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Fibers emerging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747440/aligned-fibers-direct-collective-cell-migration-to-engineer-closing-and-non-closing-wound-gaps
#1
Puja Sharma, Colin Ng, Aniket Jana, Abinash Padhi, Paige Szymanski, Jerry S H Lee, Bahareh Behkam, Amrinder S Nain
Cell emergence onto damaged or organized fibrous extracellular matrix (ECM) is a crucial precursor to collective cell migration in wound closure and cancer metastasis, respectively. However, there is a fundamental gap in our quantitative understanding of the role of local ECM size and arrangement in cell emergence based migration and local gap closure. Here, using ECM-mimicking nanofibers bridging cell monolayers, we describe a method to recapitulate and quantitatively describe these in vivo behaviors over multi spatial (single cell to cell sheets) and temporal (minutes-weeks) scales...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747422/suppressing-a-putative-sterol-carrier-gene-reduces-plasmodesmal-permeability-and-activates-sucrose-transporter-genes-during-cotton-fiber-elongation
#2
Zhiyuan Zhang, Yong-Ling Ruan, Na Zhou, Fang Wang, Xueying Guan, Lei Fang, Xiaoguang Shang, Wangzhen Guo, Shuijin Zhu, Tianzhen Zhang
Plasmodesmata (PDs) play vital roles in cell-to-cell communication and plant development. Emerging evidence suggests that sterols are involved in PD activity during cytokinesis. However, whether sterols contribute to PD gating between established cells remains unknown. Here, we isolated GhSCP2D, a putative sterol carrier protein gene from elongating cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers. In contrast to wild-type fiber PDs, which opened at 5-10 days post anthesis (DPA) and closed only at 15-25 DPA, plants with suppressed GhSCP2D expression had reduced sterol contents and closed PDs at 5 through 25 DPA...
July 26, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744187/spatiotemporal-relationship-of-brain-pathways-during-human-fetal-development-using-high-angular-resolution-diffusion-mr-imaging-and-histology
#3
Lana Vasung, Marina Raguz, Ivica Kostovic, Emi Takahashi
In this study, we aimed to identify major fiber pathways and their spatiotemporal relationships within transient fetal zones in the human fetal brain by comparing postmortem high-angular resolution diffusion MR imaging (HARDI) in combination with deterministic streamline tractography and histology. Diffusion weighted imaging was performed on postmortem human fetal brains [N = 9, age = 18-34 post-conceptual weeks (PCW)] that were grossly normal with no pathologic abnormalities. After HARDI was performed, the fibers were reconstructed using Q-ball algorithm and deterministic streamline tractography...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743810/polymyxin-combinations-combat-escherichia-coli-harboring-mcr-1-and-blandm-5-preparation-for-a-postantibiotic-era
#4
Zackery P Bulman, Liang Chen, Thomas J Walsh, Michael J Satlin, Yuli Qian, Jürgen B Bulitta, Charles A Peloquin, Patricia N Holden, Roger L Nation, Jian Li, Barry N Kreiswirth, Brian T Tsuji
The rapid increase of carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria has resurrected the importance of the polymyxin antibiotics. The recent discovery of plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance (mcr-1) in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae serves as an important indicator that the golden era of antibiotics is under serious threat. We assessed the bacterial killing of 15 different FDA-approved antibiotics alone and in combination with polymyxin B in time-killing experiments against Escherichia coli MCR1_NJ, the first reported isolate in the United States to coharbor mcr-1 and a New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene (blaNDM-5)...
July 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743328/performance-evaluation-of-membrane-based-septic-tank-and-its-reuse-potential-for-irrigating-crops
#5
Mehwish Khalid, Imran Hashmi, Sher Jamal Khan
  Membrane technology, being the most emerging wastewater treatment option, has gained substantial importance with the massive objective of the reuse potential of wastewater. Keeping this in view, the present study was conducted with the rationale to evaluate the performance efficiency of membrane-based septic tank (MBST), and its reuse perspective for irrigating crops. The septic tank was designed by submerging a woven fiber microfiltration membrane module to treat domestic wastewater. Three crops Triticum aestivum (wheat), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), and Mentha arvensis (mint) were selected to be irrigated with treated MBST effluent, untreated wastewater, and tap water (as a control) for comparative growth analysis...
