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Osteosarcoma adult

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772552/pet-ct-in-the-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-osteosarcoma
#1
Xiaojuan Zhang, Zhe Guan
Osteosarcoma is an aggressive malignancy that usually occurs in children and young adults, and long-term survival is only about 20% in patients with metastasis or recurrent disease. Traditional non-invasive techniques, such as positron-emission tomography (PET) scanning, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scanning, may not identify single lesions in the early stage or accurately detect small lesions. A novel technique, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), which is widely used in clinical practice, shows more accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in the diagnosis of osteosarcoma...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771408/microrna-16-suppressed-the-invasion-and-migration-of-osteosarcoma-by-directly-inhibiting-rab23
#2
Z-H Jiao, J-D Wang, X-J Wang
OBJECTIVE:   Osteosarcoma is the most frequent primary bone malignancy that affects young adults and adolescents around the world. Increasing evidence suggests that dysfunctions of microRNAs (miRNAs) used to play an important role in human cancers. We aimed at evaluating the potential function of miR-16 and verify its influence on the function of RAB23 in osteosarcoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: miR-16 expressions in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines were examined using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769415/upregulation-of-microrna-340-promotes-osteosarcoma-cell-apoptosis-while-suppressing-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-by-inactivating-the-ctnnb1-mediated-notch-signaling-pathway
#3
Bao-Long Pan, Ling Wu, Li Pan, Yu-Xi Yang, Hu-Huan Li, Yan-Juan Dai, Zi-Qian He, Ling Tan, You-Guang Huang, Zong-Wu Tong, Jun-Long Liao
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common histological form of primary bone cancer. It is most prevalent in teenagers and young adults. This study aims at exploring the regulatory effect of microRNA-340 (miR-340) on OS cell proliferation, invasion, migration and apoptosis via regulating the Notch signaling pathway by targeting CTNNB1. OS tissues belonging to 45 patients and normal femoral head tissues of 45 amputees were selected. Cells were allocated to different groups. In Situ hybridization was performed to determine the positive rate of miR-340 expression while immunohistochemistry was used to determine that of CTNNB1 and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)...
May 16, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761075/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling-plays-a-pivotal-role-in-the-interplay-between-osteosarcoma-cells-and-their-microenvironment
#4
REVIEW
Franck Verrecchia, Françoise Rédini
Osteosarcomas are the most frequent form of primary bone tumors and mainly affect children, adolescents, and young adults. Despite encouraging progress in therapeutic management, including the advent of multidrug chemotherapy, the survival rates have remained unchanged for more than four decades: 75% at 5 years for localized disease, but two groups of patients are still at high risk: metastatic at diagnosis (overall survival around 40% at 5 years) and/or poor responders to chemotherapy (20% at 5 years)...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755686/transcriptome-based-individualized-therapy-of-refractory-pediatric-sarcomas-feasibility-tolerability-and-efficacy
#5
Bushra Weidenbusch, Günther H S Richter, Marie Sophie Kesper, Monika Guggemoos, Katja Gall, Carolin Prexler, Ilya Kazantsev, Alexandra Sipol, Lars Lindner, Michaela Nathrath, Olaf Witt, Katja Specht, Frigga Beitinger, Carolin Knebel, Stuart Hosie, Rüdiger von Eisenhardt-Rothe, Wilko Weichert, Irene Teichert-von Luettichau, Stefan Burdach
Survival rates of pediatric sarcoma patients stagnated during the last two decades, especially in adolescents and young adults (AYAs). Targeted therapies offer new options in refractory cases. Gene expression profiling provides a robust method to characterize the transcriptome of each patient's tumor and guide the choice of therapy. Twenty patients with refractory pediatric sarcomas (age 8-35 years) were assessed with array profiling: ten had Ewing sarcoma, five osteosarcoma, and five soft tissue sarcoma. Overexpressed genes and deregulated pathways were identified as actionable targets and an individualized combination of targeted therapies was recommended...
