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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733914/molecular-and-functional-analysis-of-monoclonal-antibodies-in-support-of-biologics-development
#1
REVIEW
Xin Wang, Zhiqiang An, Wenxin Luo, Ningshao Xia, Qinjian Zhao
Monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based therapeutics are playing an increasingly important role in the treatment or prevention of many important diseases such as cancers, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. Multi-domain mAbs are far more complex than small molecule drugs with intrinsic heterogeneities. The critical quality attributes of a given mAb, including structure, post-translational modifications, and functions at biomolecular and cellular levels, need to be defined and profiled in details during the developmental phases of a biologics...
July 21, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721833/role-of-nutrients-and-phyto-compounds-in-the-modulation-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#2
Steve Harakeh, Imran Khan, Saad B Almasaudi, Esam I Azhar, Soad Al-Jaouni, Aleksandra Niedzweicki
Antimicrobial resistance is quickly spreading and has become a major public health problem worldwide. If this issue is not resolved, it may cause a shift back to the pre-antibiotics era and infectious disease will again be a serious problem, especially in developing countries. Since the discovery of antibiotics, bacterial resistance has emerged, enabling certain bacteria to withstand antibiotic effects. The emergence of antibiotic resistance is fueled by excessive and improper use of antimicrobial agents, especially in developing countries...
July 18, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721820/epigenetic-regulations-in-the-pathogenesis-of-periodontitis
#3
Yu Luo, Xian Peng, Dingyu Duan, Chengcheng Liu, Xin Xu, Xuedong Zhou
Periodontitis is a multifactorial infectious disease that affects a large population worldwide. It involves progressive alveolar bone loss, and if left untreated, can lead to the loosening and subsequent loss of teeth. Oral microorganisms and susceptible host have been proposed to be the prerequisite for the development of periodontitis. Aberrant host immune response is the key factor that leads to the destruction of periodontal tissues. Recently, the involvement of epigenetic modifications in the development of periodontitis has attracted increasing attentions...
July 18, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718380/the-burden-of-genetic-and-epigenetic-traits-in-prematurity
#4
Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade Ramos, Márcia Guimarães da Silva
Despite decades of investigations and accumulated scientific knowledge, preterm birth (PTB) remains a significant burden worldwide. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this condition, and a number of risk factors from infectious to behavioral and genetic/epigenetic factors influence this outcome. The heritability of PTB is estimated to be 17% to 36%, which demonstrates that genetic predisposition plays a key role in PTB. Structural DNA modifications without changes in the DNA sequence and post-transcriptional regulation also have an impact on gene expression and thus influence pregnancy outcomes...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703698/recovery-of-the-zika-virus-through-an-in-vitro-ligation-approach
#5
Cheng-Lin Deng, Qiu-Yan Zhang, Dong-Dong Chen, Si-Qing Liu, Cheng-Feng Qin, Bo Zhang, Han-Qing Ye
In this study, an in vitro ligation method was developed to assemble a full-length infectious cDNA clone of the Zika virus (ZIKV). Four contiguous cDNA subclones covering the complete ZIKV genome were constructed with unique BglI restriction sites at the ends of each fragment. The BglI restriction sites only allow in vitro ligation to happen between interconnecting restriction sites from adjacent cDNA fragments, resulting in an intact full-length cDNA of ZIKV. RNA transcripts derived from the full-length cDNA were infectious...
July 13, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683316/positive-regulation-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE-bioactivity-by-physiological-ros-mediated-cysteine-s-glutathionylation
#6
Xue Zhang, Peng Liu, Christie Zhang, Direkrit Chiewchengchol, Fan Zhao, Hongbo Yu, Jingyu Li, Hiroto Kambara, Kate Y Luo, Arvind Venkataraman, Ziling Zhou, Weidong Zhou, Haiyan Zhu, Li Zhao, Jiro Sakai, Yuanyuan Chen, Ye-Shih Ho, Besnik Bajrami, Bing Xu, Leslie E Silberstein, Tao Cheng, Yuanfu Xu, Yuehai Ke, Hongbo R Luo
Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cysteine S-glutathionylation is an important posttranslational modification (PTM) that controls a wide range of intracellular protein activities. However, whether physiological ROS can modulate the function of extracellular components via S-glutathionylation is unknown. Using a screening approach, we identified ROS-mediated cysteine S-glutathionylation on several extracellular cytokines. Glutathionylation of the highly conserved Cys-188 in IL-1β positively regulates its bioactivity by preventing its ROS-induced irreversible oxidation, including sulfinic acid and sulfonic acid formation...