August 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738239/delayed-graft-duodenal-perforation-due-to-impacted-food-five-years-after-simultaneous-pancreas-kidney-transplantation-a-case-report
#6
Taizo Sakata, Hideki Katagiri, Tadao Kubota, Takashi Sakamoto, Kentaro Yoshikawa, Alan Kawarai Lefor, Cheol Woong Jung, Toru Kojima
INTRODUCTION: Pancreas transplantation is the best treatment option in selected patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Here we report a patient with a nonmarginal duodenal perforation five years after a simultaneous pancreas-living donor kidney transplantation (SPLKT). PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 31-year old male who underwent SPLKT five years previously presented with severe abdominal pain. He had a marginal duodenal perforation four years later, treated by primary closure and drainage...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731982/peripheral-oxytocin-receptors-inhibit-the-nociceptive-input-signal-to-spinal-dorsal-horn-wide-dynamic-range-neurons
#7
Abimael González-Hernández, Alfredo Manzano-García, Guadalupe Martínez-Lorenzana, Irma A Tello-García, Martha Carranza, Carlos Arámburo, Miguel Condés-Lara
Oxytocin has emerged as a mediator of endogenous analgesia in behavioral and electrophysiological experiments. In fact, oxytocin receptors (OTRs) in the spinal dorsal horn participate in a selective inhibition of the neuronal activity mediated by Aδ- and C-fibers but not Aβ-fibers. This study shows that OTRs are expressed in the terminal nerve endings and are able to inhibit nociceptive neuronal firing. Indeed, local peripheral oxytocin blocked the first sensorial activity Aδ- and C-fibers recorded in the spinal cord neurons...
July 19, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730682/structure-and-development-of-the-subesophageal-zone-of-the-drosophila-brain-i-segmental-architecture-compartmentalization-and-lineage-anatomy
#8
Volker Hartenstein, Jaison J Omoto, Kathy T Ngo, Darren Wong, Philipp A Kuert, Heinrich Reichert, Jennifer K Lovick, Amelia Younossi-Hartenstein
The subesophageal zone (SEZ) of the Drosophila brain houses the circuitry underlying feeding behavior and is involved in many other aspects of sensory processing and locomotor control. Formed by the merging of four neuromeres, the internal architecture of the SEZ can be best understood by identifying segmentally reiterated landmarks emerging in the embryo and larva, and following the gradual changes by which these landmarks become integrated into the mature SEZ during metamorphosis. In previous works, the system of longitudinal fibers (connectives) and transverse axons (commissures) has been utilized as a scaffold that provides internal landmarks for the neuromeres of the larval ventral nerve cord...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723134/isoelectric-bovine-serum-albumin-robust-blocking-agent-for-enhanced-performance-in-optical-fiber-based-dna-sensing
#9
Ruoyu Wang, Xiaohong Zhou, Xiyu Zhu, Chao Yang, Lanhua Liu, Hanchang Shi
Surface blocking is a well-known process for reducing unwanted nonspecific adsorption in sensor fabrication, especially important in the emerging field where DNA/RNA applied. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is one of the most popular blocking agents with an isoelectric point at pH 4.6. Although it is widely recognized that the adsorption of a blocking agent is strongly affected by its net charge and the maximum adsorption is often observed under its isoelectric form, BSA has long been perfunctorily used for blocking merely in neutral solution, showing poor blocking performances in the optical-fiber evanescent wave (OFEW) based sensing toward DNA target...
