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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028941/dysregulation-of-cortical-neuron-dna-methylation-profile-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Stefano Nardone, Dev Sharan Sams, Antonino Zito, Eli Reuveni, Evan Elliott
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome whose etiology includes genetic and environmental components. Since epigenetic marks are sensitive to environmental insult, they may be involved in the development of ASD. Initial brain studies have suggested a dysregulation of epigenetic marks in ASD. However, due to cellular heterogeneity in the brain, these studies have not determined if there is a true change in the neuronal epigenetic signature. Here, we report a genome-wide methylation study on fluorescence-activated cell sorting-sorted neuronal nuclei from the frontal cortex of 16 male ASD and 15 male control subjects...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028520/socioeconomic-status-and-childhood-autism-a-population-based-study-in-china
#2
Ping He, Chao Guo, Zhenjie Wang, Gong Chen, Ning Li, Xiaoying Zheng
There is limited evidence on the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and autism in developing nations. The aim of this study was to examine this association among children aged 0-17 years in China. We obtained data from the Second National Sample Survey on Disability, and selected 616,940 children for analysis. Autism was ascertained according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. Multiple logistic regressions allowing for weights showed that children in middle-income and high-income families were less likely than their low-income peers to have autism, with an odds ratio of 0...
August 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028156/genetic-background-effects-in-neuroligin-3-mutant-mice-minimal-behavioral-abnormalities-on-c57-background
#3
Thomas C Jaramillo, Christine Ochoa Escamilla, Shunan Liu, Lauren Peca, Shari G Birnbaum, Craig M Powell
Neuroligin-3 (NLGN3) is a postsynaptic cell adhesion protein that interacts with presynaptic ligands including neurexin-1 (NRXN1) [Ichtchenko et al., Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271, 2676-2682, 1996]. Mice harboring a mutation in the NLGN3 gene (NL3R451C) mimicking a mutation found in two brothers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were previously generated and behaviorally phenotyped for autism-related behaviors. In these NL3R451C mice generated and tested on a hybrid C57BL6J/129S2/SvPasCrl background, we observed enhanced spatial memory and reduced social interaction [Tabuchi et al...
October 13, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027913/neural-hyperexcitability-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Yukari Takarae, John Sweeney
Despite the progress that has been made in research on autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the understanding of the biological basis of ASD to identify targets for novel, effective treatment remains limited. One of the leading biological theories of autism is a model of cortical hyperexcitability. While numerous genetic and epigenetic studies support this model, how this particular biological alteration relates to known phenotypes in ASD is not well established. Using examples of sensory processing alterations, this review illustrates how cortical excitability may affect neural processes to result eventually in some core clinical phenotypes in ASD...
October 13, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027643/contribution-of-theory-of-mind-executive-functioning-and-pragmatics-to-socialization-behaviors-of-children-with-high-functioning-autism
#5
Carmen Berenguer, Ana Miranda, Carla Colomer, Inmaculada Baixauli, Belén Roselló
Social difficulties are a key aspect of autism, but the intervening factors are still poorly understood. This study had two objectives: to compare the profile of ToM skills, executive functioning (EF), and pragmatic competence (PC) of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and children with typical development (TD), and analyze their mediator role in social functioning. The participants were 52 children with HFA and 37 children with TD matched on age, intelligence quotient, and expressive vocabulary. Significant differences were found on measures of ToM, both explicit and applied, EF, and PC between children with HFA and TD...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027364/a-functional-polymorphism-of-the-oxtr-gene-is-associated-with-autistic-traits-in-caucasian-and-asian-populations
#6
Christian Montag, Cornelia Sindermann, Martin Melchers, Sonja Jung, Ruixue Luo, Benjamin Becker, Jiang Xie, Wenming Xu, Adam J Guastella, Keith M Kendrick
There is increasing evidence for associations between polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and autism spectrum disorder, but to date no study has established links with autistic traits in healthy subjects and potential cultural differences. The present research firstly investigated associations between three widely studied OXTR SNPs and autistic and empathic traits (rs53576 (G/A); rs2254298 (G/A); rs2268498 (T/C)) in two independent studies on male and female Caucasian (n = 537) and Chinese students (n = 280)...
