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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341304/the-normal-variants-in-the-left-bundle-branch-system
#1
REVIEW
M V Elizari
This article reviewed the main anatomic and physiopathological aspects of the left bundle branch from its origin in the His bundle and its intraventricular distribution on the left endocardial surface. The results are based on the relevant literature and on personal observations executed on 206 hearts distributed as follows: 67 dogs, 60 humans, 45 sheep, 22 pigs, 10 cows, 2 monkeys, 1 guanaco, and 1 sea lion. The main anatomical features of the His-Purkinje conducting system may be summarized as follows: The bundle of His is composed by two segments: the penetrating and branching portions...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338740/the-role-of-vip-in-social-behavior-neural-hotspots-for-the-modulation-of-affiliation-aggression-and-parental-care
#2
Marcy A Kingsbury, Leah C Wilson
Although the modulation of social behaviors by most major neurochemical systems has been explored, there are still standouts, including the study of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). VIP is a modulator of circadian, reproductive, and seasonal rhythms and is well known for its role in reproductive behavior, as it is the main vertebrate prolactin-releasing hormone. Originally isolated as a gut peptide, VIP and its cognate receptors are present in virtually every brain area that is important for social behavior, including all nodes of the core "social behavior network" (SBN)...
December 16, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336894/fabrication-of-functional-polyurethane-rare-earth-nanocomposite-membranes-by-electrospinning-and-its-vocs-absorption-capacity-from-air
#3
Jun Cong Ge, Nag Jung Choi
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a source of air pollution and are harmful to both human health and the environment. In this study, we fabricated polyurethane/rare earth (PU/RE) composite nanofibrous membranes via electrospinning with the aim of removing VOCs from air. The morphological structure of PU/RE nanofibrous mats was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) experimental analyses. A certain amount of RE (up to 50 wt...
March 11, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336838/on-the-use-of-the-electrospinning-coating-technique-to-produce-antimicrobial-polyhydroxyalkanoate-materials-containing-in-situ-stabilized-silver-nanoparticles
#4
Jinneth Lorena Castro-Mayorga, Maria Jose Fabra, Luis Cabedo, Jose Maria Lagaron
Electro-hydrodynamic processing, comprising electrospraying and electrospinning techniques, has emerged as a versatile technology to produce nanostructured fiber-based and particle-based materials. In this work, an antimicrobial active multilayer system comprising a commercial polyhydroxyalkanoate substrate (PHA) and an electrospun PHA coating containing in situ-stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was successfully developed and characterized in terms of morphology, thermal, mechanical, and barrier properties...
December 29, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330962/distinct-white-matter-alterations-following-severe-stroke-longitudinal-dti-study-in-neglect
#5
Roza M Umarova, Lena Beume, Marco Reisert, Christoph P Kaller, Stefan Klöppel, Irina Mader, Volkmar Glauche, Valerij G Kiselev, Marco Catani, Cornelius Weiller
OBJECTIVE: To distinguish white matter remodeling directly induced by stroke lesion from that evoked by remote network dysfunction, using spatial neglect as a model. METHODS: We examined 24 visual neglect/extinction patients and 17 control patients combining comprehensive analyses of diffusion tensor metrics and global fiber tracking with neuropsychological testing in the acute (6.3 ± 0.5 days poststroke) and chronic (134 ± 7 days poststroke) stroke phases. RESULTS: Compared to stroke controls, patients with spatial neglect/extinction displayed longitudinal white matter alterations with 2 defining signatures: (1) perilesional degenerative changes characterized by congruently reduced fractional anisotropy and increased radial diffusivity (RD), axial diffusivity, and mean diffusivity, all suggestive of direct axonal damage by lesion and therefore nonspecific for impaired attention network and (2) transneuronal changes characterized by an increased RD in contralesional frontoparietal and bilateral occipital connections, suggestive of primary periaxonal involvement; these changes were distinctly related to the degree of unrecovered neglect symptoms in chronic stroke, hence emerging as network-specific alterations...
March 22, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327510/monitoring-concrete-deterioration-due-to-reinforcement-corrosion-by-integrating-acoustic-emission-and-fbg-strain-measurements
#6
Weijie Li, Changhang Xu, Siu Chun Michael Ho, Bo Wang, Gangbing Song
Corrosion of concrete reinforcement members has been recognized as a predominant structural deterioration mechanism for steel reinforced concrete structures. Many corrosion detection techniques have been developed for reinforced concrete structures, but a dependable one is more than desired. Acoustic emission technique and fiber optic sensing have emerged as new tools in the field of structural health monitoring. In this paper, we present the results of an experimental investigation on corrosion monitoring of a steel reinforced mortar block through combined acoustic emission and fiber Bragg grating strain measurement...
