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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642059/new-trends-on-obesity-and-nafld-in-asia
#1
REVIEW
Jian-Gao Fan, Seung-Up Kim, Vincent Wai-Sun Wong
Traditionally, obesity and its related diseases are considered problems in Western countries. However, in the past two decades, urbanization in many Asian countries has led to sedentary lifestyle and overnutrition, and has set the stage for the epidemic of obesity. This article reviews the epidemiological trend of obesity in Asia with special emphasis on the emerging condition of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Currently, the population prevalence of NAFLD in Asia is around 25%, similar to that in many Western countries...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641809/re-emerging-infectious-diseases-from-the-past-hysteria-or-real-risk
#2
Charlier Philippe, Claverie Jean-Michel, Sansonetti Philippe, Coppens Yves, Augias Anaïs, Jacqueline Sophie, Rengot Fanny, Deo Saudamini
BACKGROUND: Work on human remains and old biological samples is a potential source of contamination by conventional or atypical infectious agents. Similarly, current and future environmental changes are a source of resurgence of ancient epidemic diseases. To what extent are anthropologists sorcerer apprentices (especially those working on ancient samples, i.e. paleo-anthropologists)? Are ancient skeletons, palaeosols and museum objects with a biological component at risk for current populations? Unless there are unfounded fears and undue risk… What can be learned from the recent scientific literature and the common sense of the researchers? METHODS: We have attempted to compile data from the literature and from our personal experience in the fields of anthropology, clinical medicine and epidemiology, in order to grasp the reality of the risk to the human population...
June 19, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640889/contrasting-academic-and-lay-press-print-coverage-of-the-2013-2016-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak
#3
Mark D Kieh, Elim M Cho, Ian A Myles
Under a traditional paradigm, only those with the expected background knowledge consume academic literature. The lay press, as well as government and non-government agencies, play a complementary role of extracting findings of high interest or importance and translating them for general viewing. The need for accurate reporting and public advising is paramount when attempting to tackle epidemic outbreaks through behavior change. Yet, public trust in media outlets is at a historic low. The Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) model for media reporting on public health emergencies was established in 2005 and has subsequently been used to analyze media reporting on outbreaks of influenza and measles as well as smoking habits and medication compliance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639989/use-of-expenditure-analysis-to-enhance-returns-on-investments-in-hiv-services
#4
Brian Honermann, Richael O'Hagan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Globally, the response to the HIV epidemic is at a crisis point. International investments in the HIV response have been essentially flat for 8 years and domestic budgets in low and middle-income countries - still recovering from the global recession - have not been able to fill the resource gap to drive a full-fledged HIV response. Still, efficiencies and prioritization of evidence-based interventions enable a significant scale-up of treatment, but millions more people remain without treatment...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638846/the-pandemic-h30-subclone-of-sequence-type-131-st131-as-the-leading-cause-of-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-infections-in-the-united-states-2011-2012
#5
James R Johnson, Stephen Porter, Paul Thuras, Mariana Castanheira
BACKGROUND: Extraintestinal Escherichia coli infections are increasingly challenging due to emerging antimicrobial resistance, including resistance to extended-spectrum beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones. Sequence type 131 (ST131) is a leading contributor. METHODS: Three hundred sixty E. coli clinical isolates from across the United States (2011-2012), selected randomly from the SENTRY collection within 3 resistance categories (extended-spectrum cephalosporin [ECS]-reduced susceptibility [RS]; fluoroquinolone-resistant, ESC-susceptible; and fluoroquinolone-susceptible, ESC-susceptible) were typed for phylogroup, sequence type complex (STc), subsets thereof, virulence genotype, O type, and beta-lactamase genes...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638845/detection-of-the-northeastern-african-rift-valley-fever-virus-lineage-during-the-2015-outbreak-in-mauritania
#6
Ndeye Sakha Bob, Hampâté Bâ, Gamou Fall, Elkhalil Ishagh, Mamadou Y Diallo, Abdourahmane Sow, Pape Mbacké Sembene, Ousmane Faye, Brahim El Kouri, Mohamed Lemine Sidi, Amadou Alpha Sall
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute viral anthropozoonosis that causes epizootics and epidemics among livestock population and humans. Multiple emergences and reemergences of the virus have occurred in Mauritania over the last decade. This article describes the outbreak that occurred in 2015 in Mauritania and reports the results of serological and molecular investigations of blood samples collected from suspected RVF patients. METHODS: An RVF outbreak was reported from 14 September to 26 November 2015 in Mauritania...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637755/seasonal-h3n2-and-2009-pandemic-h1n1-influenza-a-viruses-reassort-efficiently-but-produce-attenuated-progeny
#7
Kara L Phipps, Nicolle Marshall, Hui Tao, Shamika Danzy, Nina Onuoha, John Steel, Anice C Lowen
Reassortment of gene segments between co-infecting influenza A viruses (IAV) facilitates viral diversification and has significant epidemiological impact on seasonal and pandemic influenza. Since 1977, human IAVs of H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes have co-circulated with relatively few documented cases of reassortment. We evaluated the potential for viruses of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) and seasonal H3N2 lineages to reassort under experimental conditions. Results of heterologous co-infections with pH1N1 and H3N2 viruses were compared to those obtained following co-infection with homologous, genetically tagged, pH1N1 viruses as a control...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636443/personal-protective-equipment-supply-chain-lessons-learned-from-recent-public-health-emergency-responses
#8
Anita Patel, Maryann M D'Alessandro, Karen J Ireland, W Greg Burel, Elaine B Wencil, Sonja A Rasmussen
Personal protective equipment (PPE) that protects healthcare workers from infection is a critical component of infection control strategies in healthcare settings. During a public health emergency response, protecting healthcare workers from infectious disease is essential, given that they provide clinical care to those who fall ill, have a high risk of exposure, and need to be assured of occupational safety. Like most goods in the United States, the PPE market supply is based on demand. The US PPE supply chain has minimal ability to rapidly surge production, resulting in challenges to meeting large unexpected increases in demand that might occur during a public health emergency...
