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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323441/breaking-binaries-biomedicine-and-serostatus-borderlands-among-couples-with-mixed-hiv-status
#1
Asha Persson, Christy E Newman, Jeanne Ellard
With recent breakthroughs in HIV treatment and prevention, the meanings of HIV-positivity and HIV-negativity are changing at biomedical and community levels. We explore how binary constructions of HIV serostatus identities are giving way to something more complex that brings both welcome possibilities and potential concerns. We draw on research with couples with mixed HIV status to argue that, in the context of lived experiences, serostatus identities have always been more ambiguous than allowed for in HIV discourse...
February 28, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319151/ethical-problems-in-an-era-where-disasters-have-become-a-part-of-daily-life-a-qualitative-study-of-healthcare-workers-in-turkey
#2
M Murat Civaner, Kevser Vatansever, Kayihan Pala
BACKGROUND: Natural disasters, armed conflict, migration, and epidemics today occur more frequently, causing more death, displacement of people and economic loss. Their burden on health systems and healthcare workers (HCWs) is getting heavier accordingly. The ethical problems that arise in disaster settings may be different than the ones in daily practice, and can cause preventable harm or the violation of basic human rights. Understanding the types and the determinants of ethical challenges is crucial in order to find the most benevolent action while respecting the dignity of those affected people...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302313/influenza
#3
REVIEW
Catharine Paules, Kanta Subbarao
Influenza is an acute respiratory illness, caused by influenza A, B, and C viruses, that occurs in local outbreaks or seasonal epidemics. Clinical illness follows a short incubation period and presentation ranges from asymptomatic to fulminant, depending on the characteristics of both the virus and the individual host. Influenza A viruses can also cause sporadic infections or spread worldwide in a pandemic when novel strains emerge in the human population from an animal host. New approaches to influenza prevention and treatment for management of both seasonal influenza epidemics and pandemics are desirable...
March 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302312/cholera
#4
REVIEW
John D Clemens, G Balakrish Nair, Tahmeed Ahmed, Firdausi Qadri, Jan Holmgren
Cholera is an acute, watery diarrhoeal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae of the O1 or O139 serogroups. In the past two centuries, cholera has emerged and spread from the Ganges Delta six times and from Indonesia once to cause global pandemics. Rational approaches to the case management of cholera with oral and intravenous rehydration therapy have reduced the case fatality of cholera from more than 50% to much less than 1%. Despite improvements in water quality, sanitation, and hygiene, as well as in the clinical treatment of cholera, the disease is still estimated to cause about 100 000 deaths every year...
March 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301551/development-of-the-full-length-cdna-clones-of-two-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-disease-virus-isolates-with-different-virulence
#5
Jie Li, Zhonghui Jin, Yueyi Gao, Lei Zhou, Xinna Ge, Xin Guo, Jun Han, Hanchun Yang
The recently emerged highly virulent variants of porcine epidemic and diarrhea virus (PEDV) remain a huge threat to the worldwide swine industry. Here, we describe the development of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) reverse genetics system for PEDV based on two recent Chinese field isolates, namely CHM2013 and BJ2011C. Phylogenetically, CHM2013 is closely related to the vaccine strain SM98 whereas the isolate BJ2011C belongs to the GIIb group, a cluster that contains many recent pandemic strains. The full-length cDNA clones of the two isolates were constructed into BAC under the control of CMV promoter...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299152/ebola-viral-disease-in-west-africa-a-threat-to-global-health-economy-and-political-stability
#6
Semeeh Akinwale Omoleke, Ibrahim Mohammed, Yauba Saidu
The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD) outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298448/evaluation-of-altona-diagnostics-realstar-zika-virus-rt-pcr-test-kit-for-zika-virus-pcr-testing
#7
Arnaud G L'Huillier, Ernesto Lombos, Elaine Tang, Stephen Perusini, Alireza Eshaghi, Sandeep Nagra, Christine Frantz, Romy Olsha, Erik Kristjanson, Kristina Dimitrova, David Safronetz, Mike Drebot, Jonathan B Gubbay
Background: With the emerging ZIKA virus (ZIKV) epidemic, accessible real-time reverse-transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) assays are needed to streamline testing. The commercial Altona Diagnostics RealStar ZIKV rRT-PCR Test Kit has been approved for Emergency Use Authorization by the FDA. Our aim was to verify Altona-PCR, by comparing it to the CDC-designed dual target ZIKV virus rRT-PCR reference assay (Reference-PCR), and describe demographics of patients tested for ZIKV by rRT-PCR in Ontario, Canada.Methods: A large set of clinical specimens were tested for ZIKV by Altona-PCR and Reference-PCR...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298138/four-close-related-hiv-1-crf01_ae-crf07_bc-recombinant-forms-identified-in-east-china
#8
Fan Li, Yuxueyun Li, Yi Feng, Jing Hu, Yuhua Ruan, Hui Xing, Yiming Shao
Five near full-length genome of novel second-generation HIV-1 recombinant virus (JS150021, JS150029, JS150129, JS150132 and AH150183) were identified from five HIV-positive people in Jiangsu and Anhui province, east China. Phylogenic analyses showed that these five sequences are all composed of two well-established circulating recombinant forms CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE, grouped into four new discovered recombinant forms ,which show several very similar but not identical recombinant breakpoints. The four recombinant forms are also identified to be a sort of family or related viruses, seems to be the results of different recombination events...
