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prolactin level and seizure

Souha S Elabd, Maswood M Ahmad, Sameer Q Qetab, Mussa Hussain Almalki
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea is rarely reported as the first presenting feature of giant invasive macroprolactinomas. Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea is usually reported as a complication of trauma, neurosurgical, and skull-based procedures (such as pituitary surgery or radiations), and less frequently after medical treatment with dopamine agonists (DAs) for macroprolactinomas. This phenomenon results from fistula creation that communicates between the subarachnoid space and the nasal cavity. Meanwhile, pneumocephalus is another well-recognized complication after transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary macroadenomas...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Endocrinology and Diabetes
Mahendra Javali, Purushottam Acharya, Shripal Shah, Rohan Mahale, Pushparaja Shetty, Srinivasa Rangasetty
Introduction: Review of literature revealed very limited studies considering a combination of serum prolactin (PRL) and serum creatine kinase (CK) as markers for differentiating epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Therefore, in the present study, we analyzed the role of serum PRL and serum CK, individually and in combination. Methodology: This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care medical teaching hospital over a period of 18 months...
October 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Robert D Nass, Robert Sassen, Christian E Elger, Rainer Surges
BACKGROUND: Epileptic seizures (ES) lead to alterations in the blood laboratory values and reflect changes in different organ systems. Here, we review the diagnostic and prognostic value of various blood laboratory values within the context of epilepsy. METHODS: Narrative review and literature search on PubMed using the term, "seizure" and various laboratory values. RESULTS: Laboratory markers can help clinicians determine whether an unwitnessed event was more likely to be epileptic or non-epileptic...
April 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Zsolt Kovács, Renáta Krisztina Lakatos, János Barna, Árpád Dobolyi
Absence epileptic activity was analyzed during pregnancy, the postpartum period and after weaning to establish alterations of seizures throughout the reproductive cycle. Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats were used in the study as a model of absence epilepsy and because their seizures do not interfere with rearing offspring. The number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) was gradually elevated from the 19th pregnancy day to delivery. Meanwhile, the characteristics of individual SWDs did not change suggesting that SWD generation remained the same...
February 15, 2017: Brain Research
R Duncan
In the investigation of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), the main differential diagnoses are between convulsive PNES and tonic-clonic seizures, between swoon PNES and syncope, and between pseudoabsence PNES and absence seizures. For the best diagnostic certainty, events must be captured, ideally using video-electroencephalogram (EEG), including an electrocardiographic channel. The "video" part of video-EEG allows EEG changes (or lack of them) to be interpreted in the appropriate clinical context. When the diagnosis is based on less good data (e...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Sherifa A Hamed
Epilepsy is a common chronic medical illness. Hyposexuality is the most frequent abnormality in men and women with epilepsy. In men with epilepsy, hypoandrogenimia, hypogonadism and sperm abnormalities are common. Testicular atrophy was also infrequently reported. In women with epilepsy, hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries (PCOs) and PCO syndrome are frequent. Decreased serum free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone levels, free androgen index and free testosterone/leutinizing hormone (LH) ratio and increased sex hormone binding globulin, estradiol, prolactin, LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and LH/FSH ratio are common with epilepsy...
June 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Ehsan Saboory, Loghman Ebrahimi, Shiva Roshan-Milani, Paria Hashemi
Prenatal exposure to stress and morphine has complicated effects on epileptic seizure. In the present study, effect of prenatal forced-swim stress and morphine co-administration on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced epileptic behaviors and prolactin blood level (PBL) was investigated in rat offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided to four groups of control-saline, control-morphine, stressed-saline and stressed-morphine. In the stressed group, pregnant rats were placed in 25°C water on gestation days 17, 18 and 19 (GD17, GD18 and GD19) for 30 min...