May 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635206/integrated-care-of-chronic-degenerative-non-communicable-diseases-and-rehabilitation-the-odd-couple
#9
Bruno Balbi, Claudio Marcassa, Fabrizio Pisani, Giacomo Corica, Antonio Spanevello
Chronic degenerative non-communicable diseases affecting different organs and systems are considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the emergent epidemic in the third millennium...
May 18, 2017: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633891/aids-avian-flu-sars-mers-ebola-zika%C3%A2-what-next
#10
REVIEW
Leslie A Reperant, Albert D M E Osterhaus
Emerging infections have threatened humanity since times immemorial. The dramatic anthropogenic, behavioral and social changes that have affected humanity and the environment in the past century have accelerated the intrusion of novel pathogens into the global human population, sometimes with devastating consequences. The AIDS and influenza pandemics have claimed and will continue to claim millions of lives. The recent SARS and Ebola epidemics have threatened populations across borders. The emergence of MERS may well be warning signals of a nascent pandemic threat, while the potential for geographical spread of vector-borne diseases, such as Zika, but also Dengue and Chikungunya is unprecedented...
June 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633314/qualitative-identification-of-fentanyl-analogs-and-other-opioids-in-postmortem-cases-by-uhplc-ion-trap-msn
#11
Elisa N Shoff, M Elizabeth Zaney, Joseph H Kahl, George W Hime, Diane M Boland
Since 2013, the Miami-Dade County Medical Examiner Department has experienced an increase in the number of opioid-related deaths. The majority of cases coincided with the introduction of fentanyl into the local heroin supply. From 2014 to 2015, Miami-Dade County experienced a near 600% increase in fentanyl-related deaths, followed by an additional 200% increase in 2016. In 2015, two novel fentanyl analogs were identified in medical examiner cases: beta-hydroxythiofentanyl and acetyl fentanyl. In 2016, four additional fentanyl analogs emerged: para-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl, butyryl fentanyl, furanyl fentanyl and carfentanil, as well as the synthetic opioid U-47700...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632771/avian-influenza-in-latin-america-a-systematic-review-of-serological-and-molecular-studies-from-2000-2015
#12
Alejandra Afanador-Villamizar, Carlos Gomez-Romero, Andres Diaz, Julian Ruiz-Saenz
Avian influenza or bird flu is a highly contagious acute viral disease that can occur in epidemics and cross-border forms in poultry and wild birds. The characteristics of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) allow the emergence of new viral variants, some with zoonotic and pandemic potential. AIVs have been identified in Latin America; however, there is a lack of understanding of these viruses at the regional level. We performed a systematic literature review on serological or molecular evidence of AIVs circulation in Latin America...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632767/how-is-indonesia-coping-with-its-epidemic-of-chronic-noncommunicable-diseases-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#13
Julia Schröders, Stig Wall, Mohammad Hakimi, Fatwa Sari Tetra Dewi, Lars Weinehall, Mark Nichter, Maria Nilsson, Hari Kusnanto, Ekowati Rahajeng, Nawi Ng
BACKGROUND: Chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have emerged as a huge global health problem in low- and middle-income countries. The magnitude of the rise of NCDs is particularly visible in Southeast Asia where limited resources have been used to address this rising epidemic, as in the case of Indonesia. Robust evidence to measure growing NCD-related burdens at national and local levels and to aid national discussion on social determinants of health and intra-country inequalities is needed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632149/association-between-air-pollution-and-emergency-room-visits-for-atrial-fibrillation
#14
Angelo G Solimini, Matteo Renzi
Despite the large prevalence in the population, possible factors responsible for the induction of atrial fibrillation (AF) events in susceptible individuals remain incompletely understood. We investigated the association between air pollution levels and emergency department admissions for AF in Rome. We conducted a 14 years' time-series study to evaluate the association between the daily levels of air pollution (particulate matter, PM10 and PM2.5, and nitrogen dioxide, NO₂) and the daily count of emergency accesses for AF (ICD-9 code: 427...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628629/understanding-msos-a-qualitative-study-examining-the-implementation-of-a-text-messaging-outbreak-alert-system-in-rural-kenya
#15
