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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917748/making-brains-run-faster-are-they-becoming-smarter
#1
Anja Pahor, Norbert Jaušovec
A brief overview of structural and functional brain characteristics related to g is presented in the light of major neurobiological theories of intelligence: Neural Efficiency, P-FIT and Multiple-Demand system. These theories provide a framework to discuss the main objective of the paper: what is the relationship between individual alpha frequency (IAF) and g? Three studies were conducted in order to investigate this relationship: two correlational studies and a third study in which we experimentally induced changes in IAF by means of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS)...
December 5, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900816/sensorimotor-and-visual-perceptual-functioning-in-school-aged-children-with-williams-syndrome
#2
Y-P Wuang, H-Y Tsai
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to describe sensorimotor profile and visual perceptual performance in school-aged (6-12 years) children with Williams syndrome (WS). The impacts of sensorimotor and visual perception on participation in WS were examined as well to guide research and evidence-based practices. METHODS: A total of 38 children with WS aged 6 to 12 years were evaluated with measures of motor performance (Bruininks-Oseretsky of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition), sensory processing (Sensory Profile), visual perceptual abilities (Test of Visual Perception Skills-Third Edition) and activity participation (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, School Function Assessment)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899710/quantifying-and-exploring-camouflaging-in-men-and-women-with-autism
#3
Meng-Chuan Lai, Michael V Lombardo, Amber Nv Ruigrok, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Bonnie Auyeung, Peter Szatmari, Francesca Happé, Simon Baron-Cohen
Autobiographical descriptions and clinician observations suggest that some individuals with autism, particularly females, 'camouflage' their social communication difficulties, which may require considerable cognitive effort and lead to increased stress, anxiety and depression. Using data from 60 age- and IQ-matched men and women with autism (without intellectual disability), we operationalized camouflaging in adults with autism for the first time as the quantitative discrepancy between the person's 'external' behavioural presentation in social-interpersonal contexts (measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) and the person's 'internal' status (dispositional traits measured by the Autism Spectrum Quotient and social cognitive capability measured by the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' Test)...
November 29, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896947/reduced-modulation-of-thalamocortical-connectivity-during-exposure-to-sensory-stimuli-in-asd
#4
Shulamite A Green, Leanna Hernandez, Susan Y Bookheimer, Mirella Dapretto
Recent evidence for abnormal thalamic connectivity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and sensory processing disorders suggests the thalamus may play a role in sensory over-responsivity (SOR), an extreme negative response to sensory stimuli, which is common in ASD. However, there is yet little understanding of changes in thalamic connectivity during exposure to aversive sensory inputs in individuals with ASD. In particular, the pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus is implicated in atypical sensory processing given its role in selective attention, regulation, and sensory integration...
November 29, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894242/indazolo-3-2-b-quinazolinones-attack-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hep3b-cells-by-inducing-mitochondrial-dependent-apoptosis-and-inhibition-of-nrf2-are-signaling-pathway
#5
Y Zhang, R Qiao, D He, Z Zhao, S Yang, H Zou, X Zhang, M Wu, J Chen, P Chen
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Genotoxic stress resistance in patients often contributes to poor clinical outcomes, and is intensively associated to the upregulation of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. In this study, we examined the connection between the anti-cancer activity of two novel indazolo[3,2-b]quinazolinone (IQ) derivatives, IQ-7 and IQ-12, and their effect on the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. The two compounds were shown to induce apoptosis and inhibit the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway in Hep3B cells (human hepatoma cell line)...
November 28, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894034/quality-of-life-after-uphold%C3%A2-vaginal-support-system-surgery-for-apical-pelvic-organ-prolapse-a-prospective-multicenter-study
#6
Päivi Rahkola-Soisalo, Daniel Altman, Christian Falconer, Edward Morcos, Martin Rudnicki, Tomi S Mikkola
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects on quality of life in women operated for apical pelvic organ prolapse using the Vaginal Uphold™ System. STUDY DESIGN: In this prospective cohort study, women (n=207) with symptomatic apical prolapse, with or without cystocele, were operated using the Uphold™ Vaginal Support System. Follow-up for quality of life was performed at 12 months after surgery, and assessed by the PFDI-20, and PFIQ-7, and sexual function by the PISQ-12...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891100/a-review-about-functional-illiteracy-definition-cognitive-linguistic-and-numerical-aspects
#7
REVIEW
Réka Vágvölgyi, Andra Coldea, Thomas Dresler, Josef Schrader, Hans-Christoph Nuerk
Formally, availability of education for children has increased around the world over the last decades. However, despite having a successful formal education career, adults can become functional illiterates. Functional illiteracy means that a person cannot use reading, writing, and calculation skills for his/her own and the community's development. Functional illiteracy has considerable negative effects not only on personal development, but also in economic and social terms. Although functional illiteracy has been highly publicized in mass media in the recent years, there is limited scientific knowledge about the people termed functional illiterates; definition, assessment, and differential diagnoses with respect to related numerical and linguistic impairments are rarely studied and controversial...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876793/pep-19-modulates-calcium-binding-to-calmodulin-by-electrostatic-steering
#8
Xu Wang, John A Putkey
PEP-19 is a small protein that increases the rates of Ca(2+) binding to the C-domain of calmodulin (CaM) by an unknown mechanism. Although an IQ motif promotes binding to CaM, an acidic sequence in PEP-19 is required to modulate Ca(2+) binding and to sensitize HeLa cells to ATP-induced Ca(2+) release. Here, we report the NMR solution structure of a complex between PEP-19 and the C-domain of apo CaM. The acidic sequence of PEP-19 associates between helices E and F of CaM via hydrophobic interactions. This allows the acidic side chains in PEP-19 to extend toward the solvent and form a negatively charged surface that resembles a catcher's mitt near Ca(2+) binding loop III of CaM...
