Read by QxMD icon Read

Increase iq

Arjun Sethi, Valerie Voon, Hugo D Critchley, Mara Cercignani, Neil A Harrison
Computational models of reinforcement learning have helped dissect discrete components of reward-related function and characterize neurocognitive deficits in psychiatric illnesses. Stimulus novelty biases decision-making, even when unrelated to choice outcome, acting as if possessing intrinsic reward value to guide decisions toward uncertain options. Heightened novelty seeking is characteristic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, yet how this influences reward-related decision-making is computationally encoded, or is altered by stimulant medication, is currently uncertain...
March 13, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Artur C Jaschke, Henkjan Honing, Erik J A Scherder
Background: Research on the effects of music education on cognitive abilities has generated increasing interest across the scientific community. Nonetheless, longitudinal studies investigating the effects of structured music education on cognitive sub-functions are still rare. Prime candidates for investigating a relationship between academic achievement and music education appear to be executive functions such as planning, working memory, and inhibition. Methods: One hundred and forty-seven primary school children, Mage = 6...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Josefine Starnberg, Mikael Norman, Björn Westrup, Magnus Domellöf, Staffan K Berglund
BACKGROUND: Being born with very low birth weight (<1500 g) is associated with poorer neurocognition later in life. The aim of this study was to explore neurodevelopmental functions in those born with marginally low birth weight (LBW; 2000-2500 g). METHODS: This was originally a randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of early iron supplementation in 285 marginally LBW children. Herein, we explored the combined marginally LBW group and compared their results to 95 normal birth weight (NBW; 2501-4500 g) controls in an observational design...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Vibeke Bliksted, Chris Frith, Poul Videbech, Birgitte Fagerlund, Charlotte Emborg, Arndis Simonsen, Andreas Roepstorff, Daniel Campbell-Meiklejohn
Background: Historically, research investigating neural correlates of mentalizing deficits in schizophrenia has focused on patients who have been ill for several years with lengthy exposure to medication. Little is known about the neural and behavioral presentations of theory-of-mind deficits in schizophrenia, shortly after the first episode of psychosis. Methods: We investigated social cognition in 17 recently diagnosed first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients with little or no exposure to antipsychotic medication and 1:1 matched healthy controls...
March 9, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Vaughn R Steele, J Michael Maurer, Mohammad R Arbabshirani, Eric D Claus, Brandi C Fink, Vikram Rao, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
BACKGROUND: Successfully treating illicit drug use has become paramount, yet elusive. Devising specialized treatment interventions could increase positive outcomes, but it is necessary to identify risk factors of poor long-term outcomes to develop specialized, efficacious treatments. We investigated whether functional network connectivity (FNC) measures were predictive of substance abuse treatment completion using machine learning pattern classification of functional magnetic resonance imaging data...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Avniel Singh Ghuman, Rebecca N van den Honert, Theodore J Huppert, Gregory L Wallace, Alex Martin
BACKGROUND: Prevailing theories suggest that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) results from impaired brain communication, causing aberrant synchrony among neuronal populations. However, it remains debated whether synchrony abnormalities are among local or long-range circuits, are circuit specific or are generalized, reflect hypersynchrony or reflect hyposynchrony, and are frequency band-specific or are distributed across the frequency spectrum. METHODS: To help clarify these unresolved questions, we recorded spontaneous magnetoencephalography data and used a data-driven, whole-brain analysis of frequency-specific interregional synchrony in higher-functioning adolescents and adults, with 17 ASD and 18 control subjects matched on age, IQ, and sex, and equal for motion...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Sophiya Dulal, Frédérique Liégeois, David Osrin, Adam Kuczynski, Dharma S Manandhar, Bhim P Shrestha, Aman Sen, Naomi Saville, Delan Devakumar, Audrey Prost
