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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456928/behavioural-and-emotional-disorders-in-childhood-a-brief-overview-for-paediatricians
#1
REVIEW
Michael O Ogundele
Mental health problems in children and adolescents include several types of emotional and behavioural disorders, including disruptive, depression, anxiety and pervasive developmental (autism) disorders, characterized as either internalizing or externalizing problems. Disruptive behavioural problems such as temper tantrums, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional, defiant or conduct disorders are the commonest behavioural problems in preschool and school age children. The routine Paediatric clinic or Family Medicine/General Practitioner surgery presents with several desirable characteristics that make them ideal for providing effective mental health services to children and adolescents...
February 8, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456357/role-of-exclusive-breastfeeding-in-conferring-protection-in-children-at-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-results-from-a-sibling-case-control-study
#2
Harshini Manohar, Madhavapuri Pravallika, Preeti Kandasamy, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Ravi Philip Rajkumar
Background: Gut microflora influences neural development through complex mechanisms. Feeding practices, especially breastfeeding influence gut microbiome and thereby play a pivotal role in immune and neural development. Current understandings of the role of healthy distal gut microflora in the development of immune and neural systems provide insights into immunological mechanisms as one of the possible etiologies in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies have shown that optimal breastfeeding is associated with lower odds of being at-risk for ASD and children with ASD are suboptimally breastfed...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455555/employment-status-is-related-to-sleep-problems-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-no-comorbid-intellectual-impairment
#3
Emma K Baker, Amanda L Richdale, Agnes Hazi
Both sleep problems and unemployment are common in adults with autism spectrum disorder; however, little research has explored this relationship in this population. This study aimed to explore factors that may be associated with the presence of an International Classification of Sleep Disorders-Third Edition defined sleep disorder in adults with autism spectrum disorder (IQ > 80). A total of 36 adults with autism spectrum disorder and 36 controls were included in the study. Participants completed a 14-day actigraphy assessment and questionnaire battery...
February 1, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455076/from-child-autistic-symptoms-to-parental-affective-symptoms-a-family-process-model
#4
Kevin Ka Shing Chan, Chun Bun Lam, Naska Chung Wa Law, Ryan Yat Ming Cheung
BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are prevalent among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but limited research has investigated why parenting a child with ASD is associated with elevated distress and increased risks of mental health problems. We responded to this gap in the literature by examining the associations between child autistic symptoms and parental affective symptoms, as well as the potential underlying mechanisms. Guided by a family process theory, we hypothesized that child autistic symptoms would be positively associated with parental depressive and anxiety symptoms, and that these associations would be mediated by parents' concerns about their children's characteristics (future-related worry), parental roles (parenting stress), marital relationships (marital conflicts), and family conditions (family economic pressure)...
February 15, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453959/indices-of-repetitive-behaviour-are-correlated-with-patterns-of-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-in-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
J M Traynor, K A R Doyle-Thomas, L C Hanford, N E Foster, A Tryfon, K L Hyde, E Anagnostou, A C Evans, L Zwaigenbaum, G B C Hall, NeuroDevNet Asd Imaging Group
The purpose of the current study was to examine how repetitive behaviour in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is related to intrinsic functional connectivity patterns in a number of large-scale, neural networks. Resting-state fMRI scans from thirty subjects with ASD and thirty-two age-matched, typically developing control subjects were analysed. Seed-to-voxel and ROI-to-ROI functional connectivity analyses were used to examine resting-state connectivity in a number of cortical and subcortical neural networks. Bivariate correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationship between repetitive behaviour scores from the Repetitive Behaviour Scale - Revised and intrinsic functional connectivity in ASD subjects...
February 14, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453708/exploring-the-effectiveness-of-a-peer-mediated-model-of-the-peers-curriculum-a-pilot-randomized-control-trial
#6
Nicole L Matthews, Beatriz C Orr, Katrina Warriner, Mary DeCarlo, Mia Sorensen, Jessica Laflin, Christopher J Smith
This study compared immediate and 4-month outcomes among adolescents with autism spectrum disorder randomly assigned to the PEERS curriculum (n = 10), a peer mediated PEERS curriculum (n = 12), or a delayed treatment control group (n = 12). Findings suggest a modest advantage in social skills knowledge and social functioning for participants in the peer-mediated PEERS curriculum relative to Traditional PEERS, and gains in social skills knowledge, social functioning, and reductions in loneliness were maintained in one or both treatment groups at a 4-month follow-up...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453023/implications-of-altered-maternal-cytokine-concentrations-on-infant-outcomes-in-children-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#7
K D Sowell, J Y Uriu-Adams, J Van de Water, C D Chambers, C D Coles, J A Kable, L Yevtushok, N Zymak-Zakutnya, W Wertelecki, C L Keen
Excessive alcohol consumption has been shown to increase serum plasma levels of numerous immune cytokines. Maternal immune activation and elevated cytokines have been implicated in certain neurological disorders (e.g., autism and schizophrenia) in the offspring. We investigated the hypothesis that elevated cytokines during pregnancy are a risk factor in women who gave birth to a child with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) or a child with neurobehavioral impairment, regardless of prenatal alcohol exposure...
