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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774207/overview-of-social-cognitive-dysfunctions-in-rare-developmental-syndromes-with-psychiatric-phenotype
#1
REVIEW
Aurore Morel, Elodie Peyroux, Arnaud Leleu, Emilie Favre, Nicolas Franck, Caroline Demily
Rare neurodevelopmental syndromes often present social cognitive deficits that may underlie difficulties in social interactions and increase the risk of psychosis or autism spectrum disorders. However, little is known regarding the specificities of social cognitive impairment across syndromes while it remains a major challenge for the care. Our review provides an overview of social cognitive dysfunctions in rare diseases associated with psychiatric symptoms (with a prevalence estimated between 1 in 1,200 and 1 in 25,000 live births: 22q11...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773664/cognitive-development-and-quality-of-life-associated-with-bpd-in-10-year-olds-born-preterm
#2
Sudhir Sriram, Michael D Schreiber, Michael E Msall, Karl C K Kuban, Robert M Joseph, T Michael O' Shea, Elizabeth N Allred, Alan Leviton
OBJECTIVES: To compare neurocognitive, language, executive function, academic achievement, neurologic and behavioral outcomes, and quality of life at age 10 years in children born extremely preterm who developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) to children who did not develop BPD. METHODS: The Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns study population included 863 children born extremely preterm whose BPD status before discharge was known had an IQ (Differential Ability Scales II [DAS II]) assessment at 10 years...
May 17, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771185/can-the-relationship-between-rapid-automatized-naming-and-word-reading-be-explained-by-a-catastrophe-empirical-evidence-from-students-with-and-without-reading-difficulties
#3
Georgios D Sideridis, Panagiotis Simos, Angeliki Mouzaki, Dimitrios Stamovlasis, George K Georgiou
The purpose of the present study was to explain the moderating role of rapid automatized naming (RAN) in word reading with a cusp catastrophe model. We hypothesized that increases in RAN performance speed beyond a critical point would be associated with the disruption in word reading, consistent with a "generic shutdown" hypothesis. Participants were 587 elementary schoolchildren (Grades 2-4), among whom 87 had reading comprehension difficulties per the IQ-achievement discrepancy criterion. Data were analyzed via a cusp catastrophe model derived from the nonlinear dynamics systems theory...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765401/mixed-effects-modeling-of-neurofeedback-self-regulation-performance-moderators-for-learning-in-children-with-adhd
#4
Agnieszka Zuberer, Franziska Minder, Daniel Brandeis, Renate Drechsler
Introduction: Neurofeedback (NF) has gained increasing popularity as a training method for children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, it is unclear to what extent children learn to regulate their brain activity and in what way NF learning may be affected by subject- and treatment-related factors. Methods: In total, 48 subjects with ADHD (age 8.5-16.5 years; 16 subjects on methylphenidate (MPH)) underwent 15 double training sessions of NF in either a clinical or a school setting...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764777/comparison-of-social-interaction-between-cochlear-implanted-children-with-normal-intelligence-undergoing-auditory-verbal-therapy-and-normal-hearing-children-a-pilot-study
#5
Leila Monshizadeh, Roshanak Vameghi, Firoozeh Sajedi, Fariba Yadegari, Seyed Basir Hashemi, Petra Kirchem, Fatemeh Kasbi
OBJECTIVE: A cochlear implant is a device that helps hearing-impaired children by transmitting sound signals to the brain and helping them improve their speech, language, and social interaction. Although various studies have investigated the different aspects of speech perception and language acquisition in cochlear-implanted children, little is known about their social skills, particularly Persian-speaking cochlear-implanted children. Considering the growing number of cochlear implants being performed in Iran and the increasing importance of developing near-normal social skills as one of the ultimate goals of cochlear implantation, this study was performed to compare the social interaction between Iranian cochlear-implanted children who have undergone rehabilitation (auditory verbal therapy) after surgery and normal-hearing children...
April 2018: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763840/the-risk-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders-at-age-10-years-associated-with-blood-concentrations-of-interleukins-4-and-10-during-the-first-postnatal-month-of-children-born-extremely-preterm
#6
Alan Leviton, Robert M Joseph, Elizabeth N Allred, Raina N Fichorova, T Michael O'Shea, Karl K C Kuban, Olaf Dammann
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 are viewed mainly as anti-inflammatory cytokines. Yet, high concentrations have also been associated with inflammation-related diseases in newborns. METHODS: We measured the concentrations of IL-4 and IL-10, as well as IL-8 and ICAM-1 in blood specimens collected on postnatal day 21 (N = 555), day 28 (N = 521), and both days 21 and 28 (N = 449) from children born extremely preterm (EP) (<28 weeks gestation) who at age 10 years had a DAS-II IQ Z-score > -2 (which approximates a score of >70) and the following assessments, CCC-2, and CSI-4, DAS-II, NEPSY-II, OWLS-II, SCQ, and WIAT-III...