March 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318400/new-frontiers-in-fibers-innovative-and-emerging-research-on-the-gut-microbiome-and-bone-health
#7
Taylor C Wallace, Massimo Marzorati, Lisa Spence, Connie M Weaver, Patricia S Williamson
The complex interactions between the diet, gut microbiome, and host characteristics that provide a functional benefit to the host are an area of great interest and current exploration in the nutrition and health science community. New technologies are available to assess mechanisms that may explain these functional benefits to the host. One emerging functional benefit from changes in the gut microbiome is increased calcium absorption, increased calcium retention, and improved indices of bone health. Prebiotic fibers enhance microbial fermentation in the gut, providing an ecological advantage to specific nonpathogenic bacteria that have the ability to modify an individual's metabolic potential...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272291/review-of-sympathetic-blocks-anatomy-sonoanatomy-evidence-and-techniques
#8
Samir Baig, Jee Youn Moon, Hariharan Shankar
The autonomic nervous system is composed of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The sympathetic nervous system is implicated in situations involving emergent action by the body and additionally plays a role in mediating pain states and pathologies in the body. Painful conditions thought to have a sympathetically mediated component may respond to blockade of the corresponding sympathetic fibers. The paravertebral sympathetic chain has been targeted for various painful conditions. Although initially injected using landmark-based techniques, fluoroscopy and more recently ultrasound imaging have allowed greater visualization and facilitated injections of these structures...
March 8, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270981/label-free-imaging-of-amyloids-using-their-intrinsic-linear-and-nonlinear-optical-properties
#9
Patrik K Johansson, Patrick Koelsch
The optical properties of amyloid fibers are often distinct from those of the source protein in its non-fibrillar form. These differences can be utilized for label-free imaging or characterization of such structures, which is particularly important for understanding amyloid fiber related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. We demonstrate that two amyloid forming proteins, insulin and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), show intrinsic fluorescence with emission spectra that are dependent on the excitation wavelength...
February 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269633/design-and-preliminary-assessment-of-a-smart-textile-for-respiratory-monitoring-based-on-an-array-of-fiber-bragg-gratings
#10
C Massaroni, M Ciocchetti, G Di Tomaso, P Saccomandi, M A Caponero, A Polimadei, D Formica, E Schena
Comfortable and easy to wear smart textiles have gained popularity for continuous respiratory monitoring. Among different emerging technologies, smart textiles based on fiber optic sensors (FOSs) have several advantages, like Magnetic Resonance (MR)-compatibility and good metrological properties. In this paper we report on the development and assessment of an MR-compatible smart textiles based on FOSs for respiratory monitoring. The system consists of six fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors glued on the textile to monitor six compartments of the chest wall (i...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264846/substantial-impact-of-altered-pharmacokinetics-in-critically-ill-patients-on-the-antibacterial-effects-of-meropenem-evaluated-via-the-dynamic-hollow-fiber-infection-model
#11
Phillip J Bergen, Jürgen B Bulitta, Carl M J Kirkpatrick, Kate E Rogers, Megan J McGregor, Steven C Wallis, David L Paterson, Roger L Nation, Jeffrey Lipman, Jason A Roberts, Cornelia B Landersdorfer
Critically ill patients frequently have substantially altered pharmacokinetics compared to non-critically ill patients. We investigated the impact of pharmacokinetic alterations on bacterial killing and resistance for commonly used meropenem dosing regimens. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate (MICmeropenem 0.25 mg/L) was studied in the hollow-fiber infection model (inoculum ∼10(7.5) CFU/mL; 10 days). Pharmacokinetic profiles representing critically ill patients with augmented renal clearance (ARC), normal, or impaired renal function (creatinine clearances of 285, 120 or ∼10 mL/min, respectively) were generated for three meropenem regimens (2g, 1g and 0...
March 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258551/crispr-cas9-mediated-targeted-mutagenesis-in-upland-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-l
#12
Madhusudhana R Janga, LeAnne M Campbell, Keerti S Rathore
The clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated (Cas)9 protein system has emerged as a simple and efficient tool for genome editing in eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to be functional in several crop species, yet there are no reports on the application of this or any other genome editing technologies in the cotton plant. Cotton is an important crop that is grown mainly for its fiber, but its seed also serves as a useful source of edible oil and feed protein. Most of the commercially-grown cotton is tetraploid, thus making it much more difficult to target both sets of homeologous alleles...
March 3, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254290/electrically-conductive-gel-fibers-composite-scaffold-with-graded-properties
#13
Sajedeh Khorshidi, Akbar Karkhaneh
Gradient biomaterials have emerged as fascinating platforms to satisfy the need for imitation of ubiquitous gradients in biology, especially those found at tissue interfaces. In the current study, a gradient fiber-hydrogel scaffold was fabricated to imitate the extracellular matrix of soft-to-hard tissue interfaces. For the fiber proportion, a gradient electrospinning was developed where controlled mixing of solutions with dissimilar concentration of a conductive polymer in injection vessel imparted a composition gradient to electrospinning jet, and thus electrospun fibers...
