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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911847/zika-virus-cell-tropism-in-the-developing-human-brain-and-inhibition-by-azithromycin
#1
Hanna Retallack, Elizabeth Di Lullo, Carolina Arias, Kristeene A Knopp, Matthew T Laurie, Carmen Sandoval-Espinosa, Walter R Mancia Leon, Robert Krencik, Erik M Ullian, Julien Spatazza, Alex A Pollen, Caleigh Mandel-Brehm, Tomasz J Nowakowski, Arnold R Kriegstein, Joseph L DeRisi
The rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) and its association with abnormal brain development constitute a global health emergency. Congenital ZIKV infection produces a range of mild to severe pathologies, including microcephaly. To understand the pathophysiology of ZIKV infection, we used models of the developing brain that faithfully recapitulate the tissue architecture in early to midgestation. We identify the brain cell populations that are most susceptible to ZIKV infection in primary human tissue, provide evidence for a mechanism of viral entry, and show that a commonly used antibiotic protects cultured brain cells by reducing viral proliferation...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911071/severe-brain-injury-in-massachusetts-assessing-the-continuum-of-care
#2
Laura Lorenz, Gabrielle Katz
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is a major public health problem in Massachusetts (Hackman et al, 2014) and includes traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, ABI-related infectious diseases, metabolic disorders affecting the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), and brain tumor. Advances in emergency medical care and neurosurgery mean that more people are surviving severe traumatic brain injury (Trexler et al, 2014). Yet many patients with severe TBI in particular, are not receiving inpatient services after initial treatment (Hackman et al, 2014; CDC, 2014) or later that are known to be effective (Malec & Kean, 2015; Lewis & Horn, 2015; BI Commission, 2011; Kolakowsky-Hayner et al, 2000; Interviews)...
December 10, 2015: Issue Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906009/current-trends-and-intricacies-in-the-management-of-hiv-associated-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#3
REVIEW
Narendran Gopalan, Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran, Soumya Swaminathan, Srikanth Tripathy
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has undoubtedly increased the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) globally, posing a formidable global health challenge affecting 1.2 million cases. Pulmonary TB assumes utmost significance in the programmatic perspective as it is readily transmissible as well as easily diagnosable. HIV complicates every aspect of pulmonary tuberculosis from diagnosis to treatment, demanding a different approach to effectively tackle both the diseases. In order to control these converging epidemics, it is important to diagnose early, initiate appropriate therapy for both infections, prevent transmission and administer preventive therapy...
September 26, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902502/zika-virus-and-patient-blood-management
#4
Lawrence T Goodnough, Marisa B Marques
Sporadic Zika virus infections had only occurred in Africa and Asia until an outbreak in Micronesia (Oceania) in 2007. In 2013 to 2014, several outer Pacific Islands reported local outbreaks. Soon thereafter, the virus was likely introduced in Brazil from competing athletes from French Polynesia and other countries that participated in a competition there. Transmission is thought to have occurred through mosquito bites and spread to the immunologically naive population. Being also a flavivirus, the Zika virus is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito that is endemic in South and Central America that is also the vector of West Nile virus, dengue, and chikungunya...
November 29, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900629/dracorhodin-perochlorate-attenuates-staphylococcus-aureus-usa300-virulence-by-decreasing-%C3%AE-toxin-expression
#5
Yumin Liu, Dongxue Shi, Yan Guo, Meng Li, Yonghong Zha, Quankai Wang, Jianfeng Wang
α-Toxin, a pore-forming toxin secreted by most Staphylococcus aureus, plays critical role in the pathogenesis associated with various infectious diseases. The USA300 which is a major international epidemic methicilin-resisrant S. aureus has spread rapidly to multiple countries and become an emerging public health concern. In this study, the in vitro efficacy of Dracorhodin Perochlorate (DP) against USA300 virulence was evaluated. Using susceptibility testing, immunoblots, rabbit blood haemolytic assay and real-time RT-PCR, we observed that the α-toxin production was decreased when USA300 was co-cultured with different sub-inhibitory concentration of DP...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899155/comparative-sequence-analysis-of-cyclospora-cayetanensis-apicoplast-genomes-originating-from-diverse-geographical-regions
#6
Hediye Nese Cinar, Yvonne Qvarnstrom, Yuping Wei-Pridgeon, Wen Li, Fernanda S Nascimento, Michael J Arrowood, Helen R Murphy, AhYoung Jang, Eunje Kim, RaeYoung Kim, Alexandre da Silva, Gopal R Gopinath
BACKGROUND: Cyclospora cayetanensis is an emerging coccidian parasite that causes endemic and epidemic diarrheal disease called cyclosporiasis, and this infection is associated with consumption of contaminated produce or water in developed and developing regions. Food-borne outbreaks of cyclosporiasis have occurred almost every year in the USA since the 1990s. Investigations of these outbreaks are currently hampered due to lack of molecular epidemiological tools for trace back analysis...
