in solution. Subsequently, mutations disrupting G4 folding led to important changes in the mature miRNAs levels in cells...
December 11, 2017: RNA Biology
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