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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335803/contribution-of-transposable-elements-and-distal-enhancers-to-evolution-of-human-specific-features-of-interphase-chromatin-architecture-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#1
Gennadi V Glinsky
Transposable elements have made major evolutionary impacts on creation of primate-specific and human-specific genomic regulatory loci and species-specific genomic regulatory networks (GRNs). Molecular and genetic definitions of human-specific changes to GRNs contributing to development of unique to human phenotypes remain a highly significant challenge. Genome-wide proximity placement analysis of diverse families of human-specific genomic regulatory loci (HSGRL) identified topologically associating domains (TADs) that are significantly enriched for HSGRL and designated rapidly evolving in human TADs...
January 15, 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335173/application-of-fe3o4-mil-100-fe-core-shell-magnetic-microspheres-for-evaluating-the-sorption-of-organophosphate-esters-to-dissolved-organic-matter-dom
#2
Long Pang, Peijie Yang, Huiqiang Yang, Liming Ge, Jingwen Xiao, Yifan Zhou
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are widely used as flame retardants and plasticizers in many products and materials. Because of the potential biologic toxicity on human beings, OPEs are regarded as a class of emerging pollutants. Dissolved organic matters (DOM) have significant effects on the bioavailability and toxicity of the pollutants in the environment. Negligible-depletion solid-phase microextraction (nd-SPME) is an efficient way for measuring the freely dissolved pollutants but suffers from long equilibrium time...
January 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333111/diet-gut-microbiota-and-colorectal-cancer-prevention-a-review-of-potential-mechanisms-and-promising-targets-for-future-research
#3
Mingyang Song, Andrew T Chan
Diet plays an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. Emerging data have implicated the gut microbiota in colorectal cancer. Diet is a major determinant for the gut microbial structure and function. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that alterations in gut microbes and their metabolites may contribute to the influence of diet on the development of colorectal cancer. We review several major dietary factors that have been linked to gut microbiota and colorectal cancer, including major dietary patterns, fiber, red meat and sulfur, and obesity...
December 2017: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332928/optical-coherence-tomography-for-precision-brain-imaging-neurosurgical-guidance-and-minimally-invasive-theranostics
#4
Yingwei Fan, Yan Xia, Xinran Zhang, Yu Sun, Jie Tang, Liwei Zhang, Hongen Liao
This review focuses on optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based neurosurgical application for imaging and treatment of brain tumors. OCT has emerged as one of the most innovative and successful translational biomedical-diagnostic techniques. It is a useful imaging tool for noninvasive, in vivo, in situ and real-time imaging in soft biological tissues, such as brain tumor imaging. OCT can detect the structure of biological tissue in a micrometer scale, and functional OCT has some clinical researches and applications, such as nerve fiber tracts and neurovascular imaging...
January 15, 2018: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328403/arcuate-nucleus-neurons-are-not-essential-for-the-preprandial-peak-in-plasma-ghrelin-after-neonatal-monosodium-glutamate-treatment
#5
Qing-Chun Li, Qing-Feng Li, Yan-Lin Wang, Hong-Liang Sun, Zheng-Yao Jiang
The aim of the present study was to determine whether arcuate nucleus (ARC) lesions affect the ghrelin level in the plasma and the stomach in monosodium glutamate (MSG)‑treated mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the ARC was destroyed in mice treated neonatally with MSG, and whether the ARC lesions affect the ghrelin level in the plasma and lipid mobilization in MSG‑treated mice. The results revealed that MSG led to a marked reduction in ARC cresyl violet staining, tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (IR) neurons and neuropeptide Y‑IR fibers, compared with saline controls...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311092/pharmacodynamics-of-flubendazole-for-cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis-repurposing-and-reformulation-of-an-anti-parasitic-agent-for-a-neglected-fungal-disease
