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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346384/histoplasmosis-in-africa-an-emerging-or-a-neglected-disease
#1
REVIEW
Rita O Oladele, Olusola O Ayanlowo, Malcolm D Richardson, David W Denning
Histoplasmosis in Africa has markedly increased since the advent of the HIV/AIDS epidemic but is under-recognised. Pulmonary histoplasmosis may be misdiagnosed as tuberculosis (TB). In the last six decades (1952-2017), 470 cases of histoplasmosis have been reported. HIV-infected patients accounted for 38% (178) of the cases. West Africa had the highest number of recorded cases with 179; the majority (162 cases) were caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. dubuosii (Hcd). From the Southern African region, 150 cases have been reported, and the majority (119) were caused by H...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344632/factors-associated-with-outcomes-and-costs-after-pediatric-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy
#2
Gileh-Gol Akhtar-Danesh, Aristithes G Doumouras, Cecily Bos, Helene Flageole, Dennis Hong
Importance: The prevalence of pediatric cholelithiasis is increasing with the epidemic of childhood obesity. With this rise, the outcomes and costs of pediatric laparoscopic cholecystectomy become an important public health and economic concern. Objective: To assess patient and health system factors associated with the outcomes and costs after laparoscopic cholecystectomy among Canadian children. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective, population-based study of children 17 years and younger undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy from April 1, 2008, until March 31, 2015...
January 17, 2018: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343583/structural-study-of-the-c-terminal-domain-of-non-structural-protein-1-from-japanese-encephalitis-virus
#3
Thanalai Poonsiri, Gareth S A Wright, Michael S Diamond, Lance Turtle, Tom Solomon, Svetlana V Antonyuk
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus that is closely related to other emerging viral pathogens including dengue, West Nile (WNV) and Zika viruses. JEV infection can result in meningitis and encephalitis, which in severe cases cause permanent brain damage and death. JEV occurs predominantly in rural areas throughout Southeast Asia, the Pacific islands and the Far East, causing around 68,000 cases worldwide each year. In this study, we present a 2.1 Å resolution crystal structure of the C-terminal β-ladder domain of JEV non-structural protein 1 (NS1-C)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341607/in-vitro-pharmacokinetic-optimizations-of-am2-s31n-channel-blockers-led-to-the-discovery-of-slow-binding-inhibitors-with-potent-antiviral-activity-against-drug-resistant-influenza-a-viruses
#4
Yuanxiang Wang, Yanmei Hu, Shuting Xu, Yongtao Zhang, Rami Musharrafieh, Raymond Kin Hau, Chunlong Ma, Jun Wang
Influenza viruses are respiratory pathogens that are responsible for both seasonal influenza epidemics and occasional influenza pandemics. The narrow therapeutic window of oseltamivir, coupled with the emergence of drug resistance, calls for the next-generation of antivirals. With our continuous interest in developing AM2-S31N inhibitors as oral influenza antivirals, we report here the progress of optimizing the in vitro pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of AM2-S31N inhibitors. Several AM2-S31N inhibitors, including compound 10b, were discovered to have potent channel blockage, single to submicromolar antiviral activity, and favorable in vitro PK properties...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341529/-when-the-ward-overflows%C3%A2-the-impact-of-outlying-beds-on-patient-care
#5
Valérie Mosimann, Olivier Lamy, Julien Castioni
Due to the chronic lack of beds in hospitals, patients are often hospitalized in other departments (outlier patients), with a responsible physician working in another department. This causes increased thromboembolics risks, nosocomial infections, falls and delirium in the elderly, morbidity and mortality. Outlier patients, compared to standard patients, stay longer in the emergency department and their discharge documents are available later. Outlying is used daily in the CHUV hospital and new strategies are elaborated to manage patient flow, especially during the flu epidemic...