March 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297186/the-new-obstetrical-dilemma-stunting-obesity-and-the-risk-of-obstructed-labour
#9
Jonathan C K Wells
The "obstetrical dilemma" refers to the tight fit between maternal pelvic dimensions and neonatal size at delivery. Most interest traditionally focused on its generic significance for humans, for example our neonatal altriciality and our complex and lengthy birth process. Across contemporary populations, however, the obstetrical dilemma manifests substantial variability, illustrated by differences in the incidence of cephalo-pelvic disproportion, obstructed labour and cesarean section. Beyond accounting for 12% of maternal mortality worldwide, obstructed labour also imposes a huge burden of maternal morbidity, in particular through debilitating birth injuries...
April 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294079/carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-a-strategic-roadmap-for-infection-control
#10
N Deborah Friedman, Yehuda Carmeli, Aaron Lea Walton, Mitchell James Schwaber
The incidence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) has increased worldwide with great regional variability. Infections caused by these organisms are associated with crude mortality rates of up to 70%. The spread of CRE in healthcare settings is both an important medical problem and a major global public health threat. All countries are at risk of falling victim to the emergence of CRE; therefore, a preparedness plan is required to avoid the catastrophic natural course of this epidemic. Proactive and adequate preventive measures locally, regionally, and nationally are required to contain the spread of these bacteria...
March 15, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293559/data-driven-risk-assessment-from-small-scale-epidemics-estimation-and-model-choice-for-spatio-temporal-data-with-application-to-a-classical-swine-fever-outbreak
#11
Kokouvi Gamado, Glenn Marion, Thibaud Porphyre
Livestock epidemics have the potential to give rise to significant economic, welfare, and social costs. Incursions of emerging and re-emerging pathogens may lead to small and repeated outbreaks. Analysis of the resulting data is statistically challenging but can inform disease preparedness reducing potential future losses. We present a framework for spatial risk assessment of disease incursions based on data from small localized historic outbreaks. We focus on between-farm spread of livestock pathogens and illustrate our methods by application to data on the small outbreak of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) that occurred in 2000 in East Anglia, UK...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293228/prevention-and-control-strategies-to-counter-zika-epidemic
#12
REVIEW
Irfan A Rather, Sanjay Kumar, Vivek K Bajpai, Jeongheui Lim, Yong-Ha Park
ZIKA virus (ZIKA) has now become a global phenomenon. Since 2007, evidence of ZIKA transmission has been reported over 72 countries and territories. The transmission of ZIKA has made World Health Organization to categorize the situation under the ambit of a health emergency. This situation is serious because there appears to be a highly tangible link between infection during pregnancy and the occurrence of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. In the context of this emergency situation, this review article intends to discuss the prevention and control strategies such as avoiding travel to infected area, being careful from mosquito bites, take precautions to reduce the risk of sexual transmission, and seek medical care for any acute illness with rash or fever...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293151/conventional-and-alternative-treatment-approaches-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#13
REVIEW
Khalid M Aljarallah
Clostridium difficile-associated disease continues to be one of the leading health concerns worldwide. C. difficile is considered as a causative agent of nosocomial diarrhea that causes serious infection, which may result in death. The incidences of C. difficile infection (CDI) in developed countries have become increasingly high which may be attributed to the emergence of newer epidemic strains, extensive use of antibiotics, and limited alternative therapies. The available treatment options against CDI are expensive and promote resistance...
