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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934148/tomato-leaf-curl-new-delhi-virus-an-emerging-virus-complex-threatening-vegetable-and-fiber-crops
#1
REVIEW
Enrique Moriones, Shelly Praveen, Supriya Chakraborty
The tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) represents an important constraint to tomato production, as it causes the most predominant and economically important disease affecting tomato in the Indian sub-continent. However, in recent years, ToLCNDV has been fast extending its host range and spreading to new geographical regions, including the Middle East and the western Mediterranean Basin. Extensive research on the genome structure, protein functions, molecular biology, and plant-virus interactions of ToLCNDV has been conducted in the last decade...
September 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929741/visible-light-neural-stimulation-on-graphitic-carbon-nitride-graphene-photocatalytic-fibers
#2
Zhongyang Zhang, Ruodan Xu, Zegao Wang, Mingdong Dong, Bianxiao Cui, Menglin Chen
Light stimulation allows remote and spatiotemporally accurate operation that has been applied as effective, non-invasive means of therapeutic interventions. Here, visible light neural stimulation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), an emerging photocatalyst with visible-light optoelectronic conversion, was for the first time investigated. Specifically, g-C3N4 was combined with graphene oxide (GO) in a 3D manner on the surfaces of electrospun polycaprolactone/gelatin (PG) fibers and functioned as a biocompatible interface for visible-light stimulating neuronal differentiation...
September 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923774/endotoxin-adsorption-direct-hemoperfusion-with-the-polymyxin-b-immobilized-fiber-column-pmx
#3
REVIEW
Tomoharu Shimizu, Toru Miyake, Naomi Kitamura, Masaji Tani, Yoshihiro Endo
Toraymyxin(®) is a medical device developed to adsorb circulating endotoxins in the blood using direct hemoperfusion therapy for patients with septic shock. In 1994, the Japanese National Health Insurance system approved the use of Toraymyxin for the treatment of endotoxemia and septic shock. Since then, Toraymyxin has been safely used in more than 100,000 cases in emergency and intensive care units in Japan. Toraymyxin is currently available for use in the clinical setting in 14 countries worldwide. In this study, we reviewed and introduced the development, clinical use, and efficacy of Toraymyxin and commented on its anticoagulant use and cartridge clotting issue in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock...
August 31, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919849/interhemispheric-resting-state-functional-connectivity-predicts-severity-of-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#4
Yousuke Ogata, Akihiko Ozaki, Miho Ota, Yurie Oka, Namiko Nishida, Hayato Tabu, Noriko Sato, Takashi Hanakawa
Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is characterized by a clinical triad (gait disturbance, dementia, and urinary incontinence), and by radiological findings of enlarged ventricles reflecting disturbance of central spinal fluid circulation. A diagnosis of iNPH is sometimes challenging, and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the clinical symptoms of iNPH remain largely unknown. Here, we used an emerging MRI technique, resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rsfcMRI), to develop a subsidiary diagnostic technique and to explore the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of iNPH...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914924/additivity-of-the-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion-in-silicate-optical-fibers
#5
M Cavillon, P D Dragic, J Ballato
A model that predicts the material additivity of the thermal expansion coefficient in the binary silicate glasses most commonly used for present (GeO2-SiO2, P2O5-SiO2, B2O3-SiO2, and Al2O3-SiO2) and emerging (BaO-SiO2) optical fibers is proposed. This model is based on a derivation of the expression for the coefficient of thermal expansion in isotropic solids, and gives direct insight on the parameters that govern its additivity in silicate glasses. Furthermore, a consideration of the local structural environment of the glass system is necessary to fully describe its additivity behavior in the investigated systems...
September 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912436/distributed-acoustic-sensing-for-seismic-monitoring-of-the-near-surface-a-traffic-noise-interferometry-case-study
#6
Shan Dou, Nate Lindsey, Anna M Wagner, Thomas M Daley, Barry Freifeld, Michelle Robertson, John Peterson, Craig Ulrich, Eileen R Martin, Jonathan B Ajo-Franklin
Ambient-noise-based seismic monitoring of the near surface often has limited spatiotemporal resolutions because dense seismic arrays are rarely sufficiently affordable for such applications. In recent years, however, distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) techniques have emerged to transform telecommunication fiber-optic cables into dense seismic arrays that are cost effective. With DAS enabling both high sensor counts ("large N") and long-term operations ("large T"), time-lapse imaging of shear-wave velocity (V S ) structures is now possible by combining ambient noise interferometry and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW)...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899091/thermodynamic-origin-of-multi-layer-structures-in-langmuir-polymer-films
#7
Volker Knecht, Günter Reiter, Renate Reiter
The emergence of polymer-free water surface in a Langmuir polymer films at conditions where a homogeneous coverage has been expected previously is explained on the basis of the surface tensions of polymer and water, γ_(pv) and γ_(wv), respectively, as well as the interfacial tension between the two materials, γ_(pw). The polymer molecules considered are 22-residue poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate)(PBLG) peptides in α-helical conformation. Values for γ_(pv) and γ_(pw) derived from MD simulations are consistent with values inferred from experiments considering the emergence of polymer-free surface area for ultra thin films studied using the surface forces apparatus in earlier work...