November 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898133/opioid-misuse-abuse-and-quality-persistent-pain-management-in-older-adults
#7
Yu-Ping Chang, Peggy Compton
The United States is amid an epidemic of prescription opioid drug abuse, bringing with it not only high rates of overdose, but growing rates of heroin abuse and addiction. Liberal opioid drug prescribing on the part of well-meaning clinicians has in part fueled this epidemic, being correlated to opioid death and addiction treatment admission rates. Misuse and abuse of prescription opioid drugs is greatest among young adults (ages 18 to 25); however, the fastest growing age group for opioid drug misuse/abuse is older (ages 50 to 64)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894981/hiv-prevalence-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-istanbul
#8
Fatma Sargin, Safak Goktas
OBJECTIVES: A re-emergence of the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) represents a serious health issue. This study aimed to assess the HIV prevalence among MSM in a large metropole of a very low prevalence population. DESIGN AND METHODS: A public campaign for raising awareness on HIV infection and for providing access to anonymous testing was conducted in places frequented by MSM and through a mobile phone application. No identity information was requested from individuals calling the call-center, and anonymous and free HIV testing was offered proactively...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889613/two-approaches-one-problem-cultural-constructions-of-type-ii-diabetes-in-an-indigenous-community-in-yucat%C3%A3-n-mexico
#9
Sarah M Frank, T Elizabeth Durden
The emerging epidemic of obesity and type II diabetes in Mexico has recently propelled the nation into the public health spotlight. In the state of Yucatán, the experience of diabetes is greatly impacted by two cultural constructions of disease. In this setting, elements of Yucatec Mayan health practices as well as the biomedical model affect the approach to type II diabetes. Both frameworks offer unique understandings of the etiology of diabetes and recommend different ways to manage the condition. Based on in-depth and semi-structured interviews with both community members and clinicians, the present study seeks to understand how diabetes is understood and treated in indigenous settings in rural Yucatán...
November 16, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888291/whole-genome-enrichment-provides-deep-insights-into-vibrio-cholerae-metagenome-from-an-african-river
#10
L Vezzulli, C Grande, G Tassistro, I Brettar, M G Höfle, R P A Pereira, D Mushi, A Pallavicini, P Vassallo, C Pruzzo
The detection and typing of Vibrio cholerae in natural aquatic environments encounter major methodological challenges related to the fact that the bacterium is often present in environmental matrices at very low abundance in nonculturable state. This study applied, for the first time to our knowledge, a whole-genome enrichment (WGE) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach for direct genotyping and metagenomic analysis of low abundant V. cholerae DNA (<50 genome unit/L) from natural water collected in the Morogoro river (Tanzania)...
November 25, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886785/approaches-to-sustainable-capacity-building-for-cardiovascular-disease-care-in-kenya
#11
REVIEW
Felix A Barasa, Rajesh Vedanthan, Sonak D Pastakia, Susie J Crowe, Wilson Aruasa, Wilson K Sugut, Russ White, Elijah S Ogola, Gerald S Bloomfield, Eric J Velazquez
Cardiovascular diseases are approaching epidemic levels in Kenya and other low- and middle-income countries without accompanying effective preventive and therapeutic strategies. This is happening in the background of residual and emerging infections and other diseases of poverty, and increasing physical injuries from traffic accidents and noncommunicable diseases. Investments to create a skilled workforce and health care infrastructure are needed. Improving diagnostic capacity, access to high-quality medications, health care, appropriate legislation, and proper coordination are key components to ensuring the reversal of the epidemic and a healthy citizenry...
February 2017: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884652/clinical-and-molecular-epidemiologic-trends-reveal-the-important-role-of-rotavirus-in-adult-infectious-gastroenteritis-in-shanghai-china
#12
Yan Wang, Jinan Zhang, Pengbo Liu
As a leading cause of severe diarrhea in children, the pathogenic role of rotavirus in adults has been underestimated for a long time. A hospital-based prospective clinical and molecular epidemiologic study of rotavirus infections in adults was performed between April 2014 and March 2015 in Shanghai, China. Overall, rotavirus was detected in 48 of 441 (10.9%) specimens with prevalence peaking in December (33.3%) and January (27.9%), whereas bacteria were identified in 45 of 846 (5.3%) samples (p<0.01). The rotavirus winter-spring seasonality (November-March) contrasts with the marked summer-fall seasonality (April-October) of bacterial pathogens (p<0...
