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High testosterone

Lucas A Zena, Danielle Dillon, Kathleen E Hunt, Carlos A Navas, Kênia C Bícego, C Loren Buck
The tegu lizard Salvator merianae is a large, widely distributed teiid lizard endemic to South America that exhibits annual cycles of high activity during the spring and summer, and hibernation during winter. This pattern of activity and hibernation is accompanied by profound seasonal changes in physiology and behavior, including endothermy during the austral spring. The unusual combination of seasonal endothermy, hibernation and oviparity, in a non-avian, non-mammalian species, makes S. merianae an interesting subject for study of comparative aspects of endocrine regulation of seasonal changes in physiology...
June 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Olesya Shevchouk, Samar Ghorbanpoor, Ed Smith, Philippe Liere, Michael Schumacher, Gregory F Ball, Charlotte A Cornil, Jacques Balthazart
In seasonally breeding songbirds such as canaries, singing behavior is predominantly under the control of testosterone and its metabolites. Short daylenths in the fall that break photorefractoriness are followed by increasing daylengths in spring that activate singing via both photoperiodic and hormonal mechanisms. However, we observed in a group of castrated male Fife fancy canaries maintained for a long duration under a short day photoperiod a large proportion of subjects that sang at high rates. This singing rate was not correlated with variation in the low circulating concentrations of testosterone...
June 14, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Lisa Horn, Niklas A Hungerländer, Sonja Windhager, Thomas Bugnyar, Jorg J M Massen
Prosocial behaviour (i.e., voluntary behaviour intended to benefit another) seems to be fully developed in children by the age of 6 years. However, questions about which factors modify prosocial behaviour at that age remain understudied. Here we used a resource allocation paradigm to test prosocial behaviour in 6-9-year-old school children. They could decide between a "selfish" (i.e., one sticker for themselves) and a "prosocial" option (i.e., one sticker for themselves and one for the receiver) and we tested whether friendship, social status and prenatal androgen exposure (approximated by the 2nd to 4th digit ratio; 2D:4D) influenced children's prosocial choices...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Diana Weiting Tan, Murray T Maybery, Michael W Clarke, Renata Di Lorenzo, Melissa O Evans, Michael Mancinone, Christina Panos, Andrew J O Whitehouse
It is suggested that testosterone may play a part in the higher prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in males compared to females. Previous studies have reported elevated postnatal testosterone levels in children and women with ASD but not in men. We compared levels of salivary testosterone across 67 undergraduate males (Mage 19.5 yrs, SD 1.92) selected for low, mid-range and high levels of autistic traits assessed using the Autism-spectrum Quotient. Analyses revealed no significant differences in testosterone concentrations across the three groups...
2018: PloS One
Estela J Jauregui, Debra Mitchell, Traci Topping, Cathryn A Hogarth, Michael D Griswold
Spermatogenesis in mammals is a very complex, highly organized process, regulated in part by testosterone and retinoic acid (RA). There is a significant amount known about how RA and testosterone signaling pathways independently regulate this process, but there is almost no information regarding whether these two signaling pathways directly interact and whether RA is critical for steroidogenic cell function. This study utilized a transgenic mouse line that expresses a dominant negative form of RA receptor α (RAR-DN) and the steroidogenic cell-specific Cre mouse line, Cyp17 iCre, to generate male mice with steroidogenic cells unable to perform RA signaling...
June 13, 2018: Development
Meredith C Miles, Maren N Vitousek, Jerry F Husak, Michele A Johnson, Lynn B Martin, Conor C Taff, Cedric Zimmer, Matthew B Lovern, Matthew J Fuxjager
Circulating steroid hormone levels exhibit high variation both within and between individuals, leading some to hypothesize that these phenotypes are more variable than other morphological, physiological, and behavioral traits. This should have profound implications for the evolution of steroid signaling systems, but few studies have examined how endocrine variation compares to that of other traits or differs among populations. Here we provide such an analysis by first exploring how variation in three measures of corticosterone (CORT)- baseline, stress-induced, and post-dexamethasone injection- compares to key traits characterizing morphology (wing length, mass), physiology (reactive oxygen metabolite concentration [d-ROMs] and antioxidant capacity), and behavior (provisioning rate) in two populations of tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor)...
