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Wenbin Ma, Yingying Li, Chao Wang, Fan Xu, Meiling Wang, Yiming Liu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the common age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Sensitive, noninvasive biomarkers that facilitate PD diagnosis and stage assignment are currently unavailable. This study aims to investigate the potential of 16 previous reported PD-associated miRNAs as novel biomarkers for PD. The expression of 16 serum miRNAs was measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in 138 PD patients and 112 control populations. Analyses were undertaken to assess the specificity and sensitivity of miRNAs to predict PD...
October 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Function
K A Lee, C O'Sullivan, P Daly, J Pears, C Owens, B Timmermann, C Ares, S E Combs, D Indelicato, M Capra
BACKGROUND: Proton therapy (PT) is a radiotherapy treatment modality that uses protons, rather than conventional photons. PT is often used in paediatric oncology due to its reported capability to reduce acute and late adverse treatment effects. As PT is unavailable in Ireland, patients are referred abroad for treatment. AIMS: To: (1) produce a descriptive study of Irish children referred abroad for PT, and (2) discuss the case for PT in general. METHODS: A retrospective review of all children referred for PT before October 2015 was performed...
October 15, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Stacey A Strong, Avinash Gurbaxani, Michel Michaelides
BACKGROUND: We present an interesting case of bilateral retinitis pigmentosa (RP)-associated cystoid macular oedema that responded on two separate occasions to intravitreal injections of aflibercept, despite previously demonstrating only minimal response to intravitreal ranibizumab. This unique case would support a trial of intravitreal aflibercept for the treatment of RP-associated cystoid macular oedema. CASE PRESENTATION: A 38-year-old man from Dubai, United Arab Emirates, presented to the UK with a 3-year history of bilateral RP-associated cystoid macular oedema...
May 2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
Ramesh Omranipour, Ali Kazemian, Sadaf Alipour, Masoume Najafi, Mansour Alidoosti, Mitra Navid, Afsaneh Alikhassi, Nasrin Ahmadinejad, Khojasteh Bagheri, Shahrzad Izadi
BACKGROUND: Benefits and harms of screening mammography have been disputed in recent years. This fact, along with the limitations of mammography as well as its unavailability in all our medical centers, tempted us to evaluate the accuracy of thermography in detecting breast abnormalities. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients who were candidates for breast biopsy were examined by both mammography and thermography before tissue sampling in a referral center between January 2013 and January 2014...
August 2016: Breast Care
Xia Yu, Pengnian Liu, Guan Liu, Liping Zhao, Yanjie Hu, Guomei Wei, Jingjing Luo, Hairong Huang
Despite increasing attention towards the non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases, the overall epidemiological information remains unavailable for China. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted using data of 105 qualified publications from Chinese mainland. The assay demonstrated that the prevalence of NTM infections among tuberculosis suspects was 6.3% (5.4%-7.4%) in mainland, while the Southeastern region had the highest NTM prevalence at 8.6% (7.1%-10.5%). In Northern China, slow growing mycobacteria (SGM) consistituted 63...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infection
Jose Mauro Madi, Antonio Rodrigues Braga, Machline Paim Paganella, Isnard Elman Litvin, Eliana Márcia Da Ros Wendland
BACKGROUND: Distinguishing hydatidiform moles (HMs) from non-molar specimens and the subclassification of HM are important because complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) is associated with an increased risk of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. However, diagnosis based solely on morphology has poor interobserver reproducibility. Recent studies have demonstrated that the use of p57(KIP2) immunostaining improves diagnostic accuracy for CHM. METHODS: We will conduct a systematic review of prospective and retrospective studies to evaluate the accuracy of p57(KIP2) immunostaining compared with molecular genotyping for the diagnosis of CHM...
October 4, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Yuzi Luo, Stella A Atim, Lina Shao, Chrisostom Ayebazibwe, Yuan Sun, Yan Liu, Shengwei Ji, Xing-Yu Meng, Su Li, Yongfeng Li, Charles Masembe, Karl Ståhl, Frederik Widén, Lihong Liu, Hua-Ji Qiu
Due to the current unavailability of vaccines or treatments for African swine fever (ASF), which is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), rapid and reliable detection of the virus is essential for timely implementation of emergency control measures and differentiation of ASF from other swine diseases with similar clinical presentations. Here, an improved PCR assay was developed and evaluated for sensitive and universal detection of ASFV. Primers specific for ASFV were designed based on the highly conserved region of the vp72 gene sequences of all ASFV strains available in GenBank, and the PCR assay was established and compared with two OIE-validated PCR tests...