October 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027111/excessive-d1-dopamine-receptor-activation-in-the-dorsal-striatum-promotes-autistic-like-behaviors
#7
Yunjin Lee, Hannah Kim, Ji-Eun Kim, Jin-Young Park, Juli Choi, Jung-Eun Lee, Eun-Hwa Lee, Pyung-Lim Han
The dopamine system has been characterized in motor function, goal-directed behaviors, and rewards. Recent studies recognize various dopamine system genes as being associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, how dopamine system dysfunction induces ASD pathophysiology remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that mice with increased dopamine functions in the dorsal striatum via the suppression of dopamine transporter expression in substantia nigra neurons or the optogenetic stimulation of the nigro-striatal circuitry exhibited sociability deficits and repetitive behaviors relevant to ASD pathology in animal models, while these behavioral changes were blocked by a D1 receptor antagonist...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027066/white-matter-microstructure-of-the-human-mirror-neuron-system-is-related-to-symptom-severity-in-adults-with-autism
#8
Odette Fründt, Robert Schulz, Daniel Schöttle, Bastian Cheng, Götz Thomalla, Hanna Braaß, Christos Ganos, Nicole David, Ina Peiker, Andreas K Engel, Tobias Bäumer, Alexander Münchau
Mirror neuron system (MNS) dysfunctions might underlie deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Diffusion tensor imaging based probabilistic tractography was conducted in 15 adult ASD patients and 13 matched, healthy controls. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was quantified to assess group differences in tract-related white matter microstructure of both the classical MNS route (mediating "emulation") and the alternative temporo-frontal route (mediating "mimicry"). Multiple linear regression was used to investigate structure-function relationships between MNS connections and ASD symptom severity...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026508/the-association-between-maternal-use-of-folic-acid-supplements-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-children-a-meta-analysis
#9
Meiyun Wang, Kaiqin Li, Dongmei Zhao, Ling Li
Previous reviews have been conducted to evaluate the association between maternal use of folic acid supplements during pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children, with no definitive conclusion. We therefore conducted a more comprehensive meta-analysis to reassess the relationship between folic acid and the risk of ASD. The electronic databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Wanfang Data were carefully searched to find eligible studies as recent as March 2017. A random effects model was used to combine the relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI)...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024219/the-determinants-of-service-complexity-in-children-with-intellectual-disabilities
#10
S L Stewart, K Falah Hassani, J Poss, J Hirdes
BACKGROUND: To date, little is known about the predictors of healthcare service utilisation in children with intellectual disability (ID). The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with service complexity in children with ID in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: The population of this cross-sectional study consisted of 330 children with ID ages 4 to 18 years who accessed mental health services from November of 2012 to June of 2016 in four agencies. All participants completed the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health and Developmental Disability Assessment Instrument, which is a semi-structured clinician-rated assessment that covers a range of common issues in children with ID...
November 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023380/the-gut-microbiome-feelings-of-the-brain-a-perspective-for-non-microbiologists
#11
REVIEW
Aaron Lerner, Sandra Neidhöfer, Torsten Matthias
Objectives: To comprehensively review the scientific knowledge on the gut-brain axis. Methods: Various publications on the gut-brain axis, until 31 July 2017, were screened using the Medline, Google, and Cochrane Library databases. The search was performed using the following keywords: "gut-brain axis", "gut-microbiota-brain axis", "nutrition microbiome/microbiota", "enteric nervous system", "enteric glial cells/network", "gut-brain pathways", "microbiome immune system", "microbiome neuroendocrine system" and "intestinal/gut/enteric neuropeptides"...
October 12, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021944/a-program-evaluation-of-home-and-center-based-treatment-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Dennis R Dixon, Claire O Burns, Doreen Granpeesheh, Roshan Amarasinghe, Alva Powell, Erik Linstead
The present study aimed to retrospectively compare the relative rates of mastery of exemplars for individuals with ASD (N = 313) who received home-based and center-based services. A between-group analysis found that participants mastered significantly more exemplars per hour when receiving center-based services than home-based services. Likewise, a paired-sample analysis found that participants who received both home and center-based services had mastered 100 % more per hour while at the center than at home...
September 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021936/utilizing-peak-relational-training-system-to-teach-visual-gustatory-and-auditory-relations-to-adults-with-developmental-disabilities
#13
Autumn McKeel, Jaime Matas
Two multiple baseline designs were conducted across participants to determine if the promoting the emergence of advanced knowledge (PEAK) equivalence module was an effective tool in teaching adults with autism relationships between stimuli. More specifically, a transitivity program utilizing the gustatory sensory modality was implemented. Stimuli were selected and probed initially preceding the training. First, gustatory stimuli to a visual picture were trained. Then, a visual picture to a spoken word was trained...
