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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522546/the-rxlr-motif-of-the-host-targeting-effector-avr3a-of-phytophthora-infestans-is-cleaved-before-secretion
#1
Stephan Wawra, Franziska Trusch, Anja Matena, Kostis Apostolakis, Uwe Linne, Igor Zhukov, Jan Stanek, Wiktor Koźmiński, Ian Davidson, Chris J Secombes, Peter Bayer, Pieter van West
When plant-pathogenic oomycetes infect their hosts, they employ a large arsenal of effector proteins to establish a successful infection. Some effector proteins are secreted and are destined to be translocated and function inside host cells. The largest group of translocated proteins from oomycetes are the RxLR effectors, defined by their conserved N-terminal Arg-Xaa-Leu-Arg (RxLR) motif. However, the precise role of this motif in the host cell translocation process is unclear. Here detailed biochemical studies of the RxLR effector AVR3a from the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans are presented...
May 18, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511649/il-10-ameliorates-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-meniscus-degeneration-in-mature-meniscal-tissue-in-vitro
#2
P Behrendt, K Häfelein, A Preusse-Prange, A Bayer, A Seekamp, B Kurz
BACKGROUND: Joint inflammation causes meniscus degeneration and can exacerbate post-traumatic meniscus injuries by extracellular matrix degradation, cellular de-differentiation and cell death. The aim of this study was to examine whether anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 exerts protective effects in an in vitro model of TNF-α-induced meniscus degeneration. METHODS: Meniscus tissue was harvested from the knees of adult cows. After 24 h of equilibrium explants were simultaneously treated with bovine TNF-α and IL-10...
May 16, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511123/dismissing-the-goals-a-comparison-of-four-goal-dismissive-goal-free-evaluations
#3
Brandon W Youker, Ken Ford, Nicholas Bayer
This article provides a descriptive review of four goal-free evaluations (GFE). GFE is an evaluation model where the evaluator conducts the evaluation without knowledge of or reference to the evaluand's stated goals. The four non-randomly sampled evaluation approaches represent articulated evaluation models in which the evaluators ignore the goals of the intervention or project. Data collection consisted of document analyses supplemented by semi-structured interviews with the models' creators. The findings from these case studies include descriptions of the evaluation models, the models' relationship to GFE, and eight commonalities shared among the four models...
May 9, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500175/spatial-resolution-requirements-for-accurate-identification-of-drivers-of-atrial-fibrillation
#4
Caroline H Roney, Chris D Cantwell, Jason D Bayer, Norman A Qureshi, Phang Boon Lim, Jennifer H Tweedy, Prapa Kanagaratnam, Nicholas S Peters, Edward J Vigmond, Fu Siong Ng
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated conflicting mechanisms underlying atrial fibrillation (AF), with the spatial resolution of data often cited as a potential reason for the disagreement. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the variation in spatial resolution of mapping may lead to misinterpretation of the underlying mechanism in persistent AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Simulations of rotors and focal sources were performed to estimate the minimum number of recording points required to correctly identify the underlying AF mechanism...
May 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492357/long-term-effectiveness-of-strattice-in-the-laparoscopic-closure-of-paraesophageal-hernias
#5
Daniel Lomelin, Alicia Smith, Nathan Bills, Amareshewar Chiruvella, Christopher Crawford, Crystal Krause, Robert Bayer, Dmitry Oleynikov
Prosthetic reinforcement reduces the recurrence rate of large paraesophageal hernias (PEH), but the use of synthetic or biosynthetic mesh in the repair remains controversial. PEH repair has reported recurrence rates of 12% to 42%, and primary repair of PEH by suture closure under tension is at high risk of disruption. Synthetic mesh use in large PEH repair has shown to reduce recurrence but can lead to problems including mesh erosion, ulceration, stricture, and dysphagia. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term safety and efficacy of Strattice biologic mesh, a porcine acellular dermal matrix, in crural reinforcement of laparoscopic large PEH repair...
June 2017: Surgical Innovation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487016/the-expression-level-of-c19mc-mirnas-in-early-pregnancy-and-in-response-to-viral-infection
#6
Tina M F Dumont, Jean-Francois Mouillet, Avaraham Bayer, Christina L Gardner, William B Klimstra, Dana G Wolf, Simcha Yagel, Fabiola Balmir, Anna Binstock, Joseph S Sanfilippo, Carolyn B Coyne, Jacob C Larkin, Yoel Sadovsky
INTRODUCTION: We have previously shown that miRNAs produced from the Chromosome 19 MiRNA Cluster (C19MC), which are expressed almost exclusively in primate trophoblasts and are released into the maternal circulation, reduce viral replication in non-placental cells and can modulate migratory behavior of extravillous trophoblast. We sought to define the expression pattern of C19MC miRNA in early pregnancy and in response to viral infection in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: We prospectively followed women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and determined their blood level of C19MC miRNA using RT-qPCR...
