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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538698/diet-hypotheses-in-light-of-the-microbiota-revolution-new-perspectives
#1
REVIEW
Tomasz P Wypych, Benjamin J Marsland
From an evolutionary standpoint, allergy has only recently emerged as a significant health problem. Various hypotheses were proposed to explain this, but they all indicated the importance of rapid lifestyle changes, which occurred in industrialized countries in the last few decades. In this review, we discuss evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies that indicate changes in dietary habits may have played an important role in this phenomenon. Based on the example of dietary fiber, we discuss molecular mechanisms behind this and point towards the importance of diet-induced changes in the microbiota...
May 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535479/adsorption-of-vocs-onto-engineered-carbon-materials-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Xueyang Zhang, Bin Gao, Anne Elise Creamer, Chengcheng Cao, Yuncong Li
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) severely threaten human health and the ecological environment because most of them are toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic. The persistent increase of VOCs together with the stringent regulations make the reduction of VOC emissions more imperative. Up to now, numerous VOC treatment technologies have emerged, such as incineration, condensation, biological degradation, absorption, adsorption, and catalysis oxidation et al. Among them, the adsorption technology has been recognized as an efficient and economical control strategy because it has the potential to recover and reuse both adsorbent and adsorbate...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532102/islet-encapsulated-implantable-composite-hollow-fiber-membrane-based-device-a-bioartificial-pancreas
#3
Rohit S Teotia, Sachin Kadam, Atul Kumar Singh, Surendra Kumar Verma, Ashutosh Bahulekar, Sujata Kanetkar, Jayesh Bellare
Islets from xeno-sources and islet like clusters derived from autologus stem cells have emerged as alternatives to cadaveric pancreas used for treatment of type 1 diabetes. However, the immuno-isolation of these islets from the host immune system suffers from the issue of biocompatibility and hypoxia. To overcome the issues of immunobarrier biocompatibility, we developed a Polysulfone (Psf)/TPGS composite hollow fiber membrane (HFM) using a hollow fiber spinning pilot plant specially developed for this purpose...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528595/implications-of-white-striping-and-spaghetti-meat-abnormalities-on-meat-quality-and-histological-features-in-broilers
#4
G Baldi, F Soglia, M Mazzoni, F Sirri, L Canonico, E Babini, L Laghi, C Cavani, M Petracci
During the past few years, there has been an increasing prevalence of broiler breast muscle abnormalities, such as white striping (WS) and wooden breast conditions. More recently, a new muscular abnormality termed as spaghetti meat (SM) because of the altered structural integrity of the Pectoralis major muscle often associated with WS has emerged. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of WS and SM conditions, occurring alone or combined within the same P. major muscle, on meat quality traits and muscle histology...
May 22, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526466/-comparison-of-three-different-insertion-techniques-with-lma-unique%C3%A2-in-adults-results-of-a-randomized-trial
#5
Merih Eglen, Bahar Kuvaki, Ferim Günenç, Sule Ozbilgin, Semih Küçükgüçlü, Ebru Polat, Emel Pekel
BACKGROUND: The triple airway maneuver insertion technique allowed faster insertion of the LMA. This study compared three different insertion techniques of the laryngeal mask airway-Unique™. METHODS: One hundred and eighty ASA I-II patients aged 18-65 years were included into the study. Patients were randomly allocated to the standard, rotational and triple airway maneuver (triple) group. In the standard group (n=60), the LMA (Laryngeal Mask Airway) was inserted with digital intraoral manipulation...
May 16, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513546/edible-plants-and-their-influence-on-the-gut-microbiome-and-acne
#6
REVIEW
Ashley K Clark, Kelly N Haas, Raja K Sivamani
Acne vulgaris affects most people at some point in their lives. Due to unclear etiology, likely with multiple factors, targeted and low-risk treatments have yet to be developed. In this review, we explore the multiple causes of acne and how plant-based foods and supplements can control these. The proposed causative factors include insulin resistance, sex hormone imbalances, inflammation and microbial dysbiosis. There is an emerging body of work on the human gut microbiome and how it mediates feedback between the foods we eat and our bodies...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511122/robotic-assessment-of-neuromuscular-characteristics-using-musculoskeletal-models-a-pilot-study
#7
V R Jayaneththi, J Viloria, L G Wiedemann, C Jarrett, A J McDaid
OBJECTIVE: Non-invasive neuromuscular characterization aims to provide greater insight into the effectiveness of existing and emerging rehabilitation therapies by quantifying neuromuscular characteristics relating to force production, muscle viscoelasticity and voluntary neural activation. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to evaluate neuromuscular characteristics, such as muscle fiber stiffness and viscosity, by combining robotic and HD-sEMG measurements with computational musculoskeletal modeling...