Mitsuru Toda, Ian Njeru, Dejan Zurovac, David Kareko, Shikanga O-Tipo, Matilu Mwau, Kouichi Morita
Outbreaks of epidemic diseases pose serious public health risks. To overcome the hurdles of sub-optimal disease surveillance reporting from the health facilities to relevant authorities, the Ministry of Health in Kenya piloted mSOS (mobile SMS-based disease outbreak alert system) in 2013-2014. In this paper, we report the results of the qualitative study, which examined factors that influence the performances of mSOS implementation. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 disease surveillance coordinators and 32 in-charges of rural health facilities that took part in the mSOS intervention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628440/norovirus-gii-17-as-major-epidemic-strain-in-italy-winter-2015-16
#16
Giovanni Maurizio Giammanco, Simona De Grazia, Floriana Bonura, Vincenzo Cappa, Sara Li Muli, Arcangelo Pepe, Maria Cristina Medici, Fabio Tummolo, Adriana Calderaro, Francesca Di Bernardo, Piera Dones, Anna Morea, Daniela Loconsole, Cristiana Catella, Valentina Terio, Krisztiàn Bànyai, Maria Chironna, Vito Martella
In winter 2015-16, norovirus GII.17 Kawasaki 2014 emerged as a cause of sporadic gastroenteritis in children in Italy. Median patient age was higher for those with GII.17 than GII.4 infection (55 vs. 24 months), suggesting limited cross-protection for older children.
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625842/dynamics-of-scientific-publications-on-the-mers-cov-outbreaks-in-saudi-arabia
#17
REVIEW
Ali Rabaan, Shamsah H Al-Ahmed, Ali M Bazzi, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging disease with a relatively high case fatality rate. Most cases have been reported from Saudi Arabia, and the disease epidemic potential is considered to be limited. However, human-human transmission has occurred, usually in the context of healthcare facility-associated outbreaks. The scientific and medical community depends on timely publication of epidemiological information on emerging diseases during outbreaks to appropriately target public health responses...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622854/linear-dna-vaccine-prepared-by-large-scale-pcr-provides-protective-immunity-against-h1n1-influenza-virus-infection-in-mice
#18
Fei Wang, Quanjiao Chen, Shuntang Li, Chenyao Zhang, Shanshan Li, Min Liu, Kun Mei, Chunhua Li, Lixin Ma, Xiaolan Yu
Linear DNA vaccines provide effective vaccination. However, their application is limited by high cost and small scale of the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) generally used to obtain sufficient amounts of DNA effective against epidemic diseases. In this study, a two-step, large-scale PCR was established using a low-cost DNA polymerase, RKOD, expressed in Pichia pastoris. Two linear DNA vaccines encoding influenza H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA) 1, LEC-HA, and PTO-LEC-HA (with phosphorothioate-modified primers), were produced by the two-step PCR...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619679/antiviral-activity-of-1-2-3-triazolo-4-5-d-pyrimidin-7-6h-ones-against-chikungunya-virus-targeting-the-viral-capping-nsp1
#19
Alba Gigante, Asier Gómez-SanJuan, Leen Delang, C Li, Oskía Bueno, Ana María Gamo, Eva-María Priego, María-José Camarasa, Dirk Jochmans, Pieter Leyssen, Etienne Decroly, Bruno Coutard, Gilles Querat, Johan Neyts, María-Jesús Pérez-Pérez
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging alphavirus transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes. Since 2005, CHIKV has been spreading worldwide resulting in epidemics in Africa, the Indian Ocean islands, Asia and more recently in the Americas. CHIKV is thus considered as a global health concern. There is no specific vaccine or drug available for the treatment of this incapacitating viral infection. We previously identified 3-aryl-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidin-7(6H)-ones as selective inhibitors of CHIKV replication and proposed the viral capping enzyme nsP1 as a target...
June 12, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615701/revisiting-zika-and-rubella
#20
Adolfo Martinez-Palomo
Three months after the World Health Organization declared the epidemic of Zika virus infections to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, we can look back at what we have learned and prospects for controlling the disease. Although Zika virus infections may explain many cases of brain damage in newborns, it may not be the only cause. We need a clear association between confirmed cases of Zika infections in pregnant women and microcephaly in newborns. Until we reach a firm conclusion, past experience with another virus that causes damage to newborns offers some hope...
August 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
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