May 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485203/expert-panel-recommendations-for-the-identification-and-management-of-hyperkalemia-and-role-of-patiromer-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-and-heart-failure
#7
Zubaid Rafique, Matthew R Weir, Macaulay Onuigbo, Bertram Pitt, Richard Lafayette, Javed Butler, Maria Lopes, Carolyn Farnum, W Frank Peacock
Virtual panel meetings were conducted among 7 physicians, all of whom are independent experts, including 3 nephrologists, 2 cardiologists, and 2 emergency medicine physicians (the panel). The panel met with the purpose of discussing the current treatment landscape, treatment challenges, economic impact, and gaps in care for patients with hyperkalemia that is associated with heart failure and chronic kidney disease. The stated goal of the panel discussion was to develop practical solutions in the identification and management of hyperkalemia in this patient population...
April 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482210/different-trajectories-of-decline-for-global-form-and-global-motion-processing-in-aging-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Gillian Porter, John Wattam-Bell, Antony Bayer, Judy Haworth, Oliver Braddick, Janette Atkinson, Andrea Tales
The visual processing of complex motion is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is unclear whether these impairments are biased toward the motion stream or part of a general disruption of global visual processing, given some reports of impaired static form processing in AD. Here, for the first time, we directly compared the relative preservation of motion and form systems in AD, mild cognitive impairment, and healthy aging, by measuring coherence thresholds for well-established global rotational motion and static form stimuli known to be of equivalent complexity...
March 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475731/evaluation-of-daptomycin-combinations-with-cephalosporins-or-gentamicin-against-streptococcus-mitis-group-strains-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-simulated-endocardial-vegetations-sevs
#9
Juwon Yim, Jordan R Smith, Nivedita B Singh, Seth Rice, Kyle Stamper, Cristina Garcia de la Maria, Arnold S Bayer, Nagendra N Mishra, José M Miró, Truc T Tran, Cesar A Arias, Paul Sullam, Michael J Rybak
Objectives: Among viridans group streptococcal infective endocarditis (IE), the Streptococcus mitis group is the most common aetiological organism. Treatment of IE caused by the S. mitis group is challenging due to the high frequency of β-lactam resistance, drug allergy and intolerability of mainstay antimicrobial agents such as vancomycin or gentamicin. Daptomycin has been suggested as an alternative therapeutic option in these scenarios based on its excellent susceptibility profile against S...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472830/definitive-contraception-trends-in-a-ten-year-interval
#10
Cecília Maria Ventuzelo Marques, Magda Maria do Vale Pinto Magalhães, Maria João Leal da Silva Carvalho, Giselda Marisa Costa Carvalho, Francisco Augusto Falcão Santos Fonseca, Isabel Torgal
Objective To evaluate the trends in definitive contraception in a ten-year interval comprising the years 2002 and 2012. Method Retrospective analysis of the tubal sterilization performed in our service in 2002 and 2012, analyzing the demographic characteristics, personal history, previous contraceptive method, definite contraception technique, effectiveness and complications. Results Definitive contraception was performed in 112 women in 2002 (group 1) and in 60 women in 2012 (group 2). The groups were homogeneous regarding age, parity, educational level and personal history...
May 4, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467004/chances-and-limitations-of-video-games-in-the-fight-against-childhood-obesity-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Isabelle Mack, Carolin Bayer, Norbert Schäffeler, Nadine Reiband, Ellen Brölz, Guido Zurstiege, Fernando Fernandez-Aranda, Caterina Gawrilow, Stephan Zipfel
OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted to assess the chances and limitations of video games to combat and prevent childhood obesity. This search included studies with video or computer games targeting nutrition, physical activity and obesity for children between 7 and 15 years of age. RESULTS: The study distinguished between games that aimed to (i) improve knowledge about nutrition, eating habits and exercise; (ii) increase physical activity; or (iii) combine both approaches...
May 3, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465434/brain-connectivity-dynamics-during-social-interaction-reflect-social-network-structure
#12
Ralf Schmälzle, Matthew Brook O'Donnell, Javier O Garcia, Christopher N Cascio, Joseph Bayer, Danielle S Bassett, Jean M Vettel, Emily B Falk
Social ties are crucial for humans. Disruption of ties through social exclusion has a marked effect on our thoughts and feelings; however, such effects can be tempered by broader social network resources. Here, we use fMRI data acquired from 80 male adolescents to investigate how social exclusion modulates functional connectivity within and across brain networks involved in social pain and understanding the mental states of others (i.e., mentalizing). Furthermore, using objectively logged friendship network data, we examine how individual variability in brain reactivity to social exclusion relates to the density of participants' friendship networks, an important aspect of social network structure...