May 10, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510225/controlling-gene-expression-by-dna-mechanics-emerging-insights-and-challenges
#8
REVIEW
David Levens, Laura Baranello, Fedor Kouzine
Transcription initiation is a major control point for the precise regulation of gene expression. Our knowledge of this process has been mainly derived from protein-centric studies wherein cis-regulatory DNA sequences play a passive role, mainly in arranging the protein machinery to coalesce at the transcription start sites of genes in a spatial and temporal-specific manner. However, this is a highly dynamic process in which molecular motors such as RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), helicases, and other transcription factors, alter the level of mechanical force in DNA, rather than simply a set of static DNA-protein interactions...
September 2016: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510218/controlling-gene-expression-by-dna-mechanics-emerging-insights-and-challenges
#9
REVIEW
David Levens, Laura Baranello, Fedor Kouzine
Transcription initiation is a major control point for the precise regulation of gene expression. Our knowledge of this process has been mainly derived from protein-centric studies wherein cis-regulatory DNA sequences play a passive role, mainly in arranging the protein machinery to coalesce at the transcription start sites of genes in a spatial and temporal-specific manner. However, this is a highly dynamic process in which molecular motors such as RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), helicases, and other transcription factors, alter the level of mechanical force in DNA, rather than simply a set of static DNA-protein interactions...
November 2016: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507987/pitx2-in-embryonic-and-adult-myogenesis
#10
REVIEW
Francisco Hernandez-Torres, Lara Rodríguez-Outeiriño, Diego Franco, Amelia E Aranega
Skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous tissue that represents between 30 and 38% of the human body mass and has important functions in the organism, such as maintaining posture, locomotor impulse, or pulmonary ventilation. The genesis of skeletal muscle during embryonic development is a process controlled by an elaborate regulatory network combining the interplay of extrinsic and intrinsic regulatory mechanisms that transform myogenic precursor cells into functional muscle fibers through a finely tuned differentiation program...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504468/incubatory-environment-of-the-scalp-impacts-pre-emergent-hair-to-affect-post-emergent-hair-cuticle-integrity
#11
James R Schwartz, James P Henry, Kathy M Kerr, Michael J Flagler, Steve H Page, Nancy Redman-Furey
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the oxidative stress transmitted to newly grown hair from an unhealthy scalp has physical consequences to the cuticular condition and function. METHODS: A uniquely designed 24-week clinical study included 8 weeks of pretreatment with a cosmetic shampoo and 16 weeks of treatment with either a potentiated zinc pyrithione (ZPT) antidandruff shampoo or a placebo cosmetic shampoo. This clinical design allowed the growth and acquisition of hair samples under conditions of varying but known scalp health as a result of treating a dandruff/seborrheic dermatitis (D/SD) population...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501628/evolutionary-expansion-and-structural-functionalism-of-the-ancient-family-of-profilin-proteins
#12
Dhananjay K Pandey, Bhupendra Chaudhary
Structure and functional similarities of a recent protein's orthologs with its ancient counterpart are largely determined by the configuration of evolutionary preservation of amino acids. The emergence of genome sequencing databases allowed dissecting the evolutionarily important gene families at a comprehensive and genome-wide scale. The profilin multi-gene family is an ancient, universal, and functionally diverged across kingdoms, which regulates various aspects of cellular development in both prokarya and eukarya, especially cell-wall maintenance through actin sequestering, nucleation and cytokinesis...
May 10, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488368/a-cluster-of-adenovirus-type-b55-infection-in-a-neurosurgical-inpatient-department-of-a-general-hospital-in-guangdong-china
#13
Lina Yi, LiRong Zou, Jing Lu, Min Kang, Yingchao Song, Juan Su, Xin Zhang, LiJun Liang, HanZhong Ni, Changwen Ke, Jie Wu
BACKGROUND: Human adenovirus type 55 is a re-emerging human respiratory pathogen that is associated with several respiratory infections outbreaks in military and school populations. In this study, we describe the first HAdV55-associated hospital outbreak documented in Guangdong, China. METHODS: Active surveillance was conducted in the involved neurosurgical inpatient department. All staff and patients in the involved neurosurgical department were surveyed for any symptoms of fever (≥38°C) and enlarged tonsils during the outbreak period...
May 10, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485089/materials-nanoarchitecturing-via-cation-mediated-protein-assembly-making-limpet-teeth-without-mineral
#14
Tina Ukmar-Godec, Luca Bertinetti, John W C Dunlop, Aljaž Godec, Michal A Grabiger, Admir Masic, Huynh Nguyen, Igor Zlotnikov, Paul Zaslansky, Damien Faivre
Teeth are designed to deliver high forces while withstanding the generated stresses. Aside from isolated mineral-free exception (e.g., marine polychaetes and squids), minerals are thought to be indispensable for tooth-hardening and durability. Here, the unmineralized teeth of the giant keyhole limpet (Megathura crenulata) are shown to attain a stiffness, which is twofold higher than any known organic biogenic structures. In these teeth, protein and chitin fibers establish a stiff compact outer shell enclosing a less compact core...
