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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224092/language-and-cognitive-outcome-for-high-risk-neonates-at-the-age-of-2-3-years-experience-from-an-arab-country
#1
Tamer Abou-Elsaad, Hesham Abdel-Hady, Hemmat Baz, Doaa ElShabrawi
AIM: To investigate the effect of different neonatal risk factors on different language parameters as well as cognitive abilities among Arabic speaking Egyptian children at the age of two to three years of life and to find out which risk factor(s) had the greatest impact on language and cognitive abilities. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted on 103 children with age range of 2-3 years (median age 31 mo). They were 62 males and 41 females who were exposed to different high-risk factors in the perinatal period, with exclusion of metabolic disorders, sepsis/meningitis, congenital anomalies and chromosomal aberrations...
February 8, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223033/children-with-asd-show-links-between-aberrant-sound-processing-social-symptoms-and-atypical-auditory-interhemispheric-and-thalamocortical-functional-connectivity
#2
Annika C Linke, R Joanne Jao Keehn, Ellyn B Pueschel, Inna Fishman, Ralph-Axel Müller
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex and prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social and communicative deficits, as well as repetitive behaviors and atypical sensitivity to sensory stimulation. Alterations in network connectivity are widely recognized, but their interplay with social and sensory symptoms remains largely unclear. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging and diagnostic and behavioral assessments were used in a cohort of children and adolescents with ASD (n=40) and matched typically developing (TD, n=38) controls to examine the relation between auditory processing, interhemispheric and thalamocortical network connectivity, and social-behavioral symptom severity...
January 16, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219251/childhood-intelligence-and-early-tooth-wear-patterns
#3
Tuomo Heikkinen, Jaana Rusanen, Koshi Sato, Paula Pesonen, Virpi Harila, Lassi Alvesalo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore the relationships between early dental wear patterns and preschool IQ (Intelligence Quotient, by Stanford-Binet) of the child to illuminate the historic relationship of mental queries and bruxism. METHODS: The dental study participants were 864 Euro-American preschool and school children whose IQs were tested for school maturity purposes at the age of 4 years, followed by dental data in a cross-sectional manner at the mean age of 7...
February 20, 2017: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199893/decreased-cingulate-cortex-activation-during-cognitive-control-processing-in-bipolar-disorder
#4
Staci A Gruber, M Kathryn Dahlgren, Kelly A Sagar, Atilla Gonenc, Lesley Norris, Bruce M Cohen, Dost Ongur, Kathryn E Lewandowski
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are well-documented in patients with bipolar disorder (BPD) and may impact the efficacy of psychotherapy. Cognitive control, a form of executive functioning, is often used therapeutically to shift patients' thoughts and behaviors from automatic, maladaptive responses to adaptive coping strategies. This study examined cognitive control processing in patients with BPD using the Multi-Source Interference Task (MSIT). METHOD: Twenty-nine patients diagnosed with BPD and 21 healthy control (HC) subjects completed the MSIT with concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198067/verbal-spatial-iq-discrepancies-impact-brain-activation-associated-with-the-resolution-of-cognitive-conflict-in-children-and-adolescents
#5
Amy E Margolis, Katie S Davis, Lisa S Pao, Amy Lewis, Xiao Yang, Gregory Tau, Guihu Zhao, Zhishun Wang, Rachel Marsh
Verbal-spatial discrepancies are common in healthy individuals and in those with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with cognitive control deficits including: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Non-Verbal Learning Disability, Fragile X, 22q11 deletion, and Turner Syndrome. Previous data from healthy individuals suggest that the magnitude of the difference between verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores (the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy) is associated with reduced thickness in frontal and parietal cortices (inferior frontal, anterior cingulate, inferior parietal lobule, and supramarginal gyrus) that support cognitive control...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191889/targeted-sequencing-identifies-91-neurodevelopmental-disorder-risk-genes-with-autism-and-developmental-disability-biases
#6
