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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430561/association-of-gii-p16-gii-2-recombinant-norovirus-strain-with-increased-norovirus-outbreaks-guangdong-china-2016
#1
Jing Lu, Ling Fang, Limei Sun, Hanri Zeng, Yanling Li, Huanying Zheng, Siwei Wu, Feng Yang, Tie Song, Jinyan Lin, Changwen Ke, Yonghui Zhang, Jan Vinjé, Hui Li
An unusual prevalence of recombinant GII.2 noroviruses (GII.P16-GII.2) in Guangdong, China, at the end of 2016 caused a sharp increase in outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. This event was another non-GII.4 epidemic that emerged after the GII.17 viruses in 2014 and 2015 and warrants global surveillance.
July 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430168/classical-swine-fever-an-updated-review
#2
REVIEW
Sandra Blome, Christoph Staubach, Julia Henke, Jolene Carlson, Martin Beer
Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization...
April 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428164/zika-in-twitter-temporal-variations-of-locations-actors-and-concepts
#3
Anthony Stefanidis, Emily Vraga, Georgios Lamprianidis, Jacek Radzikowski, Paul L Delamater, Kathryn H Jacobsen, Dieter Pfoser, Arie Croitoru, Andrew Crooks
BACKGROUND: The recent Zika outbreak witnessed the disease evolving from a regional health concern to a global epidemic. During this process, different communities across the globe became involved in Twitter, discussing the disease and key issues associated with it. This paper presents a study of this discussion in Twitter, at the nexus of location, actors, and concepts. OBJECTIVE: Our objective in this study was to demonstrate the significance of 3 types of events: location related, actor related, and concept related, for understanding how a public health emergency of international concern plays out in social media, and Twitter in particular...
April 20, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426447/measles-cases-in-children-requiring-hospital-access-in-an-academic-pediatric-hospital-in-italy-2008-2013
#4
Marta Ciofi Degli Atti, Antonietta Filia, Antonino Bella, Annamaria Sisto, Maria Antonietta Barbieri, Antonino Reale, Massimiliano Raponi
BACKGROUND: The Lazio Region is one of the Italian regions where sustained measles transmission continues to occur. We investigated measles cases reported by the Emergency Department (ED) of the largest pediatric hospital in Italy, located in Lazio. METHODS: We reviewed clinical records of all measles cases from 0 to 18 years of age evaluated in the ED in 2008-2013. We compared demographic and clinical characteristics of patients admitted to the inpatient setting with those of patients discharged home, to assess possible determinants of hospital admission...
April 18, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426311/the-zika-virus-outbreak-in-brazil-knowledge-gaps-and-challenges-for-risk-reduction
#5
Claudia Garcia Serpa Osorio-de-Castro, Elaine Silva Miranda, Carlos Machado de Freitas, Kenneth Rochel de Camargo, Hilarie Hartel Cranmer
We analyzed uncertainties and complexities of the Zika virus outbreak in Brazil, and we discuss risk reduction for future emergencies. We present the public health situation in Brazil and concurrent determinants of the epidemic and the knowledge gaps that persist despite building evidence from research, making public health decisions difficult. Brazil has adopted active measures, but producing desired outcomes may be uncertain because of partial or unavailable information. Reducing population group vulnerabilities and acting on environmental issues are medium- to long-term measures...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425152/nmr-structures-and-molecular-dynamics-simulation-of-hylin-a1-peptide-analogs-interacting-with-micelles
#6
Edson Crusca, Amanda Souza Câmara, Carolina Oliveira Matos, Reinaldo Marchetto, Eduardo Maffud Cilli, Luciano Morais Lião, Aline Lima de Oliveira
Antimicrobial peptides are recognized candidates with pharmaceutical potential against epidemic emerging multi-drug resistant bacteria. In this study, we use nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations to determine the unknown structure and evaluate the interaction with dodecylphosphatidylcholine (DPC) and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) micelles with three W(6) -Hylin-a1 analogs antimicrobial peptides (HyAc, HyK, and HyD). The HyAc, HyK, and HyD bound to DPC micelles are all formed by a unique α-helix structure...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424556/nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-is-there-a-role-for-the-androgen-receptor-pathway
#7
REVIEW
Mahmoud A Ali, Sahin Lacin, Reham Abdel-Wahab, Mark Uemura, Manal Hassan, Asif Rashid, Dan G Duda, Ahmed O Kaseb
The epidemic of insulin resistance, obesity, and metabolic syndrome has led to the emergence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) as the most common cause of liver disease in the US. Patients with NASH are at an increased risk for hepatic disease-related morbidity and death, and chronic inflammation in NASH patients can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The prevalence of HCC is higher in males than in females, and genetic studies have identified androgen and androgen receptors (ARs) as partially responsible for the gender disparity in the development of liver disease and HCC...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423140/arboviruses-emerging-in-brazil-challenges-for-clinic-and-implications-for-public-health
#8
Maria Rita Donalisio, André Ricardo Ribas Freitas, Andrea Paula Bruno Von Zuben
Arboviruses have been emerging in different parts of the world due to genetic changes in the virus, alteration of the host and vector population dynamics, or because of anthropogenic environmental factors. These viruses' capacity for adaptation is notable, as well as the likelihood of their emergence and establishment in new geographic areas. In Brazilian epidemiologic scenario, the most common arboviruses are DENV, CHIKV, and ZIKV, although others may spread in the country. Little is yet known of the impact of viral co-circulation, which would theoretically result in more intense viremia or other immunological alterations that could trigger autoimmune diseases, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome...