May 9, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473812/a-metagenomics-investigation-of-carbohydrate-active-enzymes-along-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-saudi-sheep
#15
Saad Al-Masaudi, Abdessamad El Kaoutari, Elodie Drula, Hussein Al-Mehdar, Elrashdy M Redwan, Vincent Lombard, Bernard Henrissat
The digestive microbiota of humans and of a wide range of animals has recently become amenable to in-depth studies due to the emergence of DNA-based metagenomic techniques that do not require cultivation of gut microbes. These techniques are now commonly used to explore the feces of humans and animals under the assumption that such samples are faithful proxies for the intestinal microbiota. Sheep (Ovis aries) are ruminant animals particularly adapted to life in arid regions and in particular Najdi, Noaimi (Awassi), and Harrei (Harri) breeds that are raised in Saudi Arabia for milk and/or meat production...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467013/biomimetic-coating-of-cross-linked-gelatin-to-improve-mechanical-and-biological-properties-of-electrospun-pet-a-promising-approach-for-small-caliber-vascular-graft-applications
#16
Daniele Pezzoli, Elisa Cauli, Pascale Chevallier, Silvia Farè, Diego Mantovani
Electrospun PET (ePET) is a promising material for small caliber vascular graft applications owing to its tunable mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and nanofibrous structure that mimic the morphology of natural extracellular matrix. However, the inherent inertness of PET impairs the adhesion and proliferation of endothelial cells on the inner surface of ePET tubular grafts, hindering the formation of a functional endothelium. Gelatin coatings, owing to their ability to promote endothelialization, are a valuable approach to overcome the limitations of ePET...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462707/diet-and-cardiovascular-disease-effects-of-foods-and-nutrients-in-classical-and-emerging-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#17
Lina Badimon, Patricia Chagas, Gemma Chiva-Blanch
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Diet comprises a mixture of food compounds that has an influence on human health. The relationship between diet and health is extremely complex and strategies to delay or prevent chronic diseases such as CVD are of utmost interest because chronic diseases and more concretely CVD are still the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. In this mini-review, we aimed to summarize the current knowledge about the principal diet components that potentially influence CVD initiation and progression...
April 27, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462705/the-food-gut-human-axis-the-effects-of-diet-on-gut-microbiota-and-metabolome
#18
Maria De Angelis, Gabriella Garruti, Fabio Minervini, Leonilde Bonfrate, Piero Portincasac, Marco Gobbetti
Gut microbiota, the largest symbiont community hosted in human organism, is emerging as a pivotal player in the relationship between dietary habits and health. Oral and, especially, intestinal microbes metabolize dietary components, affecting human health by producing harmful or beneficial metabolites, which are involved in the incidence and progression of several intestinal related and non-related diseases. Habitual diet (Western, Agrarian and Mediterranean omnivore diets, vegetarian, vegan and gluten-free diets) drives the composition of the gut microbiota and metabolome...
April 27, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460088/effects-of-sensitivity-to-life-stress-on-uncinate-fasciculus-segments-in-early-adolescence
#19
Tiffany C Ho, Lucy S King, Josiah K Leong, Natalie L Colich, Kathryn L Humphreys, Sarah J Ordaz, Ian H Gotlib
Previous research suggests that exposure to early life stress (ELS) affects the structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus (UF), a frontolimbic white matter tract that undergoes protracted development throughout adolescence. Adolescence is an important transitional period characterized by the emergence of internalizing psychopathology such as anxiety, particularly in individuals with high levels of stress sensitivity. We examined the relations among sensitivity to ELS, structural integrity of the UF, and anxiety symptoms in 104 early adolescents...
April 28, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460005/digital-pcr-quantitation-of-muscle-mitochondrial-dna-age-fiber-type-and-mutation-induced-changes
#20
Allen Herbst, Kevin Widjaja, Beatrice Nguy, Entela B Lushaj, Timothy M Moore, Andrea L Hevener, Debbie McKenzie, Judd M Aiken, Jonathan Wanagat
Definitive quantitation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mtDNA deletion mutation abundances would help clarify the role of mtDNA instability in aging. To more accurately quantify mtDNA, we applied the emerging technique of digital polymerase chain reaction to individual muscle fibers and muscle homogenates from aged rodents. Individual fiber mtDNA content correlated with fiber type and decreased with age. We adapted a digital polymerase chain reaction deletion assay that was accurate in mixing experiments to a mutation frequency of 0...
April 29, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
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