May 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464481/correlation-of-mammographic-density-and-serum-calcium-levels-in-patients-with-primary-breast-cancer
#13
Carolin C Hack, Martin J Stoll, Sebastian M Jud, Katharina Heusinger, Werner Adler, Lothar Haeberle, Thomas Ganslandt, Felix Heindl, Rüdiger Schulz-Wendtland, Alexander Cavallaro, Michael Uder, Matthias W Beckmann, Peter A Fasching, Christian M Bayer
Percentage mammographic breast density (PMD) is one of the most important risk factors for breast cancer (BC). Calcium, vitamin D, bisphosphonates, and denosumab have been considered and partly confirmed as factors potentially influencing the risk of BC. This retrospective observational study investigated the association between serum calcium level and PMD. A total of 982 BC patients identified in the research database at the University Breast Center for Franconia with unilateral BC, calcium and albumin values, and mammogram at the time of first diagnosis were included...
May 2, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464395/specificity-effects-of-amino-acid-substitutions-in-promiscuous-hydrolases-context-dependence-of-catalytic-residue-contributions-to-local-fitness-landscapes-in-nearby-sequence-space
#14
Christopher D Bayer, Bert van Loo, Florian Hollfelder
Catalytic promiscuity can facilitate evolution of enzyme functions-a multifunctional catalyst may act as a springboard for efficient functional adaptation. We test the effect of single mutations on multiple activities in two groups of promiscuous AP superfamily members to probe this hypothesis. We quantify the effect of site-saturating mutagenesis of an analogous, nucleophile-flanking residue in two superfamily members: an arylsulfatase (AS) and a phosphonate monoester hydrolase (PMH). Statistical analysis suggests that no one physicochemical characteristic alone explains the mutational effects...
May 2, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449719/interference-of-retroviral-envelope-with-vaccine-induced-cd8-t-cell-responses-is-relieved-by-co-administration-of-cytokine-encoding-vectors
#15
Nadine Bongard, Dennis Lapuente, Sonja Windmann, Ulf Dittmer, Matthias Tenbusch, Wibke Bayer
BACKGROUND: Retroviral envelope (Env) proteins are known to exhibit immunosuppressive properties, which become apparent not only in retroviral infections, but also in gene-based immunizations using retroviral immunogens, where envelope interferes with the induction of CD8(+) T cell responses towards another, simultaneously or subsequently delivered, immunogen. RESULTS: In the Friend retrovirus mouse model, immunization with a plasmid encoding the Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV) Leader-Gag protein resulted in induction of a strong GagL85-93-specific CD8(+) T cell response, while the response was completely abrogated by co-immunization with an F-MuLV Env-encoding plasmid...
April 27, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448065/construction-of-a-map-based-reference-genome-sequence-for-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l
#16
Sebastian Beier, Axel Himmelbach, Christian Colmsee, Xiao-Qi Zhang, Roberto A Barrero, Qisen Zhang, Lin Li, Micha Bayer, Daniel Bolser, Stefan Taudien, Marco Groth, Marius Felder, Alex Hastie, Hana Šimková, Helena Staňková, Jan Vrána, Saki Chan, María Muñoz-Amatriaín, Rachid Ounit, Steve Wanamaker, Thomas Schmutzer, Lala Aliyeva-Schnorr, Stefano Grasso, Jaakko Tanskanen, Dharanya Sampath, Darren Heavens, Sujie Cao, Brett Chapman, Fei Dai, Yong Han, Hua Li, Xuan Li, Chongyun Lin, John K McCooke, Cong Tan, Songbo Wang, Shuya Yin, Gaofeng Zhou, Jesse A Poland, Matthew I Bellgard, Andreas Houben, Jaroslav Doležel, Sarah Ayling, Stefano Lonardi, Peter Langridge, Gary J Muehlbauer, Paul Kersey, Matthew D Clark, Mario Caccamo, Alan H Schulman, Matthias Platzer, Timothy J Close, Mats Hansson, Guoping Zhang, Ilka Braumann, Chengdao Li, Robbie Waugh, Uwe Scholz, Nils Stein, Martin Mascher
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a cereal grass mainly used as animal fodder and raw material for the malting industry. The map-based reference genome sequence of barley cv. 'Morex' was constructed by the International Barley Genome Sequencing Consortium (IBSC) using hierarchical shotgun sequencing. Here, we report the experimental and computational procedures to (i) sequence and assemble more than 80,000 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones along the minimum tiling path of a genome-wide physical map, (ii) find and validate overlaps between adjacent BACs, (iii) construct 4,265 non-redundant sequence scaffolds representing clusters of overlapping BACs, and (iv) order and orient these BAC clusters along the seven barley chromosomes using positional information provided by dense genetic maps, an optical map and chromosome conformation capture sequencing (Hi-C)...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447930/a-novel-and-simple-method-for-tracheal-intubation-in-a-swine-model-preparing-for-the-era-of-xenotransplantation
#17
Hyub Huh, Hyong Hwan Lim, Ji Yeong Kim, Hye Won Shin, Hae Ja Lim, Suk Min Yoon, Seung Zhoo Yoon, Hye Won Lee
OBJECTIVES: Organ transplant in humans is an established therapy for a variety of end-stage organ diseases. However, due to organ shortages and lack of donors, the need for xenotransplant has gradually increased. Xenotransplantation has great potential to solve many of the problems facing organ transplantation. Pigs are being developed as xenogeneic organ donors for use in humans. In this study, we propose a novel and simple method for tracheal intubation in a swine model using neuromuscular blocking agents and laryngeal mask airway...
