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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238778/fixed-spaced-stimulation-restores-adaptive-plasticity-within-the-spinal-cord-identifying-the-eliciting-conditions
#1
Kyle M Baumbauer, Joel D Turtle, James W Grau
Prior work has shown that neurons within the spinal cord are sensitive to temporal relations and that stimulus regularity impacts nociceptive processing and adaptive plasticity. Application of brief (80ms) shocks (180-900) in a variable manner induces a form of maladaptive plasticity that inhibits spinally-mediated learning and enhances nociceptive reactivity. In contrast, an extended exposure (720-900) to stimuli given at regular (fixed spaced) intervals has a restorative effect that counters nociceptive sensitization and enables learning...
February 23, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238143/electrospun-nanofiber-scaffolds-and-their-hydrogel-composites-for-the-engineering-and-regeneration-of-soft-tissues
#2
Ohan S Manoukian, Rita Matta, Justin Letendre, Paige Collins, Augustus D Mazzocca, Sangamesh G Kumbar
Electrospinning has emerged as a simple, elegant, and scalable technique that can be used to fabricate polymeric nanofibers. Pure polymers as well as blends and composites of both natural and synthetic ones have been successfully electrospun into nanofiber matrices for many biomedical applications. Tissue-engineered medical implants, such as polymeric nanofiber scaffolds, are potential alternatives to autografts and allografts, which are short in supply and carry risks of disease transmission. These scaffolds have been used to engineer various soft tissues, including connective tissues, such as skin, ligament, and tendon, as well as nonconnective ones, such as vascular, muscle, and neural tissue...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235546/non-traumatic-rhabdomyolysis-background-laboratory-features-and-acute-clinical-management
#3
REVIEW
Gianfranco Cervellin, Ivan Comelli, Mario Benatti, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Antonella Bassi, Giuseppe Lippi
Rhabdomyolysis is a relatively rare condition, but its clinical consequences are frequently dramatic in terms of both morbidity and mortality. Although no consensus has been reached so far about the precise definition of this condition, the term rhabdomyolysis describes a rapid breakdown of striated, or skeletal, muscle. It is hence characterized by the rupture and necrosis of muscle fibers, resulting in release of cell degradation products and intracellular elements within the bloodstream and extracellular space...
February 21, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227891/design-and-preliminary-assessment-of-a-smart-textile-for-respiratory-monitoring-based-on-an-array-of-fiber-bragg-gratings
#4
C Massaroni, M Ciocchetti, G Di Tomaso, P Saccomandi, M A Caponero, A Polimadei, D Formica, E Schena, C Massaroni, M Ciocchetti, G Di Tomaso, P Saccomandi, M A Caponero, A Polimadei, D Formica, E Schena, G Di Tomaso, M A Caponero, E Schena, M Ciocchetti, C Massaroni, A Polimadei, P Saccomandi, D Formica
Comfortable and easy to wear smart textiles have gained popularity for continuous respiratory monitoring. Among different emerging technologies, smart textiles based on fiber optic sensors (FOSs) have several advantages, like Magnetic Resonance (MR)-compatibility and good metrological properties. In this paper we report on the development and assessment of an MR-compatible smart textiles based on FOSs for respiratory monitoring. The system consists of six fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors glued on the textile to monitor six compartments of the chest wall (i...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223713/reduced-white-matter-integrity-in-antisocial-personality-disorder-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#5
Weixiong Jiang, Feng Shi, Huasheng Liu, Gang Li, Zhongxiang Ding, Hui Shen, Celina Shen, Seong-Whan Lee, Dewen Hu, Wei Wang, Dinggang Shen
Emerging neuroimaging research suggests that antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may be linked to abnormal brain anatomy, but little is known about possible impairments of white matter microstructure in ASPD, as well as their relationship with impulsivity or risky behaviors. In this study, we systematically investigated white matter abnormalities of ASPD using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures: fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD). Then, we further investigated their correlations with the scores of impulsivity or risky behaviors...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206829/validity-of-low-contrast-letter-acuity-as-a-visual-performance-outcome-measure-for-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Laura J Balcer, Jenelle Raynowska, Rachel Nolan, Steven L Galetta, Raju Kapoor, Ralph Benedict, Glenn Phillips, Nicholas LaRocca, Lynn Hudson, Richard Rudick
Low-contrast letter acuity (LCLA) has emerged as the leading outcome measure to assess visual disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) research. As visual dysfunction is one of the most common manifestations of MS, sensitive visual outcome measures are important in examining the effect of treatment. Low-contrast acuity captures visual loss not seen in high-contrast visual acuity (HCVA) measurements. These issues are addressed by the MS Outcome Assessments Consortium (MSOAC), including representatives from advocacy organizations, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), academic institutions, and industry partners along with persons living with MS...