April 17, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750397/fdg-pet-ct-in-the-evaluation-of-primary-and-secondary-pancreatic-malignancies
#6
Casey E Bohl, Sara M Federico, Giles W Robinson, Armita Bahrami, Barry L Shulkin
PURPOSE: Primary pancreatic carcinoma and pancreatic metastases are rare in the pediatric population. Pancreatoblastoma is the most common pancreatic malignant tumor in young children and solid-pseudopapillary tumor in teenagers. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is extremely rare under the age of 40 and is usually associated with underlying genetic abnormalities. Secondary malignancies of the pancreas occur more frequently than primary pancreatic malignancies in children and are most commonly seen with non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) and mesenchymal sarcomas...
May 11, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744029/treatment-patterns-and-survival-among-older-adults-in-the-united-states-with-advanced-soft-tissue-sarcomas
#7
Rohan C Parikh, Maria Lorenzo, Lisa M Hess, Sean D Candrilli, Steven Nicol, James A Kaye
Background: To describe patient and tumor characteristics, treatments, and survival among older adults in the United States with advanced soft-tissue sarcoma (STS), across and by categories of specifically defined histologic subtypes. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis using the SEER. The study population comprised patients ≥ 65 years old with advanced STS (excluding osteosarcoma, Kaposi sarcoma, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors) diagnosed from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2011...
2018: Clinical Sarcoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739381/angiopoietin-like-4-promotes-osteosarcoma-cell-proliferation-and-migration-and-stimulates-osteoclastogenesis
#8
T Zhang, A Kastrenopoulou, Q Larrouture, N A Athanasou, H J Knowles
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone cancer in children and young adults. It is highly aggressive and patients that present with metastasis have a poor prognosis. Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) drives the progression and metastasis of many solid tumours, but has not been described in osteosarcoma tissue. ANGPTL4 also enhances osteoclast activity, which is required for osteosarcoma growth in bone. We therefore investigated the expression and function of ANGPTL4 in human osteosarcoma tissue and cell lines...
May 8, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706636/does-atrx-germline-variation-predispose-to-osteosarcoma-three-additional-cases-of-osteosarcoma-in-two-atr-x-syndrome-patients
#9
Julien Masliah-Planchon, Dominique Lévy, Delphine Héron, Fabienne Giuliano, Catherine Badens, Paul Fréneaux, Louise Galmiche, Jean-Marc Guinebretierre, Cécile Cellier, Joshua J Waterfall, Khadija Aït-Raïs, Gaëlle Pierron, Christophe Glorion, Isabelle Desguerre, Christine Soler, Anne Deville, Olivier Delattre, Jean Michon, Franck Bourdeaut
Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in adolescents and young adults. Most osteosarcomas are sporadic but the risk of osteosarcoma is also increased by germline variants in TP53, RB1 and RECQL4 genes. ATRX germline variations are responsible for the rare genetic disorder X-linked alpha-thalassemia mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome characterized by severe developmental delay and alpha-thalassemia but no obvious increased risk of cancer. Here we report two children with ATR-X syndrome who developed osteosarcoma...
April 30, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703129/lithium-incorporated-deproteinized-bovine-bone-substitute-improves-osteogenesis-in-critical-sized-bone-defect-repair
#10
Hongzhang Guo, Changde Wang, Jixiang Wang, Yufang He
This study aimed to explore the surface modification of deproteinized bovine bone using lithium-ion and evaluate its efficacy on osteogenesis improvement and critical-sized bone defect repair. Hydrothermal treatment was performed to produce lithium-incorporated deproteinized bovine bone. In vitro study, human osteosarcoma cell MG63 (MG63) was cultured with the bone substitute to evaluate the cell viability and then calcium deposition was measured to analyze the osteogenesis. In vivo studies, male adult goats were chosen to build critical-sized bone defect model and randomly divided into three groups...
May 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668499/tumor-syndromes-predisposing-to-osteosarcoma
#11
Meera Hameed, Diana Mandelker
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone tumor affecting predominantly adolescents and young adults. It accounts for about 5% of all childhood cancers. Although the majority of OSs are sporadic, a small percentage occur as a component of hereditary cancer syndromes. Early onset, bilateral, multifocal, and metachronous tumors suggest genetic predisposition. The inheritance patterns can be autosomal dominant or recessive. These syndromes predispose to a wide variety of mesenchymal and epithelial cancers with propensity for certain mutations being prevalent in specific cancer subtypes...
