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Fibers emerging

Long Liang, Christopher Jones, Shaohua Chen, Bo Sun, Yang Jiao
Collagen networks play an important role in coordinating and regulating collective cellular dynamics via a number of signaling pathways. Here, we investigate the transmission of forces generated by contractile cells in 3D collagen-I networks. Specifically, the graph (bond-node) representations of collagen networks with collagen concentrations of 1, 2 and 4 mg ml(-1) are derived from confocal microscopy data and used to model the network microstructure. Cell contraction is modeled by applying correlated displacements at specific nodes of the network, representing the focal adhesion sites...
October 25, 2016: Physical Biology
Mingxue Wu, Gang Chen, Jiutong Ma, Ping Liu, Qiong Jia
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are an emerging class of porous organic frameworks with diverse promising applications. Herein, we presented the first example of cross-linked hydrazone COFs (cross-linked COFs) coating via thiol-ene click chemistry for solid phase microextraction (SPME). Strong covalent bonds and interlayer of the prepared networks ensured the adsorption capacity and durability of the novel SPME fiber. π-π conjugated structure existed because of abundant phenyl rings and -C=N groups in the cross-lined COFs...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Lukasz Krokowicz, Adam Bobkiewicz, Maciej Borejsza-Wysocki, Barbara Kuczynska, Aleksandra Lisowska, Urszula Skowronska-Piekarska, Jacek Paszkowski, Jaroslaw Walkowiak, Michal Drews, Tomasz Banasiewicz
The term constipation with regard to patients with a stoma is defined as impaired bowel movements associated with increased stool consistency or long periods without bowel movements that lead to discomfort, flatulence, and abdominal pain. Information about constipation in patients with a stoma is limited. A prospective, descriptive study was conducted among patients attending ostomy and proctology outpatient clinics in Poznan, Poland between January 2011 and December 2014 to assess the role of dietary and pharmacological strategies in the management of constipation in patients with a stoma...
December 2015: Ostomy/wound Management
Olga Besharova, Verena M Suchanek, Raimo Hartmann, Knut Drescher, Victor Sourjik
Many bacteria primarily exist in nature as structured multicellular communities, so called biofilms. Biofilm formation is a highly regulated process that includes the transition from the motile planktonic to sessile biofilm lifestyle. Cellular differentiation within a biofilm is a commonly accepted concept but it remains largely unclear when, where and how exactly such differentiation arises. Here we used fluorescent transcriptional reporters to quantitatively analyze spatio-temporal expression patterns of several groups of genes during the formation of submerged Escherichia coli biofilms in an open static system...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rei-Yeuh Chang, Chien-Chang Chen, Wei-Pang Hsu, Pei-Ching Hsiao, Han-Lin Tsai, Ping-Gune Hsiao, Jiann-Der Wu, How-Ran Guo
BACKGROUND: Avulsion of the aortic valve commissure as a cause of acute aortic valve regurgitation is mostly due to trauma, infective endocarditis, or ascending aortic dissection. Nontraumatic avulsion of the aortic valve commissure is very rare. We reviewed the literature and analyzed potential risk factors of nontraumatic avulsion. CASE PRESENTATION: An 80-year-old male with hypertension was seen in the emergency department with acute onset dyspnea. Echocardiogram revealed left ventricular hypertrophy with adequate systolic function, prolapse of the noncoronary cusp, and incomplete coaptation of the right coronary and noncoronary cusps with severe aortic valve regurgitation...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Alessandra Ruggieri, Simona Saredi, Simona Zanotti, Maria Barbara Pasanisi, Lorenzo Maggi, Marina Mora
Mutations in the DNAJB6 gene have been associated with the autosomal dominant limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 1D (LGMD1D), a disorder characterized by abnormal protein aggregates and rimmed vacuoles in muscle fibers. DNAJB6 is a ubiquitously expressed Hsp40 co-chaperone characterized by a J domain that specifies Hsp70 functions in the cellular environment. DNAJB6 is also a potent inhibitor of expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) aggregation preventing aggregate toxicity in cells. In DNAJB6-mutated patients this anti-aggregation property is significantly reduced, albeit not completely lost...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
A Burdzinska, B Dybowski, W Zarychta-Wisniewska, A Kulesza, R Zagozdzon, Z Gajewski, L Paczek
Cell therapy is emerging as an alternative treatment of stress urinary incontinence. However, many aspects of the procedure require further optimization. A large animal model is needed to reliably test cell delivery methods. In this study we aim to determine suitability of the goat as an experimental animal for testing intraurethral autologous cell transplantation in terms of urethral anatomy and cell culture parameters. The experiments were performed in 12 mature/aged female goats. Isolated caprine muscle derived cells (MDC) were myogenic in vitro and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) population was able to differentiate into adipo-, osteo- and chondrogenic lineages...
