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Fibers emerging

Amado M Velázquez-Benítez, K Yanín Guerra-Santillán, Raúl Caudillo-Viurquez, J Enrique Antonio-López, Rodrigo Amezcua-Correa, Juan Hernández-Cordero
We demonstrate a simple approach based on a photonic lantern spatial-mode multiplexer and a few-mode fiber for optical and manipulation of multiple microspheres. Selective generation of linearly polarized (LP) fiber modes provides light patterns useful for trapping one or multiple microparticles. Furthermore, rotation of the particles can be achieved by switching between degenerate LP modes, as well as through polarization rotation of the input light. Our results show that emerging fiber optic devices such as photonic lanterns can provide a versatile and compact means for developing optical fiber traps...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Isadora C Furigo, Pryscila D S Teixeira, Thais T Zampieri, Frederick Wasinski, Daniella C Buonfiglio, Jose Donato
Several metabolic adaptations emerge during pregnancy and continue through lactation, including increases in food intake and body weight, as well as insulin and leptin resistance. These maternal adaptations are thought to play a role in offspring viability and success. Using a model of attenuated maternal metabolic adaptations induced by ablation of the Socs3 gene in leptin receptor expressing cells (SOCS3 KO mice), our study aimed to investigate whether maternal metabolic changes are required for normal offspring development, and if their absence causes metabolic imbalances in adulthood...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Antonio Tursi, Amerigo Beneduci, Francesco Chidichimo, Nicoletta De Vietro, Giuseppe Chidichimo
Remediation of water bodies from petroleum hydrocarbons is of the utmost importance due to health risks related to the high toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of the hydrocarbons components that may enter into the food chain. Though several methods were proposed to face up this challenge, they are generally not easily feasible at a contaminated site and quite costly. Here we propose a green, cost-effective technology based on hydrophobized Spanish Broom (SB) cellulose fiber. The natural cellulose fiber was extracted by alkaline digestion of the raw vegetable...
March 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Mathias Schlenk, Eddie Hofmann, Susanne Seibt, Sabine Rosenfeldt, Lukas Schrack, Markus Drechsler, Andre Rothkirch, Wiebke Ohm, Josef Breu, Stephan Gekle, Stephan Förster
Liquid micro-jets play a key role in fiber spinning, inkjet printing and coating processes. In all these applications, the liquid jets carry dispersed particles whose spatial and orientational distributions within the jet critically influence the properties of the fabricated structures. Despite its importance, there is currently no knowledge about the orientational distribution of particles within micro-jets and droplets. Here we demonstrate a microfluidic device that allows to de-termine the local particle distribution and orientation by X-ray scattering...
March 12, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Alessandra H Ide, José Manuel F Nogueira
A new hybrid microextraction technique (hollow fiber microextraction) is presented that uses the main concepts and advantages of the modern miniaturized devices used for trace analysis. This novel analytical approach uses devices made of polypropylene membranes (10.0 mm long and 0.6 mm internal diameter) in which convenient organic solvents are embedded that promote fast kinetics during the enrichment process, using the floating sampling technology concept. An innovative analytical cycle is also proposed by use of low-cost disposable devices during the microextraction stage together with a user-friendly ("single liquid desorption step") back-extraction stage in compliance with green analytical chemistry principles...
March 10, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Franziska Feichtner, Anna Schachner, Evelyn Berger, Michael Hess
The recent emergence of fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV) induced disease outbreaks in chicken flocks worldwide, with distinct aetiologies confined to particular FAdV species and serotypes, is increasingly urging the need for specific and mass-applicable antibody screening systems. Despite this exigency, there are to date no available serological procedures which satisfactorily combine the criteria for sensitive detection of antibodies against FAdVs, diagnostic reliability in face of cross-reactions and requirements for a rapid and large-scale application...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Nan Jiang, Yunuen Montelongo, Haider Butt, Ali K Yetisen
Contact lens is a ubiquitous technology used for vision correction and cosmetics. Sensing in contact lenses has emerged as a potential platform for minimally invasive point-of-care diagnostics. Here, a microlithography method is developed to fabricate microconcavities and microchannels in a hydrogel-based contact lens via a combination of laser patterning and embedded templating. Optical microlithography parameters influencing the formation of microconcavities including ablation power (4.3 W) and beam speed (50 mm s-1 ) are optimized to control the microconcavity depth (100 µm) and diameter (1...