July 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669388/multivariate-analysis-of-the-immune-response-to-a-vaccine-as-an-alternative-to-the-repetition-of-animal-challenge-studies-for-vaccines-with-demonstrated-efficacy
#7
Ludivine Chapat, Florence Hilaire, Jérome Bouvet, Daniel Pialot, Corinne Philippe-Reversat, Anne-Laure Guiot, Lydie Remolue, Jacques Lechenet, Christine Andreoni, Hervé Poulet, Michael J Day, Karelle De Luca, Carine Cariou, Lionel Cupillard
The assessment of vaccine combinations, or the evaluation of the impact of minor modifications of one component in well-established vaccines, requires animal challenges in the absence of previously validated correlates of protection. As an alternative, we propose conducting a multivariate analysis of the specific immune response to the vaccine. This approach is consistent with the principles of the 3Rs (Refinement, Reduction and Replacement) and avoids repeating efficacy studies based on infectious challenges in vivo...
July 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660176/chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-is-associated-with-e-cadherin-promoter-methylation-downregulation-of-e-cadherin-expression-and-increased-expression-of-fibronectin-and-%C3%AE-sma-implications-for-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#8
Jovana Rajić, Aleksandra Inic-Kanada, Elisabeth Stein, Svetlana Dinić, Nadine Schuerer, Aleksandra Uskoković, Ehsan Ghasemian, Mirjana Mihailović, Melita Vidaković, Nevena Grdović, Talin Barisani-Asenbauer
Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) can induce scarring disease of the ocular mucosa, known as trachoma, the most common infectious cause of blindness worldwide. We hypothesized that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to the fibrotic process in trachomatous scarring. Infection of human conjunctival epithelial cells (HCjE) with Ct activated signaling pathways involved in EMT induction, which was correlated with decreased expression of E-cadherin, guardian of the epithelial phenotype. In addition, Ct infection was associated with increased expression of two mesenchymal cell markers: fibronectin and α-SMA...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626106/-seedi-basic-strategies-for-the-primary-and-secondary-prevention-of-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease
#9
Chunsong Hu
ABCDE strategy, mainly based on drugs or medications and the lifestyle modification (named as "main medical strategy"), is popular in the guideline for primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in China and foreign countries. Here, the author recommends a non-invasive and non-pharmacologic "Zhongzi" rule, which includes 4 healthy elements: Sleep, emotion, exercise, and diet (SEED), and also called SEED intervention (SEEDi) strategy. It is the basic strategy for primary and secondary prevention of non-infectious diseases, especially for ASCVD...
May 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624132/schizogony-and-gametogony-of-oocyst-deficient-t-263-strain-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#10
J P Dubey
Oocysts are important stage for the spread of Toxoplasma gondii because they are environmentally resistant. Among all hosts of T. gondii, only felids can excrete oocysts. Cats that have excreted T. gondii oocysts after primary infection develop immunity to re-excretion of oocysts, and this immunity appears to be long-lasting. It would be desirable to have a non-infectious vaccine for the prevention of T. gondii infection in cats and to understand mechanism of immunity to excretion of oocysts. An initial step will be to indentify stage/stages of the parasite for induction of immunity...
May 27, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606144/a-reverse-genetics-system-for-avian-coronavirus-infectious-bronchitis-virus-based-on-targeted-rna-recombination
#11
Steven J van Beurden, Alinda J Berends, Annika Krämer-Kühl, Dieuwertje Spekreijse, Gilles Chénard, Hans-Christian Philipp, Egbert Mundt, Peter J M Rottier, M Hélène Verheije
BACKGROUND: Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a respiratory pathogen of chickens that causes severe economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Major advances in the study of the molecular biology of IBV have resulted from the development of reverse genetics systems for the highly attenuated, cell culture-adapted, IBV strain Beaudette. However, most IBV strains, amongst them virulent field isolates, can only be propagated in embryonated chicken eggs, and not in continuous cell lines...
June 12, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588133/novel-nonreplicating-vaccinia-virus-vector-enhances-expression-of-heterologous-genes-and-suppresses-synthesis-of-endogenous-viral-proteins
#12
Linda S Wyatt, Wei Xiao, Jeffrey L Americo, Patricia L Earl, Bernard Moss
Viruses are used as expression vectors for protein synthesis, immunology research, vaccines, and therapeutics. Advantages of poxvirus vectors include the accommodation of large amounts of heterologous DNA, the presence of a cytoplasmic site of transcription, and high expression levels. On the other hand, competition of approximately 200 viral genes with the target gene for expression and immune recognition may be disadvantageous. We describe a vaccinia virus (VACV) vector that uses an early promoter to express the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase; has the A23R intermediate transcription factor gene deleted, thereby restricting virus replication to complementing cells; and has a heterologous gene regulated by a T7 promoter...
