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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734240/decreased-levels-of-serum-fibroblast-growth-factor-2-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Erman Esnafoglu, Sema Nur Ayyıldız
The neurodevelopment and functioning of the central nervous system, and especially the cerebral cortex, have basic importance to understand neuropsychiatric disorders like autism. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) plays a very important role in the development and functioning of the cortex. FGF-2 is related to developmental processes in the central nervous system such as neurogenesis, migration, differentiation and survival. This study researched the serum FGF-2 levels in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
July 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734238/decreased-levels-of-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#2
Hatice Altun, Ergül Belge Kurutaş, Nilfer Şahin, Hayati Sınır, Ebru Fındıklı
Sex hormones, specially estrogen, and ıt is receptors plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between ASD and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), a recently discovered estrogen receptors, and also to study the relation of serum GPER levels with the severity of autistic symptoms. The present study included 45 children with drug naive ASD diagnosed by DSM-V criteria, aged between 3 and 12 years and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy controls...
June 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730732/shared-atypical-default-mode-and-salience-network-functional-connectivity-between-autism-and-schizophrenia
#3
Heng Chen, Lucina Q Uddin, Xujun Duan, Junjie Zheng, Zhiliang Long, Youxue Zhang, Xiaonan Guo, Yan Zhang, Jingping Zhao, Huafu Chen
Schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are two prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders sharing some similar genetic basis and clinical features. The extent to which they share common neural substrates remains unclear. Resting-state fMRI data were collected from 35 drug-naïve adolescent participants with first-episode schizophrenia (15.6 ± 1.8 years old) and 31 healthy controls (15.4 ± 1.6 years old). Data from 22 participants with ASD (13.1 ± 3.1 years old) and 21 healthy controls (12...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730641/basal-ganglia-and-autism-a-translational-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Krishna Subramanian, Cheryl Brandenburg, Fernanda Orsati, Jean-Jacques Soghomonian, John P Hussman, Gene J Blatt
The basal ganglia are a collection of nuclei below the cortical surface that are involved in both motor and non-motor functions, including higher order cognition, social interactions, speech, and repetitive behaviors. Motor development milestones that are delayed in autism such as gross motor, fine motor and walking can aid in early diagnosis of autism. Neuropathology and neuroimaging findings in autism cases revealed volumetric changes and altered cell density in select basal ganglia nuclei. Interestingly, in autism, both the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are impacted both in their motor and non-motor domains and recently, found to be connected via the pons through a short disynaptic pathway...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730417/patterns-of-age-related-cognitive-differences-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Patrick S Powell, Laura G Klinger, Mark R Klinger
Little is known about age-related cognitive differences in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, given the overlap in cognitive impairments in ASD to those seen in typical aging, it is possible that adults with ASD will face even greater cognitive difficulties as they age. The current study used a cross-sectional design to examine age-related cognitive differences in adults with ASD and age and IQ-matched adults with typical development (age range 30-67 years). Results indicated that both age and diagnosis were related to poorer cognitive performance...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729535/pld1-promotes-dendritic-spine-development-by-inhibiting-adam10-mediated-n-cadherin-cleavage
#6
Li-Da Luo, Gang Li, Yun Wang
Synapses are the basic units of information transmission, processing and integration in the nervous system. Dysfunction of the synaptic development has been recognized as one of the main reasons for mental dementia and psychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and autism. However, the underlying mechanisms of the synapse formation are far from clear. Here we report that phospholipase D1 (PLD1) promotes the development of dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons. We found that overexpressing PLD1 increases both the density and the area of dendritic spines...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727509/music-and-on-task-behaviors-in-preschool-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Shannon Titus Dieringer, David L Porretta, Diane Sainato
The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of music (music with lyrics versus music with lyrics plus instruction) relative to on-task behaviors in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in a gross motor setting. Five preschool children (4 boys, 1 girl) diagnosed with ASD served as participants. A multiple baseline across participants in conjunction with an alternating-treatment design was used. For all participants, music with lyrics plus instruction increased on-task behaviors to a greater extent than did music with lyrics...
July 2017: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly: APAQ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725136/sex-specific-effect-of-recalled-parenting-on-affective-and-cognitive-empathy-in-adulthood
#8
Minna T Lyons, Gayle Brewer, Emily J Bethell
Previous research has demonstrated the influence of parenting on the development of children's empathy. However, few studies have considered the impact of parents on empathy in adulthood, specific components of empathy, or the importance of parent and child biological sex. In the present study, 226 participants (71 men) completed online versions of the Parental Bonding Instrument (Parker et al. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 1-10 1979), Empathy Quotient (Baron-Cohen and Wheelwright Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 163-175 2004), and Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10, 85 1980)...