March 9, 2018: Small
Xinyu Wang, Jiahua Pu, Bolin An, Yingfeng Li, Yuequn Shang, Zhijun Ning, Yi Liu, Fang Ba, Jiaming Zhang, Chao Zhong
Programming living cells to organize inorganic nano-objects (NOs) in a spatiotemporally precise fashion would advance new techniques for creating ordered ensembles of NOs and new bio-abiotic hybrid materials with emerging functionalities. Bacterial cells often grow in cellular communities called biofilms. Here, a strategy is reported for programming dynamic biofilm formation for the synchronized assembly of discrete NOs or hetero-nanostructures on diverse interfaces in a dynamic, scalable, and hierarchical fashion...
March 8, 2018: Advanced Materials
Naoki Wada, Takahiro Shimizu, Nobutaka Shimizu, William C de Groat, Anthony J Kanai, Pradeep Tyagi, Hidehiro Kakizaki, Naoki Yoshimura
AIMS: To investigate the role of nerve growth factor (NGF) in lower urinary tract dysfunction in mice with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Using 4-week SCI mice, single-filling cystometry and external urethral sphincter (EUS)-electromyography were performed under an awake condition. In some SCI mice, anti-NGF antibodies (10 µg/kg/h) were administered for 1 or 2 weeks before the urodynamic study. NGF levels in the bladder and L6/S1 spinal cord were assayed by ELISA...
March 8, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Muhammad A Saeed, Mohammed H Rashid, Jane Vaughan, Abdul Jabbar
Members of the genus Sarcocystis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) are intracellular protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of domestic and wild animals, resulting in economic losses in production animals worldwide. Sarcocystis spp. have indirect life-cycles where canids and felids serve as main definitive hosts while a range of domestic and wild animals serve as intermediate hosts, including South American camelids (SACs) such as alpacas, llamas and guanacos. These animals primarily occur in South American countries on Andean, elevated plains but in recent years, alpacas and llamas have become emerging animal industries in other parts of the world such as Australia, Europe and the USA due to their high-quality fiber, meat and hides...
March 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Stephanie Hartmann, Fang Zheng, Michele Constanze Kyncl, Sandra Karch, Kerstin Voelkl, Benedikt Zott, Carla D'Avanzo, Selene Lomoio, Giuseppina Tesco, Doo Yeon Kim, Christian Alzheimer, Tobias Huth
β-Secretase BACE1 is deemed a major culprit in Alzheimer's disease, but accumulating evidence indicates that there is more to the enzyme than driving the amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein. For example, BACE1 has emerged as an important regulator of neuronal activity through proteolytic and, most unexpectedly, also through non-proteolytic interactions with several ion channels. Here, we identify and characterize the voltage-gated K+ channel 3.4 as a new and functionally relevant interaction partner of BACE1...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Eero Kontturi, Päivi Laaksonen, Markus B Linder, Nonappa, André H Gröschel, Orlando J Rojas, Olli Ikkala
There is an emerging quest for lightweight materials with excellent mechanical properties and economic production, while still being sustainable and functionalizable. They could form the basis of the future bioeconomy for energy and material efficiency. Cellulose has long been recognized as an abundant polymer. Modified celluloses were, in fact, among the first polymers used in technical applications; however, they were later replaced by petroleum-based synthetic polymers. Currently, there is a resurgence of interest to utilize renewable resources, where cellulose is foreseen to make again a major impact, this time in the development of advanced materials...
March 5, 2018: Advanced Materials
Maocai Zhai, Junyi Guo, Haiyan Ma, Wei Shi, David Jou, Dan Yan, Tianshu Liu, Jingwen Tao, Jialin Duan, Yina Wang, Sheng Li, Jiagao Lv, Chenglong Li, Jiayuh Lin, Cuntai Zhang, Li Lin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is a chronic inflammatory disease in which signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) play important roles. However, it remains unclear whether ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid, can have an impact on STAT3 and ADAM17 and hence influence the formation of AAA. The objective of this study was to characterize the potential effect of UA on the pathogenesis of AAA and on STAT3 and ADAM17...