September 12, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892195/metal-free-carbon-materials-for-co2-electrochemical-reduction
#8
REVIEW
Xiaochuan Duan, Jiantie Xu, Zengxi Wei, Jianmin Ma, Shaojun Guo, Shuangyin Wang, Huakun Liu, Shixue Dou
The rapid increase of the CO2 concentration in the Earth's atmosphere has resulted in numerous environmental issues, such as global warming, ocean acidification, melting of the polar ice, rising sea level, and extinction of species. To search for suitable and capable catalytic systems for CO2 conversion, electrochemical reduction of CO2 (CO2 RR) holds great promise. Emerging heterogeneous carbon materials have been considered as promising metal-free electrocatalysts for the CO2 RR, owing to their abundant natural resources, tailorable porous structures, resistance to acids and bases, high-temperature stability, and environmental friendliness...
September 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892032/semi-automated-analysis-of-mouse-skeletal-muscle-morphology-and-fiber-type-composition
#9
Sidharth Tyagi, Donald Beqollari, Chang Seok Lee, Lori A Walker, Roger A Bannister
For years, distinctions between skeletal muscle fiber types were best visualized by myosin-ATPase staining. More recently, immunohistochemical staining of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms has emerged as a finer discriminator of fiber-type. Type I, type IIA, type IIX and type IIB fibers can now be identified with precision based on their MyHC profile; however, manual analysis of these data can be slow and down-right tedious. In this regard, rapid, accurate assessment of fiber-type composition and morphology is a very desirable tool...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886240/a-review-of-diffusion-mri-of-typical-white-matter-development-from-early-childhood-to-young-adulthood
#10
Catherine Lebel, Sarah Treit, Christian Beaulieu
Understanding typical, healthy brain development provides a baseline from which to detect and characterize brain anomalies associated with various neurological or psychiatric disorders and diseases. Diffusion MRI is well suited to study white matter development, as it can virtually extract individual tracts and yield parameters that may reflect alterations in the underlying neural micro-structure (e.g. myelination, axon density, fiber coherence), though it is limited by its lack of specificity and other methodological concerns...
September 8, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883813/a-structural-and-functional-elucidation-of-the-rumen-microbiome-influenced-by-various-diets-and-microenvironments
#11
Simon Deusch, Amélia Camarinha-Silva, Jürgen Conrad, Uwe Beifuss, Markus Rodehutscord, Jana Seifert
The structure and function of the microbiome inhabiting the rumen are, amongst other factors, mainly shaped by the animal's feed intake. Describing the influence of different diets on the inherent community arrangement and associated metabolic activities of the most active ruminal fractions (bacteria and archaea) is of great interest for animal nutrition, biotechnology, and climatology. Samples were obtained from three fistulated Jersey cows rotationally fed with corn silage, grass silage or grass hay, each supplemented with a concentrate mixture...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878625/non-autonomous-cellular-responses-to-ototoxic-drug-induced-stress-and-death
#12
REVIEW
Shimon P Francis, Lisa L Cunningham
The first major recognition of drug-induced hearing loss can be traced back more than seven decades to the development of streptomycin as an antimicrobial agent. Since then at least 130 therapeutic drugs have been recognized as having ototoxic side-effects. Two important classes of ototoxic drugs are the aminoglycoside antibiotics and the platinum-based antineoplastic agents. These drugs save the lives of millions of people worldwide, but they also cause irreparable hearing loss. In the inner ear, sensory hair cells (HCs) and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are important cellular targets of these drugs, and most mechanistic studies have focused on the cell-autonomous responses of these cell types in response to ototoxic stress...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868557/latest-advances-in-supercapacitors-from-new-electrode-materials-to-novel-device-designs
#13
REVIEW
Faxing Wang, Xiongwei Wu, Xinhai Yuan, Zaichun Liu, Yi Zhang, Lijun Fu, Yusong Zhu, Qingming Zhou, Yuping Wu, Wei Huang
Notably, many significant breakthroughs for a new generation of supercapacitors have been reported in recent years, related to theoretical understanding, material synthesis and device designs. Herein, we summarize the state-of-the-art progress toward mechanisms, new materials, and novel device designs for supercapacitors. Firstly, fundamental understanding of the mechanism is mainly focused on the relationship between the structural properties of electrode materials and their electrochemical performances based on some in situ characterization techniques and simulations...