September 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021934/the-effects-of-bug-in-ear-coaching-on-pre-service-behavior-analysts-use-of-functional-communication-training
#14
Kathleen Artman-Meeker, Nancy Rosenberg, Natalie Badgett, Xueyan Yang, Ashley Penney
Behavior analysts play an important role in supporting the behavior and learning of young children with disabilities in natural settings. However, there is very little research related specifically to developing the skills and competencies needed by pre-service behavior analysts. This study examined the effects of "bug-in-ear" (BIE) coaching on pre-service behavior analysts' implementation of functional communication training with pre-school children with autism in their classrooms. BIE coaching was associated with increases in the rate of functional communication training trials each intern initiated per session and in the fidelity with which interns implemented functional communication training...
September 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021932/an-evaluation-of-lag-schedules-of-reinforcement-during-functional-communication-training-effects-on-varied-mand-responding-and-challenging-behavior
#15
Summer Adami, Terry S Falcomata, Colin S Muething, Katherine Hoffman
We evaluated the effects of lag schedules of reinforcement during functional communication training (FCT) on the varied use of mands and challenging behavior by two individuals diagnosed with autism. Specifically, we compared the effects of Lag 0 and Lag 1 schedules of reinforcement during FCT. The results showed that each participant exhibited increases in varied mand responding during FCT with the Lag 1 schedule of reinforcement relative to Lag 0; challenging behavior remained low during both FCT lag conditions relative to baseline...
September 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021889/linguistic-camouflage-in-girls-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Julia Parish-Morris, Mark Y Liberman, Christopher Cieri, John D Herrington, Benjamin E Yerys, Leila Bateman, Joseph Donaher, Emily Ferguson, Juhi Pandey, Robert T Schultz
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed more frequently in boys than girls, even when girls are equally symptomatic. Cutting-edge behavioral imaging has detected "camouflaging" in girls with ASD, wherein social behaviors appear superficially typical, complicating diagnosis. The present study explores a new kind of camouflage based on language differences. Pauses during conversation can be filled with words like UM or UH, but research suggests that these two words are pragmatically distinct (e...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020804/multi-informant-assessment-of-transition-related-skills-and-skill-importance-in-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Kara Hume, Jessica Dykstra Steinbrenner, John Sideris, Leann Smith, Suzanne Kucharczyk, Kate Szidon
Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder have limited participation in the transition planning process, despite the link between active participation and an improvement in postsecondary education and employment outcomes. The Secondary School Success Checklist was designed to support transition planning for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder by incorporating their own assessments of strengths, skill deficits, and prioritization for instruction along with those of their parents and teachers across multiple skill domains...
October 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020791/parents-and-young-adults-perspectives-on-transition-outcomes-for-young-adults-with-autism
#18
Collette Sosnowy, Chloe Silverman, Paul Shattuck
Existing research shows that young adults with autism spectrum disorder have poorer outcomes than their peers with other developmental disabilities in the key areas of independent living, postsecondary education, and employment. However, we understand little about how young adults with autism and their families understand and value outcomes and whether these indicators match their goals and aspirations. We interviewed parents (n = 21) and young adults with autism spectrum disorder (n = 20) about their experiences with the transition to adulthood to understand what they consider to be desirable outcomes and how they seek to achieve them...
October 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020136/traffic-related-air-pollution-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-population-based-nested-case-control-study-in-israel
#19
Raanan Raz, Hagai Levine, Ofir Pinto, David M Broday, Yuval, Marc G Weisskopf
Accumulating evidence suggests that perinatal air pollutant exposures are associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but evidence outside the US for traffic pollutants is inconclusive. We assessed the association between NO2, a traffic pollution tracer, and risk of ASD. We conducted a nested case-control study among the entire population of children born 2005-2009 in the central coastal area of Israel. Cases were identified through the National Insurance Institute of Israel (n = 2,098)...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020059/the-relation-between-face-emotion-recognition-and-social-function-in-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-case-control-study
#20
Anne Lise Høyland, Terje Nærland, Morten Engstrøm, Stian Lydersen, Ole Andreas Andreassen
An altered processing of emotions may contribute to a reduced ability for social interaction and communication in autism spectrum disorder, ASD. We investigated how face-emotion recognition in ASD is different from typically developing across adolescent age groups. Fifty adolescents diagnosed with ASD and 49 typically developing (age 12-21 years) were included. The ASD diagnosis was underpinned by parent-rated Social Communication Questionnaire. We used a cued GO/ NOGO task with pictures of facial expressions and recorded reaction time, intra-individual variability of reaction time and omissions/commissions...
2017: PloS One
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