February 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178519/structural-inheritance-of-the-actin-cytoskeletal-organization-determines-the-body-axis-in-regenerating-hydra
#7
Anton Livshits, Lital Shani-Zerbib, Yonit Maroudas-Sacks, Erez Braun, Kinneret Keren
Understanding how mechanics complement bio-signaling in defining patterns during morphogenesis is an outstanding challenge. Here, we utilize the multicellular polyp Hydra to investigate the role of the actomyosin cytoskeleton in morphogenesis. We find that the supra-cellular actin fiber organization is inherited from the parent Hydra and determines the body axis in regenerating tissue segments. This form of structural inheritance is non-trivial because of the tissue folding and dynamic actin reorganization involved...
February 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176460/application-of-bacteria-from-non-cultivated-plants-to-promote-growth-alter-root-architecture-and-alleviate-salt-stress-of-cotton
#8
Ivelisse Irizarry, James F White
AIMS: Cotton seeds are frequently treated with acid to remove fibers and reduce seed-transmitted diseases. This process also eliminates beneficial bacteria on the seed surface. The goal of this research was to seek and apply beneficial bacteria to acid delinted cotton seeds to evaluate their growth promoting and salt stress alleviating effects in seedlings. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacteria were isolated from non-cultivated plants in the Malvaceae. Seeds were collected from Portia tree (Thespesia populnea) and wild cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) from coastal and arid areas of Puerto Rico...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167022/differences-in-nutritional-quality-between-wild-and-domesticated-forms-of-barley-and-emmer-wheat
#9
REVIEW
Kim Henrik Hebelstrup
Grasses such as wheat and barley constitute some of the main crops currently cultivated worldwide. Cultivation of wild cereals such as Hordeum spontaneum (wild barley) and Triticum diccocoides (wild emmer) started in southwest Asia. Despite the many studies on the origins of agriculture and plant domestication, surprisingly few studies have discussed the importance of the nutritional quality of barley and emmer wheat in their evolution. A comparison of domesticated forms of these cereals with their wild progenitors suggests an evolution towards bigger grains with higher glycemic loads in the form of higher relative starch content with lower relative protein, fiber and mineral contents...
March 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155258/phytochemicals-in-whole-grain-wheat-and-their-health-promoting-effects
#10
Yingdong Zhu, Shengmin Sang
Accumulated evidence in epidemiological studies has consistently shown that consumption of whole grains is inversely associated with risk of major chronic diseases such as certain types of cancer, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Dietary fiber has been reported to be responsible for the health effects of whole grain consumption. Evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies is emerging that, in addition to dietary fiber and minerals, the unique phytochemicals in whole grains may in part contribute to these health-promoting effects...
February 3, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153411/linking-chromatin-fibers-to-gene-folding-by-hierarchical-looping
#11
REVIEW
Gavin Bascom, Tamar Schlick
While much is known about DNA structure on the basepair level, this scale represents only a fraction of the structural levels involved in folding the genomic material. With recent advances in experimental and theoretical techniques, a variety of structures have been observed on the fiber, gene, and chromosome levels of genome organization. Here we view chromatin architecture from nucleosomes and fibers to genes and chromosomes, highlighting the rich structural diversity and fiber fluidity emerging from both experimental and theoretical techniques...
February 7, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148306/agonist-muscle-adaptation-accompanied-by-antagonist-muscle-atrophy-in-the-hindlimb-of-mice-following-stretch-shortening-contraction-training
#12
Erik P Rader, Marshall A Naimo, James Ensey, Brent A Baker
BACKGROUND: The vast majority of dynamometer-based animal models for investigation of the response to chronic muscle contraction exposure has been limited to analysis of isometric, lengthening, or shortening contractions in isolation. An exception to this has been the utilization of a rat model to study stretch-shortening contractions (SSCs), a sequence of consecutive isometric, lengthening, and shortening contractions common during daily activity and resistance-type exercise. However, the availability of diverse genetic strains of rats is limited...
February 2, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147442/emerging-ocular-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-disease
#13
REVIEW
Peter van Wijngaarden, Xavier Hadoux, Mostafa Alwan, Stuart Keel, Mohamed Dirani
Interest in reliable biomarkers of Alzheimer disease, the leading cause of dementia, has been fuelled by challenges in diagnosing the disease and monitoring disease progression as well as the response to therapy. A range of ocular manifestations of Alzheimer disease, including retinal and lens amyloid-beta accumulation, retinal nerve fiber layer loss, and retinal vascular changes, have been proposed as potential biomarkers of the disease. Herein, we examine the evidence regarding the potential value of these ocular biomarkers of Alzheimer disease...