2017: Current Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724436/expanding-the-phenotype-of-reciprocal-1q21-1-deletions-and-duplications-a-case-series
#9
Martina Busè, Helenia C Cuttaia, Daniela Palazzo, Marcella V Mazara, Salvatrice A Lauricella, Michela Malacarne, Mauro Pierluigi, Simona Cavani, Maria Piccione
BACKGROUND: Recurrent reciprocal 1q21.1 deletions and duplications have been associated with variable phenotypes. Phenotypic features described in association with 1q21.1 microdeletions include developmental delay, craniofacial dysmorphism and congenital anomalies. The 1q21.1 reciprocal duplication has been associated with macrocephaly or relative macrocephaly, frontal bossing, hypertelorism, developmental delay, intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. METHODS: Our study describes seven patients, who were referred to us for developmental delay/intellectual disability, dysmorphic features and, in some cases, congenital anomalies, in whom we identified 1q21...
July 19, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723907/auditory-and-visual-distractors-disrupt-multisensory-temporal-acuity-in-the-crossmodal-temporal-order-judgment-task
#10
Cassandra L Dean, Brady A Eggleston, Kyla David Gibney, Enimielen Aligbe, Marissa Blackwell, Leslie Dowell Kwakye
The ability to synthesize information across multiple senses is known as multisensory integration and is essential to our understanding of the world around us. Sensory stimuli that occur close in time are likely to be integrated, and the accuracy of this integration is dependent on our ability to precisely discriminate the relative timing of unisensory stimuli (crossmodal temporal acuity). Previous research has shown that multisensory integration is modulated by both bottom-up stimulus features, such as the temporal structure of unisensory stimuli, and top-down processes such as attention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722199/facial-expression-coding-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-reduced-adaptability-but-intact-norm-based-coding
#11
Gillian Rhodes, Nichola Burton, Linda Jeffery, Ainsley Read, Libby Taylor, Louise Ewing
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can have difficulty recognizing emotional expressions. Here, we asked whether the underlying perceptual coding of expression is disrupted. Typical individuals code expression relative to a perceptual (average) norm that is continuously updated by experience. This adaptability of face-coding mechanisms has been linked to performance on various face tasks. We used an adaptation aftereffect paradigm to characterize expression coding in children and adolescents with autism...
July 19, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721603/the-disadapted-animal-niko-tinbergen-on-human-nature-and-the-human-predicament
#12
Marga Vicedo
This paper explores ethologist Niko Tinbergen's path from animal to human studies in the 1960s and 1970s and his views about human nature. It argues, first, that the confluence of several factors explains why Tinbergen decided to cross the animal/human divide in the mid 1960s: his concern about what he called "the human predicament," his relations with British child psychiatrist John Bowlby, the success of ethological explanations of human behavior, and his professional and personal situation. It also argues that Tinbergen transferred his general adaptationist view of animal behavior to the realm of human biology; here, his concern about disadaptation led him to a view of human behavior that was strongly determined by the species' evolutionary past, a position that I call evolutionary determinism...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720872/associating-transcription-factors-and-conserved-rna-structures-with-gene-regulation-in-the-human-brain
#13
Nikolai Hecker, Stefan E Seemann, Asli Silahtaroglu, Walter L Ruzzo, Jan Gorodkin
Anatomical subdivisions of the human brain can be associated with different neuronal functions. This functional diversification is reflected by differences in gene expression. By analyzing post-mortem gene expression data from the Allen Brain Atlas, we investigated the impact of transcription factors (TF) and RNA secondary structures on the regulation of gene expression in the human brain. First, we modeled the expression of a gene as a linear combination of the expression of TFs. We devised an approach to select robust TF-gene interactions and to determine localized contributions to gene expression of TFs...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720480/heart-rate-variability-predicts-inhibitory-control-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#14
Marieke W M Kuiper, Elisabeth W M Verhoeven, Hilde M Geurts
Several studies suggest that inhibition difficulties among people with ASD might be related to atypical cardiac vagal control. We examined how low versus high baseline heart rate variability (HRV) influences prepotent response inhibition in 31 males with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; mean age: 32.2; mean IQ: 107.8) compared to 39 typically developing (TD) males (mean age: 30.5; mean IQ: 102.0) by administering a stop signal task. Moreover, we examined whether adding an affective manipulation would alter findings and whether this manipulation affected HRV...