April 17, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668473/the-history-of-bone-tumour-treatment-and-the-state-of-the-art-in-vienna
#12
Rainer Kotz
PURPOSES: Bone tumours have been a tragedy for the patient in any time period. In the majority of the cases it occurs in children or young adults. In the past the affected limbs could not be spared and the overall prognosis was poor. METHODS: Chemotherapy successfully introduced for the purpose of overcoming the poor overall prognosis (Rosen and Jaffe) and tumour prostheses were invented for the purpose of salvaging the affected limbs (Marcove, Scales, Campanacci, Sivas, Salzer)...
December 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662154/parent-of-origin-effect-of-hypomorphic-pathogenic-variants-and-somatic-mosaicism-impact-on-phenotypic-expression-of-retinoblastoma
#13
Valentina Imperatore, Anna Maria Pinto, Elisa Gelli, Eva Trevisson, Valeria Morbidoni, Elisa Frullanti, Theodora Hadjistilianou, Sonia De Francesco, Paolo Toti, Elena Gusson, Gaia Roversi, Andrea Accogli, Valeria Capra, Maria Antonietta Mencarelli, Alessandra Renieri, Francesca Ariani
Retinoblastoma is the most common eye cancer in children. Numerous families have been described displaying reduced penetrance and expressivity. An extensive molecular characterization of seven families led us to characterize the two main mechanisms impacting on phenotypic expression, as follows: (i) mosaicism of amorphic pathogenic variants; and (ii) parent-of-origin-effect of hypomorphic pathogenic variants. Somatic mosaicism for RB1 splicing variants (c.1960+5G>C and c.2106+2T>C), leading to a complete loss of function was demonstrated by high-depth NGS in two families...
April 17, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661049/academic-facility-utilization-and-survival-outcomes-in-adult-head-and-neck-sarcomas-an-ncdb-analysis
#14
Richard B Cannon, Patrick S Carpenter, Dustin Boothe, Luke O Buchmann, Jason P Hunt, Shane Lloyd, Ying J Hitchcock, Jeffrey J Houlton, John R Weis, Hailey M Shepherd, Marcus M Monroe
Objectives To investigate clinicopathologic and treatment factors associated with survival in adult head and neck sarcomas in the National Cancer Database (NCDB). To analyze whether treatment settings and therapies received influence survival outcomes and to compare trends in utilization via an aggregated national data set. Study Design Prospectively gathered data. Setting NCDB. Subjects and Methods The study comprised a total of 6944 adult patients treated for a head and neck sarcoma from January 2004 to December 2013...
April 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657304/the-role-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-osteosarcoma
#15
REVIEW
Maria Anna Smolle, Martin Pichler
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) constitute non-protein coding transcripts with a size > than 200 nucleotides. They are involved in many cellular processes, such as chromatin remodelling, transcription, and gene expression. They play a role in the development, progression, and invasion of many human cancers, including osteosarcoma. This rare tumor entity predominantly arises in children and young adults. Treatment consists of polychemotherapy and surgical resection, increasing survival rates up to 60%. In the present review, the role of lncRNAs with prognostic, predictive, therapeutic, and diagnostic significance in osteosarcoma is discussed...
March 8, 2018: Non-Coding RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656296/impact-of-pathological-fractures-on-the-prognosis-of-primary-malignant-bone-sarcoma-in-children-and-adults-a-single-center-retrospective-study-of-205-patients
#16
Miriam Schlegel, Martina Zeumer, Peter Michael Prodinger, Klaus Woertler, Marc Steinborn, Rüdiger von Eisenhart-Rothe, Stefan Burdach, Hans Rechl, Irene von Luettichau
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pathological fractures (PF) influence the prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma (OS) or Ewing tumor (ET) regarding 5-year survival, occurrence of metastases, and local recurrence. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 205 patients with metastatic and nonmetastatic OS or ET. Survival analysis was performed for all patients and differentiated for patients with OS (n = 127) and ET (n = 78) as well as for adults (n = 101) and children (n = 104)...
