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Psychiatric disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933312/the-genetics-and-epigenetics-of-ptsd-overview-recent-advances-and-future-directions
#1
Christina M Sheerin, Mackenzie J Lind, Kaitlin Bountress, Nicole R Nugent, Ananda B Amstadter
This paper provides a brief summary and commentary on the growing literature and current developments related to the genetic underpinnings of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We first briefly provide an overview of the behavioral genetic literature on PTSD, followed by a short synopsis of the substantial candidate gene literature with a focus on genes that have been meta-analyzed. We then discuss the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that have been conducted, followed by an introduction to other molecular platforms used in PTSD genomic studies, such as epigenetic and expression approaches...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933094/the-newer-opioid-agonist-treatment-with-lower-substitutive-opiate-doses-is-associated-with-better-toxicology-outcome-than-the-older-harm-reduction-treatment
#2
Jacopo V Bizzarri, Valentina Casetti, Livia Sanna, Angelo Giovanni Icro Maremmani, Luca Rovai, Silvia Bacciardi, Daria Piacentino, Andreas Conca, Icro Maremmani
BACKGROUND: Charge-free heroin use disorder treatment in Italy follows two main approaches, i.e., harm reduction treatment (HRT) strategy in community low-threshold facilities for drug addiction and opioid agonist treatment (OAT) in high-threshold facilities for opioid addiction, focusing on pharmacological maintenance according to the Dole and Nyswander strategy. We aimed to compare the impact of HRT and OAT on patient outcome, as assessed through negativity for drugs on about 1-year urinalyses...
2016: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932983/cannabidiol-regulation-of-learned-fear-implications-for-treating-anxiety-related-disorders
#3
Regimantas Jurkus, Harriet L L Day, Francisco S Guimarães, Jonathan L C Lee, Leandro J Bertoglio, Carl W Stevenson
Anxiety and trauma-related disorders are psychiatric diseases with a lifetime prevalence of up to 25%. Phobias and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are characterized by abnormal and persistent memories of fear-related contexts and cues. The effects of psychological treatments such as exposure therapy are often only temporary and medications can be ineffective and have adverse side effects. Growing evidence from human and animal studies indicates that cannabidiol, the main non-psychotomimetic phytocannabinoid present in Cannabis sativa, alleviates anxiety in paradigms assessing innate fear...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932945/monoaminergic-and-histaminergic-strategies-and-treatments-in-brain-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Dubravka Svob Strac, Montse Sole, Mercedes Unzeta, Keith F Tipton, Dorotea Mück-Šeler, Irene Bolea, Laura Della Corte, Matea Nikolac Perkovic, Nela Pivac, Ilse J Smolders, Anna Stasiak, Wieslawa A Fogel, Philippe De Deurwaerdère
The monoaminergic systems are the target of several drugs for the treatment of mood, motor and cognitive disorders as well as neurological conditions. In most cases, advances have occurred through serendipity, except for Parkinson's disease where the pathophysiology led almost immediately to the introduction of dopamine restoring agents. Extensive neuropharmacological studies first showed that the primary target of antipsychotics, antidepressants, and anxiolytic drugs were specific components of the monoaminergic systems...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931919/elevated-copper-hs-c-reactive-protein-and-dyslipidemia-in-drug-free-schizophrenia-relation-with-psychopathology-score
#5
Sivasankar Devanarayanan, Hanumanthappa Nandeesha, Shivanand Kattimani, Siddharth Sarkar, Jancy Jose
Inflammation, dyslipidemia and altered copper levels have been reported in several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. However, their association with the severity of psychopathology in schizophrenia is yet to be established. The present study was designed to assess the serum levels of copper, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and lipid profile and to explore their association with psychopathology scores in schizophrenia. 40 cases and 40 controls were included in the study. Serum copper, hs-CRP and lipid profile were estimated in all the subjects...
December 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931895/self-stigma-in-depressive-patients-association-of-cognitive-schemata-depression-and-self-esteem
#6
Sakie Shimotsu, Naoshi Horikawa
Many empirical studies have indicated that various psychosocial and psychiatric variables are correlated with levels of self-stigma. Treatment methods for reducing self-stigma have been investigated in recent years, especially those examining the relationship between negative cognitive schemata and self-stigma. This study examined the relationship of self-stigma with cognitive schemata, depression, and self-esteem in depressive patients. Furthermore, structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to evaluate three hypothetical models...
