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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727183/a-randomised-controlled-trial-on-a-nurse-led-smartphone-based-self-management-programme-for-patients-with-poorly-controlled-type-2-diabetes-a-study-protocol
#1
Wenru Wang, Betsy Seah, Ying Jiang, Violeta Lopez, Cherry Tan, Suan Tee Lim, Hongliang Ren, Yin Hao Khoo
AIM: To develop and compare a nurse-led smartphone-based self-management programme with an existing nurse-led diabetes service on health-related outcomes for patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes in Singapore. BACKGROUND: Over the past decades, Asia has emerged as the 'diabetes epicentre' in the world due to rapid economic development, urbanisation and nutrition transition. There is an urgent need to develop more effective care management strategies in response to this rising diabetes epidemic...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724771/intracellular-colocalization-of-influenza-viral-rna-and-rab11a-is-dependent-upon-microtubule-filaments
#2
Eric Nturibi, Amar R Bhagwat, Stefanie Coburn, Mike M Myerburg, Seema S Lakdawala
Influenza A virus (IAV) consists of eight viral RNA (vRNA) segments that are replicated in the host cell nucleus and transported to the plasma membrane for packaging into progeny virions. We have previously proposed a model where sub-complexes of vRNA export from the nucleus and assemble en route to the plasma membrane. However, the role of host cytoskeletal proteins in the cytoplasmic assembly of IAV vRNA segments remains unknown. Previous studies have suggested that IAV vRNA segments transport via Rab11A-containing recycling endosomes (RE) and use both microtubules (MT) and actin...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724012/health-surveillance-and-response-on-a-regional-scale-a-preliminary-study-of-the-zika-virus-fever-case
#3
Flávia Thedim Costa Bueno
Although awareness of the Zika virus has existed since the 1950s, only recently has it attracted the interest of the international community. In 2015 and 2016, the virus spread throughout Brazil and suspicions on the possible relation between parallel increases in neurological disorders and the infection arose. By November 2015, this concern had developed into a National Public Health Emergency. On February 1, 2016, WHO formally declared its suspicion that this was a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), and sent a response in accordance with International Health Regulations (2005)...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722640/the-role-of-risk-proximity-in-the-beliefs-and-behaviors-related-to-mosquito-borne-diseases-the-case-of-chikungunya-in-french-guiana
#4
Claude Flamand, Camille Fritzell, Pauline Obale, Philippe Quenel, Jocelyn Raude
Human behaviors are increasingly recognized to play a key role in the spread of infectious diseases. Although a set of social and cognitive determinants has been consistently found to affect the adoption of health protective behaviors aiming to control and prevent a variety of infections, little is currently known about the ecological drivers of these behaviors in epidemic settings. In this article, we took advantage of the outbreak of chikungunya, a reemerging mosquito-borne disease, that occurred in French Guiana in 2014-15 to test empirically the assumption proposed by Zielinski-Gutierrez and Hayden that the proximity of the disease and perceptions of the natural environment may considerably shape public response to an emerging health threat...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722621/health-care-access-during-the-ebola-virus-epidemic-in-liberia
#5
Patricia A McQuilkin, Kanagasabai Udhayashankar, Michelle Niescierenko, Louise Maranda
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic, which began in West Africa in December 2013, claimed more than 11,000 lives, with more than 4,800 of these deaths occurring in Liberia. The epidemic had an additional effect of paralyzing the health-care systems in affected countries, which led to even greater mortality and morbidity. Little is known about the impact that the epidemic had on the provision of basic health care. During the period from March to May 2015, we undertook a nationwide, community-based survey to learn more about health-care access during the EVD epidemic in Liberia...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721964/economic-implications-of-tobacco-industry-in-india-an-overview
#6
Khushbu Sharma, Mohammed Junaid, Madan Kumar Parangimalar Diwakar
Tobacco usage has become engraved in the cultural practices of our country since time immemorial. With increased demand comes increased production, employment, and growth of the tobacco industry but for a deadly cost of human lives which fall prey to its use in either forms. In this article, we describe the economic burden faced by the country due to the emerging tobacco epidemic. The need of the hour is to understand the impact faced due to the tobacco industry in the country and to bring in appropriate efforts to reduce loss of economy and human lives...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720429/stable-isotope-based-flux-studies-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
REVIEW
Arthur McCullough, Stephen Previs, Takhar Kasumov
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and is associated with the worldwide epidemics of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. NAFLD ranges from benign fat accumulation in the liver (steatosis) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and cirrhosis which can progress to hepatocellular carcinoma and liver failure. Mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy-coupled stable isotope-based flux studies provide new insights into the understanding of NAFLD pathogenesis and the disease progression...