April 13, 2018: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644114/super-enhancer-inhibitors-suppress-myc-driven-transcriptional-amplification-and-tumor-progression-in-osteosarcoma
#17
Demeng Chen, Zhiqiang Zhao, Zixin Huang, Du-Chu Chen, Xin-Xing Zhu, Yi-Ze Wang, Ya-Wei Yan, Shaojun Tang, Subha Madhavan, Weiyi Ni, Zhan-Peng Huang, Wen Li, Weidong Ji, Huangxuan Shen, Shuibin Lin, Yi-Zhou Jiang
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone sarcoma that mostly occurs in young adults. The causes of osteosarcoma are heterogeneous and still not fully understood. Identification of novel, important oncogenic factors in osteosarcoma and development of better, effective therapeutic approaches are in urgent need for better treatment of osteosarcoma patients. In this study, we uncovered that the oncogene MYC is significantly upregulated in metastastic osteosarcoma samples. In addition, high MYC expression is associated with poor survival of osteosarcoma patients...
2018: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620168/s-phase-kinase-associated-protein-2-is-involved-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-methotrexate-resistant-osteosarcoma-cells
#18
Lu Ding, Chengwei Wang, Yong Cui, Xiaoping Han, Yang Zhou, Jingping Bai, Rong Li
Osteosarcoma (OS), a common worldwide primary aggressive bone malignancy, arises from primitive transformed cells of mesenchymal origin and usually attacks adolescents and young adults. Methotrexate (MTX) is the anti-folate drug used as a pivotal chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of OS. However, patients with OS often develop drug resistance, leading to poor treatment outcomes. In the present study, in order to explore the underlying mechanisms responsible for MTX resistance, we established MTX‑resistant OS cells using the U2OS and MG63 cell lines and examined whether MTX‑resistant OS cells underwent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by Transwell assay, wound healing assay, MTT assay, RT-PCR and western blot analysis...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606256/-renal-toxicity-of-high-dose-methotrexate
#19
Hugo Garcia, Véronique Leblond, François Goldwasser, Didier Bouscary, Emmanuel Raffoux, Nicolas Boissel, Sophie Broutin, Dominique Joly
INTRODUCTION: High-dose methotrexate (at least 1g/m2 ) is used to treat haematologic malignancies and osteosarcomas. Acute kidney injury is a well-known adverse-event after high-dose methotrexate and may lead to delayed drug elimination. Besides usual therapeutics (hyperhydration, urine alkalinisation, leucovorin rescue, renal replacement therapy), a costly specific enzymatic treatment (glucarpidase) is now available but its clinical impact remains elusive. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analysed high-dose methotrexate prescription charts in 11 clinical centres during the last 15 years to identify and describe adult patients who developed acute kidney injury (according to KDIGO classification)...
April 2018: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560102/detection-of-circulating-tumor-dna-in-patients-with-osteosarcoma
#20
David M Barris, Shoshana B Weiner, Robert A Dubin, Michael Fremed, Xusheng Zhang, Sajida Piperdi, Wendong Zhang, Shahina Maqbool, Jonathan Gill, Michael Roth, Bang Hoang, David Geller, Richard Gorlick, Daniel A Weiser
Identification and quantification of somatic alterations in plasma-derived, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is gaining traction as a non-invasive and cost effective method of disease monitoring in cancer patients, particularly to evaluate response to treatment and monitor for disease recurrence. To our knowledge, genetic analysis of ctDNA in osteosarcoma has not yet been studied. To determine whether somatic alterations can be detected in ctDNA and perhaps applied to patient management in this disease, we collected germline, tumor, and serial plasma samples from pediatric, adolescent, and young adult patients with osteosarcoma and used targeted Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) to identify somatic single nucleotide variants (SNV), insertions and deletions (INDELS), and structural variants (SV) in 7 genes commonly mutated in osteosarcoma...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
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