April 10, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422749/obesity-induced-hepatic-steatosis-is-mediated-by-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-the-subfornical-organ-of-the-brain
#9
Julie A Horwath, Chansol Hurr, Scott D Butler, Mallikarjun Guruju, Martin D Cassell, Allyn L Mark, Robin L Davisson, Colin N Young
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by an excess accumulation of hepatic triglycerides, is a growing health epidemic. While ER stress in the liver has been implicated in the development of NAFLD, the role of brain ER stress - which is emerging as a key contributor to a number of chronic diseases including obesity - in NAFLD remains unclear. These studies reveal that chemical induction of ER stress in the brain caused hepatomegaly and hepatic steatosis in mice. Conversely, pharmacological reductions in brain ER stress in diet-induced obese mice rescued NAFLD independent of body weight, food intake, and adiposity...
April 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418746/risk-and-outbreak-communication-lessons-from-taiwan-s-experiences-in-the-post-sars-era
#10
Yu-Chen Hsu, Yu-Ling Chen, Han-Ning Wei, Yu-Wen Yang, Ying-Hwei Chen
In addition to the impact of a disease itself, public reaction could be considered another outbreak to be controlled during an epidemic. Taiwan's experience with SARS in 2003 highlighted the critical role played by the media during crisis communication. After the SARS outbreak, Taiwan's Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) followed the WHO outbreak communication guidelines on trust, early announcements, transparency, informing the public, and planning, in order to reform its risk communication systems. This article describes the risk communication framework in Taiwan, which has been used to respond to the 2009-2016 influenza epidemics, Ebola in West Africa (2014-16), and MERS-CoV in South Korea (2015) during the post-SARS era...
March 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418744/taiwan-s-travel-and-border-health-measures-in-response-to-zika
#11
Li-Li Ho, Yu-Hui Tsai, Wang-Ping Lee, Szu-Tsai Liao, Li-Gin Wu, Yi-Chun Wu
Zika virus has recently emerged as a worldwide public health concern. Travel and border health measures stand as one of the main strategies and frontline defenses in responding to international epidemics. As of October 31, 2016, Taiwan has reported 13 imported cases, 5 of which were detected through routine entry screening and active monitoring at international airports. This article shares Taiwan's disease surveillance activities at designated points of entry and travel and border health measures in response to Zika...
March 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418318/carbapenem-resistant-enterobacter-cloacae-in-patients-from-the-us-veterans-health-administration-2006-2015
#12
Brigid M Wilson, Nadim G El Chakhtoura, Sachin Patel, Elie Saade, Curtis J Donskey, Robert A Bonomo, Federico Perez
We analyzed carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) trends among patients from the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA). After the emergence of CRE in the eastern United States, resistance rates remained stable in Klebsiella pneumoniae but increased in Enterobacter cloacae complex, suggesting a "second epidemic". VHA offers a vantage point for monitoring nationwide CRE trends.
May 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418309/translation-of-real-time-infectious-disease-modeling-into-routine-public-health-practice
#13
David J Muscatello, Abrar A Chughtai, Anita Heywood, Lauren M Gardner, David J Heslop, C Raina MacIntyre
Infectious disease dynamic modeling can support outbreak emergency responses. We conducted a workshop to canvas the needs of stakeholders in Australia for practical, real-time modeling tools for infectious disease emergencies. The workshop was attended by 29 participants who represented government, defense, general practice, and academia stakeholders. We found that modeling is underused in Australia and its potential is poorly understood by practitioners involved in epidemic responses. The development of better modeling tools is desired...
May 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417300/a-live-gi-ge-deleted-pseudorabies-virus-prv-protects-weaned-piglets-against-lethal-variant-prv-challenge
#14
Yue Yin, Zhiwen Xu, Xiaowan Liu, Ping Li, Fan Yang, Jun Zhao, Yi Fan, Xiangang Sun, Ling Zhu
Emerging pseudorabies virus (PRV) variant has led to frequent outbreaks of PRV infection among Bartha-K61-vaccinated swine population in Chinese swine farms and caused high mortality in pigs of all age since late 2011. Here, we generated a gE/gI-deleted PRV (rPRVXJ-delgI/gE-EGFP) based on PRV variant strain (PRV-XJ) through homologous DNA recombination. Compared to parental strain, rPRVXJ-delgI/gE-EGFP showed similar growth kinetics in vitro. Its safety and immunogenicity were evaluated in weaned piglets. Our results showed that piglets immunized with rPRVXJ-delgI/gE-EGFP did not exhibit any clinical symptoms, and a high level of gB-specific antibody was detected...