July 15, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720090/-we-and-the-nurses-are-now-working-with-one-voice-how-community-leaders-and-health-committee-members-describe-their-role-in-sierra-leone-s-ebola-response
#8
Shannon A McMahon, Lara S Ho, Kerry Scott, Hannah Brown, Laura Miller, Ruwan Ratnayake, Rashid Ansumana
BACKGROUND: Across low-income settings, community volunteers and health committee members support the formal health system - both routinely and amid emergencies - by engaging in health services such as referrals and health education. During the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic, emerging reports suggest that community engagement was instrumental in interrupting transmission. Nevertheless, literature regarding community volunteers' roles during emergencies generally, and Ebola specifically, is scarce...
July 18, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719317/climate-influence-on-emerging-risk-areas-for-rift-valley-fever-epidemics-in-tanzania
#9
Clement N Mweya, Leonard E G Mboera, Sharadhuli I Kimera
Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a climate-related arboviral infection of animals and humans. Climate is thought to represent a threat toward emerging risk areas for RVF epidemics globally. The objective of this study was to evaluate influence of climate on distribution of suitable breeding habitats for Culex pipiens complex, potential mosquito vector responsible for transmission and distribution of disease epidemics risk areas in Tanzania. We used ecological niche models to estimate potential distribution of disease risk areas based on vectors and disease co-occurrence data approach...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719299/conventional-wisdom-versus-actual-outcomes-challenges-in-the-conduct-of-an-ebola-vaccine-trial-in-liberia-during-the-international-public-health-emergency
#10
Gregg S Larson, Beth R Baseler, Marie L Hoover, Jerome F Pierson, Jemee K Tegli, Melvin P Johnson, Mark W S Kieh, Laura A McNay, Wissedi Sio Njoh
Clinical trials are challenging endeavors. Planning and implementing an investigational vaccine trial in Liberia, in the midst of an Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that World Health Organization classified a public health emergency of international concern, presented extraordinary challenges. Normally, years of preparation and a litany of tasks lay the groundwork for a successful, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial focused on safety and efficacy. Difficult research settings, unpredictable events, and other unique circumstances can add complexity...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718801/from-variation-of-influenza-viral-proteins-to-vaccine-development
#11
REVIEW
Wandi Zhu, Chao Wang, Bao-Zhong Wang
Recurrent influenza epidemics and occasional pandemics are one of the most important global public health concerns and are major causes of human morbidity and mortality. Influenza viruses can evolve through antigen drift and shift to overcome the barriers of human immunity, leading to host adaption and transmission. Mechanisms underlying this viral evolution are gradually being elucidated. Vaccination is an effective method for the prevention of influenza virus infection. However, the emergence of novel viruses, including the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1), the avian influenza A virus (H7N9), and the highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAI H5N1), that have infected human populations frequently in recent years reveals the tremendous challenges to the current influenza vaccine strategy...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718045/full-length-genome-sequence-analysis-of-four-subgroup-j-avian-leukosis-virus-strains-isolated-from-chickens-with-clinical-hemangioma
#12
Lulu Lin, Peikun Wang, Yongli Yang, Haijuan Li, Teng Huang, Ping Wei
Since 2014, cases of hemangioma associated with avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) have been emerging in commercial chickens in Guangxi. In this study, four strains of the subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J), named GX14HG01, GX14HG04, GX14LT07, and GX14ZS14, were isolated from chickens with clinical hemangioma in 2014 by DF-1 cell culture and then identified with ELISA detection of ALV group specific antigen p27, the detection of subtype specific PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with ALV-J specific monoclonal antibody...
July 17, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717172/evolution-of-the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-mutational-resistome-in-an-international-cystic-fibrosis-clone
#13
Carla López-Causapé, Lea Mette Sommer, Gabriel Cabot, Rosa Rubio, Alain A Ocampo-Sosa, Helle Krogh Johansen, Joan Figuerola, Rafael Cantón, Timothy J Kidd, Soeren Molin, Antonio Oliver
Emergence of epidemic clones and antibiotic resistance development compromises the management of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cystic fibrosis (CF) chronic respiratory infections. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was used to decipher the phylogeny, interpatient dissemination, WGS mutator genotypes (mutome) and resistome of a widespread clone (CC274), in isolates from two highly-distant countries, Australia and Spain, covering an 18-year period. The coexistence of two divergent CC274 clonal lineages was revealed, but without evident geographical barrier; phylogenetic reconstructions and mutational resistome demonstrated the interpatient transmission of mutators...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715653/inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activity-by-the-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-nonstructural-protein-1-for-innate-immune-evasion
#14
Qingzhan Zhang, Jinyou Ma, Dongwan Yoo
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus emerged in the US is known to suppress the type I interferons response during infection. In the present study using porcine epithelial cells, we showed that PEDV inhibited both NF-κB and proinflammatory cytokines. PEDV blocked the p65 activation in infected cells and suppressed the PRD II-mediated NF-κB activity. Of the total of 22 viral proteins, nine proteins were identified as NF-κB antagonists, and nsp1 was the most potent suppressor of proinflammatory cytokines. Nsp1 interfered the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, and thus blocked the p65 activation...