February 24, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722694/early-life-vincristine-exposure-evokes-mechanical-pain-hypersensitivity-in-the-developing-rat
#10
Katie A Schappacher, Lauren Styczynski, Mark L Baccei
Vincristine (VNC) is commonly used to treat pediatric cancers, including the most prevalent childhood malignancy, acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although clinical evidence suggests that VNC causes peripheral neuropathy in children, the degree to which pediatric chemotherapeutic regimens influence pain sensitivity throughout life remains unclear, in part because of the lack of an established animal model of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain during early life. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of VNC exposure between postnatal days (P) 11 and 21 on mechanical and thermal pain sensitivity in the developing rat...
May 30, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712861/a-novel-golgi-cox-staining-method-for-detecting-and-characterizing-roles-of-the-hepatic-stellate-cells-in-liver-injury
#11
Ma de Jesús Gómez Villalobos, Susana Vidrio, Ruth Giles López, Gabriel Flores Gómez, Victoria Chagoya de Sánchez
The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of the Golgi-Cox method to characterize the distribution and morphological changes of the hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in CCl4 liver damaged rats. Six-week-old male Wistar rats were injected with CCl4 for ten weeks. The livers were processed with the Golgi-Cox method, reticuline, and Massońs Trichrome stains, and analyzed under light microscopy. Histological evaluation of livers was made through the METAVIR score. In normal livers, the HSCs show stellate form with abundant thin cytoplasmic processes, distributed into hepatic lobule, mainly in zone 1...
June 30, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712501/gene-editing-in-polyploid-crops-wheat-camelina-canola-potato-cotton-peanut-sugar-cane-and-citrus
#12
Donald P Weeks
Polyploid crops make up a significant portion of the major food and fiber crops of the world and include wheat, potato, cotton, apple, peanut, citrus, and brassica oilseeds such as rape, canola, and Camelina. The presence of three sets of chromosomes in triploids, four sets in tetraploids, and six sets in hexaploids present significant challenges to conventional plant breeding and, potentially, to efficient use of rapidly emerging gene and genome-editing systems such as zinc finger nucleases, single-stranded oligonucleotides, TALE effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9)...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710727/the-occurrence-of-microplastic-contamination-in-littoral-sediments-of-the-persian-gulf-iran
#13
Abolfazl Naji, Zinat Esmaili, Sherri A Mason, A Dick Vethaak
Microplastics (MPs; <5 mm) in aquatic environments are an emerging contaminant of concern due to their possible ecological and biological consequences. This study addresses that MP quantification and morphology to assess the abundance, distribution, and polymer types in littoral surface sediments of the Persian Gulf were performed. A two-step method, with precautions taken to avoid possible airborne contamination, was applied to extract MPs from sediments collected at five sites during low tide. MPs were found in 80% of the samples...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704898/a-case-of-auditory-neuropathy-caused-by-pontine-hemorrhage-in-an-adult
#14
Seung-Hyun Chung, Sung Wook Jeong, Lee-Suk Kim
A pontine hemorrhage can evoke several neurological symptoms because the pons contains various nuclei and nerve fibers. Hearing loss can develop as a result of a pontine hemorrhage because there is an auditory conduction pathway in the cochlear nucleus of the pons. However, very few cases of hearing loss caused by pontine lesions have been reported, and there have been no reports of auditory neuropathy that developed following a pontine hemorrhage. Recently we had a patient who experienced a nontraumatic pontine hemorrhage who was diagnosed with auditory neuropathy...
July 2017: Journal of Audiology & Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686186/development-of-a-new-microextraction-fiber-combined-to-on-line-sample-stacking-capillary-electrophoresis-uv-detection-for-acidic-drugs-determination-in-real-water-samples
#15
Maria Espina-Benitez, Lilia Araujo, Avismelsi Prieto, Alberto Navalón, José Luis Vílchez, Paola Valera, Ana Zambrano, Vincent Dugas
A new analytical method coupling a (off-line) solid-phase microextraction with an on-line capillary electrophoresis (CE) sample enrichment technique was developed for the analysis of ketoprofen, naproxen and clofibric acid from water samples, which are known as contaminants of emerging concern in aquatic environments. New solid-phase microextraction fibers based on physical coupling of chromatographic supports onto epoxy glue coated needle were studied for the off-line preconcentration of these micropollutants...