February 15, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Giuseppe Angelico, Rosario Caltabiano, Carla Loreto, Antonio Ieni, Giovanni Tuccari, Caterina Ledda, Venerando Rapisarda
BACKGROUND: The immunohistochemical expression of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in asbestos-related malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is emerging as a useful prognostic indicator of improved survival. A significantly increased incidence of MPM in a small town in southern Italy was ascribed to exposure to fluoro-edenite (FE), a naturally occurring asbestos fiber. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of AQP1 in patients affected by FE-related MPM; taking into consideration its suggested independent prognostic role, its possible correlation with clinicopathological parameters and patient outcome was also evaluated...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Joana S Paiva, Rita S R Ribeiro, João P S Cunha, Carla C Rosa, Pedro A S Jorge
Recent trends on microbiology point out the urge to develop optical micro-tools with multifunctionalities such as simultaneous manipulation and sensing. Considering that miniaturization has been recognized as one of the most important paradigms of emerging sensing biotechnologies, optical fiber tools, including Optical Fiber Tweezers (OFTs), are suitable candidates for developing multifunctional small sensors for Medicine and Biology. OFTs are flexible and versatile optotools based on fibers with one extremity patterned to form a micro-lens...
February 27, 2018: Sensors
A P W Barrows, S E Cathey, C W Petersen
Microplastic and microfiber pollution has been documented in all major ocean basins. Microfibers are one of the most common microparticle pollutants along shorelines. Over 9 million tons of fibers are produced annually; 60% are synthetic and ∼25% are non-synthetic. Non-synthetic and semi-synthetic microfibers are infrequently documented and not typically included in marine environment impact analyses, resulting in underestimation of a potentially pervasive and harmful pollutant. We present the most extensive worldwide microparticle distribution dataset using 1-liter grab samples (n = 1393)...
February 26, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Célia Ventura, António Sousa-Uva, João Lavinha, Maria João Silva
The widespread application of carbon nanotubes (CNT) on industrial, biomedical, and consumer products can represent an emerging respiratory occupational hazard. Particularly, their similarity with the fiber-like shape of asbestos have raised a strong concern about their carcinogenic potential. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have been supporting this view by pointing to immunotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of some CNT that may conduct to pulmonary inflammation, fibrosis, and bronchioloalveolar hyperplasia in rodents...
February 26, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Di Zhou, Leyou Zhang, Xiaoming Mao
Disordered fiber networks are ubiquitous in a broad range of natural (e.g., cytoskeleton) and manmade (e.g., aerogels) materials. In this Letter, we discuss the emergence of topological floppy edge modes in two-dimensional fiber networks as a result of deformation or active driving. It is known that a network of straight fibers exhibits bulk floppy modes which only bend the fibers without stretching them. We find that, interestingly, with a perturbation in geometry, these bulk modes evolve into edge modes. We introduce a topological index for these edge modes and discuss their implications in biology...
February 9, 2018: Physical Review Letters
M Albéric, A Gourrier, W Wagermaier, P Fratzl, I Reiche
Elephant tusks are composed of dentin or ivory, a hierarchical and composite biological material made of mineralized collagen fibers (MCF). The specific arrangement of the MCF is believed to be responsible for the optical and mechanical properties of the tusks. Especially the MCF organization likely contributes to the formation of the bright and dark checkerboard pattern observed on polished sections of tusks (Schreger pattern). Yet, the precise structural origin of this optical motif is still controversial...
February 22, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Erkman Sanri, Ebru Unal Akoglu, Sinan Karacabey, Ural Verimli, Haldun Akoglu, Umit Sehirli, Arzu Denizbasi
OBJECTIVES: Confirmation of the endotracheal tube placement (CoETP) has the utmost importance in the management of an airway. Visualization of tracheal rings or carina with a fiber-optical bronchoscope (FOB) has considered to be a reliable method for the CoETP. However, FOB is expensive, time-consuming, and not always practical. Inexpensive endoscopic USB-cameras were shown to aid intubation successfully and reliably. On the other hand, there have been no studies investigating their use for the CoETP...
February 17, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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