April 27, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447635/a-chromosome-conformation-capture-ordered-sequence-of-the-barley-genome
#18
Martin Mascher, Heidrun Gundlach, Axel Himmelbach, Sebastian Beier, Sven O Twardziok, Thomas Wicker, Volodymyr Radchuk, Christoph Dockter, Pete E Hedley, Joanne Russell, Micha Bayer, Luke Ramsay, Hui Liu, Georg Haberer, Xiao-Qi Zhang, Qisen Zhang, Roberto A Barrero, Lin Li, Stefan Taudien, Marco Groth, Marius Felder, Alex Hastie, Hana Šimková, Helena Staňková, Jan Vrána, Saki Chan, María Muñoz-Amatriaín, Rachid Ounit, Steve Wanamaker, Daniel Bolser, Christian Colmsee, Thomas Schmutzer, Lala Aliyeva-Schnorr, Stefano Grasso, Jaakko Tanskanen, Anna Chailyan, Dharanya Sampath, Darren Heavens, Leah Clissold, Sujie Cao, Brett Chapman, Fei Dai, Yong Han, Hua Li, Xuan Li, Chongyun Lin, John K McCooke, Cong Tan, Penghao Wang, Songbo Wang, Shuya Yin, Gaofeng Zhou, Jesse A Poland, Matthew I Bellgard, Ljudmilla Borisjuk, Andreas Houben, Jaroslav Doležel, Sarah Ayling, Stefano Lonardi, Paul Kersey, Peter Langridge, Gary J Muehlbauer, Matthew D Clark, Mario Caccamo, Alan H Schulman, Klaus F X Mayer, Matthias Platzer, Timothy J Close, Uwe Scholz, Mats Hansson, Guoping Zhang, Ilka Braumann, Manuel Spannagl, Chengdao Li, Robbie Waugh, Nils Stein
Cereal grasses of the Triticeae tribe have been the major food source in temperate regions since the dawn of agriculture. Their large genomes are characterized by a high content of repetitive elements and large pericentromeric regions that are virtually devoid of meiotic recombination. Here we present a high-quality reference genome assembly for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). We use chromosome conformation capture mapping to derive the linear order of sequences across the pericentromeric space and to investigate the spatial organization of chromatin in the nucleus at megabase resolution...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445786/metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitors-by-bioisosteric-replacement-preparation-activity-and-binding
#19
Susann Skagseth, Sundus Akhter, Marianne H Paulsen, Zeeshan Muhammad, Silje Lauksund, Ørjan Samuelsen, Hanna-Kirsti S Leiros, Annette Bayer
Bacterial resistance is compromising the use of β-lactam antibiotics including carbapenems. The main resistance mechanism against β-lactams is hydrolysis of the β-lactam ring mediated by serine- or metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). Although several inhibitors of MBLs have been reported, none has been developed into a clinically useful inhibitor. Mercaptocarboxylic acids are among the most prominent scaffolds reported as MBL inhibitors. In this study, the carboxylate group of mercaptocarboxylic acids was replaced with bioisosteric groups like phosphonate esters, phosphonic acids and NH-tetrazoles...
April 14, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442765/the-gpr139-reference-agonists-1a-and-7c-and-tryptophan-and-phenylalanine-share-a-common-binding-site
#20
Anne Cathrine Nøhr, Willem Jespers, Mohamed A Shehata, Leonard Floryan, Vignir Isberg, Kirsten Bayer Andersen, Johan Åqvist, Hugo Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hans Bräuner-Osborne, David E Gloriam
GPR139 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor expressed in the brain, in particular in the habenula, hypothalamus and striatum. It has therefore been suggested that GPR139 is a possible target for metabolic disorders and Parkinson's disease. Several surrogate agonist series have been published for GPR139. Two series published by Shi et al. and Dvorak et al. included agonists 1a and 7c respectively, with potencies in the ten-nanomolar range. Furthermore, Isberg et al. and Liu et al. have previously shown that tryptophan (Trp) and phenylalanine (Phe) can activate GPR139 in the hundred-micromolar range...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
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