November 23, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871640/multidimensional-influences-on-autism-symptom%C3%A2-measures-implications-for-use-in%C3%A2-etiological-research
#9
Karoline Alexandra Havdahl, Vanessa Hus Bal, Marisela Huerta, Andrew Pickles, Anne-Siri Øyen, Camilla Stoltenberg, Catherine Lord, Somer L Bishop
OBJECTIVE: Growing awareness that symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) transcend multiple diagnostic categories, and major advances in the identification of genetic syndromes associated with ASD, have led to widespread use of ASD symptom measures in etiologic studies of neurodevelopmental disorders. Insufficient consideration of potentially confounding factors such as cognitive ability or behavior problems can have important negative consequences in interpretation of findings, including erroneous estimation of associations between ASD and etiologic factors...
December 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871638/single-nucleotide-polymorphism-heritability-of-a-general-psychopathology-factor-in-children
#10
Alexander Neumann, Irene Pappa, Benjamin B Lahey, Frank C Verhulst, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Vincent W Jaddoe, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Terrie E Moffitt, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Henning Tiemeier
OBJECTIVE: Co-occurrence of mental disorders is commonly observed, but the etiology underlying this observation is poorly understood. Studies in adolescents and adults have identified a general psychopathology factor associated with a high risk for different psychiatric disorders. We defined a multi-informant general psychopathology factor in school-aged children and estimated its single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability. The goal was to test the hypothesis that child behavioral and emotional problems are under the influence of highly pleiotropic common autosomal genetic variants that nonspecifically increase the risk for different dimensions of psychopathology...
December 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870441/sexual-divergence-in-activity-dependent-neuroprotective-protein-impacting-autism-schizophrenia-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Illana Gozes
Discovered in our laboratory, activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) interacts with key regulatory proteins, including the chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF, proteins associated with RNA splicing, RNA translation, microtubule dynamics, and autophagy. ADNP regulates > 400 genes during mouse embryonic development and is essential for neural tube closure. ADNP key functions extend from mice to men, with mutations causing ADNP-related ID/autism syndrome, also known as the Helsmoortel-Van der Aa syndrome...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870114/the-molecular-genetics-of-autosomal-recessive-nonsyndromic-intellectual-disability-a-mutational-continuum-and-future-recommendations
#12
REVIEW
Muzammil Ahmad Khan, Saadullah Khan, Christian Windpassinger, Muhammad Badar, Zafar Nawaz, Ramzi M Mohammad
Intellectual disability (ID) is a clinical manifestation of the central nervous system without any major dysmorphologies of the brain. Biologically it affects learning capabilities, memory, and cognitive functioning. The basic defining features of ID are characterized by IQ<70, age of onset before 18 years, and impairment of at least two of the adaptive skills. Clinically it is classified in a syndromic (with additional abnormalities) and a nonsyndromic form (with only cognitive impairment). The study of nonsyndromic intellectual disability (NSID) can best explain the pathophysiology of cognition, intelligence and memory...