April 17, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414326/mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-obesity-insights-for-translational-applications
#15
Kenichi Matsushita, Victor J Dzau
Obesity is now a major public health problem worldwide. Lifestyle modification to reduce the characteristic excess body adiposity is important in the treatment of obesity, but effective therapeutic intervention is still needed to control what has become an obesity epidemic. Unfortunately, many anti-obesity drugs have been withdrawn from market due to adverse side effects. Bariatric surgery therefore remains the most effective therapy for severe cases, although such surgery is invasive and researchers continue to seek new control strategies for obesity...
April 17, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413077/trichomonosis-outbreak-in-a-flock-of-canaries-serinus-canaria-f-domestica-caused-by-a-finch-epidemic-strain-of-trichomonas-gallinae
#16
Marko Zadravec, Brigita Slavec, Uroš Krapež, Mitja Gombač, Tanja Švara, Mateja Poljšak-Prijatelj, Igor Gruntar, Joško Račnik
In the present paper, an outbreak of trichomonosis in a flock of 15 breeding pairs of canaries is described. Trichomonosis was diagnosed on characteristic clinical signs, microscopic examination of crop/esophageal swabs, gross pathology and histopathology. Trichomonads were successfully grown in culture media and were characterized by multi-locus sequence typing. The three genomic loci ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, 18S rRNA and Fe-hydrogenase were analyzed. Molecular characterization confirmed the finch trichomonosis strain, identical to the strain that caused emerging disease in free-living passerine birds in Europe...
April 3, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408862/obesity-stigma-and-bias
#17
Sharon M Fruh, Joe Nadglowski, Heather R Hall, Sara L Davis, Errol D Crook, Kimberly Zlomke
Overweight and obesity are escalating in epidemic proportions in the United States. Individuals with overweight and obesity are often reluctant to seek medical help, not only for weight reduction but also for any health issue because of perceived provider discrimination. Providers who are biased against individuals with obesity can hinder our nation's effort to effectively fight the obesity epidemic. By addressing weight bias in the provider setting, individuals affected by obesity may be more likely to engage in a meaningful and productive discussion of weight...
July 2016: Journal for Nurse Practitioners: JNP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408133/a-recombinant-h7n9-influenza-vaccine-with-the-h7-hemagglutinin-transmembrane-domain-replaced-by-the-h3-domain-induces-increased-cross-reactive-antibodies-and-improved-interclade-protection-in-mice
#18
Yang Wang, Jialing Wu, Chunyi Xue, Zhihui Wu, Ying Lin, Ying Wei, Xiaona Wei, Jianru Qin, Yun Zhang, Zhifen Wen, Li Chen, George Dacai Liu, Yongchang Cao
Influenza A H7N9 virus is the latest emerging pandemic threat, and has rapidly diverged into three clades, demanding a H7N9 virus vaccine with broadened protection against unmatched strains. Hemagglutinin (HA)-based structural design approaches for stabilizing HA proteins have provided excitingly promising results. However, none of the HA-based structural design approaches has been applied to a recombinant replicative influenza virus. Here we report that our HA-based structural design approach is a first in the field to generate a recombinant replicative H7N9 virus (H7N9-53TM) showing broadened protection...
April 10, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405629/human-norovirus-evolution-in-a-chronically-infected-host
#19
Sylvie Y Doerflinger, Stefan Weichert, Anna Koromyslova, Martin Chan, Christian Schwerk, Ruediger Adam, Stefan Jennewein, Grant S Hansman, Horst Schroten
Typically, human noroviruses cause symptoms of acute gastroenteritis for 2 to 4 days. Often, the virions are shed in stool for several days after the symptoms recede, which in turn can lead to further contamination and transmission. Moreover, a number of reports have considered that chronic norovirus infections, i.e., lasting months and years, might even function as reservoirs for the generation of novel strains that can escape the herd immunity or have modified binding interactions with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs)...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405379/human-mobility-networks-and-persistence-of-rapidly-mutating-pathogens
#20
Alberto Aleta, Andreia N S Hisi, Sandro Meloni, Chiara Poletto, Vittoria Colizza, Yamir Moreno
Rapidly mutating pathogens may be able to persist in the population and reach an endemic equilibrium by escaping hosts' acquired immunity. For such diseases, multiple biological, environmental and population-level mechanisms determine the dynamics of the outbreak, including pathogen's epidemiological traits (e.g. transmissibility, infectious period and duration of immunity), seasonality, interaction with other circulating strains and hosts' mixing and spatial fragmentation. Here, we study a susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible model on a metapopulation where individuals are distributed in sub-populations connected via a network of mobility flows...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
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