January 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145514/photon-phonon-interaction-in-a-microfiber-induced-by-optical-and-electrostrictive-forces
#14
Yun-Chao Shi, Wei Luo, Fei Xu, Yan-Qing Lu
Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) via electrostrictive force is a fundamental interaction between light and sound which limits the power in conventional optical fibers. The emergence of optical microfibers with subwavelength diameter, ultralight mass and an intense light field, provides a new platform for photon-phonon coupling, resulting in the radiation pressure mediated contribution of SBS. This study examines the optomechanical system in cylindrical coordinates, reveals the theoretically radiation pressure induced analogous, and demonstrates contrary effect compared with electrostrictive force in solid or hollow silica microfibers...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143728/isolated-internuclear-ophthalmoplegia-after-massive-supratentorial-epidural-hematoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Ko-Ting Chen, Tzu-Kang Lin, Tsung-Che Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Isolated internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is rare, with most reported patients having minor head injuries. We report a patient with INO after a massive supratentorial epidural hematoma. We review the literature published since 1966, to summarize the mechanisms of injury and clinical outcomes of INO after TBI. CASE DESCRIPTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW: A 54-year-old woman had isolated INO 10 hours after emergent evacuation of a massive supratentorial epidural hematoma...
January 29, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135076/surface-initiated-controlled-radical-polymerization-state-of-the-art-opportunities-and-challenges-in-surface-and-interface-engineering-with-polymer-brushes
#16
Justin O Zoppe, Nariye Cavusoglu Ataman, Piotr Mocny, Jian Wang, John Moraes, Harm-Anton Klok
The generation of polymer brushes by surface-initiated controlled radical polymerization (SI-CRP) techniques has become a powerful approach to tailor the chemical and physical properties of interfaces and has given rise to great advances in surface and interface engineering. Polymer brushes are defined as thin polymer films in which the individual polymer chains are tethered by one chain end to a solid interface. Significant advances have been made over the past years in the field of polymer brushes. This includes novel developments in SI-CRP, as well as the emergence of novel applications such as catalysis, electronics, nanomaterial synthesis and biosensing...
January 30, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123065/flow-assisted-assembly-of-nanostructured-protein-microfibers
#17
Ayaka Kamada, Nitesh Mittal, L Daniel Söderberg, Tobias Ingverud, Wiebke Ohm, Stephan V Roth, Fredrik Lundell, Christofer Lendel
Some of the most remarkable materials in nature are made from proteins. The properties of these materials are closely connected to the hierarchical assembly of the protein building blocks. In this perspective, amyloid-like protein nanofibrils (PNFs) have emerged as a promising foundation for the synthesis of novel bio-based materials for a variety of applications. Whereas recent advances have revealed the molecular structure of PNFs, the mechanisms associated with fibril-fibril interactions and their assembly into macroscale structures remain largely unexplored...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122988/molecular-analysis-of-arthrobacter-myovirus-vb_artm-arv1-we-blame-it-on-the-tail
#18
Laura Kaliniene, Eugenijus Šimoliūnas, Lidija Truncaitė, Aurelija Zajančkauskaitė, Juozas Nainys, Algirdas Kaupinis, Mindaugas Valius, Rolandas Meškys
This is the first report on a myophage that infects Arthrobacter A novel virus vB_ArtM-ArV1 (ArV1) was isolated from soil using Arthrobacter sp. 68b strain for phage propagation. Transmission electron microscopy showed its resemblance to members of the family Myoviridae: ArV1 has an isometric head (∼74 nm in diameter) and a contractile non-flexible tail (∼192 nm). Phylogenetic and comparative sequence analyses, however, revealed that ArV1 has more genes in common with phages from the family Siphoviridae than it does with any myovirus characterized to date...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120089/awake-craniotomy-for-tumor-resection-further-optimizing-therapy-of-brain-tumors
#19
H Maximilian Mehdorn, Felix Schwartz, Juliane Becker
In recent years more and more data have emerged linking the most radical resection to prolonged survival in patients harboring brain tumors. Since total tumor resection could increase postoperative morbidity, many methods have been suggested to reduce the risk of postoperative neurological deficits: awake craniotomy with the possibility of continuous patient-surgeon communication is one of the possibilities of finding out how radical a tumor resection can possibly be without causing permanent harm to the patient...
2017: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118416/topical-review-potential-use-of-botulinum-toxin-in-the-management-of-painful-posttraumatic-trigeminal-neuropathy
#20
Nathan Moreau, Wisam Dieb, Vianney Descroix, Peter Svensson, Malin Ernberg, Yves Boucher
Painful posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy (PPTTN) is a chronic condition that is difficult to endure and has a poorly understood pathophysiology. Treatment options are limited and often unsatisfactory due to insufficient efficacy and significant adverse effects. Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A), initially used in the management of pathologically sustained or twisting muscular contractions, has recently been advocated for treatment of neuropathic pain. Its action is not limited to the blockage of acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction, but also includes inhibition of exocytosis of other neurotransmitters by interfering with the SNARE complexes of synaptic membranes...
January 2017: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
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