July 15, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716727/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-links-autism-and-toxic-metals-and-highlights-the-impact-of-country-development-status-higher-blood-and-erythrocyte-levels-for-mercury-and-lead-and-higher-hair-antimony-cadmium-lead-and-mercury
#15
REVIEW
Amene Saghazadeh, Nima Rezaei
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder that affects cognitive and higher cognitive functions. Increasing prevalence of ASD and high rates of related comorbidities has caused serious health loss and placed an onerous burden on the supporting families, caregivers, and health care services. Heavy metals are among environmental factors that may contribute to ASD. However, due to inconsistencies across studies, it is still hard to explain the association between ASD and toxic metals...
July 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715786/background-lead-and-mercury-exposures-psychological-and-behavioral-problems-in-children
#16
Brooks B Gump, Matthew J Dykas, James A MacKenzie, Amy K Dumas, Bryce Hruska, Craig K Ewart, Patrick J Parsons, Christopher D Palmer, Kestutis Bendinskas
BACKGROUND: The potential harm from exposure to nonessential metals, particularly mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb), has been the focus of research for years. Initial interest focused on relatively high exposures; however, recent evidence suggests that even background exposures might have adverse consequences for child development. Identifying the extent of these consequences is now a priority. METHODS: We assessed blood Pb and Hg levels in a biracial sample of 9-11 year-old children (N = 203)...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714321/zoophilia-in-an-adolescent-with-high-functioning-autism-from-sri-lanka
#17
Miyuru Chandradasa, Layani Champika
OBJECTIVE: Zoophilia is a rare paraphilic disorder with intense sexual urges involving animals. Autism is characterised by impairments in social communication and repetitive, restricted behaviours (RRB). Reported cases of zoophilia are limited worldwide, and zoophilia in autism is rarer. METHOD: This is a case report describing this unique and relatively unrecognised association in a male adolescent from Sri Lanka. RESULTS: A 17-year-old boy diagnosed with autism has average intelligence and academic capabilities...
July 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714100/why-is-it-so-hard-to-reach-agreement-on-terminology-the-case-of-developmental-language-disorder-dld
#18
Dorothy V M Bishop
A recent project entitled CATALISE used the Delphi method to reach a consensus on terminology for unexplained language problems in children. 'Developmental language disorder' (DLD) was the term agreed by a panel of 57 experts. Here I reflect on points of difficulty that arose when attempting to reach a consensus, using qualitative information from comments made by panel members to illustrate the kinds of argument used. One issue of debate was the use of labels, in particular the term 'disorder', which was seen as having both pros and cons...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712371/visual-systemizing-preference-in-children-with-autism-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-intranasal-oxytocin
#19
Lane Strathearn, Sohye Kim, D Anthony Bastian, Jennifer Jung, Udita Iyengar, Sheila Martinez, Robin P Goin-Kochel, Peter Fonagy
Several studies have suggested that the neuropeptide oxytocin may enhance aspects of social communication in autism. Little is known, however, about its effects on nonsocial manifestations, such as restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. In the empathizing-systemizing theory of autism, social deficits are described along the continuum of empathizing ability, whereas nonsocial aspects are characterized in terms of an increased preference for patterned or rule-based systems, called systemizing. We therefore developed an automated eye-tracking task to test whether children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to matched controls display a visual preference for more highly organized and structured (systemized) real-life images...
July 17, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710532/the-gap-between-adaptive-behavior-and-intelligence-in-autism-persists-into-young-adulthood-and-is-linked-to-psychiatric-co-morbidities
#20
Catherine K Kraper, Lauren Kenworthy, Haroon Popal, Alex Martin, Gregory L Wallace
For individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), long-term outcomes have been troubling, and intact IQ has not been shown to be protective. Nevertheless, relatively little research into adaptive functioning among adults with ASD has been completed to date. Therefore, both adaptive functioning and comorbid psychopathology were assessed among 52 adults with ASD without intellectual disability (ID). Adaptive functioning was found to substantially lag behind IQ, and socialization was a particular weakness. Comorbid psychopathology was significantly correlated with the size of IQ-adaptive functioning discrepancy...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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