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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231300/detection-and-partial-discrimination-of-atypical-and-classical-bovine-spongiform-encephalopathies-in-cattle-and-primates-using-real-time-quaking-induced-conversion-assay
#1
Etienne Levavasseur, Anne-Gaëlle Biacabe, Emmanuel Comoy, Audrey Culeux, Katarina Grznarova, Nicolas Privat, Steve Simoneau, Benoit Flan, Véronique Sazdovitch, Danielle Seilhean, Thierry Baron, Stéphane Haïk
The transmission of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE) through contaminated meat product consumption is responsible for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans. More recent and atypical forms of BSE (L-BSE and H-BSE) have been identified in cattle since the C-BSE epidemic. Their low incidence and advanced age of onset are compatible with a sporadic origin, as are most cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. Transmissions studies in primates and transgenic mice expressing a human prion protein (PrP) indicated that atypical forms of BSE may be associated with a higher zoonotic potential than classical BSE, and require particular attention for public health...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231235/near-real-time-surveillance-of-u-s-norovirus-outbreaks-by-the-norovirus-sentinel-testing-and-tracking-network-united-states-august-2009-july-2015
#2
Minesh P Shah, Mary E Wikswo, Leslie Barclay, Anita Kambhampati, Kayoko Shioda, Umesh D Parashar, Jan Vinjé, Aron J Hall
Norovirus is the leading cause of endemic and epidemic acute gastroenteritis in the United States (1). New variant strains of norovirus GII.4 emerge every 2-4 years (2-4) and are often associated with increased disease and health care visits (5-7). Since 2009, CDC has obtained epidemiologic data on norovirus outbreaks from state health departments through the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) (8) and laboratory data through CaliciNet (9). NORS is a web-based platform for reporting waterborne, foodborne, and enteric disease outbreaks of all etiologies, including norovirus, to CDC...
February 24, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230525/inference-and-forecast-of-h7n9-influenza-in-china-2013-to-2015
#3
Ruiyun Li, Yuqi Bai, Alex Heaney, Sasikiran Kandula, Jun Cai, Xuyi Zhao, Bing Xu, Jeffrey Shaman
The recent emergence of A(H7N9) avian influenza poses a significant challenge to public health in China and around the world; however, understanding of the transmission dynamics and progression of influenza A(H7N9) infection in domestic poultry, as well as spillover transmission to humans, remains limited. Here, we develop a mathematical model-Bayesian inference system which combines a simple epidemic model and data assimilation method, and use it in conjunction with data on observed human influenza A(H7N9) cases from 19 February 2013 to 19 September 2015 to estimate key epidemiological parameters and to forecast infection in both poultry and humans...
February 16, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229043/detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-the-mosquito-borne-filarial-nematode-setaria-tundra-in-danish-roe-deer-capreolus-capreolus
#4
Heidi Larsen Enemark, Antti Oksanen, Mariann Chriél, Jakob le Fèvre Harslund, Ian David Woolsey, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman Al-Sabi
Setaria tundra is a mosquito-borne filarial nematode of cervids in Europe. It has recently been associated with an emerging epidemic disease causing severe morbidity and mortality in reindeer and moose in Finland. Here, we present the first report of S. tundra in six roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) collected between October 2010 and March 2014 in Denmark. The deer originated from various localities across the country: the eastern part of the Jutland peninsular and four locations on the island Zealand. With the exception of one deer, with parasites residing in a transparent cyst just under the liver capsule, worms (ranging from 2 to >20/deer) were found free in the peritoneal cavity...
April 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226416/the-contribution-of-the-emergency-department-to-opioid-pain-reliever-misuse-and-diversion-a-critical-review
#5
REVIEW
Tatyana Lyapustina, Renan Castillo, Elise Omaki, Wendy Shields, Eileen McDonald, Richard Rothman, Andrea Gielen
Prescription opioid pain reliever (OPR) misuse and diversion is an important and growing public health problem in the United States that is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Emergency physicians are among the top prescribers of OPRs, yet the relative contribution of emergency department (ED) OPR prescriptions to the overall opioid abuse epidemic remains unclear. This study critically reviews seven peer-reviewed studies that specifically identified the ED as a source of OPRs. Of the OPRs prescribed in the ED, approximately 10% are associated with indicators of inappropriate prescribing, and approximately 42% may ultimately be misused; of the OPRs that are diverted, approximately 10% originate from an ED prescription...