May 12, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760680/disruption-in-thyroid-signaling-pathway-a-mechanism-for-the-effect-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-on-child-neurodevelopment
#7
REVIEW
Akhgar Ghassabian, Leonardo Trasande
Thyroid hormones are crucial in normal brain development. Transient and mild thyroid hormone insufficiency in pregnancy is also associated with impaired neurodevelopment in the offspring (e.g., 3-4 IQ score loss in association with maternal free thyroxine in the lowest fifth percentile). While inadequate iodine intake remains the most common underlying cause of mild thyroid hormone insufficiency in vulnerable populations including pregnant women, other factors such as exposure to environmental contaminants have recently attracted increasing attention, in particular in interaction with iodine deficiency...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754080/lead-in-spray-paint-and-painted-surfaces-in-playgrounds-and-public-areas-in-israel-results-of-a-pilot-study
#8
Tamar Berman, Zohar Barnett-Itzhaki, Shay Reicher, Ruti Ardi, Yaniv Shammai, Lior Aruas, Maya Negev
Exposure to low levels of lead in children can cause cognitive deficits (reduced IQ) and behavioral changes such as reduced attention span and increased antisocial behavior. There are no mandatory limits on lead in paint in Israel, with the exception of paints used on toys and children's furniture. However, paints in playgrounds and public areas may be a source of exposure to lead in young children. In this study, we quantified lead concentrations in painted surfaces in public playgrounds and public areas, and in spray paints in Israel, using X-ray fluorescence (XRF)...
May 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753188/risk-assessment-of-total-mercury-and-methylmercury-in-aquatic-products-from-offshore-farms-in-china
#9
Wei Zhang, Xue Zhang, Yuling Tian, Yan Zhu, Yindong Tong, Ying Li, Xuejun Wang
Contamination of methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic products has been a wide spread health concern. The objective of this study is to determine total mercury (THg) and MeHg concentrations in different species of aquatic products from major offshore farms in China, and to assess health impacts from consumption. Results showed that the concentrations of THg and MeHg ranged 5.6-328.4 ng/g (wet weight) and 4.3-303.6 ng/g (wet weight) in aquatic products, respectively, and were very variable among species and origin sources...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751009/sticking-and-picking-in-pharmaceutical-tablet-compression-an-iq-consortium-review
#10
Sayantan Chattoraj, Patrick Daugherity, Todd McDermott, Angela Olsofsky, Wyatt J Roth, Mike Tobyn
Sticking and picking during tablet manufacture has received increasing interest recently, as it causes tablet defects, downtime in manufacturing and yield losses. The capricious nature of the problem means that it can appear at any stage of the development cycle, even when it has been deemed as low risk by models, tests and previous experience. In many cases, the problem manifests when transferring the process from one manufacturing site to another. Site transfers are more common than in previous times due to the multinational nature of drug product manufacture and the need for redundancy in manufacturing networks...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749060/visual-processing-as-a-potential-endophenotype-in-youths-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-sibling-study-design-using-the-counting-stroop-functional-mri
#11
Li-Ying Fan, Chi-Yung Shang, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng, Susan Shur-Fen Gau, Tai-Li Chou
Deficits in inhibitory control and visual processing are common in youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but little is known about endophenotypes for unaffected siblings of youths with ADHD. This study aimed to investigate the potential endophenotypes of brain activation and performance in inhibitory control and visual processing among ADHD probands, their unaffected siblings, and neurotypical youths. We assessed 27 ADHD probands, 27 unaffected siblings, and 27 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched neurotypical youths using the counting Stroop functional magnetic resonance imaging and two tasks of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB): rapid visual information processing (RVP) for inhibitory control and spatial span (SSP) for visual processing...
May 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745707/proactive-control-as-a-double-edged-sword-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Jeremy Hogeveen, Marie K Krug, Matthew V Elliott, Cameron S Carter, Marjorie Solomon
Proactive control refers to the active representation of contextual information to bias cognitive processing and facilitate goal-directed behavior. Despite research suggesting that proactive control may be impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the associations between proactive control and clinical symptoms of ASD remain underspecified. Here, we combined a children's version of the AX Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT) with gold standard clinical assessments in children with ASD (N = 34) or typical development (TYP; N = 45)...
May 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744873/methylphenidate-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-in-children-and-adolescents-assessment-of-adverse-events-in-non-randomised-studies
#13
REVIEW
Ole Jakob Storebø, Nadia Pedersen, Erica Ramstad, Maja Lærke Kielsholm, Signe Sofie Nielsen, Helle B Krogh, Carlos R Moreira-Maia, Frederik L Magnusson, Mathilde Holmskov, Trine Gerner, Maria Skoog, Susanne Rosendal, Camilla Groth, Donna Gillies, Kirsten Buch Rasmussen, Dorothy Gauci, Morris Zwi, Richard Kirubakaran, Sasja J Håkonsen, Lise Aagaard, Erik Simonsen, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in childhood. The psychostimulant methylphenidate is the most frequently used medication to treat it. Several studies have investigated the benefits of methylphenidate, showing possible favourable effects on ADHD symptoms, but the true magnitude of the effect is unknown. Concerning adverse events associated with the treatment, our systematic review of randomised clinical trials (RCTs) demonstrated no increase in serious adverse events, but a high proportion of participants suffered a range of non-serious adverse events...
