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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058483/three-dimensional-ultrasound-of-the-neonatal-brain-technical-approach-and-spectrum-of-disease
#1
Jessica Kurian, Susan Sotardi, Mark C Liszewski, William A Gomes, Thomas Hoffman, Benjamin H Taragin
Brain pathology is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates, especially in the premature population. While conventional two-dimensional neurosonography is traditionally used for screening, diagnosis and monitoring of brain disorders such as germinal matrix hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia and hydrocephalus, three-dimensional ultrasonography has gained popularity in a variety of clinical applications in recent years. Three-dimensional ultrasonography is not yet widely utilized in pediatric imaging but is a potentially powerful tool for evaluating the neonatal brain...
January 5, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049457/breathdx-molecular-analysis-of-exhaled-breath-as-a-diagnostic-test-for-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-protocol-for-a-european-multicentre-observational-study
#2
Pouline M P van Oort, Tamara Nijsen, Hans Weda, Hugo Knobel, Paul Dark, Timothy Felton, Nicholas J W Rattray, Oluwasola Lawal, Waqar Ahmed, Craig Portsmouth, Peter J Sterk, Marcus J Schultz, Tetyana Zakharkina, Antonio Artigas, Pedro Povoa, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Stephen J Fowler, Lieuwe D J Bos
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains time-consuming and costly, the clinical tools lack specificity and a bedside test to exclude infection in suspected patients is unavailable. Breath contains hundreds to thousands of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that result from host and microbial metabolism as well as the environment. The present study aims to use breath VOC analysis to develop a model that can discriminate between patients who have positive cultures and who have negative cultures with a high sensitivity...
January 3, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032016/rapid-naked-eye-discrimination-of-cytochrome-p450-genetic-polymorphism-through-non-crosslinking-aggregation-of-dna-functionalized-gold-nanoparticles
#3
Yoshitsugu Akiyama, Guoqing Wang, Shota Shiraishi, Naoki Kanayama, Tohru Takarada, Mizuo Maeda
Involvement of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping in healthcare should allow for more effective use of pharmacogenomics. However, user-friendly assays without the requirement of a special instrument still remain unavailable. This study describes naked-eye SNP discrimination in exon 5 of the human cytochrome P450 2C19 monooxygenase gene, CYP2C19*1 (the wild-type allele) and CYP2C19*2 (the variant allele with G681A point mutation). The present assay is composed of allele-specific single-base primer extension and salt-induced aggregation of DNA-modified gold nanoparticles (DNA-AuNPs)...
December 2016: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006003/genital-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-among-women-of-reproductive-age-attending-the-gynecology-clinic-of-hawassa-university-referral-hospital-southern-ethiopia
#4
Endale Tadesse, Million Teshome, Anteneh Amsalu, Techalew Shimelis
BACKGROUND: Urogenital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis(CT) is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) world-wide, especially in developing nations where routine laboratory diagnosis is unavailable. Little is known about the epidemiology of this infection in Ethiopia where other STIs are prevalent. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and associated factors of CT infection among women of reproductive age. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 322 consecutive women aged between 15-49 years at Hawassa University Referral Hospital from November 2014 to April 2015...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993924/limited-effectiveness-of-a-skills-and-drills-intervention-to-improve-emergency-obstetric-and-newborn-care-in-karnataka-india-a-proof-of-concept-study
#5
Beena Varghese, Jayanna Krishnamurthy, Blaze Correia, Ruchika Panigrahi, Maryann Washington, Vinotha Ponnuswamy, Prem Mony
OBJECTIVE: The majority of the maternal and perinatal deaths are preventable through improved emergency obstetric and newborn care at facilities. However, the quality of such care in India has significant gaps in terms of provider skills and in their preparedness to handle emergencies. We tested the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a "skills and drills" intervention, implemented between July 2013 and September 2014, to improve emergency obstetric and newborn care in the state of Karnataka, India...
December 23, 2016: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989424/designing-and-computational-validation-of-microarray-probe-sets-for-the-diagnosis-of-viruses-of-non-human-vertebrates
#6
Gaurava K Rai, Rubina Lawrence
Making specific oligonucleotide probes for diagnosis and differentiation of viruses has always been a challenging task due to unavailability of defined viral sequence databases, probe designing softwares and higher degree of sequence homology among the types and subtypes of viruses. We have provided here, a streamlined procedure to design microarray probes involving various computational tools which is capable of yielding highly specific as well as conserved oligonucleotides to facilitate unbiased diagnosis of viruses...
December 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988667/niltavinae-a-new-taxon-of-old-world-flycatchers-aves-muscicapidae
#7
George Sangster, Per Alström, Emma Forsmark, Urban Olsson
The relationships among Old World chats and flycatchers (Muscicapidae) have recently been clarified in two independent molecular phylogenetic studies (Sangster et al. 2010, Zuccon & Ericson 2010). Both studies recovered a well-supported clade of predominantly blue flycatchers of the genera Niltava, Cyornis, Eumyias and Cyanoptila, some species traditionally included in the genus Rhinomyias and one species traditionally included in Ficedula (F. monileger). The family-group name Niltavinae Sangster, Alström, Forsmark & Olsson, 2010, was introduced for this clade (Sangster et al...