December 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931890/inpatients-with-major-depressive-disorder-psychometric-properties-of-the-new-multidimensional-depression-scale
#7
Mohammad Darharaj, Mojtaba Habibi, Michael J Power, Farzaneh Farzadian, Maesoumeh Rahimi, Habibeh Kholghi, Maryam Kazemitabar
The New Multi-dimensional Depression Scale (NMDS) is one of the most comprehensive scales that measures depression symptoms in four domains, including emotional, cognitive, somatic, and interpersonal. This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the NMDS in a group of Iranian inpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). At first, the scale was translated into Persian and used as part of a battery consisting of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Short Form Health Survey (SF-36)...
December 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931886/neurobiological-after-effects-of-non-invasive-brain-stimulation
#8
REVIEW
G Cirillo, G Di Pino, F Capone, F Ranieri, L Florio, V Todisco, G Tedeschi, K Funke, V Di Lazzaro
BACKGROUND: In recent years, many studies have evaluated the effects of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques for the treatment of several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Positive results led to approval of NIBS for some of these conditions by the Food and Drug Administration in the USA. The therapeutic effects of NIBS have been related to bi-directional changes in cortical excitability with the direction of change depending on the choice of stimulation protocol. Although after-effects are mostly short lived, complex neurobiological mechanisms related to changes in synaptic excitability bear the potential to further induce therapy-relevant lasting changes...
November 17, 2016: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931880/predictive-diagnosis-of-major-depression-using-nmr-based-metabolomics-and-least-squares-support-vector-machine
#9
Hong Zheng, Peng Zheng, Liangcai Zhao, Jianmin Jia, Shengli Tang, Pengtao Xu, Peng Xie, Hongchang Gao
BACKGROUND: Major depressive (MD) disorder is a serious psychiatric disorder that can result in suicidal behavior if not treated. The MD diagnosis using a standardized instrument instead of a structured interview will be advantageous for treatment and management of the MD, but so far no such technique exists. We developed an integrated analytical method of NMR-based metabolomics and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) for predictive diagnosis of the MD. METHODS: The metabolite profiles in clinical plasma samples obtained from 72 depressive patients and 54 healthy subjects were analyzed by NMR spectroscopy...
December 5, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931744/learning-from-one-s-mistakes-a-dual-role-for-the-rostromedial-tegmental-nucleus-in-the-encoding-and-expression-of-punished-reward-seeking
#10
Peter J Vento, Nathan W Burnham, Courtney S Rowley, Thomas C Jhou
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders such as addiction and mania are marked by persistent reward seeking despite highly negative or aversive outcomes, but the neural mechanisms underlying this aberrant decision making are unknown. The recently identified rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) encodes a wide variety of aversive stimuli and sends robust inhibitory projections to midbrain dopamine neurons, leading to the hypothesis that the RMTg provides a brake to reward signaling in response to aversive costs...
October 21, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930500/effect-of-rivastigmine-augmentation-in-treatment-of-male-patients-with-combat-related-chronic-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Amir Rezaei Ardani, Golkoo Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Fayyazi Bordbar, Ali Talaei, Hesam Mostafavi Toroghi
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the chronic and disabling psychiatric disorders, particularly in combat veterans. In a case series, rivastigmine was suggested to be an effective augmentation in treatment of PTSD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate this finding in a randomized controlled trial. METHOD: A 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 36 male patients (aged 42-60 years) diagnosed with chronic, combat-related PTSD...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930478/prospective-impact-of-psychiatric-disorders-on-employment-status-and-health-care-use-in-patients-investigated-for-occupational-asthma
#12
Kim L Lavoie, Helene Favreau, Nicola J Paine, Catherine Lemière, Maryann Joseph, Avril Gagnon-Chauvin, André Cartier, Simon L Bacon
OBJECTIVE: We previously reported high rates (34%) of psychiatric disorders (PSY) in patients evaluated for occupational asthma (OA). We determined the impact of PSY on employment status and health care use 12 to 18 months later. METHODS: One hundred ninety-six patients underwent clinical and psychiatric interviews on the day of their OA evaluation. Patients were re-contacted 12to 18 months later to assess employment status and health care use. RESULTS: Results indicated that patients with a PSY at baseline were less likely to be employed (adjusted odds ratio = 2...
December 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930324/dopamine-release-from-the-locus-coeruleus-to-the-dorsal-hippocampus-promotes-spatial-learning-and-memory
#13
Kimberly A Kempadoo, Eugene V Mosharov, Se Joon Choi, David Sulzer, Eric R Kandel
Dopamine neurotransmission in the dorsal hippocampus is critical for a range of functions from spatial learning and synaptic plasticity to the deficits underlying psychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is the presumed source of dopamine in the dorsal hippocampus. However, there is a surprising scarcity of VTA dopamine axons in the dorsal hippocampus despite the dense network of dopamine receptors. We have explored this apparent paradox using optogenetic, biochemical, and behavioral approaches and found that dopaminergic axons and subsequent dopamine release in the dorsal hippocampus originate from neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC)...