September 4, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866728/electrochemical-measurement-of-quantal-exocytosis-using-microchips
#14
REVIEW
Kevin D Gillis, Xin A Liu, Andrea Marcantoni, Valentina Carabelli
Carbon-fiber electrodes (CFEs) are the gold standard for quantifying the release of oxidizable neurotransmitters from single vesicles and single cells. Over the last 15 years, microfabricated devices have emerged as alternatives to CFEs that offer the possibility of higher throughput, subcellular spatial resolution of exocytosis, and integration with other techniques for probing exocytosis including microfluidic cell handling and solution exchange, optical imaging and stimulation, and electrophysiological recording and stimulation...
September 2, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864781/homocysteine-inhibits-angiogenesis-through-cytoskeleton-remodeling
#15
Lemen Pan, Guanfeng Yu, Jingyong Huang, Xiangtao Zheng, Yinghua Xu
Homocysteine (Hcy) is an intermediate non-diet amino acid connecting methionine and folate cycles. Elevated total Hcy level in blood, denoted hyperhomocysteinemia, has emerged as a prevalent and strong risk factor for multiple diseases including atherosclerotic vascular disease in coronary, cerebral and peripheral vessels. Its detrimental effect on vascular system implies the potential application as an inhibitor of angiogenesis. However, the detailed mechanism is unveiled. Inhibitory effect of Hcy was assessed on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced cell proliferation and migration with endothelial cell culture system...
September 1, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859334/sod1g93a-mutant-mice-develop-a-neuroinflammation-independent-dendropathy-in-excitatory-neuronal-subsets-of-the-olfactory-bulb-and-retina
#16
Cornelia Ringer, Eberhard Weihe, Burkhard Schütz
Nonmotor neuron-related pathology is a feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), both in patients and in animal models. There is emerging evidence that sensory systems (olfaction and vision) are affected in humans. Here, we asked whether such sensory neuropathology is recapitulated in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1G93A) mouse model of ALS. Neuronal vacuolization in olfaction and vision pathways was assessed in tissue sections from presymptomatic and symptomatic disease stages, and compared to wild type...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852159/loss-of-the-podocyte-glucocorticoid-receptor-exacerbates-proteinuria-after-injury
#17
Han Zhou, Xuefei Tian, Alda Tufro, Gilbert Moeckel, Shuta Ishibe, Julie Goodwin
Nephrotic syndrome is a common disorder in adults and children whose etiology is largely unknown. Glucocorticoids remain the mainstay of therapy in most cases, though their mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Emerging evidence suggests that immunomodulatory therapies used in nephrotic syndrome directly target the podocytes. To study how steroids directly affect the podocytes in the treatment of proteinuria, we created a mouse model with podocyte-specific deletion of the glucocorticoid receptor. The podocyte-specific glucocorticoid receptor (GR) knockout mice had similar renal function and protein excretion compared to wild type...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852121/templated-assembly-of-collagen-fibers-directs-cell-growth-in-2d-and-3d
#18
G Y Liu, R Agarwal, K R Ko, M Ruthven, H T Sarhan, J P Frampton
Collagen is widely used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, with many examples of collagen-based biomaterials emerging in recent years. While there are numerous methods available for forming collagen scaffolds from isolated collagen, existing biomaterial processing techniques are unable to efficiently align collagen at the microstructural level, which is important for providing appropriate cell recognition and mechanical properties. Although some attention has shifted to development of fiber-based collagen biomaterials, existing techniques for producing and aligning collagen fibers are not appropriate for large-scale fiber manufacturing...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846385/diels-alder-clickable-biodegradable-nanofibers-benign-tailoring-of-scaffolds-for-biomolecular-immobilization-and-cell-growth
#19
Ozlem Ipek Kalaoglu-Altan, Azize Kirac-Aydin, Burcu Sumer Bolu, Rana Sanyal, Amitav Sanyal
Biodegradable polymeric nanofibers have emerged as promising candidates for several biomedical applications such as tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Many of these applications require modification of these nanofibers with small ligands or biomolecules such as peptides and other growth factors, which necessitates functionalization of these materials in mild and benign fashion. This study reports the design, synthesis, and functionalization of such nanofibers and evaluates their application as a cell culture scaffold...
September 5, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841859/a-gja9-frameshift-variant-is-associated-with-polyneuropathy-in-leonberger-dogs
#20
Doreen Becker, Katie M Minor, Anna Letko, Kari J Ekenstedt, Vidhya Jagannathan, Tosso Leeb, G Diane Shelton, James R Mickelson, Cord Drögemüller
BACKGROUND: Many inherited polyneuropathies (PN) observed in dogs have clinical similarities to the genetically heterogeneous group of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) peripheral neuropathies in humans. The canine disorders collectively show a variable expression of progressive clinical signs and ages of onset, and different breed prevalences. Previously in the Leonberger breed, a variant highly associated with a juvenile-onset PN was identified in the canine orthologue of a CMT-associated gene...
August 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
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