November 23, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923540/fetal-cytomegalovirus-infection
#8
REVIEW
Marianne Leruez-Ville, Yves Ville
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) congenital infection affects 0.7% of live births worldwide and is the leading cause of congenital neurological handicap of infectious origin. However, systematic screening for this infection has not been implemented in pregnancy or at birth in any country. This apparent paradox had been justified by persisting gaps in the knowledge of this congenital infection: uncertain epidemiological data, difficulty in the diagnosis of maternal infection, absence of validated prenatal prognostic markers, unavailability of an efficient vaccine and scarcity of data available on the treatment...
January 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919588/diagnostic-accuracy-of-the-berlin-questionnaire-stop-bang-stop-and-epworth-sleepiness-scale-in-detecting-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-bivariate-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Hsiao-Yean Chiu, Pin-Yuan Chen, Li-Pang Chuang, Ning-Hung Chen, Yu-Kang Tu, Yu-Jung Hsieh, Yu-Chi Wang, Christian Guilleminault
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent sleep disorder; however, it remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. Although screening tools such as the Berlin questionnaire (BQ), STOP-BANG questionnaire (SBQ), STOP questionnaire (STOP), and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) are widely used for OSA, the findings regarding their diagnostic accuracy are controversial. Therefore, this meta-analysis investigated and compared the summary sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) among the BQ, SBQ, STOP, and ESS according to the severity of OSA...
November 5, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893080/travel-associated-zika-virus-disease-acquired-in-the-americas-through-february-2016-a-geosentinel-analysis
#10
Davidson H Hamer, Kira A Barbre, Lin H Chen, Martin P Grobusch, Patricia Schlagenhauf, Abraham Goorhuis, Perry J J van Genderen, Israel Molina, Hilmir Asgeirsson, Phyllis E Kozarsky, Eric Caumes, Stefan H Hagmann, Frank P Mockenhaupt, Gilles Eperon, Elizabeth D Barnett, Emmanuel Bottieau, Andrea K Boggild, Philippe Gautret, Noreen A Hynes, Susan Kuhn, R Ryan Lash, Karin Leder, Michael Libman, Denis J M Malvy, Cecilia Perret, Camilla Rothe, Eli Schwartz, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Martin S Cetron, Douglas H Esposito
Background: Zika virus has spread rapidly in the Americas and has been imported into many nonendemic countries by travelers. Objective: To describe clinical manifestations and epidemiology of Zika virus disease in travelers exposed in the Americas. Design: Descriptive, using GeoSentinel records. Setting: 63 travel and tropical medicine clinics in 30 countries. Patients: Ill returned travelers with a confirmed, probable, or clinically suspected diagnosis of Zika virus disease seen between January 2013 and 29 February 2016...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873009/systematic-review-and-need-assessment-of-pediatric-trauma-outcome-benchmarking-tools-for-low-resource-settings
#11
REVIEW
Etienne St-Louis, Jade Séguin, Daniel Roizblatt, Dan Leon Deckelbaum, Robert Baird, Tarek Razek
INTRODUCTION: Trauma is a leading cause of mortality and disability in children worldwide. The World Health Organization reports that 95% of all childhood injury deaths occur in Low-Middle-Income Countries (LMIC). Injury scores have been developed to facilitate risk stratification, clinical decision making, and research. Trauma registries in LMIC depend on adapted trauma scores that do not rely on investigations that require unavailable material or human resources. We sought to review and assess the existing trauma scores used in pediatric patients...
November 21, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867306/case-report-of-ectopic-ovarian-pregnancy-following-fresh-embryo-transfer
#12
Nivin Samara, Yaakov Bentov
BACKGROUND: Ovarian pregnancy is a rare and challenging clinical phenomenon. Recent studies have identified assisted reproductive treatments and infertility as risk factors. However, neither a definite mechanism nor clear risk factors were identified and therefore prevention strategies are yet unavailable. CLINICAL CASE: In this article, we present a case of ovarian pregnancy occurring following in vitro fertilization treatment and a fresh embryo transfer. The couple was diagnosed with unexplained infertility and no identifiable risk factors for extrauterine pregnancy...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854302/severe-cutaneous-adverse-reactions-the-pharmacogenomics-from-research-to-clinical-implementation
#13
REVIEW
Shih-Chi Su, Shuen-Iu Hung, Wen-Lang Fan, Ro-Lan Dao, Wen-Hung Chung
Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), previously thought to be idiosyncratic or unpredictable, are a deadly form of adverse drug reactions with skin manifestations. Current pharmacogenomic studies of SCARs have made important strides, as the prevention of SCARs, to some extent, appears attainable with the identification of genetic variants for genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). Despite the improvement of incidence, a treatment guideline for this devastating condition is still unavailable, highlighting the inadequacy of contemporary accepted therapeutic interventions...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812702/epidemiology-of-sports-related-eye-injuries-in-the-united-states
#14
R Sterling Haring, Isaac D Sheffield, Joseph K Canner, Eric B Schneider
Importance: Ocular trauma can lead to lifelong sequelae, and sports-related ocular injuries have been shown to disproportionately affect the young. Studies quantifying and characterizing the incidence and type of injuries seen with sports-related ocular trauma may be useful for resource utilization, training, and prevention efforts. Objective: To examine the emergency department (ED) burden of sports-related ocular trauma in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, cross-sectional study examined the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, containing data from approximately 30 million ED visits annually at more than 900 hospitals nationwide, from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2013, to determine factors associated with sports-related ocular trauma...