Holly A F Stessman, Bo Xiong, Bradley P Coe, Tianyun Wang, Kendra Hoekzema, Michaela Fenckova, Malin Kvarnung, Jennifer Gerdts, Sandy Trinh, Nele Cosemans, Laura Vives, Janice Lin, Tychele N Turner, Gijs Santen, Claudia Ruivenkamp, Marjolein Kriek, Arie van Haeringen, Emmelien Aten, Kathryn Friend, Jan Liebelt, Christopher Barnett, Eric Haan, Marie Shaw, Jozef Gecz, Britt-Marie Anderlid, Ann Nordgren, Anna Lindstrand, Charles Schwartz, R Frank Kooy, Geert Vandeweyer, Celine Helsmoortel, Corrado Romano, Antonino Alberti, Mirella Vinci, Emanuela Avola, Stefania Giusto, Eric Courchesne, Tiziano Pramparo, Karen Pierce, Srinivasa Nalabolu, David G Amaral, Ingrid E Scheffer, Martin B Delatycki, Paul J Lockhart, Fereydoun Hormozdiari, Benjamin Harich, Anna Castells-Nobau, Kun Xia, Hilde Peeters, Magnus Nordenskjöld, Annette Schenck, Raphael A Bernier, Evan E Eichler
Gene-disruptive mutations contribute to the biology of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), but most of the related pathogenic genes are not known. We sequenced 208 candidate genes from >11,730 cases and >2,867 controls. We identified 91 genes, including 38 new NDD genes, with an excess of de novo mutations or private disruptive mutations in 5.7% of cases. Drosophila functional assays revealed a subset with increased involvement in NDDs. We identified 25 genes showing a bias for autism versus intellectual disability and highlighted a network associated with high-functioning autism (full-scale IQ >100)...
February 13, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189001/functional-outcome-at-school-age-of-children-born-with-gastroschisis
#7
Chiara C M M Lap, Sandra W Bolhuis, Koenraad N J A Van Braeckel, Sijmen A Reijneveld, Gwendolyn T R Manten, Arend F Bos, Jan B F Hulscher
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine motor, cognitive and behavioural outcomes of school aged children born with gastroschisis compared to matched controls. STUDY DESIGN: We compared outcomes of 16 children born with gastroschisis treated at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands, between 1999 and 2006 with 32 controls matched for gender, gestational age, birth weight, and corrected for small for gestational age (SGA) and parental socioeconomic status (SES)...
February 8, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188307/early-life-risk-factors-for-cerebrovascular-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Ellen V Backhouse, Caroline A McHutchison, Vera Cvoro, Susan D Shenkin, Joanna M Wardlaw
OBJECTIVE: Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) causes subclinical brain vascular lesions detected using neuroimaging and childhood factors may increase later CVD risk. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE, and meta-analyzed all available evidence on childhood (premorbid) IQ, socioeconomic status (SES), education, and subclinical CVD in later life. Overall odds ratios (OR), mean difference or correlation, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effects methods...
February 10, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185093/altered-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-adolescent-boys-with-pure-conduct-disorder-revealed-by-regional-homogeneity-analysis
#9
Qiong Wu, Xiaocui Zhang, Daifeng Dong, Xiang Wang, Shuqiao Yao
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have revealed abnormal neural activity in several brain regions of adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) performing various tasks. However, little is known about the spontaneous neural activity in people with CD in a resting state. The aims of this study were to investigate CD-associated regional activity abnormalities and to explore the relationship between behavioral impulsivity and regional activity abnormalities. Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) scans were administered to 28 adolescents with CD and 28 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched healthy controls (HCs)...
February 9, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179424/altered-methylation-of-specific-dna-loci-in-the-liver-of-bhmt-null-mice-results-in-repression-of-iqgap2-and-f2rl2-and-is-associated-with-development-of-preneoplastic-foci
#10
Daniel S Lupu, Luz D Orozco, Ying Wang, John M Cullen, Matteo Pellegrini, Steven H Zeisel
Folate B12-dependent remethylation of homocysteine is important, but less is understood about the importance of the alternative betaine-dependent methylation pathway-catalyzed by betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT)-for establishing and maintaining adequate DNA methylation across the genome. We studied C57Bl/6J Bhmt (betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase)-null mice at age 4, 12, 24, and 52 wk (N = 8) and observed elevation of S-adenosylhomocysteine concentrations and development of preneoplastic foci in the liver (increased placental glutathione S-transferase and cytokeratin 8-18 activity; starting at 12 wk)...