January 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288924/global-expansion-of-chikungunya-virus-mapping-the-64-year-history
#14
REVIEW
Braira Wahid, Amjad Ali, Shazia Rafique, Muhammad Idrees
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that is emerging as a global threat because of its highly debilitating nature and unprecedented magnitude. The disease originated from Africa and then hit the entire globe causing large number of epidemics that infected millions of people in Asia, Indian subcontinent, Europe, Americas, and Pacific Islands. According to phylogenetic analysis, four different genotypes of CHIKV are: Asian, West African, East/Central/South African (ECSA), and Indian Ocean lineage (IOL)...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287833/identification-of-a-novel-hiv-type-1-crf01_ae-b-c-recombinant-isolate-in-sichuan-china
#15
Yan Wang, Desheng Kong, Weisi Xu, Fan Li, Shu Liang, Yi Feng, Fujie Zhang, Yiming Shao, Liying Ma
We report in this study a novel HIV-1 unique recombinant virus (XC2014EU01) isolated from an HIV-positive man who infected through heterosexual sex in Sichuan, China. The near full-length genome analyses showed that XC2014EU01 harbored one subtype B segment in pol region and two subtype C segments in gag-pol region in a CRF01_AE backbone. The unique mosaic structure was distinctly different from the other CRF01_AE/B'/C recombinant forms reported. Phylogenetic tree analyses revealed that the subtype B region originated from a Thailand subtype B' lineage, the subtype C regions were from an India C lineage, and the backbone was from CRF01_AE...
March 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286767/emerging-and-neglected-infectious-diseases-insights-advances-and-challenges
#16
REVIEW
Nicholas Israel Nii-Trebi
Infectious diseases are a significant burden on public health and economic stability of societies all over the world. They have for centuries been among the leading causes of death and disability and presented growing challenges to health security and human progress. The threat posed by infectious diseases is further deepened by the continued emergence of new, unrecognized, and old infectious disease epidemics of global impact. Over the past three and half decades at least 30 new infectious agents affecting humans have emerged, most of which are zoonotic and their origins have been shown to correlate significantly with socioeconomic, environmental, and ecological factors...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284225/how-does-the-dengue-vector-mosquito-aedes-albopictus-respond-to-global-warming
#17
Pengfei Jia, Xiang Chen, Jin Chen, Liang Lu, Qiyong Liu, Xiaoyue Tan
BACKGROUND: Global warming has a marked influence on the life cycle of epidemic vectors as well as their interactions with human beings. The Aedes albopictus mosquito as the vector of dengue fever surged exponentially in the last decade, raising ecological and epistemological concerns of how climate change altered its growth rate and population dynamics. As the global warming pattern is considerably uneven across four seasons, with a confirmed stronger effect in winter, an emerging need arises as to exploring how the seasonal warming effects influence the annual development of Ae...
March 11, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283373/dynamics-affecting-the-risk-of-silent-circulation-when-oral-polio-vaccination-is-stopped
#18
J S Koopman, C J Henry, J H Park, M C Eisenberg, E L Ionides, J N Eisenberg
Waning immunity could allow transmission of polioviruses without causing poliomyelitis by promoting silent circulation (SC). Undetected SC when oral polio vaccine (OPV) use is stopped could cause difficult to control epidemics. Little is known about waning. To develop theory about what generates SC, we modeled a range of waning patterns. We varied both OPV and wild polio virus (WPV) transmissibility, the time from beginning vaccination to reaching low polio levels, and the infection to paralysis ratio (IPR)...
March 1, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281871/progress-in-hiv-vaccine-development
#19
Denise C Hsu, Robert J O'Connell
An HIV-1 vaccine is needed to curtail the HIV epidemic. Only one (RV144) out of the 6 HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials performed showed efficacy. A potential mechanism of protection is the induction of functional antibodies to V1V2 region of HIV envelope. The 2 main current approaches to the generation of protective immunity are through broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAb) and induction of functional antibodies (non-neutralizing Abs with other potential anti-viral functions). Passive immunization using bnAb has advanced into phase II clinical trials...
March 10, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279715/characteristics-and-changes-in-invasive-meningococcal-disease-epidemiology-in-france-2006-2015
#20
I Parent du Chatelet, A E Deghmane, D Antona, E Hong, L Fonteneau, M K Taha, D Lévy-Bruhl
OBJECTIVES: This work aimed to describe the epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in France, 2006-2015, including group- and genotype-specific disease burden, incidence trends before and after introduction of meningococcal C conjugate vaccines (MCCV) in 2010, and factors influencing the case fatality rate. METHODS: Mandatory notification data on incidence and IMD case characteristics were used. Genotyping of invasive strains and whole genome sequencing were performed by the French National Reference Center...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Infection
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