#6
Gemma L Nixon, Laura McEntee, Adam Johnson, Nikki Farrington, Sarah Whalley, Joanne Livermore, Cristien Natal, Gina Washbourn, Jaclyn Bibby, Neil Berry, Jodi Lestner, Megan Truong, Andrew Owen, David Lalloo, Ian Charles, William Hope
Current therapeutic options for cryptococcal meningitis are limited by toxicity, global supply and emergence of resistance. There is an urgent need to develop additional antifungal agents that are fungicidal within the central nervous system and preferably orally bioavailable. The benzimidazoles have broad-spectrum anti-parasitic activity, but also have in vitro antifungal activity that includes Cryptococcus neoformans Flubendazole (a benzimidazole) has been reformulated by Janssen Pharmaceutica as an amorphous solid drug nanodispersion to develop an orally bioavailable medicine for the treatment of neglected tropical diseases such as onchocerciasis...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305081/extending-knowledge-of-the-clinical-picture-of-balkan-adder-vipera-berus-bosniensis-envenoming-the-first-photographically-documented-neurotoxic-case-from-south-western-hungary
#7
Csaba Varga, Tamás Malina, Viktória Alföldi, Gergely Bilics, Ferenc Nagy, Tibor Oláh
We report a severe envenoming associated with minimal local symptoms following a Balkan adder (Vipera berus bosniensis) bite in South-Western Hungary. A 63-year-old male with a history of hypertension and sinus bradycardia (45/min) was bitten by a sub-adult specimen of V. b. bosniensis in Somogy County on 04 May 2017. The patient was transported to and treated at the Emergency Department of Somogy County "Moritz Kaposi" General Hospital, Kaposvár. Locally only pain and minimal swelling with a small haematoma developed on the bitten finger...
January 2, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297208/method-for-accurate-registration-of-tissue-autofluorescence-imaging-data-with-corresponding-histology-a-means-for-enhanced-tumor-margin-assessment
#8
Jakob Unger, Tianchen Sun, Yi-Ling Chen, Jennifer E Phipps, Richard J Bold, Morgan A Darrow, Kwan-Liu Ma, Laura Marcu
An important step in establishing the diagnostic potential for emerging optical imaging techniques is accurate registration between imaging data and the corresponding tissue histopathology typically used as gold standard in clinical diagnostics. We present a method to precisely register data acquired with a point-scanning spectroscopic imaging technique from fresh surgical tissue specimen blocks with corresponding histological sections. Using a visible aiming beam to augment point-scanning multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy on video images, we evaluate two different markers for the registration with histology: fiducial markers using a 405-nm CW laser and the tissue block's outer shape characteristics...
January 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285283/diffusion-weighted-mri-derived-adc-values-reflect-collagen-i-content-in-pdx-models-of-uterine-cervical-cancer
#9
Anette Hauge, Catherine S Wegner, Jon-Vidar Gaustad, Trude G Simonsen, Lise Mari K Andersen, Einar K Rofstad
Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values derived from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) are known to reflect the cellular environment of biological tissues. However, emerging evidence accentuates the influence of stromal elements on ADC values. The current study sought to elucidate whether a correlation exists between ADC and the fraction of collagen I-positive tissue across different tumor models of uterine cervical cancer. Early and late generation tumors of four patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of squamous cell carcinoma (BK-12, ED-15, HL-16, and LA-19) were included...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274784/regulation-of-pd-l1-expression-by-matrix-stiffness-in-lung-cancer-cells
#10
Ayako Miyazawa, Satoru Ito, Shuichi Asano, Ichidai Tanaka, Mitsuo Sato, Masashi Kondo, Yoshinori Hasegawa
Expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in tumor cells such as lung cancer cells plays an important role in mechanisms underlying evasion of an immune check point system. Lung cancer tissue with increased deposition of extracellular matrix is much stiffer than normal lung tissue. There is emerging evidence that the matrix stiffness of cancer tissue affects the phenotypes and properties of cancer cells. Nevertheless, the effects of substrate rigidity on expression of PD-L1 in lung cancer cells remain elusive...