August 12, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450839/characterizing-health-disparities-in-the-age-of-autism-diagnosis-in-a-study-of-8-year-old-children
#8
Chandni Parikh, Margaret Kurzius-Spencer, Ann M Mastergeorge, Sydney Pettygrove
The diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often delayed from the time of noted concerns to the actual diagnosis. The current study used child- and family-level factors to identify homogeneous classes in a surveillance-based sample (n = 2303) of 8-year-old children with ASD. Using latent class analysis, a 5-class model emerged and the class memberships were examined in relation to the child's median age at ASD diagnosis. Class 3, with known language delays and a high advantage socioeconomically had the lowest age of ASD diagnosis (46...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450838/prevention-and-management-of-obesity-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-among-primary-care-pediatricians
#9
Morgan Walls, Sarabeth Broder-Fingert, Emily Feinberg, Mari-Lynn Drainoni, Megan Bair-Merritt
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk for being overweight and obese. Little is known about how obesity in children with ASD is being addressed in primary care. This article reports findings from a survey completed by 327 general pediatricians, which included a fictional clinical vignette and Likert-scales assessing attitudes, practices, self-efficacy, and barriers to obesity management. Although the majority of respondents agreed pediatricians should be the main providers to manage obesity in children with ASD, few reported receiving adequate training to do so...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450834/correction-to-profiles-of-social-and-coping-resources-in-families-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-relations-to-parent-and-child-outcomes
#10
Anat Zaidman-Zait, Pat Mirenda, Peter Szatmari, Eric Duku, Isabel M Smith, Tracy Vaillancourt, Joanne Volden, Charlotte Waddell, Teresa Bennett, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Mayada Elsabaggh, Stelios Georgiades, Wendy J Ungar
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake.
February 15, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449373/tyrosine-hydroxylase-down-regulation-after-loss-of-abelson-helper-integration-site-1-ahi1-promotes-depression-via-the-circadian-clock-pathway-in-mice
#11
Dongkai Guo, Shun Zhang, Hongyang Sun, Xingyun Xu, Zongbing Hao, Chenchen Mu, Xingshun Xu, Guanghui Wang, Haigang Ren
Abelson helper integration site 1 (AHI1) is associated with several neuropsychiatric and brain developmental disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, autism, and Joubert syndrome. Ahi1 deficiency in mice leads to behaviors typical of depression. However, the mechanisms by which AHI1 regulates behavior remain to be elucidated. Here, we found that down-regulation of expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine biosynthesis, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), in the midbrains of Ahi1 -knockout (KO) mice is responsible for Ahi1 -deficiency-mediated depressive symptoms...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447214/high-efficiency-classification-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Genyuan Li, Olivia Lee, Herschel Rabitz
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a wide-ranging collection of developmental diseases with varying symptoms and degrees of disability. Currently, ASD is diagnosed mainly with psychometric tools, often unable to provide an early and reliable diagnosis. Recently, biochemical methods are being explored as a means to meet the latter need. For example, an increased predisposition to ASD has been associated with abnormalities of metabolites in folate-dependent one carbon metabolism (FOCM) and transsulfuration (TS)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441662/differential-vocational-rehabilitation-service-patterns-and-outcomes-for-transition-age-youth-with-autism
#13
Cahit Kaya, Cheryl Hanley-Maxwell, Fong Chan, Timothy Tansey
BACKGROUND: It is important to investigate receipt of vocational rehabilitation (VR) services, service patterns and outcomes for youth with autism, so that limited public resources can be used more efficiently. METHOD: This study used chi-squared automatic interaction detector, and multivariate logistic regression analysis to investigate relationships between demographic variables, receipt of VR services and employment outcomes for transition-age youth (TAY) with Autism...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439664/heart-rate-defined-sustained-attention-in-infants-at-risk-for-autism
#14
Bridgette L Tonnsen, John E Richards, Jane E Roberts
BACKGROUND: Although aberrant visual attention has been identified in infants at high familial risk for autism, the developmental emergence of atypical attention remains unclear. Integrating biological measures of attention into prospective high-risk infant studies may inform more nuanced developmental trajectories, clarifying the onset and course of atypical attention and potentially advancing early screening or treatment protocols. Heart rate-defined sustained attention (HRDSA) is a well-validated biological measure of attentional engagement that, in non-clinical infant populations, provides incremental information about attentional engagement beyond looking behaviors alone...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439585/psychometric-properties-of-questionnaires-and-diagnostic-measures-for-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-adults-a-systematic-review
#15
Sarah Wigham, Jacqui Rodgers, Tom Berney, Ann Le Couteur, Barry Ingham, Jeremy R Parr
Accurately diagnosing autism spectrum disorders in adulthood can be challenging. Structured questionnaires and diagnostic measures are frequently used to assist case recognition and diagnosis. This study reviewed research evidence on structured questionnaires and diagnostic measures published since the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence evidence update. The Cochrane library, Medline, Embase and PsycINFO were searched. In all, 20 studies met inclusion criteria. Sensitivity and specificity of structured questionnaires were best for individuals with previously confirmed autism spectrum disorder diagnoses and reduced in participants referred for diagnostic assessments, with discrimination of autism spectrum disorder from mental health conditions especially limited...