February 22, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225804/an-outbreak-of-acute-respiratory-disease-caused-by-a-virus-associated-rna-ii-gene-mutation-strain-of-human-adenovirus-7-in-china-2015
#6
Xiaoxia Yang, Qiongshu Wang, Beibei Liang, Fuli Wu, Hao Li, Hongbo Liu, Chunyu Sheng, Qiuxia Ma, Chaojie Yang, Jing Xie, Peng Li, Leili Jia, Ligui Wang, Xinying Du, Shaofu Qiu, Hongbin Song
Human adenovirus 7 (HAdV-7) strains are a major cause of acute respiratory disease (ARD) among adults and children, associated with fatal pneumonia. An ARD outbreak caused by HAdV-7 that involved 739 college students was reported in this article. To better understand the underlying cause of this large-scale epidemic, virus strains were isolated from infected patients and sequence variations of the whole genome sequence were detected. Evolutionary trees and alignment results indicated that the major capsid protein genes hexon and fibre were strongly conserved among serotype 7 strains in China at that time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222788/antimicrobial-resistance-and-genomic-rep-pcr-fingerprints-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strains-from-animals-on-the-background-of-the-global-population-structure
#7
Isa Serrano, Manuela Oliveira, José Pedro Santos, Florence Bilocq, Alexandre Leitão, Luis Tavares, Jean-Paul Pirnay, Daniel De Vos
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important human opportunistic pathogen responsible for fatal nosocomial infections worldwide, and has emerged as a relevant animal pathogen. Treatment options are dramatically decreasing, due to antimicrobial resistance and the microorganism's large versatile genome. Antimicrobial resistance profiles, serotype frequency and genomic profile of unrelated P. aeruginosa isolates of veterinary origin (n = 73), including domesticated, farm, zoo and wild animals mainly from Portugal were studied...
February 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221954/molecular-detection-of-the-three-major-pathogenic-vibrio-species-from-seafood-products-and-sediments-in-tunisia-using-real-time-pcr
#8
Morsi Gdoura, Hanen Sellami, Hanen Nasfi, Rahma Trabelsi, Sabeur Mansour, Touraya Attia, Siwar Nsaibia, Tatiana Vallaeys, Radhouane Gdoura, Mariam Siala
: Vibrio spp. have emerged as a serious threat to human health worldwide. V. parahaemolyticus , V. cholerae , and V. vulnificus pose a considerable public health risk in Tunisia because they cause sporadic and epidemic foodborne infections associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked contaminated seafood. More recently, toxR-positive V. alginolyticus was also reported to be a potential source of contaminated seafood. A total of 247 samples, including 113 fishes ( Labrus viridis , Penaeus kerathurus , Diplodus annularis , Diplodus sparaillon , Scorparna porcus , Sarpa salpa , Dentex dentex , Scorparna scrofa , Sardinella aurita , Trachurus trachurus , Synodus saurus , Pagellus erythrinus , and Metapenaeus monoceros ), 83 clams ( Ruditapes decussatus species), 30 seawater samples, and 21 sediment samples were analyzed using traditional culture methods (ISO/TS 21872-1; International Organization for Standardization 2007) and a conventional PCR method for Vibrio spp...
December 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219161/-advances-on-epidemiological-research-of-human-infections-with-novel-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus
#9
Q M Wang, S L Liu, E F Chen
Human infections with novel avian influenza A(H7N9)virus was an emerging infectious disease discovered in March, 2013. As of June30, 2016, 770 cases of H7N9 were reported in worldwide including 315 deaths with 40.9% of high case fatality rate. Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta were the high-prevalence area. Formerly, the cases of H7N9 were concentrated on the municipalities. However, most of the case-patients were from smaller cities or rural areas nowadays. The H7N9 human infections mainly occurred in winter and spring every waves as similar as seasonal and H5N1 human infections...
February 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218263/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-an-emerging-driving-force-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#10
REVIEW
Giovanni Targher, Christopher D Byrne
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by an accumulation of fat in the liver; the condition can progress over time to increase the risk of developing cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing rapidly owing to the global epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and NAFLD has been predicted to become the most important indication for liver transplantation over the next decade. It is now increasingly clear that NAFLD not only affects the liver but can also increase the risk of developing extra-hepatic diseases, including T2DM, cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD), which have a considerable impact on health-care resources...
February 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217934/population-dynamics-of-wild-rodents-induce-stochastic-fadeouts-of-a-zoonotic-pathogen
#11
Giorgio Guzzetta, Valentina Tagliapietra, Sarah E Perkins, Heidi C Hauffe, Piero Poletti, Stefano Merler, Annapaola Rizzoli
Stochastic processes play an important role in the infectious disease dynamics of wildlife, especially in species subject to large population oscillations. Here we study the case of a free ranging population of yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) in northern Italy, where circulation of Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus (DOBV) has been detected intermittently since 2001, until an outbreak emerged in 2010. We analyzed the transmission dynamics of the recent outbreak using a computational model that accounts for seasonal changes of the host population and territorial behavior...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215187/experiences-of-ebola-survivors-causes-of-distress-and-sources-of-resilience
#12
Patricia M Schwerdtle, Veronique De Clerck, Virginia Plummer
: Introduction An appreciation of the experience of Ebola survivors is critical for community engagement and an effective outbreak response. Few qualitative, descriptive studies have been conducted to date that concentrate on the voices of Ebola survivors. Problem This study aimed to explore the experiences of Ebola survivors following the West African epidemic of 2014. METHOD: An interpretive, qualitative design was selected using semi-structured interviews as the method of data collection...