June 6, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579134/the-impact-of-obesity-on-pediatric-inpatients-with-urinary-tract-infections-in-the-united-states
#13
Yusuke Okubo, Atsuhiko Handa
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common infectious disorders, and obesity is an increasing public health problem worldwide. Several studies have suggested that childhood obesity may be associated with the development of UTI. However, the potential effects of obesity on the clinical outcomes of UTI in children remain unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hospital discharge records for patients aged 18 years or younger with a diagnosis of UTI were extracted from the 2012 Kids' Inpatient Database...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558707/effect-of-the-2014-clinical-and-laboratory-standards-institute-urine-specific-breakpoints-on-cefazolin-susceptibility-rates-at-a-community-teaching-hospital
#14
Daniel B Chastain, Ijang Ngando, Christopher M Bland, Carlos Franco-Paredes, W Anthony Hawkins
BACKGROUND: Enterobacteriaceae, which include Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis, are identified as the infectious etiology in the majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in community hospitals across the United States. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is a useful tool when choosing an appropriate antibacterial agent. Recent changes to the 2014 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines included reporting a urine-specific cefazolin breakpoint for enterobacteriaceae (susceptible ≤16 mcg/mL)...
May 30, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553418/analysis-of-the-literature-on-chronic-cough-in-children
#15
REVIEW
Marcello Bergamini, Ahmad Kantar, Renato Cutrera, Italian Pediatric Cough Interest Group
Throughout childhood, various developmental phenomena influence the cough reflex. Among these are the modifications in the anatomy and functions of the respiratory tract and the central and peripheral nervous systems. Moreover, after birth, the immunological response undergoes progressive transformations with the acquisition of immune memory processes. These conditions make infections and airway abnormalities the overwhelming cause of chronic cough in children and infants. In children, chronic cough should be treated on the basis of etiology...
2017: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547158/impact-of-prompt-intervention-in-response-to-positive-blood-culture-results-during-weekends-by-collaboration-between-infectious-disease-specialists-and-microbiology-laboratory-staff
#16
M Tsuboi, K Hayakawa, K Mezaki, Y Katanami, K Yamamoto, S Kutsuna, N Takeshita, N Ohmagari
The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the impact of prompt intervention for patients whose blood culture results became positive during weekends, as this is not standard care in some countries. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital. From June 2015, results of positive blood cultures became available during weekends. If infectious disease specialists identified cases of bacteremia on suboptimal antimicrobial coverage, they contacted the primary team for modification of antibiotic treatment...
May 25, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546955/biofabrication-and-biomaterials-for-urinary-tract-reconstruction
#17
REVIEW
Moustafa M Elsawy, Achala de Mel
Reconstructive urologists are constantly facing diverse and complex pathologies that require structural and functional restoration of urinary organs. There is always a demand for a biocompatible material to repair or substitute the urinary tract instead of using patient's autologous tissues with its associated morbidity. Biomimetic approaches are tissue-engineering tactics aiming to tailor the material physical and biological properties to behave physiologically similar to the urinary system. This review highlights the different strategies to mimic urinary tissues including modifications in structure, surface chemistry, and cellular response of a range of biological and synthetic materials...
2017: Research and Reports in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537231/-viral-component-of-the-human-genome
#18
V M Blinov, V V Zverev, G S Krasnov, F P Filatov, A V Shargunov
Relationships between viruses and their human host are traditionally described from the point of view taking into consideration hosts as victims of viral aggression, which results in infectious diseases. However, these relations are in fact two-sided and involve modifications of both the virus and host genomes. Mutations that accumulate in the populations of viruses and hosts may provide them advantages such as the ability to overcome defense barriers of host cells or to create more efficient barriers to deal with the attack of the viral agent...
March 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532458/results-of-an-early-intervention-programme-for-patients-with-bacteraemia-analysis-of-prognostic-factors-and-mortality
#19
A Del Arco, J Olalla, J de la Torre, A Blázquez, N Montiel-Quezel, J L Prada, F Rivas, J García-Alegría, F Fernández-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Bacteraemia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to hospital. The aim of this study is to analyse the results of a two-year programme for the early optimisation of antibiotic treatment in patients admitted to the Costa del Sol Hospital (Marbella. Spain). METHODS: A prospective two-year cohort study was conducted, evaluating all episodes of bacteraemia at the Costa del Sol Hospital. Epidemiological and microbiological characteristics, any modification of the initial antibiotic treatment, prognostic risk stratification, early mortality related to the episode of bacteraemia, and mortality after the seventh day, were included in the analysis...
May 22, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523925/genetic-and-pathologic-characteristics-of-infectious-bursal-disease-viruses-isolated-from-broiler-chickens-in-iran-during-2014-2015
#20
H Norouzian, G Farjanikish, H Hosseini
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus causes a highly contagious immunosuppressive disease in chickens. A total number of 12 pooled bursal samples were collected during 2014-2015 from broiler farms in different regions of Iran. Typical macroscopical and histopathological lesions of the bursa of Fabricius were found similar to reports by other researchers. A 474-bp part of hypervariable region of VP2 (hvVP2) was sequenced and analyzed. Ten isolates had the characteristic amino acid residues of very virulent IBD (vvIBD) viruses and the other two were identified as attenuated (vaccine) strains...
2017: Acta Virologica
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