October 6, 2016: Archives of Virology
Jonathan W Hennek, Ashok A Kumar, Alex B Wiltschko, Matthew R Patton, Si Yi Ryan Lee, Carlo Brugnara, Ryan P Adams, George M Whitesides
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a nutritional disorder that impacts over one billion people worldwide; it may cause permanent cognitive impairment in children, fatigue in adults, and suboptimal outcomes in pregnancy. IDA can be diagnosed by detection of red blood cells (RBCs) that are characteristically small (microcytic) and deficient in hemoglobin (hypochromic), typically by examining the results of a complete blood count performed by a hematology analyzer. These instruments are expensive, not portable, and require trained personnel; they are, therefore, unavailable in many low-resource settings...
October 5, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Daniel Ontaneda, Robert J Fox
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is sensitive to lesion formation both in the brain and spinal cord. Imaging plays a prominent role in the diagnosis and monitoring of MS. Over a dozen anti-inflammatory therapies are approved for MS and the development of many of these medications was made possible through the use of contrast-enhancing lesions on MRI as a phase II outcome. A similar phase II outcome method for the neurodegeneration that underlies progressive courses of the disease is still unavailable...
October 3, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Yu Ma, Yan Lu, Bingjian Lu
Reliable biomarkers for the detection of early ovarian carcinoma are currently unavailable. MicroRNA and long non-coding RNA may be important in cancer initiation and progression by regulating gene expression through post-transcriptional mechanisms. MicroRNAs, such as miR-26a and miR-132, have been investigated as novel biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring of therapeutic response, and therapeutic targets in ovarian carcinomas. Some long non-coding RNAs, such as H19 and UCA1, may be involved in the pathogenesis of ovarian carcinomas...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Investigation
Zeynep Sener Bahce, Sami Akbulut, Ulas Aday, Firat Demircan, Ayhan Senol
AIM: To provide an overview of the medical literature on cutaneous fistulization in patients with hydatid disease (HD). METHODS: According to PRISMA guidelines a literature search was made in PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Google databases were searched using keywords to identify articles related to cutaneous fistulization of the HD. Keywords used were hydatid disease, hydatid cyst, cutaneous fistulization, cysto-cutaneous fistulization, external rupture, and external fistulization...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
A Furdová, V Krčméry, K Horkovičová, Ad Furdová, T Sláviková
: Documentation of the anterior segment and the eye fundus with instruments that enable quality precision diagnostics is a common and important part of screening in humanitarian ophthalmology projects. It is the essential element in diagnosis, monitoring and management of eye diseases. In sub saharan countries within the screening for ophthalmologist are not available the modern technologies such as biomicroscope (slit lamp) or fundus camera. We describe our experience with photographs of anterior segment of the eye by using digital camera and Smartphone...
2016: Ceská a Slovenská Oftalmologie
Siew Choo Su, Ian Brent Masters, Helen Buntain, Kieran Frawley, Anubhav Sarikwal, Debbie Watson, Frances Ware, Jan Wuth, Anne Bernadette Chang
INTRODUCTION: Flexible bronchoscopy (FB) is the current gold standard for diagnosing tracheobronchomalacia. However, it is not always feasible and virtual bronchoscopy (VB), acquired from chest multi-detector CT (MDCT) scan is an alternative diagnostic tool. We determined the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of VB compared to FB in diagnosing tracheobronchomalacia. METHODS: Children aged <18-years scheduled for FB and MDCT were recruited...
September 18, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Steven C Smith, Kiril Trpkov, Ying-Bei Chen, Rohit Mehra, Deepika Sirohi, Chisato Ohe, Andi K Cani, Daniel H Hovelson, Kei Omata, Jonathan B McHugh, Wolfram Jochum, Maurizio Colecchia, Mitual Amin, Mukul K Divatia, Ondřej Hes, Santosh Menon, Isabela Werneck da Cunha, Sergio Tripodi, Fadi Brimo, Anthony J Gill, Adeboye O Osunkoya, Cristina Magi-Galluzzi, Mathilde Sibony, Sean R Williamson, Gabriella Nesi, Maria M Picken, Fiona Maclean, Abbas Agaimy, Liang Cheng, Jonathan I Epstein, Victor E Reuter, Satish K Tickoo, Scott A Tomlins, Mahul B Amin
An emerging group of high-grade renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), particularly carcinomas arising in the hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell carcinoma syndrome (HLRCC), show fumarate hydratase (FH) gene mutation and loss of function. On the basis of similar cytomorphology and clinicopathologic features between these tumors and cases described as tubulocystic carcinomas with poorly differentiated foci (TC-PD) of infiltrative adenocarcinoma, we hypothesized a relationship between these entities. First, 29 RCCs with morphology of TC-PD were identified retrospectively and assessed for FH expression and aberrant succination (2SC) by immunohistochemistry (IHC), with targeted next-generation sequencing of 409 genes-including FH-performed on a subset...