July 14, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714405/emerging-targets-to-relieve-fat-stress-induced-liver-diseases-udca-tocotrienol-%C3%AF-3-pufas-and-igy-targeted-npc1l1-cholesterol-transporter
#15
Ji-Young Cha, Jong-Min Park, Ho-Jae Lee, Jin-Sik Bae, Young-Min Han, Byung-Chul Oh, Kwang Hyun Ko, Ki-Baik Hahm
Fat stress-induced liver disease is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome initiated by excess fat accumulation and encompasses a wide spectrum of diseases from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, a precursor lesion progressing to more aggressive liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the incidence of these fat stress-induced liver diseases is rapidly increasing worldwide in parallel with the growing epidemics of obesity and metabolic diseases, its exact pathogenesis is not well defined...
July 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713859/fungus-causing-white-nose-syndrome-in-bats-accumulates-genetic-variability-in-north-america-with-no-sign-of-recombination
#16
Jigar Trivedi, Josianne Lachapelle, Karen J Vanderwolf, Vikram Misra, Craig K R Willis, John M Ratcliffe, Rob W Ness, James B Anderson, Linda M Kohn
Emerging fungal diseases of wildlife are on the rise worldwide, and the white-nose syndrome (WNS) epidemic in North American bats is a catastrophic example. The causal agent of WNS is a single clone of the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Early evolutionary change in this clonal population has major implications for disease ecology and conservation. Accumulation of variation in the fungus through mutation, and shuffling of variation through recombination, could affect the virulence and transmissibility of the fungus and the durability of what appears to be resistance arising in some bat populations...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710814/inter-epidemic-rift-valley-fever-virus-seroconversions-in-an-irrigation-scheme-in-bura-south-east-kenya
#17
D Mbotha, B Bett, S Kairu-Wanyoike, D Grace, A Kihara, M Wainaina, A Hoppenheit, P-H Clausen, J Lindahl
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute mosquito-borne viral zoonosis whose outbreaks are often associated with prolonged rainfall and flooding, during which large numbers of vectors emerge. Recent studies into the inter-epidemic maintenance of RVF virus (RVFV) suggest that both vertical transmission in vectors and direct transmission between hosts act in combination with predisposing factors for persistence of the virus. A comparative longitudinal survey was carried out in Tana River County, Kenya, in irrigated, riverine and pastoral ecosystems from September 2014-June 2015...
July 14, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710692/host-factors-involved-in-ebola-virus-replication
#18
Angela L Rasmussen
Ebola virus (EBOV) is a highly pathogenic emerging virus that represents a serious threat to global public health and a major priority for biodefense. The 2014 West African outbreak demonstrated the potential of EBOV to cause an epidemic affecting thousands of people. The severity of disease and high case fatality rate of EBOV is largely due to the host response elicited by the virus. EBOV infection hijacks a number of host pathways to carry out replication and stimulate potent inflammatory responses, while simultaneously subverting the host antiviral immune response...
July 15, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706039/when-an-emerging-disease-becomes-endemic
#19
REVIEW
Graham F Medley, Anna Vassall
Epidemics, such as HIV in the early 1980s and Ebola in 2014, inspire decisive government investment and action, and individual and societal concern, sometimes bordering on panic. By contrast, endemic diseases, such as HIV in 2017 and tuberculosis, struggle to maintain the same attention. For many, the paradox is that endemic disease, in its totality, continues to impose a far higher public health burden than epidemic disease. Overall, the swift political response to epidemics has resulted in success. It has proven possible to eradicate epidemic diseases, often without the availability of vaccines and other biomedical technologies...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704402/are-disease-reservoirs-special-taxonomic-and-life-history-characteristics
#20
Benjamin T Plourde, Tristan L Burgess, Evan A Eskew, Tara M Roth, Nicole Stephenson, Janet E Foley
Pathogens that spill over between species cause a significant human and animal health burden. Here, we describe characteristics of animal reservoirs that are required for pathogen spillover. We assembled and analyzed a database of 330 disease systems in which a pathogen spills over from a reservoir of one or more species. Three-quarters of reservoirs included wildlife, and 84% included mammals. Further, 65% of pathogens depended on a community of reservoir hosts, rather than a single species, for persistence...
2017: PloS One
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