October 14, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Juan Tuan, Ying-Xuan Chen
BACKGROUND: Diets and lifestyles have been strongly associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). In the past several decades, emerging evidence has suggested that the gut microbiota may have a role in the development of CRC. Its interaction with diets and lifestyles could affect the carcinogenesis of CRC. SUMMARY: This review presents the most recent epidemiologic and experimental evidence of three factors that may convincingly have a role in CRC, including fiber, red or processed meat, and alcohol, focusing on potential mechanisms and their interactions with the gut microbiota...
September 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
Jijun Xu, Yuying Tang, Mian Xie, Bihua Bie, Jiang Wu, Hui Yang, Joseph F Foss, Bin Yang, Richard W Rosenquist, Mohamed Naguib
Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-I) remains one of the most clinically challenging neuropathic pain syndromes and its mechanism has not been fully characterized. Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has emerged as a promising target for treating different neuropathic pain syndromes. In neuropathic pain models, activated microglia expressing CB2 receptors are seen in the spinal cord. Chemokine fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) plays a substantial role in microglial activation and neuroinflammation. We hypothesized that a CB2 agonist could modulate neuroinflammation and neuropathic pain in an ischemia model of CRPS by regulating CB2 and CX3CR1 signaling...
September 26, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Syamal S Tallury, Behnam Pourdeyhimi, Melissa A Pasquinelli, Richard J Spontak
As emerging technologies continue to require diverse materials capable of exhibiting tunable stimuli-responsiveness, shape-memory materials are of considerable significance because they can change size and/or shape in controllable fashion upon environmental stimulation. Of particular interest, shape-memory polymers (SMPs) have secured a central role in the ongoing development of relatively lightweight and remotely deployable devices that can be further designed with specific surface properties. In the case of thermally-activated SMPs, two functional chemical species must be present to provide (i) an elastic network capable of restoring the SMP to a previous strain state and (ii) switching elements that either lock-in or release a temporary strain at a well-defined thermal transition...
October 6, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Long Pang, Rong Pang, Liming Ge, Liqing Zheng, Jihong Zhao, Hongzhong Zhang
Organophosphate esters, widely used as flame retardants and plasticizers, are regarded as a class of emerging pollutants. In this work, a novel approach was developed for the fabrication of a solid-phase microextraction fiber by using hybrid silica-based materials with immobilized ionic liquids with sol-gel technology, and the prepared solid-phase microextraction fiber was then coupled with gas chromatography and flame photometric detection for the analysis of six organophosphate esters. The high loading of 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide was confined within the hybrid network...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Zeeshan Khan, Rehan Ali Shah, Saeed Islam, Bilal Jan, Muhammad Imran, Farisa Tahir
Modern optical fibers require double-layer coating on the glass fiber to provide protection from signal attenuation and mechanical damage. The most important plastic resins used in wires and optical fibers are plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and low-high density polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE), nylon and Polysulfone. In this paper, double-layer optical fiber coating is performed using melt polymer satisfying PTT fluid model in a pressure type die using wet-on-wet coating process. The assumption of fully developed flow of Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) fluid model, two-layer liquid flows of an immiscible fluid is modeled in an annular die, where the fiber is dragged at a higher speed...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Philip M Cook, Joseph Swintek, Timothy D Dawson, David Chapman, Mathew A Etterson, Dale Hoff
Cancer potencies of mineral and synthetic elongated particle mixtures, including asbestos fibers, are influenced by changes in fiber dose composition, bioavailability, and biodurability in combination with relevant cytotoxic dose-response relationships. An extensive rat intrapleural dose characterization data set with a wide variety of elongated particles physicochemical properties facilitated statistical analyses of pleural mesothelioma response data combined from several studies for evaluation of alternative dose-response models...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
Matteo Garzoni, Matthew B Baker, Christianus M A Leenders, Ilja K Voets, Lorenzo Albertazzi, Anja R A Palmans, Egbert Willem Meijer, Giovanni M Pavan
While a great deal of knowledge on the roles of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobicity in proteins have resulted in the creation of rationally designed and functional peptidic structures, the roles of these forces on purely synthetic supramolecular architectures in water have proven difficult to ascertain. Focusing on a 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxamide (BTA) based supramolecular polymer, we have designed a molecular modeling strategy to dissect the energetic contributions involved in the self-assembly (electrostatic, hydrophobic, etc...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Shu Hui Hiew, Paul A Guerette, Ondrej J Zvarec, Margaret Phillips, Feng Zhou, Haibin Su, Konstantin Pervushin, Brendan P Orner, Ali Miserez
: The hard sucker ring teeth (SRT) from decapodiforme cephalopods, which are located inside the sucker cups lining the arms and tentacles of these species, have recently emerged as a unique model structure for biomimetic structural biopolymers. SRT are entirely composed of modular, block co-polymer-like proteins that self-assemble into a large supramolecular network. In order to unveil the molecular principles behind SRT's self-assembly and robustness, we describe a combinatorial screening assay that maps the molecular-scale interactions between the most abundant modular peptide blocks of suckerin proteins...