October 1, 2015: Physiology & Behavior
Fábio Cavalcanti de Faria Vieira, Marcelo Fernando Ronsoni, Alexandre Hohl, Lúcia Sukis Claudino, Alexandre Paim Diaz, Marcelo Libório Schwarzbold, Ricardo Guarnieri, Jean Costa Nunes, Kátia Lin, Roger Walz
INTRODUCTION: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is often reported by patients with epilepsy and may be related to endocrine system abnormalities, side effects of antiepileptic drugs, psychiatric comorbidities, and family or social difficulties. AIMS: This study aimed to identify independent predictor factors for ED in patients with epilepsy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: the five-question form of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5). METHODS: Independent predictive factors for ED evaluated by the IIEF-5 questionnaire in 36 patients (mean age: 39 years) with focal epilepsy (mean: 6 seizures/month) were identified by multiple linear regression analysis...
June 2015: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Benjamin Stöcklin, Sotirios Fouzas, Paula Schillinger, Sevgi Cayir, Roswitha Skendaj, Michel Ramser, Peter Weber, Sven Wellmann
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Accurate diagnosis of febrile seizures in children presenting after paroxysmal episodes associated with fever, is hampered by the lack of objective postictal biomarkers. The aim of our study was to investigate whether FS are associated with increased levels of serum copeptin, a robust marker of arginine vasopressin secretion. METHODS: This was a prospective emergency-setting cross-sectional study of 161 children between six months and five years of age...
2015: PloS One
Ali A Asadi-Pooya, Mohammad Hossein Dabbaghmanesh, Nahid Ashjazadeh
BACKGROUND: Reproductive endocrine disorders and sexual dysfunction are common among men with epilepsy. We investigated sexual hormone serum levels among men with newly diagnosed epilepsy, before starting any antiepileptic drug (AED), and then after starting carbamazepine (CBZ), to determine the role and effects of epilepsy versus CBZ in creating reproductive endocrine disorders. METHODS: In this prospective study, male patients 20 to 40 years of age who due to new-onset seizure(s) were referred to the outpatient epilepsy clinic at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from 2009 through 2012 were studied...
2014: Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Roger F Haskett
Despite a range of etiological theories since the introduction of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) more than 75 years ago, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. The neuroendocrine hypothesis is based on the seizure-related release of hypothalamic hormones into the blood and cerebrospinal fluid and evidence of endocrine dysfunction in many patients with severe mood disorder. The specific effect of ECT was hypothesized to result from the transverse passage of current through the brain with direct stimulation of axial structures including the diencephalon...
June 2014: Journal of ECT
Labrini Papanastasiou, Stelios Fountoulakis, Theodora Pappa, Konstantinos Liberopoulos, Dimosthenis Malliopoulos, Athina Markou, George Piaditis
OBJECTIVE: Dopamine agonists (DA) are the treatment of choice in patients with macroprolactinomas. Brain and optic chiasm herniation are unusual complications following treatment with DA. REPORT: We present a case of a giant prolactinoma complicated by visual deterioration following cabergoline treatment. A 42-year-old man was admitted with seizures, right visual loss and visual defect in the upper left temporal quadrant. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) identified a giant adenoma, which proved to be a prolactinoma, compressing the optic chiasm and extending into the suprasellar region...
April 2014: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Raghu H Ramakrishnaiah, Julie B Shelton, Charles M Glasier, Paul H Phillips
PURPOSE: It is essential to identify hypopituitarism in children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) because they are at risk for developmental delay, seizures, or death. The purpose of this study is to determine the reliability of neurohypophyseal abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of hypopituitarism in children with ONH. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred one children with clinical ONH who underwent MRI of the brain and orbits and a detailed pediatric endocrinologic evaluation...
January 2014: Ophthalmology
Farouq I Thabet, Rochelle T Sweis, Suja A Joseph
Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic medication that is a partial dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine (1A) receptor agonist and 5-hydroxytryptamine (2A) receptor antagonist. It has a safer profile compared to other antipsychotic medications with regard to its effect on weight, glucose tolerance, prolactin level, and cardiac conduction. The common neurological adverse effects include headache, agitation, insomnia, sleepiness, and extrapyramidal symptoms. Seizures have not been reported in the pediatric population and only twice in adult patients...