July 7, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671698/sustainable-sources-need-reliable-standards
#16
Maxim V Galkin, Davide Di Francesco, Ulrica Edlund, Joseph S M Samec
This review discusses the challenges within the research area of modern biomass fractionation and valorization. The current pulping industry focuses on pulp production and the resulting cellulose fiber. Hemicellulose and lignin are handled as low value streams for process heat and the regeneration of process chemicals. The paper and pulp industry have therefore developed analytical techniques to evaluate the cellulose fiber, while the other fractions are given a low priority. In a strive to also use the hemicellulose and lignin fractions of lignocellulosic biomass, moving towards a biorefining concept, there are severe shortcomings with the current pulping techniques and also in the analysis of the biomass...
July 3, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664409/surfen-is-a-broad-spectrum-calcium-channel-inhibitor-with-analgesic-properties-in-mouse-models-of-acute-and-chronic-inflammatory-pain
#17
Paula Rivas-Ramirez, Vinicius M Gadotti, Gerald W Zamponi, Norbert Weiss
Multiple voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) contribute to the processing of nociceptive signals in primary afferent fibers. In addition, alteration of calcium channel activity is associated with a number of chronic pain conditions. Therefore, VGCCs have emerged as prime target for the management of either neuropathic or inflammatory pain, and selective calcium channel blockers have been shown to have efficacy in animal models and in the clinic. However, considering that multiple calcium channels contribute pain afferent signaling, broad-spectrum inhibitors of several channel isoforms may offer a net advantage in modulating pain...
June 30, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663839/optoacoustic-response-of-gold-nanorods-in-soft-phantoms-using-high-power-diode-laser-assemblies-at-870-and-905-nm
#18
L Leggio, S Gawali, D Gallego, S Rodríguez, M Sánchez, G Carpintero, H Lamela
In the present paper we show the optoacoustic (OA) response of two solutions of gold nanorods dispersed in distilled water (0.8 mg/ml) and hosted in tissue-like phantoms by using small arrays of HPDLs at 870 and 905 nm as excitation sources. The HPDLs are coupled to a 7-to-1 optical fiber bundle with output diameter of 675 μm. Each solution of gold nanorods exhibits an absorption peak close to the operating wavelength, i.e. ~860 nm and ~900 nm, respectively, to optimize the generation of OA signals. The phantoms are made of agar, intralipid and hemoglobin to simulate a soft biological tissue with reduced properties of scattering...
March 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658542/the-nutrition-gut-microbiome-physiology-axis-and-allergic-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Craig McKenzie, Jian Tan, Laurence Macia, Charles R Mackay
Dietary and bacterial metabolites influence immune responses. This raises the question whether the increased incidence of allergies, asthma, some autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular disease, and others might relate to intake of unhealthy foods, and the decreased intake of dietary fiber. In recent years, new knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underpinning a 'diet-gut microbiota-physiology axis' has emerged to substantiate this idea. Fiber is fermented to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly acetate, butyrate, and propionate...
July 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655893/anderson-localization-in-synthetic-photonic-lattices
#20
Ilya D Vatnik, Alexey Tikan, Georgy Onishchukov, Dmitry V Churkin, Andrey A Sukhorukov
Synthetic photonic lattices provide unique capabilities to realize theoretical concepts emerging in different fields of wave physics via the utilization of powerful photonic technologies. Here we observe experimentally Anderson localization for optical pulses in time domain, using a photonic mesh lattice composed of coupled fiber loops. We introduce a random potential through programmed electro-optic pulse phase modulation, and identify the localization features associated with varying degree of disorder. Furthermore, we present a practical approach to control the band-gap width in photonic lattices by varying the coupling between the fiber loops, and reveal that the strongest degree of localization is limited and increases in lattices with wider band-gaps...
June 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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