February 8, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160687/social-attention-in-children-with-epilepsy
#11
Judith Lunn, Tim Donovan, Damien Litchfield, Charlie Lewis, Robert Davies, Trevor Crawford
Children with epilepsy may be vulnerable to impaired social attention given the increased risk of neurobehavioural comorbidities. Social attentional orienting and the potential modulatory role of attentional control on the perceptual processing of gaze and emotion cues have not been examined in childhood onset epilepsies. Social attention mechanisms were investigated in patients with epilepsy (n=25) aged 8-18years old and performance compared to healthy controls (n=30). Dynamic gaze and emotion facial stimuli were integrated into an antisaccade eye-tracking paradigm...
February 1, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152717/regional-initiative-to-use-data-transparency-to-improve-cancer-care
#12
Catherine R Fedorenko, Teah Hoopes, Gary H Lyman, Thomas David Brown, Eric Y Chen, Ted Conklin, John M Corman, Matt Lonergan, Daniel Lessler, Renato Martins, Csaba Mera, John Whitelaw Rieke, Elie P Saikaly, Julie C Smith, F Marc Stewart, Richard Whitten, Scott David Ramsey
: 39 Background: In the context of many initiatives aimed at measuring quality and value in cancer care, the Hutchinson Institute for Cancer Outcomes Research (HICOR) has adopted a multi-stakeholder approach to characterize oncology care, prioritize areas for improvement, design programs, and evaluate outcomes. Beginning in 2014, HICOR initiated a process to move towards data transparency in the reporting of regional quality and value metrics. METHODS: The HICOR team constructed clinic-level adherence reports for community-prioritized metrics and the 2012 ASCO Choosing Wisely recommendations using a registry-claims linked database...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141739/improving-cognitive-outcomes-for-pediatric-stroke
#13
Mardee Greenham, Vicki Anderson, Mark T Mackay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The past 20 years have seen a 35% increase in prevalence of pediatric stroke. Contrary to widely held views, children do not recover better than adults. This review explores the impact of pediatric stroke on cognitive domains, including intellectual and executive functions, memory and behavior, and the influence of age, lesion characteristics, and comorbidities on outcome. RECENT FINDINGS: Cognitive problems occur in up to half of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke survivors...
January 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129944/reduced-cholinergic-basal-forebrain-integrity-links-neonatal-complications-and-adult-cognitive-deficits-after-premature-birth
#14
Michel J Grothe, Lukas Scheef, Josef Bäuml, Chun Meng, Marcel Daamen, Nicole Baumann, Claus Zimmer, Stefan Teipel, Peter Bartmann, Henning Boecker, Dieter Wolke, Afra Wohlschläger, Christian Sorg
BACKGROUND: Prematurely born individuals have an increased risk for long-term neurocognitive impairments. In animal models, development of the cholinergic basal forebrain (cBF) is selectively vulnerable to adverse effects of perinatal stressors, and impaired cBF integrity results in lasting cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that cBF integrity is impaired in prematurely born individuals and mediates adult cognitive impairments associated with prematurity. METHODS: We used magnetic resonance imaging-based volumetric assessments of a cytoarchitectonically defined cBF region of interest to determine differences in cBF integrity between 99 adults who were born very preterm and/or with very low birth weight and 106 term-born control subjects from the same birth cohort...
December 15, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119035/autism-spectrum-and-psychosis-risk-in-the-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-findings-from-a-prospective-longitudinal-study
#15
A M Fiksinski, E J Breetvelt, S N Duijff, A S Bassett, R S Kahn, J A S Vorstman
BACKGROUND: Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have a 25% risk for schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. Some have hypothesized that Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) diagnosed in children with 22q11DS may actually represent the social-communicative defects often observed during the early developmental stages of schizophrenia. METHODS: We prospectively studied 89 children with 22q11DS to test this hypothesis. At baseline, the Autism Diagnostic Interview was used to assess ASD, evaluating both current and early childhood behaviors...