January 2013: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Rosana Maria Reis, Alexandre Gonçalves de Angelo, Américo Ceiki Sakamoto, Rui Alberto Ferriani, Lúcia Alves Silva Lara
INTRODUCTION: Epileptic men may experience hormonal changes that may alter semen quality and sexual function. Alterations in male sexual and reproductive parameters may also be due to treatment with antiepileptic drugs to control seizures. AIMS: To evaluate serum hormone concentrations, semen quality, the frequency of sexual intercourse (FSI), and erectile function in men with epileptic seizures controlled by carbamazepine (CBZ). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The five-question form of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5), and semi-structured questionnaire...
February 2013: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Deniz Karagülle, Annemarie Heberlein, Julia Wilhelm, Helge Frieling, Johannes Kornhuber, Stefan Bleich, Thomas Hillemacher
AIMS: Alcohol withdrawal seizures (AWS) are among the most important possible complications during the detoxification treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. Pharmacological therapy is often used during detoxification, but can cause dangerous side effects [Eur Addict Res 2010;16:179-184]. In separate studies several biological markers have been described as being associated with AWS risk. We investigated the role of homocysteine (HCT), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) and prolactin (PRL) as biological markers for the risk of developing AWS...
2012: European Addiction Research
S Latcha, M Lubetzky, A M Weinstein
BACKGROUND: Combined deficits in arginine vasopressin secretion (AVP) and thirst sensation can result in life threatening hyperosmolality and hypernatremia. Complications include seizures, profound volume contraction and renal failure. Fortunately, this is an uncommon clinical condition, with approximately 70 cases reported in the literature over the past 47 years [1]. Defects in AVP secretion and/or synthesis produce central diabetes insipidus (DI), polyuria with polydipsia, hypernatremia and hyperosmolality...
November 2011: Clinical Nephrology
P Tharyan, K Kuruvilla, S Prabhakar
The usefulness of post-ictal serum prolactin changes, as an adjunct, in the differentiation of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and complex partial seizures from hysterical pseudoepileptic seizures, was investigated in a double blind study designed to control for variables known to alter prolactin levels. Significant post-ictal hyper-prolactinemia, with a peak at 20 minutes and a fall towards baseline by 1 hour, was found after complex partial seizures, generalized tonic-clonic seizures and after bilateral, unmodified ECT, but not after hysterical pseudoepileptic seizures or in stressed, non-epileptic controls...
April 1988: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Suleyman Aydin, Ersel Dag, Yusuf Ozkan, Ozgur Arslan, Guray Koc, Semai Bek, Serkan Kirbas, Tayfun Kasikci, Dilek Abasli, Zeki Gokcil, Zeki Odabasi, Zekiye Catak
A relationship between hormones and seizures has been reported in animals and humans. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between serum levels of prolactin, nesfatin-1 and ghrelin measured different times after a seizure or non-epileptic event and compared with controls. The study included a total of 70 subjects, and of whom 18 patients had secondary generalized epilepsy (SGE), 16 patients had primary generalized epilepsy (PGE), 16 patients exhibited paroxysmal event (psychogenic) and 20 healthy males were control subjects...
June 2011: Peptides
T Morales
Newborn mammals are totally dependent on maternal milk and care for survival. The mother's brain undergoes different behavioural, physiological and emotional adaptations that make the mother more likely to satisfy the demands of the offspring. Recent reports from our group show that, compared to nulliparous rats, lactation diminishes cell damage induced by excitotoxicity in the dorsal hippocampus of the dam after systemic or i.c. administration of kainic acid (KA) and the resulting motor seizures. Elevated levels of prolactin (PRL), oxytocin, progesterone and glucocorticoids are characteristics of lactation, and the pronounced fluctuation of these hormones occurring in this phase may play a role protecting the hippocampus...
November 2011: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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