December 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930320/unexpected-central-role-of-the-androgen-receptor-in-the-spontaneous-regeneration-of-myelin
#14
Bartosz Bielecki, Claudia Mattern, Abdel M Ghoumari, Sumaira Javaid, Kaja Smietanka, Charly Abi Ghanem, Sakina Mhaouty-Kodja, M Said Ghandour, Etienne-Emile Baulieu, Robin J M Franklin, Michael Schumacher, Elisabeth Traiffort
Lost myelin can be replaced after injury or during demyelinating diseases in a regenerative process called remyelination. In the central nervous system (CNS), the myelin sheaths, which protect axons and allow the fast propagation of electrical impulses, are produced by oligodendrocytes. The abundance and widespread distribution of oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPs) within the adult CNS account for this remarkable regenerative potential. Here, we report a key role for the male gonad, testosterone, and androgen receptor (AR) in CNS remyelination...
December 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929321/social-communication-questionnaire-scoring-procedures-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-the-prevalence-of-potential-social-communication-disorder-in-asd
#15
Lucy Barnard-Brak, David M Richman, Steven Randall Chesnut, Todd D Little
In analyzing data from the National Database for Autism Research, we utilized Mokken scaling techniques as a means of creating a more effective and efficient screening procedure for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) via the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). With a sample of 1,040, approximately 80% (n = 827) of the sample were males while approximately 20% (n = 213) were females. In regard to ethnicity, approximately 68% of the sample were White/Caucasian, while 7% were African American, 16% were Hispanic, 4% were Asian, and 1% were Native American or American Indian...
December 2016: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929309/is-posttraumatic-growth-trauma-specific-invariance-across-trauma-and-stressor-exposed-groups
#16
Madison W Silverstein, Daniel J Lee, Tracy K Witte, Frank W Weathers
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic growth (PTG), or multidimensional positive change following a traumatic event (TE), is conceptualized as qualitatively distinct from growth following a nontraumatic stressful event (NTSE; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 2004; Zoellner & Maercker, 2006). However, the degree to which PTG is a trauma-specific phenomenon has yet to be established. Although research indicates that individuals who experience TEs endorse greater PTG than those who experience NTSEs (Kastenmüller et al...
December 8, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929308/sex-differences-in-the-appraisal-of-traumatic-events-and-psychopathology
#17
Justyna Kucharska
OBJECTIVE: The current study is an investigation of the relationship between the appraisal of traumatic events and mental disorder symptoms: internalizing symptoms and externalizing/substance-abuse symptoms. Cumulative trauma over the lifetime was taken into account. Also, specific effects related to traumatic events of various types (i.e., betrayal trauma, accident involving a family member, physical violence, and natural disaster) were assessed. Participants, 190 young men and 277 young women, were asked to evaluate the strength with which the traumatic event impacted their lives...
December 8, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929229/the-mental-status-examination
#18
David Norris, Molly S Clark, Sonya Shipley
The mental status examination includes general observations made during the clinical encounter, as well as specific testing based on the needs of the patient and physician. Multiple cognitive functions may be tested, including attention, executive functioning, gnosia, language, memory, orientation, praxis, prosody, thought content, thought processes, and visuospatial proficiency. Proprietary and open-source clinical examination tools are available, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Mini-Cog...
October 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929113/a-feedforward-inhibitory-circuit-mediated-by-cb1-expressing-fast-spiking-interneurons-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#19
William J Wright, Oliver M Schlüter, Yan Dong
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) gates motivated behaviors through the functional output of principle medium spiny neurons (MSNs), while dysfunctional output of NAc MSNs contributes to a variety of psychiatric disorders. Fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) are sparsely distributed throughout the NAc, forming local feedforward inhibitory circuits. It remains elusive how FSI-based feedforward circuits regulate the output of NAc MSNs. Here, we investigated a distinct subpopulation of NAc FSIs that express the cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1)...
December 8, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928959/potential-application-of-5-aryl-substituted-2-amino-benzamide-type-of-hdac1-2-selective-inhibitors-to-pharmaceuticals
#20
Shinichi Uesato, Yoshiyuki Hirata, Tsutomu Sasaki
Diverse histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been developed to date. They control not only histone modification but also gene expression of diverse proteins and thus are expected to provide useful therapeutic effects on various diseases, including cancers, psychiatric and cognitive disorders and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as cardiovascular and diabetic diseases. Some isoform-nonselective HDAC inhibitors have been successfully used for clinical treatments of the haematological malignancies, including advanced forms of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma...
December 8, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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