May 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249987/trpv4-ion-channel-is-a-novel-regulator-of-dermal-myofibroblast-differentiation
#14
Shweta Sharma, Rishov Goswami, Michael Merth, Jonathan Cohen, Kai Y Lei, David X Zhang, Shaik O Rahaman
Scleroderma is a multisystem fibroproliferative disease with no effective medical treatment. Myofibroblasts are critical to the fibrogenic tissue repair process in the skin and many internal organs. Emerging data support a role for both matrix stiffness, and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), in myofibroblast differentiation. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a mechanosensitive ion channel activated by both mechanical and biochemical stimuli. The objective of this study was to determine the role of TRPV4 in TGFβ1- and matrix stiffness-induced differentiation of dermal fibroblasts...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247342/muscle-stem-cells-a-model-system-for-adult-stem-cell-biology
#15
Ddw Cornelison, Eusebio Perdiguero
Skeletal muscle stem cells, originally termed satellite cells for their position adjacent to differentiated muscle fibers, are absolutely required for the process of skeletal muscle repair and regeneration. In the last decade, satellite cells have become one of the most studied adult stem cell systems and have emerged as a standard model not only in the field of stem cell-driven tissue regeneration but also in stem cell dysfunction and aging. Here, we provide background in the field and discuss recent advances in our understanding of muscle stem cell function and dysfunction, particularly in the case of aging, and the potential involvement of muscle stem cells in genetic diseases such as the muscular dystrophies...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244880/3d-printing-plga-a-quantitative-examination-of-the-effects-of-polymer-composition-and-printing-parameters-on-print-resolution
#16
Ting Guo, Timothy Holzberg, Casey Lim, Feng Gao, Ankit Gargava, Jordan Trachtenberg, Antonios Mikos, John Fisher
In the past few decades, 3D printing has played a significant role in fabricating scaffolds with consistent, complex structure that meets patient-specific needs in future clinical applications. Although many studies have contributed to this emerging field of additive manufacturing, which includes material development and computer-aided scaffold design, current quantitative analyses do not correlate material properties, printing parameters, and printing outcomes to a great extent. A model that correlates these properties has tremendous potential to standardize 3D printing for tissue engineering and biomaterial science...
February 28, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240741/genetic-ablation-of-ginip-expressing-primary-sensory-neurons-strongly-impairs-formalin-evoked-pain
#17
Louise Urien, Stéphane Gaillard, Laure Lo Re, Pascale Malapert, Manon Bohic, Ana Reynders, Aziz Moqrich
Primary sensory neurons are heterogeneous by myriad of molecular criteria. However, the functional significance of this remarkable heterogeneity is just emerging. We precedently described the GINIP(+) neurons as a new subpopulation of non peptidergic C-fibers encompassing the free nerve ending cutaneous MRGPRD(+) neurons and C-LTMRs. Using our recently generated ginip mouse model, we have been able to selectively ablate the GINIP(+) neurons and assess their functional role in the somatosensation. We found that ablation of GINIP(+) neurons affected neither the molecular contents nor the central projections of the spared neurons...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238778/fixed-spaced-stimulation-restores-adaptive-plasticity-within-the-spinal-cord-identifying-the-eliciting-conditions
#18
Kyle M Baumbauer, Joel D Turtle, James W Grau
Prior work has shown that neurons within the spinal cord are sensitive to temporal relations and that stimulus regularity impacts nociceptive processing and adaptive plasticity. Application of brief (80ms) shocks (180-900) in a variable manner induces a form of maladaptive plasticity that inhibits spinally-mediated learning and enhances nociceptive reactivity. In contrast, an extended exposure (720-900) to stimuli given at regular (fixed spaced) intervals has a restorative effect that counters nociceptive sensitization and enables learning...
February 24, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238143/electrospun-nanofiber-scaffolds-and-their-hydrogel-composites-for-the-engineering-and-regeneration-of-soft-tissues
#19
Ohan S Manoukian, Rita Matta, Justin Letendre, Paige Collins, Augustus D Mazzocca, Sangamesh G Kumbar
Electrospinning has emerged as a simple, elegant, and scalable technique that can be used to fabricate polymeric nanofibers. Pure polymers as well as blends and composites of both natural and synthetic ones have been successfully electrospun into nanofiber matrices for many biomedical applications. Tissue-engineered medical implants, such as polymeric nanofiber scaffolds, are potential alternatives to autografts and allografts, which are short in supply and carry risks of disease transmission. These scaffolds have been used to engineer various soft tissues, including connective tissues, such as skin, ligament, and tendon, as well as nonconnective ones, such as vascular, muscle, and neural tissue...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235546/non-traumatic-rhabdomyolysis-background-laboratory-features-and-acute-clinical-management
#20
REVIEW
Gianfranco Cervellin, Ivan Comelli, Mario Benatti, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Antonella Bassi, Giuseppe Lippi
Rhabdomyolysis is a relatively rare condition, but its clinical consequences are frequently dramatic in terms of both morbidity and mortality. Although no consensus has been reached so far about the precise definition of this condition, the term rhabdomyolysis describes a rapid breakdown of striated, or skeletal, muscle. It is hence characterized by the rupture and necrosis of muscle fibers, resulting in release of cell degradation products and intracellular elements within the bloodstream and extracellular space...
February 21, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
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