December 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260103/crystalline-lens-dislocation-secondary-to-bacterial-endogenous-endophthalmitis
#11
Amit Sangave, Rahul Komati, Allison Weinmann, Linoj Samuel, Uday Desai
Purpose: To present an unusual case of endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to Group A streptococcus (GAS) that resulted in dislocation of the crystalline lens. Observations: An immunocompetent 51-year-old man presented to the emergency room (ER) with upper respiratory infection (URI) symptoms and painful right eye. He was diagnosed with URI and viral conjunctivitis and discharged on oral azithromycin and polytrim eyedrops. He returned to the ER 30 h later with sepsis and findings consistent with endophthalmitis, including light perception only vision...
September 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236205/a-novel-fibrin-based-artificial-ovary-prototype-resembling-human-ovarian-tissue-in-terms-of-architecture-and-rigidity
#12
Maria Costanza Chiti, Marie-Madeleine Dolmans, Lucie Mortiaux, Flanco Zhuge, Emna Ouni, Parinaz Asiabi Kohneh Shahri, Evelyne Van Ruymbeke, Sophie-Demoustier Champagne, Jacques Donnez, Christiani Andrade Amorim
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to optimize fibrin matrix composition in order to mimic human ovarian tissue architecture for human ovarian follicle encapsulation and grafting. METHODS: Ultrastructure of fresh human ovarian cortex in age-related women (n = 3) and different fibrin formulations (F12.5/T1, F30/T50, F50/T50, F75/T75), rheology of fibrin matrices and histology of isolated and encapsulated human ovarian follicles in these matrices. RESULTS: Fresh human ovarian cortex showed a highly fibrous and structurally inhomogeneous architecture in three age-related patients, but the mean ± SD of fiber thickness (61...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235270/lamellar-keratoplasty-using-position-guided-surgical-needle-and-m-mode-optical-coherence-tomography
#13
Sungwon Shin, Jung Kweon Bae, Yujin Ahn, Hyeongeun Kim, Geonho Choi, Young-Sik Yoo, Choun-Ki Joo, Sucbei Moon, Woonggyu Jung
Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) is an emerging surgical technique for the restoration of corneal clarity and vision acuity. The big-bubble technique in DALK surgery is the most essential procedure that includes the air injection through a thin syringe needle to separate the dysfunctional region of the cornea. Even though DALK is a well-known transplant method, it is still challenged to manipulate the needle inside the cornea under the surgical microscope, which varies its surgical yield. Here, we introduce the DALK protocol based on the position-guided needle and M-mode optical coherence tomography (OCT)...
December 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229413/constant-light-environment-suppresses-maturation-and-reduces-complexity-of-new-born-neuron-processes-in-the-hippocampus-and-caudal-nidopallium-of-a-diurnal-corvid-implication-for-impairment-of-the-learning-and-cognitive-performance
#14
S K Tahajjul Taufique, Abhilash Prabhat, Vinod Kumar
Periodic day-night environment shapes the temporal pattern in the behaviour and physiology (e.g. 24-h activity-rest and sleep-wake cycles) and the advanced brain function, such as learning, memory and decision making. In a previous study, we showed the abolition of 24-h rhythm in the activity-rest pattern, and an attenuated cognitive performance in diurnal Indian house crows (Corvus splendens) under constant light (no-night; LL) environment. Present study extended this, and investigated LL-induced effects on the neurogenesis (birth, maturation and neurite complexity of new born neurons) in the hippocampus and caudal nidopallium, the brain regions directly associated with learning and cognition in birds...
December 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226468/peptide-integrated-optics
#15
Amir Handelman, Nadezda Lapshina, Boris Apter, Gil Rosenman
Bio-nanophotonics is a wide field in which advanced optical materials, biomedicine, fundamental optics, and nanotechnology are combined and result in the development of biomedical optical chips. Silk fibers or synthetic bioabsorbable polymers are the main light-guiding components. In this work, an advanced concept of integrated bio-optics is proposed, which is based on bioinspired peptide optical materials exhibiting wide optical transparency, nonlinear and electrooptical properties, and effective passive and active waveguiding...