Introduction: Multiple Micronutrient (MMN) supplementation during pregnancy can decrease the proportion of infants born low birth weight and small for gestational age. Supplementation could also enhance children's cognitive function by improving access to key nutrients during fetal brain development and increasing birth weight, especially in areas where undernutrition is common. We tested the hypothesis that children whose mothers received MMN supplementation during pregnancy would have higher intelligence in early adolescence compared with those receiving Iron and Folic Acid (IFA) only...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Synthia Guimond, Shezal Padani, Olivia Lutz, Shaun Eack, Heidi Thermenos, Matcheri Keshavan
Schizophrenia (SZ) patients exhibit deficits in emotion regulation that affect their daily functioning. There is evidence that the prefrontal cortex plays an important role in emotion regulation. However, it remains unclear how this brain region is involved in emotion regulation deficits in SZ, and how such deficits impact performance on cognitively demanding tasks. We examined how happy and fearful emotional distractors impact performance on working memory (WM) tasks of varying difficulty (0-back, 2-back), and brain activity using fMRI...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Elena Prieto, María José García-Velloso, Macarena Rodríguez-Fraile, Verónica Morán, Berta García-García, Fernando Guillén, María Isabel Morales, Lidia Sancho, Iván Peñuelas, José Ángel Richter, Josep María Martí-Climent
PURPOSE: To reduce the radiation dose to patients by optimizing oncological FDG PET/CT protocols. METHODS: The baseline PET/CT protocol in our institution for oncological PET/CT examinations consisted of the administration of 5.18 MBq/kg of FDG and a CT acquisition with a reference current-time product of 120 mAs. In 2016, FDG activity was reduced to 4.44 and 3.70 MBq/kg and reference CT current-time-product was reduced to 100 and 80 mAs. 322 patients scanned with different protocols were retrospectively evaluated...
February 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Monika Sommer, Katrin Döhnel, Irina Jarvers, Lore Blaas, Manuela Singer, Victoria Nöth, Tobias Schuwerk, Rainer Rupprecht
A central diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the qualitative impairment in reciprocal social interaction and a prominent hypotheses that tried to explain this impairment is the Theory of Mind (ToM) deficit hypotheses. On a behavioral level the critical test for having a ToM, the understanding of false beliefs (FB), is often used for testing ToM abilities in individuals with ASD. Investigating the neural underpinnings several neuroimaging studies revealed a network of areas involved in FB reasoning in neurotypical individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Hannah Wolfe, Caoimhe Hannigan, Michael O'Sullivan, Liam Barry Carroll, Sabina Brennan, Brian Lawlor, Ian H Robertson, Marina Lynch
Identification of a blood-based biomarker that can detect early cognitive decline presents a significant healthcare challenge. We prepared peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from individuals who had a poorer than predicted performance in their delayed recall performance on the Logical Memory II Subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) relative to their IQ estimated by the National Adult Reading Test (NART); we described these individuals as IQ-discrepant, compared with IQ-consistent, individuals. Stimulation with Aβ + LPS increased production of TNFα to a greater extent in cells from IQ-discrepant, compared with IQ-consistent, individuals...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Marta Arpone, Emma K Baker, Lesley Bretherton, Minh Bui, Xin Li, Simon Whitaker, Cheryl Dissanayake, Jonathan Cohen, Chriselle Hickerton, Carolyn Rogers, Mike Field, Justine Elliott, Solange M Aliaga, Ling Ling, David Francis, Stephen J C Hearps, Matthew F Hunter, David J Amor, David E Godler
Increased intragenic DNA methylation of the Fragile X Related Epigenetic Element 2 (FREE2) in blood has been correlated with lower intellectual functioning in females with fragile X syndrome (FXS). This study explored these relationships in a paediatric cohort of males with FXS using Buccal Epithelial Cells (BEC). BEC were collected from 25 males with FXS, aged 3 to 17 years and 19 age-matched male controls without FXS. Methylation of 9 CpG sites within the FREE2 region was examined using the EpiTYPER approach...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
M H Smet, L Breysem, E Mussen, H Bosmans, N W Marshall, L Cockmartin
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of digital detector, dose level and post-processing on neonatal chest phantom X-ray image quality (IQ). METHODS: A neonatal phantom was imaged using four different detectors: a CR powder phosphor (PIP), a CR needle phosphor (NIP) and two wireless CsI DR detectors (DXD and DRX). Five different dose levels were studied for each detector and two post-processing algorithms evaluated for each vendor. Three paediatric radiologists scored the images using European quality criteria plus additional questions on vascular lines, noise and disease simulation...