January 17, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340602/emergence-of-blactx-m-55-associated-with-fosa-rmtb-and-mcr-gene-variants-in-escherichia-coli-from-various-animal-species-in-france
#6
Agnese Lupo, Estelle Saras, Jean-Yves Madec, Marisa Haenni
Objectives: In Asian countries, blaCTX-M-55 is the second most common ESBL-encoding gene. blaCTX-M-55 frequently co-localizes with fosA and rmtB genes on epidemic plasmids, which remain sporadic outside Asia. During 2010-13, we investigated CTX-M-55-producing Escherichia coli isolates and their co-resistance to fosfomycin, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones and colistin as part of a global survey of ESBLs in animals in France. Methods: blaCTX-M-55, fosA, rmtB and plasmidic quinolone and colistin resistance genes were characterized by PCR, sequencing and hybridization experiments...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339753/efficient-isolation-on-vero-dogslamtag-cells-and-full-genome-characterization-of-dolphin-morbillivirus-dmv-by-next-generation-sequencing
#7
Simone Peletto, Claudio Caruso, Francesco Cerutti, Paola Modesto, Cristina Biolatti, Alessandra Pautasso, Carla Grattarola, Federica Giorda, Sandro Mazzariol, Walter Mignone, Loretta Masoero, Cristina Casalone, Pier Luigi Acutis
The Dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV) genome from the first Mediterranean epidemic (1990-'92) is the only cetacean Morbillivirus that has been completely sequenced. Here, we report the first application of next generation sequencing (NGS) to morbillivirus infection of aquatic mammals. A viral isolate, representative of the 2006-'08 Mediterranean epidemic (DMV_IZSPLV_2008), efficiently grew on Vero.DogSLAMtag cells and was submitted to whole genome characterization by NGS. The final genome length was 15,673 nucleotides, covering 99...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338452/an-update-on-diagnostic-and-prognostic-biomarkers-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Kevin K Wang, Zhihui Yang, Tian Zhu, Yuan Shi, Richard Rubenstein, J Adrian Tyndall, Geoff T Manley
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major worldwide neurological disorder of epidemic proportions. To date, there are still no FDA-approved therapies to treat any forms of TBI. Encouragingly, there are emerging data showing that biofluid-based TBI biomarker tests have the potential to diagnose the presence of TBI of different severities including concussion, and to predict outcome. Area covered: The authors provide an update on the current knowledge of TBI biomarkers, including protein biomarkers for neuronal cell body injury (UCH-L1, NSE), astroglial injury (GFAP, S100B), neuronal cell death (αII-spectrin breakdown products), axonal injury (NF proteins), white matter injury (MBP), post-injury neurodegeneration (total Tau and phospho-Tau), post-injury autoimmune response (brain antigen-targeting autoantibodies), and other emerging non-protein biomarkers...
January 17, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336846/sex-differences-in-prevalence-of-emergency-department-patient-substance-use
#9
Robert D Cannon, Gillian A Beauchamp, Paige Roth, Jennifer Stephens, David B Burmeister, David M Richardson, Alanna M Balbi, Tennessee D Park, Stephen W Dusza, Marna Rayl Greenberg
PURPOSE: Substance use and misuse is prevalent in emergency department (ED) populations. While the prevalence of substance use and misuse is reported, sex-specific trends in ED populations have not been documented. We set out to determine the sex-specific prevalence of ED patient substance use during this current epidemic. METHODS: A retrospective electronic data abstraction tool, developed for quality-improvement purposes, was used to assess ED visits in 3 hospitals in northeastern Pennsylvania...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333950/willingness-to-pay-for-an-ebola-vaccine-during-the-2014-2016-ebola-outbreak-in-west-africa-results-from-a-u-s-national-sample
#10
Julia E Painter, Michael E von Fricken, Suyane Viana de O Mesquita, Ralph J DiClemente
The 2014-2016 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa led to advances in the development of vaccines against Ebola. This study examined factors associated with willingness to pay for an Ebola vaccine among a U.S. national sample during the recent Ebola outbreak. From April 30-May 8, 2015, a national survey was conducted using the GfK Group's KnowlegePanel®. Main outcome measures included willingness to pay at least $1; more than $50; and more than $100 for an Ebola vaccine. Analyses were conducted using weighted multivariable logistic regression...
January 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331394/selected-epidemics-emerging-pathogens-vector-borne-illnesses
#11
EDITORIAL
Jerrold B Leikin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2018: Disease-a-month: DM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330276/cutaneous-mycobacterium-massiliense-infection-from-tattooing-a-common-yet-under-reported-and-persistent-epidemic-hazard-for-dermatologists
#12
Lymaries Velez, Jennifer Harb, Stephanie Anuszewski, Stanton Wesson
Tattoo popularity continues to rise, with 3 in 10 Americans bearing at least one. Among tattoo complications, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has emerged as a global public health concern. NTM infections associated with tattooing of immunocompetent individuals have occurred as sporadic cases and community outbreaks. Water sources are considered the major pathogenic reservoirs. Tattoo-related inoculation has been linked to contamination of ink, either during the manufacturing process or during dilution of black ink using non-sterile water...