February 1, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439242/shared-molecular-neuropathology-across-major-psychiatric-disorders-parallels-polygenic-overlap
#16
Michael J Gandal, Jillian R Haney, Neelroop N Parikshak, Virpi Leppa, Gokul Ramaswami, Chris Hartl, Andrew J Schork, Vivek Appadurai, Alfonso Buil, Thomas M Werge, Chunyu Liu, Kevin P White, Steve Horvath, Daniel H Geschwind
The predisposition to neuropsychiatric disease involves a complex, polygenic, and pleiotropic genetic architecture. However, little is known about how genetic variants impart brain dysfunction or pathology. We used transcriptomic profiling as a quantitative readout of molecular brain-based phenotypes across five major psychiatric disorders-autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and alcoholism-compared with matched controls. We identified patterns of shared and distinct gene-expression perturbations across these conditions...
February 9, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437299/proneness-to-guilt-shame-and-pride-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-neurotypical-children
#17
Denise Davidson, Elizabeth Hilvert, Ieva Misiunaite, Michael Giordano
Self-conscious emotions (e.g., guilt, shame, and pride) are complex emotions that require self-reflection and self-evaluation, and are thought to facilitate the maintenance of societal norms and personal standards. Despite the importance of self-conscious emotions, most research has focused on basic emotion processing in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Therefore, in the present study, we used the Test of Self-Conscious Affect for Children (TOSCA-C) to assess proneness to, or propensity to experience, the self-conscious emotions guilt, shame, and pride in children with ASD and neurotypical children...
February 13, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436887/machine-learning-in-autistic-spectrum-disorder-behavioral-research-a-review-and-ways-forward
#18
Fadi Thabtah
Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a mental disorder that retards acquisition of linguistic, communication, cognitive, and social skills and abilities. Despite being diagnosed with ASD, some individuals exhibit outstanding scholastic, non-academic, and artistic capabilities, in such cases posing a challenging task for scientists to provide answers. In the last few years, ASD has been investigated by social and computational intelligence scientists utilizing advanced technologies such as machine learning to improve diagnostic timing, precision, and quality...
February 13, 2018: Informatics for Health & Social Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436853/electrophysiological-response-during-auditory-gap-detection-biomarker-for-sensory-and-communication-alterations-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Jennifer H Foss-Feig, Katherine K M Stavropoulos, James C McPartland, Mark T Wallace, Wendy L Stone, Alexandra P Key
Sensory symptoms, including auditory processing deficits, are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Processing of temporal aspects of auditory input is understudied; yet, deficits in this domain could contribute to language-related impairments. In children with ASD and well-matched controls, this study examined electrophysiological response to silent gaps in auditory stimuli. Results revealed attenuated amplitude of the P2 event-related potential (ERP) component in ASD. The P2 amplitude reduction was also associated with sensory, language, and diagnostic features...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436313/pre-eclampsia-and-the-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-offspring-meta-analysis
#20
Berihun Assefa Dachew, Abdullah Mamun, Joemer Calderon Maravilla, Rosa Alati
BACKGROUND: Evidence about the effect of intrauterine exposure to pre-eclampsia on offspring autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) is not well established. Aims To examine the association between pre-eclampsia and ASD. METHOD: PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched. Pooled relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed. Heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran's Q- and the I 2-test. The presence of publication bias was evaluated by Egger's test and visual inspection of the symmetry in funnel plots...
January 24, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
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