February 19, 2018: European Radiology
E Sabrina Twilhaar, Rebecca M Wade, Jorrit F de Kieviet, Johannes B van Goudoever, Ruurd M van Elburg, Jaap Oosterlaan
Importance: Despite apparent progress in perinatal care, children born extremely or very preterm (EP/VP) remain at high risk for cognitive deficits. Insight into factors contributing to cognitive outcome is key to improve outcomes after EP/VP birth. Objective: To examine the cognitive abilities of children of EP/VP birth (EP/VP children) and the role of perinatal and demographic risk factors. Data Sources: PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO were searched without language restriction (last search March 2, 2017)...
February 19, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Dorothy Nakiwala, Hugo Peyre, Barbara Heude, Jonathan Y Bernard, Rémi Béranger, Rémy Slama, Claire Philippat
BACKGROUND: There are concerns that developmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals such as phenolic compounds and phthalates could affect child cognitive function. Epidemiological studies tackling this question have mainly focused on phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A, but not on the other phenolic compounds. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between in-utero exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A and other phenolic compounds (parabens, triclosan, dichlorophenols and benzophenone-3) and the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of boys at 5-6 years...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Martin Lindgren, Peter Eriksson, Annika Rosengren, Josefina Robertson, Linus Schiöler, Maria Schaufelberger, David Åberg, Kjell Torén, Margda Waern, Maria Åberg
AIMS: Heart failure (HF) incidence appears to increase among younger individuals, raising questions of how risk factors affect the younger population. We investigated the association of cognitive performance in late adolescence with long-term risk of early HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We followed a cohort of Swedish men enrolled in mandatory military conscription in 1968-2005 (n = 1 225 300; mean age 18.3 years) until 2014 for HF hospitalization, using data from the Swedish National Inpatient Registry...
February 19, 2018: European Journal of Heart Failure
Oisin Butler, Xiao-Fei Yang, Corinna Laube, Simone Kühn, Mary Helen Immordino-Yang
Adolescents' exposure to community violence is a significant public health issue in urban settings and has been associated with poorer cognitive performance and increased risk for psychiatric illnesses, including PTSD. However, no study to date has investigated the neural correlates of community violence exposure in adolescents. Sixty-five healthy adolescents (age = 14-18 years; 36 females, 29 males) from moderate- to high-crime neighborhoods in Los Angeles reported their violence exposure, parents' education level, and free/reduced school lunch status (socio-economic status, SES), and underwent structural neuroimaging and intelligence testing...
February 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Golam M Khandaker, Christina Dalman, Nils Kappelmann, Jan Stochl, Henrik Dal, Kyriaki Kosidou, Peter B Jones, Håkan Karlsson
Importance: Associations between childhood infection, IQ, and adult nonaffective psychosis (NAP) are well established. However, examination of sensitive periods for exposure, effect of familial confounding, and whether IQ provides a link between childhood infection and adult NAP may elucidate pathogenesis of psychosis further. Objectives: To test the association of childhood infection with IQ and adult NAP, to find whether shared familial confounding explains the infection-NAP and IQ-NAP associations, and to examine whether IQ mediates and/or moderates the childhood infection-NAP association...
February 14, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Bart Boets, Lien Van Eylen, Kevin Sitek, Pieter Moors, Ilse Noens, Jean Steyaert, Stefan Sunaert, Johan Wagemans
Background: One of the most reported neural features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the alteration of multiple long-range white matter fiber tracts, as assessed by diffusion-weighted imaging and indexed by reduced fractional anisotropy (FA). Recent methodological advances, however, have shown that this same pattern of reduced FA may be an artifact resulting from excessive head motion and poorer data quality and that aberrant structural connectivity in children with ASD is confined to the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF)...
2018: Molecular Autism
Richelle G Middel, Nicolien Brandenbarg, Koenraad N J A Van Braeckel, Arend F Bos, Hendrik J Ter Horst
BACKGROUND: Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) is used increasingly in neonatal intensive care and seems helpful in predicting outcomes at the age of 2 years. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether early aEEG patterns in preterm infants are equally useful in predicting outcomes at early school age. METHODS: We recorded aEEG in 41 preterms (gestational age 26.0-32.9 weeks) at a median postnatal age of 9.7 h (IQR 7.0-25.3) and in 43 preterms on median day 8 (IQR 7-9)...
February 13, 2018: Neonatology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"