November 2016: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868173/-validation-of-tools-for-assessing-the-intelligence-and-the-functional-impairment-of-papiamento-speaking-suspects
#13
M van de Vorst, D J Vinkers, G E Matroos, F Heijtel, H W Hoek
BACKGROUND: Although Antillean suspects in the Netherlands are often diagnosed as being intellectually impaired, there are no validated tests available Papiamento (the native language) for assessing intelligence or functional impairment. AIM: To validate the use of the GIT 2 (Groninger Intelligentie Test 2) and the Barkley Functioning Impairment Scale (BFIS) for Antillean defendants detained by the Judicial Service of the Caribbean Netherlands in Bonaire. METHOD: With the approval of the publishers, the GIT 2 and the BFIS were translated in Papiamento by two independent experts...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867960/is-a-short-anesthetic-exposure-in-children-safe-time-will-tell-a-focused-commentary-of-the-gas-and-panda-trials
#14
COMMENT
Gregory A Chinn, Jennifer M Sasaki Russell, Jeffrey W Sall
Early life exposure to general anesthesia in preclinical studies has consistently led to permanent cognitive deficits later in life. However, the extent to which this finding is translatable to humans is the subject of much debate as the results from clinical studies have been mixed. Recently two well-designed clinical trials have attempted to add clarity to our murky understanding. The General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) trial, was an international, prospective, randomized, multicenter, equivalence trial comparing infants undergoing herniorrhaphy receiving general anesthesia vs...
October 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862512/age-and-gender-related-differences-in-emotional-and-behavioural-problems-and-autistic-features-in-children-and-adolescents-with-down-syndrome-a-survey-based-study-of-674-individuals
#15
T Naerland, K A Bakke, S Storvik, G Warner, P Howlin
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have indicated an increased risk of autism, behavioural and emotional problems and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in individuals with Down syndrome. METHOD: In a large-scale survey-based study, we examined the rates of these problems and their relationship to age and gender, in a sample of 674 individuals (4-18 years) with Down syndrome. The relationship with IQ level was also explored in a subsample (n = 175). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Social Communication Questionnaire were used to assess behavioural and emotional problems and autism traits...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857946/can-bedside-ultrasound-inferior-vena-cava-measurements-accurately-diagnose-congestive-heart-failure-in-the-emergency-department-a-clin-iq
#16
Miranda Gaskamp, Mark Blubaugh, Laine H McCarthy, Dewey C Scheid
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis of CHF in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with undifferentiated dyspnea would allow clinicians to begin appropriate treatment more promptly. Current guidelines recommend B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels for more accurate diagnosis of CHF in dyspneic patients. Although BNP levels are relatively inexpensive, the test is not usually performed at bedside and results may take up to an hour or more...
October 2016: Journal of Patient-centered Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854465/reactive-and-proactive-interference-control-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-across-the-lifespan
#17
Anne G Lever, K Richard Ridderinkhof, Maarten Marsman, Hilde M Geurts
As a large heterogeneity is observed across studies on interference control in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research may benefit from the use of a cognitive framework that models specific processes underlying reactive and proactive control of interference. Reactive control refers to the expression and suppression of responses and proactive control refers to the adjustment of response to previous situations. We administered a Simon conflict task in 2 independent adult samples (IQ >80) and applied distributional analyses to examine temporal dynamics of interference control in ASD...
November 17, 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847193/extremely-low-gestational-age-and-very-low-birthweight-for-gestational-age-are-risk-factors-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-a-large-cohort-study-of-10-year-old-children-born-at-23-27-weeks-gestation
#18
Robert M Joseph, Steven J Korzeniewski, Elizabeth N Allred, T Michael O'Shea, Tim Heeren, Jean A Frazier, Janice Ware, Deborah Hirtz, Alan Leviton, Karl Kuban
BACKGROUND: No prospective cohort study of high-risk children has used rigorous exposure assessment and optimal diagnostic procedures to examine the perinatal antecedents of autism spectrum disorder separately among those with and without cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify perinatal factors associated with increased risk for autism spectrum disorder with and without intellectual disability (intelligence quotient <70) in children born extremely preterm...
November 12, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837574/there-is-no-safe-threshold-for-lead-exposure-%C3%AE-literature-review
#19
Th Vorvolakos, S Arseniou, M Samakouri
: Lead was one of the most dangerous environmental toxic substances for a long time in western countries, and this is still the case for many places on earth today. Its neurotoxic potential is highly significant but its secure blood level concentration remains unknown. The aim of this study was to approach the above issue from the perspective of social psychiatry. A systematic search was made of Dialog and Datastar interfaces for data regarding the neuropsychiatric complications of direct or chronic exposure to lead, and a review of the relevant literature was conducted using the databases Medline, Embase, CAB Global Health and Cochrane...
July 2016: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829119/social-perception-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#20
Sara A Stevens, Hayyah Clairman, Kelly Nash, Joanne Rovet
Although the profile of social cognitive difficulties is well recognized in children with certain neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this profile is not as well established in other clinical pediatric populations. The objective of the present study is to examine patterns of social perception in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) compared to typically-developing (TD) control children. A total of 56 children between 8 and 12 years of age-35 with FASD and 21 TD-completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task - Children's Version (RMET-C)...
November 9, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
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