September 29, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Wenfeng Wang, Anne Wairimu Ndungu, Zhen Li, Jun Wang
Microplastics have been considered as an emerging pollutant in the aquatic environment. However, research about microplastic pollution in inland freshwaters of China is insufficient. The present study investigated the levels of microplastics in surface water of 20 urban lakes and urban reaches of the Hanjiang River and Yangtze River of Wuhan, the largest city in central China. Microplastic concentrations ranged from 1660.0±639.1 to 8925±1591n/m(3) for the studied waters, with the highest concentration found in Bei Lake...
September 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
R Barazzoni, N E P Deutz, G Biolo, S Bischoff, Y Boirie, T Cederholm, C Cuerda, N Delzenne, M Leon Sanz, O Ljungqvist, M Muscaritoli, C Pichard, J C Preiser, P Sbraccia, P Singer, L Tappy, B Thorens, A Van Gossum, R Vettor, P C Calder
Growing evidence underscores the important role of glycemic control in health and recovery from illness. Carbohydrate ingestion in the diet or administration in nutritional support is mandatory, but carbohydrate intake can adversely affect major body organs and tissues if resulting plasma glucose becomes too high, too low, or highly variable. Plasma glucose control is especially important for patients with conditions such as diabetes or metabolic stress resulting from critical illness or surgery. These patients are particularly in need of glycemic management to help lessen glycemic variability and its negative health consequences when nutritional support is administered...
September 19, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Ryan S Edginton, Sara Mattana, Silvia Caponi, Daniele Fioretto, Ellen Green, C Peter Winlove, Francesca Palombo
Brillouin spectroscopy is an emerging technique in the biomedical field. It probes the mechanical properties of a sample through the interaction of visible light with thermally induced acoustic waves or phonons propagating at a speed of a few km/sec. Information on the elasticity and structure of the material is obtained in a nondestructive contactless manner, hence opening the way to in vivo applications and potential diagnosis of pathology. This work describes the application of Brillouin spectroscopy to the study of biomechanics in elastin and trypsin-digested type I collagen fibers of the extracellular matrix...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
José-Luis Barnay, Andre Cabie, Sylvie Abel, Emilie Javelle, Odile Troisgros, Patrick René-Corail
Arboviruses cause very recurrent epidemics, the oldest Dengue, known especially outside the flu-like syndrome with high fever mainly impacting vulnerable populations, may be responsible for severe hemorrhagic fevers, but also a few cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome. In 2014, the French Antilles occurred an outbreak of Chikungunya, following that of the Reunion's outbreak. During this period have been described, the articular and musculo-squellettic lesions, responsible for loss of autonomy in populations already carriers of chronic inflammatory joint damage or mechanical, but also a heavy impact on the autonomy of elderly and frail people...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Carter S Haines, Na Li, Geoffrey M Spinks, Ali E Aliev, Jiangtao Di, Ray H Baughman
Lightweight artificial muscle fibers that can match the large tensile stroke of natural muscles have been elusive. In particular, low stroke, limited cycle life, and inefficient energy conversion have combined with high cost and hysteretic performance to restrict practical use. In recent years, a new class of artificial muscles, based on highly twisted fibers, has emerged that can deliver more than 2,000 J/kg of specific work during muscle contraction, compared with just 40 J/kg for natural muscle. Thermally actuated muscles made from ordinary polymer fibers can deliver long-life, hysteresis-free tensile strokes of more than 30% and torsional actuation capable of spinning a paddle at speeds of more than 100,000 rpm...
September 26, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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