January 21, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117840/mir-137-derived-polygenic-risk-effects-on-cognitive-performance-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-controls
#16
D Cosgrove, D Harold, O Mothersill, R Anney, M J Hill, N J Bray, G Blokland, T Petryshen, A Richards, K Mantripragada, M Owen, M C O'Donovan, M Gill, A Corvin, D W Morris, G Donohoe
Variants at microRNA-137 (MIR137), one of the most strongly associated schizophrenia risk loci identified to date, have been associated with poorer cognitive performance. As microRNA-137 is known to regulate the expression of ~1900 other genes, including several that are independently associated with schizophrenia, we tested whether this gene set was also associated with variation in cognitive performance. Our analysis was based on an empirically derived list of genes whose expression was altered by manipulation of MIR137 expression...
January 24, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117112/integrating-tertiary-gleason-5-patterns-into-quantitative-gleason-grading-in-prostate-biopsies-and-prostatectomy-specimens
#17
Guido Sauter, Till Clauditz, Stefan Steurer, Corinna Wittmer, Franziska Büscheck, Till Krech, Florian Lutz, Maximilian Lennartz, Luisa Harms, Lisa Lawrenz, Christina Möller-Koop, Ronald Simon, Frank Jacobsen, Waldemar Wilczak, Sarah Minner, Maria Christina Tsourlakis, Viktoria Chirico, Sören Weidemann, Alexander Haese, Thomas Steuber, Georg Salomon, Michael Matiu, Eik Vettorazzi, Uwe Michl, Lars Budäus, Derya Tilki, Imke Thederan, Dirk Pehrke, Burkhard Beyer, Christoph Fraune, Cosima Göbel, Marie Heinrich, Manuela Juhnke, Katharina Möller, Ahmed Abdulwahab Abdullah Bawahab, Ria Uhlig, Hartwig Huland, Hans Heinzer, Markus Graefen, Thorsten Schlomm
BACKGROUND: Presence of small (tertiary) Gleason 5 pattern is linked to a higher risk of biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer. It is unclear, however, how to integrate small Gleason 5 elements into clinically relevant Gleason grade groups. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prognostic impact of Gleason 5 patterns in prostate cancer and to develop a method for integrating tertiary Gleason 5 patterns into a quantitative Gleason grading system. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prostatectomy specimens from 13 261 consecutive patients and of 3295 matched preoperative biopsies were available...
January 20, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111747/neonatal-predictors-of-cognitive-ability-in-adults-born-very-preterm-a-prospective-cohort-study
#18
Linda D Breeman, Julia Jaekel, Nicole Baumann, Peter Bartmann, Dieter Wolke
AIM: To identify neonatal predictors to allow a developmental prognosis of the cognitive abilities of survivors born very preterm/very low birthweight (VLBW) into adult life. METHOD: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective whole-population study that followed 260 infants born very preterm/VLBW from birth to adulthood. Regression analyses examined which neonatal factors predicted adult IQ. RESULTS: Neonatal morbidity, neonatal treatment, and early social environment of infants born very preterm/VLBW explained 37...
January 23, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096654/comparison-of-visian-toric-collamer-lens-and-toric-acrylic-intraocular-lens-implantation-for-the-treatment-of-myopia-with-astigmatism
#19
Hatem Ammar, Mohamed Anbar, Marwa M Abdellah
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy and outcome of phakic toric implantable collamer lens (TICL) and refractive clear lens extraction with AcrySof Toric intraocular lens (TIOL) implantation for the treatment of myopic astigmatism. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study assessed eyes with myopic astigmatism >-1 D and ≤-4 D with a spherical equivalent >10 D or <10 D if the patients were unsuitable for corneal refractive surgery. These eyes were divided into group A, in which Visian Toric ICL™ Phakic TICL was implanted, and group B, which involved clear lens extraction with implantation of an AcrySof IQ toric SN60T3-9™ IOL...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094851/blood-transfusion-for-preventing-primary-and-secondary-stroke-in-people-with-sickle-cell-disease
#20
REVIEW
Lise J Estcourt, Patricia M Fortin, Sally Hopewell, Marialena Trivella, Winfred C Wang
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is one of the commonest severe monogenic disorders in the world, due to the inheritance of two abnormal haemoglobin (beta globin) genes. Sickle cell disease can cause severe pain, significant end-organ damage, pulmonary complications, and premature death. Stroke affects around 10% of children with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS). Chronic blood transfusions may reduce the risk of vaso-occlusion and stroke by diluting the proportion of sickled cells in the circulation...
January 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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