November 21, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884135/online-platform-for-applying-space-time-scan-statistics-for-prospectively-detecting-emerging-hot-spots-of-dengue-fever
#13
Chien-Chou Chen, Yung-Chu Teng, Bo-Cheng Lin, I-Chun Fan, Ta-Chien Chan
BACKGROUND: Cases of dengue fever have increased in areas of Southeast Asia in recent years. Taiwan hit a record-high 42,856 cases in 2015, with the majority in southern Tainan and Kaohsiung Cities. Leveraging spatial statistics and geo-visualization techniques, we aim to design an online analytical tool for local public health workers to prospectively identify ongoing hot spots of dengue fever weekly at the village level. METHODS: A total of 57,516 confirmed cases of dengue fever in 2014 and 2015 were obtained from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (TCDC)...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880753/notes-from-the-field-community-based-prevention-of-rocky-mountain-spotted-fever-sonora-mexico-2016
#14
Anne Straily, Naomi Drexler, Denica Cruz-Loustaunau, Christopher D Paddock, Gerardo Alvarez-Hernandez
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a life-threatening tickborne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is a reemerging disease in Mexico (1,2). R. rickettsii is an intracellular bacterium that infects vascular endothelium and can cause multisystem organ failure and death in the absence of timely administration of a tetracycline-class antibiotic, typically doxycycline. Epidemic RMSF, as described in parts of Arizona and Mexico, is associated with massive local infestations of the brown dog tick (Rhiphicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on domestic dogs and in peridomestic settings that result in high rates of human exposure; for example, during 2003-2012, in Arizona the incidence of RMSF in the three most highly affected communities was 150 times the U...
November 25, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876783/genetic-characterization-of-novel-fowl-aviadenovirus-4-isolates-from-outbreaks-of-hepatitis-hydropericardium-syndrome-in-broiler-chickens-in-china
#15
Yanke Liu, Wenyan Wan, Dongsheng Gao, Yongtao Li, Xia Yang, Hongying Liu, Huixia Yao, Lu Chen, Chuanqing Wang, Jun Zhao
Since May 2015, severe outbreaks of hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS) associated with infections of fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV) have emerged in broiler chickens in several Chinese provinces. To identify the genotype and gain a better understanding of the genetic properties of the FAdV strains responsible for the recent HHS outbreaks in China, the complete genome sequences of five isolates from outbreaks of HHS in broiler chickens in five provinces were determined. The results demonstrated that a novel fowl aviadenovirus 4 (FAdV-4) genotype was epidemic in China...
November 23, 2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876643/the-emergence-of-arthropod-borne-viral-diseases-a-global-prospective-on-dengue-chikungunya-and-zika-fevers
#16
REVIEW
Sandra V Mayer, Robert B Tesh, Nikos Vasilakis
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) present a substantial threat to human and animal health worldwide. Arboviruses can cause a variety of clinical presentations that range from mild to life threatening symptoms. Many arboviruses are present in nature through two distinct cycles, the urban and sylvatic cycle that are maintained in complex biological cycles. In this review we briefly discuss the factors driving the emergence of arboviruses, such as the anthropogenic aspects of unrestrained human population growth, economic expansion and globalization...
November 19, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875821/are-hiv-infected-older-adults-aging-differently
#17
Stephen E Karpiak, Richard Havlik
With increasing success in treating HIV, infected persons are living longer, and a new challenge has emerged - the need to understand how HIV-infected adults are aging. What are the similarities with typical aging and what are the unique aspects that may have resulted from HIV infection, interacting with characteristic life style factors and other comorbid conditions? Are specific diseases and conditions (comorbidities), typically seen as part of the aging process, occurring at accelerated rates or with higher frequency (accentuated) in HIV-infected adults? At this juncture, conclusions should be tentative...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872145/aspects-of-disaster-research-ethics-applicable-to-other-contexts
#18
Bridget Haire
In his article 'The Ebola Clinical Trials: a precedent for research ethics in disasters', Philippe Calain constructs a compelling case as to why and how experiences from the recent Ebola epidemic should be used to develop a framework for disaster research ethics. In particular, Calain proposes a useful model for assessing whether or not an unproven intervention could be suitable for human use in a disaster context, and makes a powerful argument against the separation of patient care from research goals. In this commentary, I argue that the separation of patient care goals from research goals is also unhelpful in the context of other forms of participant disadvantage even when that disadvantage is less severe than an ongoing public health emergency...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870645/where-next-with-preexposure-prophylaxis
#19
Diarmuid Nugent, Richard Gilson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Controlling the HIV epidemic remains a major public health challenge, and there is an urgent need for novel prevention strategies. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) refers to the use of antiretrovirals in HIV-negative people at high risk to prevent infection and has the potential to be an important component in the global effort to end the HIV epidemic by 2030. We review the current evidence for the safety and efficacy of PrEP in its different forms and address emergent issues and concerns regarding its implementation...
November 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869592/assessing-the-epidemic-potential-of-rna-and-dna-viruses
#20
Mark E J Woolhouse, Liam Brierley, Chris McCaffery, Sam Lycett
Many new and emerging RNA and DNA viruses are zoonotic or have zoonotic origins in an animal reservoir that is usually mammalian and sometimes avian. Not all zoonotic viruses are transmissible (directly or by an arthropod vector) between human hosts. Virus genome sequence data provide the best evidence of transmission. Of human transmissible virus, 37 species have so far been restricted to self-limiting outbreaks. These viruses are priorities for surveillance because relatively minor changes in their epidemiologies can potentially lead to major changes in the threat they pose to public health...
December 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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