May 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742477/cost-benefit-analysis-for-a-lead-wheel-weight-phase-out-in-canada
#14
P M Campbell, E Corneau, D Nishimura, E Teng, D Ekoualla
Lead wheel weights (LWWs) have been banned in Europe, and some US States, but they continue to dominate the market in Canada. Exposure to lead is associated with numerous health impacts and can result in multiple and irreversible health problems which include cognitive impairment when exposure occurs during early development. Such impacts incur high individual and social costs. The purpose of this study was to assess the costs and public health benefits of a Risk Management Strategy (RMS) that would result from a LWW phase-out in Canada and compare this to a Business-As-Usual (BAU) scenario...
May 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742275/early-intensive-behavioral-intervention-eibi-for-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-asd
#15
REVIEW
Brian Reichow, Kara Hume, Erin E Barton, Brian A Boyd
BACKGROUND: The rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) increases the need for evidence-based behavioral treatments to lessen the impact of symptoms on children's functioning. At present, there are no curative or psychopharmacological therapies to effectively treat all symptoms of the disorders. Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) is a treatment based on the principles of applied behavior analysis. Delivered for multiple years at an intensity of 20 to 40 hours per week, it is one of the more well-established treatments for ASD...
May 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741788/cumulative-childhood-risk-is-associated-with-a-new-measure-of-chronic-inflammation-in-adulthood
#16
Line Jee Hartmann Rasmussen, Terrie E Moffitt, Jesper Eugen-Olsen, Daniel W Belsky, Andrea Danese, HonaLee Harrington, Renate M Houts, Richie Poulton, Karen Sugden, Benjamin Williams, Avshalom Caspi
BACKGROUND: Childhood risk factors are associated with elevated inflammatory biomarkers in adulthood, but it is unknown whether these risk factors are associated with increased adult levels of the chronic inflammation marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR). We aimed to test the hypothesis that childhood exposure to risk factors for adult disease is associated with elevated suPAR in adulthood and to compare suPAR with the oft-reported inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736960/kif16b-is-a-candidate-gene-for-a-novel-autosomal-recessive-intellectual-disability-syndrome
#17
Saud Alsahli, Stefan T Arold, Ahmed Alfares, Bader Alhaddad, Mohammed Al Balwi, Erik-Jan Kamsteeg, Waleed Al-Twaijri, Majid Alfadhel
Intellectual disability (ID) and global developmental delay are closely related; the latter is reserved for children under the age of 5 years as it is challenging to reliably assess clinical severity in this population. ID is a common condition, with up to 1%-3% of the population being affected and leading to a huge social and economic impact. ID is attributed to genetic abnormalities most of the time; however, the exact role of genetic involvement in ID is yet to be determined. Whole exome sequencing (WES) has gained popularity in the workup for ID, and multiple studies have been published examining the diagnostic yield in identification of the disease-causing variant (16%-55%), with the genetic involvement increasing as intelligence quotient decreases...
May 7, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733822/cardiopulmonary-bypass-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-correlates-with-neurocognitive-skills
#18
Luca Vedovelli, Massimo Padalino, Agnese Suppiej, Stefano Sartori, Gianclaudio Falasco, Manuela Simonato, Virgilio P Carnielli, Giovanni Stellin, Paola Cogo
BACKGROUND: Neuro-cognitive deficits at school starting age may affect as many as 50% of children who underwent cardiac surgery for complex congenital heart diseases (CHD). The aim of this study was to identify which phases of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are associated with an increased risk of impaired neurodevelopmental skills in children with complex CHD. This was assessed by means of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) plasma levels during CPB for CHD surgery, as a marker of neurological insult...
May 4, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727133/identifying-vulnerable-periods-of-neurotoxicity-to-triclosan-exposure-in-children
#19
Medina S Jackson-Browne, George D Papandonatos, Aimin Chen, Antonia M Calafat, Kimberly Yolton, Bruce P Lanphear, Joseph M Braun
BACKGROUND: Exposure to triclosan, an endocrine disrupting chemical, may affect thyroid hormone homeostasis and adversely affect neurodevelopment. OBJECTIVE: Using a longitudinal pregnancy and birth cohort, we investigated associations between triclosan exposures during different time windows, and cognitive test scores at 8 y of age in 198 children from the HOME Study. METHODS: We quantified triclosan in urine samples from mother-child pairs up to nine times between the second trimester of gestation and 8 y of age...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716859/impact-of-blood-lead-level-on-haemoglobin-and-intelligence-among-school-children-living-near-lead-based-industries
#20
Bhima Uma Maheswari, Rajagopalan Vijayaraghavan, Thuppil Venkatesh
Blood lead level and its impact on haemoglobin and intelligence among school children near lead based industries, and to supplement them with a nutritious food for its effect, were studied. Blood was withdrawn from 120 children (9-12 years) and lead was estimated by Lead Care Analyzer Kit and haemoglobin by auto analyser. Culture Fair Non-verbal Test was used to assess the Intelligence Quotient. After pre-test, the experimental group (n = 60) were given nutritional supplementation for 3 months and education on hygiene measures, while the control group (n = 60) did not receive them...
May 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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