June 12, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Elisabetta Venturelli, Annalisa Orenti, Aline S C Fabricio, Giulia Garrone, Roberto Agresti, Biagio Paolini, Chiara Bonini, Massimo Gion, Franco Berrino, Christine Desmedt, Danila Coradini, Elia Biganzoli
BACKGROUND: Despite the clear endocrine-metabolic relationship between androgenic activity and adiposity, the role of androgens in breast cancer prognosis according to patient's adiposity is scarcely explored. Here, we aimed at investigating the prognostic value of circulating testosterone in association with patient's body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Circulating testosterone and BMI were evaluated at breast cancer diagnosis in 460 estrogen receptor (ER)-positive postmenopausal patients...
June 13, 2018: BMC Cancer
Koichi Yabiku, Keiko Nakamoto, Akihiro Tokushige
BACKGROUND: Testosterone signals through the androgen receptor (AR) and AR knockout mice develop obesity, suggesting a functional association between AR and leptin signaling. Furthermore, physiological blood concentrations of testosterone have been found to inhibit the development of arteriosclerosis, obesity and diabetes. However, these findings have not been verified by testosterone replacement in animal models and whether or not testosterone acts directly by activating AR to enhance leptin signaling, or indirectly by its conversion into estrogen remains unclear...
June 13, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Andrew A Dwyer, Richard Quinton
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a term used to describe the constellation of cardiometabolic risk factors including central adiposity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and arterial hypertension. Notably, a number of studies have shown high rates of testosterone (T) deficiency in men with MetS and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Both hypogonadism and MetS confer increased health risk for morbidity and mortality as men with the MetS are at twice the risk for developing cardiovascular disease and at 5-fold higher risk for developing T2DM...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Carina Ankarberg-Lindgren, Jovanna Dahlgren, Mats X Andersson
BACKGROUND: Androgen and estrogen determinations serve as important diagnostic markers in a variety of clinical conditions. However, one challenge is to enhance assay sensitivity for determination in the lowest range, such as in prepubertal children. We here present a recently developed gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method for determination of androstenedione (A4 ), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone (T), estrone (E1 ), and estradiol (E2 ) in children, which we have compared with the sensitive radioimmunoassays; E2 extraction-RIA and T-RIA...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tatjana Abaffy, James R Bain, Michael J Muehlbauer, Ivan Spasojevic, Shweta Lodha, Elisa Bruguera, Sara K O'Neal, So Young Kim, Hiroaki Matsunami
Olfactory receptor OR51E2, also known as a Prostate Specific G-Protein Receptor, is highly expressed in prostate cancer but its function is not well understood. Through in silico and in vitro analyses, we identified 24 agonists and 1 antagonist for this receptor. We detected that agonist 19-hydroxyandrostenedione, a product of the aromatase reaction, is endogenously produced upon receptor activation. We characterized the effects of receptor activation on metabolism using a prostate cancer cell line and demonstrated decreased intracellular anabolic signals and cell viability, induction of cell cycle arrest, and increased expression of neuronal markers...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Kshitij Verma, Nehal Gupta, Tianzhu Zang, Phumvadee Wangtrakuldee, Sanjay K Srivastava, Trevor M Penning, Paul C Trippier
Aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) also known as type 5 17 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase is responsible for intratumoral androgen biosynthesis, contributing to the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and eventual chemotherapeutic failure. Significant upregulation of AKR1C3 is observed in CRPC patient samples and derived CRPC cell lines. As AKR1C3 is a downstream steroidogenic enzyme synthesizing intratumoral testosterone (T) and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the enzyme represents a promising therapeutic target to manage CRPC and combat the emergence of resistance to clinically employed androgen deprivation therapy...
June 11, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Iwona Rotter, Aleksandra Rył, Katarzyna Grzesiak, Aleksandra Szylińska, Wioletta Pawlukowska, Anna Lubkowska, Olimpia Sipak-Szmigiel, Krzysztof Pabisiak, Maria Laszczyńska
Introduction/Objective : The aim of the study was to show which of the adipose tissue accumulation indicators correlate with testosterone disorders in non-diabetic aging men. Material and methods : 455 non diabetic men, recruited at primary care facilities, aged 50⁻75 participated in the study. The participants underwent anthropometric measurement and ELISA determination of total testosterone (TT), estradiol (E₂), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), sex hormone binding protein (SHBG), and the determination of fasting glucose (FPG), high-density lipids cholesterol (HDL-Ch), and triacylglycerols (TAG) in serum...