November 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Yusuke Amino, Yumiko Suzuki
L-Cystathionine is a key nonprotein amino acid related to metabolic conditions. The quantitative determination of L-cystathionine in physiological fluids by amino acid analysis is important for clinical diagnosis; however, certified reference material for L-cystathionine with satisfactory purity, content, and quantity has been unavailable until recently. Consequently, a practical and simple method for the preparation of L-cystathionine was examined, which involves thioalkylation of N-tert-butoxycarbonyl-L-cysteine tert-butyl ester, derived from L-cystine, with (2S)-2-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino-4-iodobutanoic acid tert-butyl ester, derived from L-aspartic acid, to obtain L-cystathionine with protecting groups, followed by single-step deprotection under mild conditions...
September 9, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
S Aghamolaie, A Rostami, Sh Fallahi, F Tahvildar Biderouni, A Haghighi, N Salehi
To determine the sensitivity and specificity of routine screening methods for cryptosporidiosis, three methods including conventional modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN), direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) and Nested-PCR assay compared together. To this end, their ability to identify the low concentrations of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in children fecal samples was evaluated. The sample population of this study was children under 12 years old who had diarrhea and referred to pediatric hospitals in Tehran, Iran. 2,510 stool specimens from patients with diarrhea were screened for Cryptosporidium oocysts by concentration method and MZN...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Ann Marie Navar, Michael J Pencina, Eric D Peterson
Importance: The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) demonstrated the benefit of lowering systolic blood pressure (SBP) to 120 mm Hg, yet other trials, such as Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation-3 (HOPE-3), did not find consistent benefit. How to incorporate these results into the treatment of those with elevated SBP in the general population is not clear. Objectives: To assess the representativeness of SPRINT and HOPE-3 relative to patients in the United States and to explore the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profiles of various populations with elevated SBP...
September 7, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
Jeffrey C Thompson, Stephanie S Yee, Andrea B Troxel, Samantha L Savitch, Ryan Fan, David Balli, David B Lieberman, Jennifer D Morrissette, Tracey L Evans, Joshua Bauml, Charu Aggarwal, John A Kosteva, Evan Alley, Christine Ciunci, Roger B Cohen, Stephen Bagley, Susan Stonehouse-Lee, Victoria E Sherry, Elizabeth Gilbert, Corey Langer, Anil Vachani, Erica L Carpenter
PURPOSE: The expanding number of targeted therapeutics for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) necessitates real-time tumor genotyping, yet tissue biopsies are difficult to perform serially and often yield inadequate DNA for next-generation sequencing (NGS). We evaluated the feasibility of using cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) NGS as a complement or alternative to tissue NGS. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: 112 plasma samples obtained from a consecutive study of 102 prospectively enrolled patients with advanced NSCLC were subjected to ultra-deep sequencing of up to 70 genes and matched with tissue samples, when possible...
September 6, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
R McDonnell, C Monteith, M Kennelly, A Martin, D Betts, V Delany, S A Lynch, S Coulter-Smith, S Sheehan, R Mahony
BACKGROUND: Chromosomal trisomies are associated with advancing maternal age. In Ireland, information on the total prevalence and outcome of trisomy affected pregnancies is unavailable. This study aimed to ascertain more precise data on Trisomies 21, 18 and 13 in a large Irish region during the period 2011-2013. METHODS: Multiple information sources were used in case finding, including a regional congenital anomaly register, all maternity and paediatric hospitals in the region and the regional Department of Clinical Genetics...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Public Health
Jack Garland, Rexson Tse, Allan D Cala
Sepsis remains a difficult diagnosis at autopsy. With respect to meningococcal sepsis, a timely and definite diagnosis is critical because it requires public health department notification and the administration of prophylactic antibiotics to potential close contacts. A previous case series, in which both blood and cerebrospinal fluid were unavailable, suggested vitreous humor polymerase chain reaction might be a useful test in diagnosing meningococcal sepsis. We describe a fatal case of meningococcal sepsis where Neisseria meningitidis was detected in both vitreous humor and blood polymerase chain reaction, in addition to positive blood cultures...
August 31, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
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