December 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215759/the-two-faces-of-enhanced-stroma-stroma-acts-as-a-tumor-promoter-and-a-steric-obstacle
#16
Claudia Tanja Mierke, Frank Sauer, Steffen Grosser, Stefanie Puder, Tony Fischer, Josef Alfons Käs
In addition to genetic, morphological and biochemical alterations in cells, a key feature of the malignant progression of cancer is the stroma, including cancer cell motility as well as the emergence of metastases. Our current knowledge with regard to the biophysically driven experimental approaches of cancer progression indicates that mechanical aberrations are major contributors to the malignant progression of cancer. In particular, the mechanical probing of the stroma is of great interest. However, the impact of the tumor stroma on cellular motility, and hence the metastatic cascade leading to the malignant progression of cancer, is controversial as there are two different and opposing effects within the stroma...
December 7, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215589/impact-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-the-gut-microbiota
#17
REVIEW
Lara Costantini, Romina Molinari, Barbara Farinon, Nicolò Merendino
Long-term dietary habits play a crucial role in creating a host-specific gut microbiota community in humans. Despite the many publications about the effects of carbohydrates (prebiotic fibers), the impact of dietary fats, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), on the gut microbiota is less well defined. The few studies completed in adults showed some common changes in the gut microbiota after omega-3 PUFA supplementation. In particular, a decrease in Faecalibacterium, often associated with an increase in the Bacteroidetes and butyrate-producing bacteria belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family, has been observed...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215075/optimal-pre-plant-irrigation-and-fertilization-can-improve-biomass-accumulation-by-maintaining-the-root-and-leaf-productive-capacity-of-cotton-crop
#18
Zongkui Chen, Hui Ma, Jun Xia, Fei Hou, Xiaojuan Shi, Xianzhe Hao, Abdul Hafeez, Huanyong Han, Honghai Luo
Cotton is a major cash crop grown worldwide primarily for fiber and oil seed. As the most important cultural practices for cotton production, single pre-plant irrigation and basal fertilization for cotton plant growth and yield are well documented, but their coupling effects are poorly understood in arid regions. A 2-year outdoor pot trial was conducted to unravel the effects of pre-plant irrigation and basal fertilization on leaf area, root growth, biomass accumulation, and capacity of leaf area and root in cotton plant...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213298/reproducible-genomic-dna-preparation-from-diverse-crop-species-for-molecular-genetic-applications
#19
Kelvin T Chiong, Mona B Damaj, Carmen S Padilla, Carlos A Avila, Shankar R Pant, Kranthi K Mandadi, Ninfa R Ramos, Denise V Carvalho, T Erik Mirkov
Background: Several high-throughput molecular genetic analyses rely on high-quality genomic DNA. Copurification of other molecules can negatively impact the functionality of plant DNA preparations employed in these procedures. Isolating DNA from agronomically important crops, such as sugarcane, rice, citrus, potato and tomato is a challenge due to the presence of high fiber, polysaccharides, or secondary metabolites. We present a simplified, rapid and reproducible SDS-based method that provides high-quality and -quantity of DNA from small amounts of leaf tissue, as required by the emerging biotechnology and molecular genetic applications...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212890/starring-or-supporting-role-satellite-cells-and-skeletal-muscle-fiber-size-regulation
#20
REVIEW
Kevin A Murach, Christopher S Fry, Tyler J Kirby, Janna R Jackson, Jonah D Lee, Sarah H White, Esther E Dupont-Versteegden, John J McCarthy, Charlotte A Peterson
Recent loss-of-function studies show that satellite cell depletion does not promote sarcopenia or unloading-induced atrophy, and does not prevent regrowth. Although overload-induced muscle fiber hypertrophy is normally associated with satellite cell-mediated myonuclear accretion, hypertrophic adaptation proceeds in the absence of satellite cells in fully grown adult mice, but not in young growing mice. Emerging evidence also indicates that satellite cells play an important role in remodeling the extracellular matrix during hypertrophy...
January 1, 2018: Physiology
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