June 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ling-Yu Shen, Cui-Mei Liang, Wen-Jin Yang, Liang Pan, Hua Li, Hui Hu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the therapeutic effect of acupuncture in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients with abdominal obesity by regulating glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, sex hormones, etc. METHODS: Eligible PCOS volunteers were randomly divided into treatment group( n =30) and control group( n =28). The treatment group received acupuncture therapy three times a week combined with diet control and exercise. EA (2 Hz/100 Hz, 4-8 mA) was applied to bilateral Daimai (GB 26)and Tianshu (ST 25) for 20 min/time, and bilateral Daheng (SP 15), Shenshu (BL 23), Ciliao (BL 32), Guilai (ST 29), Zulinqi (GB 41) and Waiguan (SJ 5) were stimulated with filiform needles, with the needles retained for 20 min...
April 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Jian Zhao, Shi Ren, Chunyu Liu, Li Huo, Zheng Liu, Lingling Zhai
Objective: This study evaluated the effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and obesity on male reproductive organ function in male mice and the potential mechanism of male secondary hypogonadism (SH) in such mice. Methods: 140 mice were assigned to six groups for 12 weeks: normal, DEHP, DIO, DIO + DEHP low, DIO + DEHP middle, and DIO + DEHP high. The effects of DEHP and obesity upon the reproductive organs were determined by measuring sperm count and motility, relative testis and epididymis weight, hormone level, and pathological changes...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Maryam Heidary, Zahra Yazdanpanahi, Mohammad Hossain Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Ebrahin Parsanezhad, Masoumeh Emamghoreishi, Marzieh Akbarzadeh
Background: According to traditional herbal medicine, chamomile has been considered as one of the herbal remedies for patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study aimed to investigate the effect of chamomile on lipid and hormonal parameters in women of reproductive age with PCOS. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial which was conducted on 80 women (40 patients in each group) of childbearing age with PCO. The intervention group received 370 mg oral capsules of chamomile three times a day for 3 months...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Tzu-Wen L Cross, Kazuyuki Kasahara, Federico E Rey
BACKGROUND: Sex is one of the most powerful modifiers of disease development. Clear sexual dimorphism exists in cardiometabolic health susceptibility, likely due to differences in sex steroid hormones. Changes in the gut microbiome have been linked with the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis; however, the impact of microbes in sex-biased cardiometabolic disorders remains unclear. The gut microbiome is critical for maintaining a normal estrous cycle, testosterone levels, and reproductive function...
May 30, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Grigory A Demyashkin
Inhibin B is one of the most significant serum markers of spermatogenesis, but its testicular expression has been poorly studied. Inhibin B sensitivity as well as the ability to reflect the level and condition of spermatogenesis and forecast certain changes in reproductive homeostasis in males is still a subject of active discussion. The purpose of this study is to examine the level of expression of inhibin B in cells of human seminiferous tubules in normal and in pathological spermatogenesis (idiopathic infertility) by revealing the proportion of immunostaining cells for inhibin B...
June 9, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Heng Wang, Yong Pu, Lei Luo, Yunsheng Li, Yunhai Zhang, Zubing Cao
Excessive secretion of androgens including androstenedione and testosterone in theca cells frequently causes female infertility in mammals. Melatonin is a potent inhibitor of androgen production in gonadal cells of several species in a membrane receptor-dependent manner. However, the function of melatonin in steroidogenesis of porcine theca cells remains unclear. Here we report that melatonin inhibits androgen biosynthesis independently of its membrane receptors in pigs. Using flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR we showed that the vast majority of cells isolated from the theca layer of antral follicles are indeed theca cells...
June 1, 2018: Theriogenology
Diana Armbruster, Tobias Grage, Clemens Kirschbaum, Alexander Strobel
Emotional reactivity varies across the menstrual cycle although physiological findings are not entirely consistent. We assessed facial EMG and heart rate (HR) changes in healthy free cycling women (N = 45) with an emotional startle paradigm both during the early follicular and the late luteal phase, verified by repeated salivary 17β-estradiol, progesterone and testosterone assessments. Cycle phase impacted startle responses with larger magnitudes during the luteal phase. Notably, this effect was only present when premenstrual symptoms and sequence of lab sessions were included as co-variates...
June 6, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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