December 1, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804194/mycobacterium-ulcerans-in-the-daintree-2009-2015-and-the-mini-epidemic-of-2011
#15
Christina M Steffen, Helen Freeborn
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium ulcerans infection (Buruli ulcer) is the third most common mycobacterial disease in humans, with presentations ranging from self-limiting skin nodules and ulcers to aggressive infiltrative infections with extensive oedema, fat and skin necrosis. The two foci in Australia are in Victoria and Far North Queensland. We present the 2009-2015 case series for the Queensland focus with special reference to the 2011 spike of 64 cases. METHODS: This case series is based on a combination of prospectively and retrospectively collected data on 95 confirmed cases of M...
November 1, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801762/value-of-pathology-review-in-a-population-based-series-of-ovarian-tumors
#16
Colin J R Stewart, Louise M Stewart, C D'Arcy J Holman, Susan Jordan, James Semmens, Katrina Spilsbury, Timothy Threlfall
Ovarian neoplasia comprises a heterogenous group of tumors with distinct clinicopathologic and molecular features and therefore assessment of potential risk factors should be tumor subtype specific. As part of ongoing epidemiological investigations of ovarian neoplasia in Western Australia, we performed an initial review of original pathology reports followed, in selected cases, by reassessment of histology material to optimize accurate diagnosis. Additional immunohistochemistry, often using antibodies unavailable at the time of initial assessment, was also performed as required...
October 31, 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798905/non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-in-octogenarians-in-clinical-practice
#17
Hirsh Koyi, Gunnar Hillerdal, Karl-Gustav Kölbeck, Daniel Brodin, Per Liv, Eva Brandén
BACKGROUND/AIM: Globally, an increasing proportion of cancer patients are aged >65 years and many are aged >70 years. Treatment of the elderly with lung cancer has, therefore, become an important issue. We performed a retrospective study of our patients to demonstrate how octogenarians with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are treated in real-life clinical practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study of all elderly (≥80 years) patients with NSCLC referred to the Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, Karolinska Hospital, Sweden, 2003-2010, and followed until June, 2016...
2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795917/hmgb1-level-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-as-a-complimentary-biomarker-for-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#18
Yan Chen, Jun Zhang, Xiaofei Wang, Yu Wu, Li Zhu, Longkun Lu, Qian Shen, Yanghua Qin
PURPOSE: High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a proinflammatory, DAMP protein that participates in many pathological conditions. In this study, we evaluated the usability of CSF HMGB1 as a biomarker for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). METHODS: A total of 59 TBM patients and 169 control patients were included in our study. CSF samples were obtained and analyzed for HMGB1 using a commercial ELISA kit. RESULTS: The mean CSF HMGB1 was 19...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785980/real-time-genomic-characterization-utilizing-circulating-cell-free-dna-in-patients-with-anaplastic-thyroid-carcinoma
#19
Vlad C Sandulache, Michelle D Williams, Stephen Y Lai, Charles Lu, William N William, Naifa L Busaidy, Gilbert J Cote, Rajesh R Singh, Rajyalakshmi Luthra, Maria E Cabanillas
BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an aggressive disease that requires rapid diagnosis and multimodality treatment. Recent advances in targeted therapeutics have provided ATC patients with previously unavailable treatment options, which may improve clinical outcomes in the coming years. Continued development of high-throughput next-generation sequencing provides clinicians with an unparalleled ability to characterize the genomic background of tumors in order to guide treatment selection and clinical trial enrollment...
November 29, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784127/cd44-as-a-potential-screening-marker-for-preliminary-differentiation-between-congenital-dyserythropoietic-anemia-type-ii-and-hereditary-spherocytosis
#20
B K Singleton, M Ahmed, C A Green, H Heimpel, M J Woźniak, L Ranjha, F Seeney, A Bomford, P Mehta, A Guest, R Mushens, M-J King
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow examination has been the confirmatory test for congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II (CDAII). Occasional spherocytes on peripheral blood smear can confound the diagnosis. Since a screening test is still unavailable, we explored the feasibility of using flow cytometry as a preliminary screening method. METHODS: Thirteen monoclonal antibodies with specificities for eight erythrocyte membrane proteins were used in FACS analysis to probe the cellular features of red cells from CDAII, normal adults, hereditary spherocytosis (HS), and cord red cells...
October 26, 2016: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
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