February 20, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212379/distribution-and-abundance-of-key-vectors-of-rift-valley-fever-and-other-arboviruses-in-two-ecologically-distinct-counties-in-kenya
#13
Rosemary Sang, Samwel Arum, Edith Chepkorir, Gladys Mosomtai, Caroline Tigoi, Faith Sigei, Olivia Wesula Lwande, Tobias Landmann, Hippolyte Affognon, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis of ruminants and humans that causes outbreaks in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with significant public health and economic consequences. Humans become infected through mosquito bites and contact with infected livestock. The virus is maintained between outbreaks through vertically infected eggs of the primary vectors of Aedes species which emerge following rains with extensive flooding. Infected female mosquitoes initiate transmission among nearby animals, which amplifies virus, thereby infecting more mosquitoes and moving the virus beyond the initial point of emergence...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212197/screening-children-for-abuse-and-neglect-a-review-of-the-literature
#14
Mary Hoft, Lisa Haddad
Child abuse and neglect occur in epidemic numbers in the United States and around the world, resulting in major physical and mental health consequences for abused children in the present and future. A vast amount of information is available on the signs and symptoms and short- and long-term consequences of abuse. A limited number of instruments have been empirically developed to screen for child abuse, with most focused on physical abuse in the context of the emergency department, which have been found to be minimally effective and lacking rigor...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209289/depression-among-current-former-and-never-smokers-from-2005-to-2013-the-hidden-role-of-disparities-in-depression-in-the-ongoing-tobacco-epidemic
#15
Renee D Goodwin, Melanie M Wall, Lorra Garey, Michael J Zvolensky, Lisa Dierker, Sandro Galea, Misato Gbedemah, Andrea H Weinberger, Jill M Williams, Mei-Chen Hu, Deborah S Hasin
BACKGROUND: After declining sharply for many years, the prevalence of smoking has remained fairly stable over the past decade. One possible explanation is that there has been an increase in the prevalence of barriers to cessation, like depression, among remaining smokers. OBJECTIVES: To estimate changes in the prevalence of depression among current, former and never smokers in the United States (U.S.) population from 2005 to 2013 overall and by age, gender, and income...
January 11, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207818/women-and-hiv-in-the-united-states
#16
Alexander Breskin, Adaora A Adimora, Daniel Westreich
BACKGROUND: The demographic and geographic characteristics of the HIV epidemic in the US has changed substantially since the disease emerged, with women in the South experiencing a particularly high HIV incidence. In this study, we identified and described counties in the US in which the prevalence of HIV is particularly high in women compared to men. METHODS: Using data from AIDSVu, a public dataset of HIV cases in the US in 2012, we categorized counties by their decile of the ratio of female to male HIV prevalence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207078/emerging-infectious-diseases-animals-and-future-epidemics
#17
Herbert L DuPont
Emerging and reemerging infections have become prevalent in the United States since the 1970s, causing illness, death, and fear among the public. The published literature was reviewed to offer a perspective on risk factors for disease acquisition and to allow a prediction of the next microbial assault after Ebola and Zika. Four well-integrated factors likely will contribute simultaneously: animals colonized or infected by pathogens capable of human transmission, microbes recurrently changing their virulence, a growing number of susceptible people, and climatic and environmental factors encouraging disease transmission...
February 1, 2017: Texas Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202931/zika-the-emerging-epidemic-donald-g-mcneil-w-w-norton-new-york-2016-203%C3%A2-pp-isbn-978-0-393-35396-9
#18
Adolfo Martínez-Palomo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198998/physical-activity-counseling-in-primary-care-insights-from-public-health-and-behavioral-economics
#19
REVIEW
Kerem Shuval, Tammy Leonard, Jeffrey Drope, David L Katz, Alpa V Patel, Melissa Maitin-Shepard, On Amir, Amir Grinstein
Physical inactivity has reached epidemic proportions in modern society. Abundant evidence points to a causal link between physical inactivity and increased risk for numerous noncommunicable diseases, such as some types of cancer and heart disease, as well as premature mortality. Yet, despite this overwhelming evidence, many individuals do not meet the recommended amount of physical activity required to achieve maximum health benefits. Because primary care physicians' advice is highly regarded, clinicians have the unique opportunity to play an important role in enabling patients to modify their behavior at the point of care with the goal of guiding patients to adopt and maintain an active lifestyle...
February 15, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198446/a-mutation-identified-in-neonatal-microcephaly-destabilizes-zika-virus-ns1-assembly-in-vitro
#20
Deping Wang, Cheng Chen, Shengnan Liu, Han Zhou, Kailin Yang, Qi Zhao, Xiaoyun Ji, Chen Chen, Wei Xie, Zefang Wang, Li-Zhi Mi, Haitao Yang
An unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection had spread to South and Central America. ZIKV infection was recently confirmed by CDC (the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) to cause neonatal microcephaly, which posed a significant public health emergency of international concern. No specific vaccines or drugs are currently available to fight ZIKV infection. ZIKV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) plays an essential role in viral replication and immune evasion. We determined the crystal structure of ZIKV NS1172-352, which forms a head-to-head, symmetric dimer with a unique 14-stranded β-ladder conserved among flaviviruses...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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