January 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328913/an-integrated-view-of-immunometabolism
#13
REVIEW
Yun Sok Lee, Joshua Wollam, Jerrold M Olefsky
The worldwide obesity epidemic has emerged as a major cause of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Chronic tissue inflammation is a well-recognized feature of obesity, and the field of immunometabolism has witnessed many advances in recent years. Here, we review the major features of our current understanding with respect to chronic obesity-related inflammation in metabolic tissues and focus on how these inflammatory changes affect insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, food intake, and glucose homeostasis...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324895/continental-synchronicity-of-human-influenza-virus-epidemics-despite-climactic-variation
#14
Jemma L Geoghegan, Aldo F Saavedra, Sebastián Duchêne, Sheena Sullivan, Ian Barr, Edward C Holmes
The factors that determine the pattern and rate of spread of influenza virus at a continental-scale are uncertain. Although recent work suggests that influenza epidemics in the United States exhibit a strong geographical correlation, the spatiotemporal dynamics of influenza in Australia, a country and continent of approximately similar size and climate complexity but with a far smaller population, are not known. Using a unique combination of large-scale laboratory-confirmed influenza surveillance comprising >450,000 entries and genomic sequence data we determined the local-level spatial diffusion of this important human pathogen nationwide in Australia...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323761/chronic-critical-illness-application-of-what-we-know
#15
REVIEW
Martin D Rosenthal, Amir Y Kamel, Cameron M Rosenthal, Scott Brakenridge, Chasen A Croft, Frederick A Moore
Over the last decade, chronic critical illness (CCI) has emerged as an epidemic in intensive care unit (ICU) survivors worldwide. Advances in ICU technology and implementation of evidence-based care bundles have significantly decreased early deaths and have allowed patients to survive previously lethal multiple organ failure (MOF). Many MOF survivors, however, experience a persistent dysregulated immune response that is causing an increasingly predominant clinical phenotype called the persistent inflammation, immunosuppression, and catabolism syndrome (PICS)...
January 11, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323268/evaluation-of-animal-to-human-and-human-to-human-transmission-of-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-in-china-2013-15
#16
Victor Virlogeux, Luzhao Feng, Tim K Tsang, Hui Jiang, Vicky J Fang, Ying Qin, Peng Wu, Xiling Wang, Jiandong Zheng, Eric H Y Lau, Zhibin Peng, Juan Yang, Benjamin J Cowling, Hongjie Yu
A novel avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) virus emerged in China in March 2013 and by 27 September 2017 a total of 1533 laboratory-confirmed cases have been reported. Occurrences of animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission have been previously identified, and the force of human-to-human transmission is an important component of risk assessment. In this study, we constructed an ecological model to evaluate the animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission of H7N9 during the first three epidemic waves in spring 2013, winter/spring 2013-2014 and winter/spring 2014-2015 in China based on 149 laboratory-confirmed urban cases...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322705/a-comparative-study-of-in-hospital-outcome-of-patients-with-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-with-and-without-diabetes-mellitus-after-thrombolytic-therapy-in-government-hospital-of-rajkot-gujarat-india
#17
Varshit Hathi, Meghal Anadkat
Background: Diabetes mellitus is considered as a major health problem and an epidemic throughout the world. The mortality of patients with diabetes is almost twice that of non-diabetic. The outcome of in-hospital patients with myocardial infarction with and without diabetes after thrombolytic therapy is presented here. Aim: To compare the outcome of patients with myocardial infarction after thrombolysis in diabetics and non-diabetics in government hospital of Rajkot, India...
November 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322273/the-emerging-influenza-virus-threat-status-and-new-prospects-for-its-therapy-and-control
#18
REVIEW
Binod Kumar, Kumari Asha, Madhu Khanna, Larance Ronsard, Clement Adebajo Meseko, Melvin Sanicas
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are zoonotic pathogens that cause yearly outbreaks with high rates of morbidity and fatality. The virus continuously acquires point mutations while circulating in several hosts, ranging from aquatic birds to mammals, including humans. The wide range of hosts provides influenza A viruses greater chances of genetic re-assortment, leading to the emergence of zoonotic strains and occasional pandemics that have a severe impact on human life. Four major influenza pandemics have been reported to date, and health authorities worldwide have shown tremendous progress in efforts to control epidemics and pandemics...
January 10, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321921/farming-q-fever-and-public-health-agricultural-practices-and-beyond
#19
REVIEW
Marcella Mori, Hendrik-Jan Roest
Since the Neolithic period, humans have domesticated herbivores to have food readily at hand. The cohabitation with animals brought various advantages that drastically changed the human lifestyle but simultaneously led to the emergence of new epidemics. The majority of human pathogens known so far are zoonotic diseases and the development of both agricultural practices and human activities have provided new dynamics for transmission. This article provides a general overview of some factors that influence the epidemic potential of a zoonotic disease, Q fever...
2018: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320313/acute-radiologic-manifestations-of-america-s-opioid-epidemic
#20
David D B Bates, Katherine Gallagher, HeiShun Yu, Jennifer Uyeda, Akira M Murakami, Bindu N Setty, Stephan W Anderson, Mariza O Clement
The United States is in the midst of an opioid use epidemic, which has severe medical, social, and economic consequences. Addictions to and abuse of prescription and illicit opioids are increasing, and emergency department radiologists are increasingly being faced with the task of examining patients who present with opioid-related complications. These complications may be the result of direct drug toxicity or nonsterile injection of the drugs. Neurologic, musculoskeletal, cardiopulmonary, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal complications may be evident at diagnostic imaging in emergent settings...
January 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
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