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Infectious modification

Christina M Mariaselvam, Ryad Tamouza, Rajagopal Krishnamoorthy, Dominique Charron, Durga Prasanna Misra, Vikramraj K Jain, Vir Singh Negi
INTRODUCTION: NKG2D (KLRK1) is a C-type lectin receptor present on NK cells, γδ, CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. Upon ligand binding, NKG2D mediates activatory and co-stimulatory signals to NK cells and activated CD4+ T cells, respectively. Polymorphisms in NKG2D predispose to infectious diseases, cancer, transplantation and autoimmune disorders. We studied the influence of this NK receptor polymorphism on predisposition to and modification of the disease phenotype in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)...
October 26, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Małgorzata Stępień, Katarzyna Piwowarow, Mirosław P Czarkowski
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of hepatitis B in Poland in 2014 in comparison with the previous years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The evaluation of the epidemiological situation was carried out on a basis of analysis of data from case-based reports on acute hepatitis B registered by sanitary and epidemiological stations, aggregate data derived from annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland”, data from annual bulletin “Vaccinations in Poland” and data on locally registered HBsAg carriers...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Nandan S Gokhale, Alexa B R McIntyre, Michael J McFadden, Allison E Roder, Edward M Kennedy, Jorge A Gandara, Sharon E Hopcraft, Kendra M Quicke, Christine Vazquez, Jason Willer, Olga R Ilkayeva, Brittany A Law, Christopher L Holley, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco, Matthew J Evans, Mehul S Suthar, Shelton S Bradrick, Christopher E Mason, Stacy M Horner
The RNA modification N6-methyladenosine (m(6)A) post-transcriptionally regulates RNA function. The cellular machinery that controls m(6)A includes methyltransferases and demethylases that add or remove this modification, as well as m(6)A-binding YTHDF proteins that promote the translation or degradation of m(6)A-modified mRNA. We demonstrate that m(6)A modulates infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV). Depletion of m(6)A methyltransferases or an m(6)A demethylase, respectively, increases or decreases infectious HCV particle production...
October 18, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Huijie Zhang, Xiao-Dong Gao
Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing immunostimulatory CpG motif mimic bacterial DNA and are potent activator of innate and adaptive immune responses. Therefore, CpG ODNs have significant potentials as immunotherapeutic agent for treatment of infectious diseases, allergy and cancer. Many clinical trials involving CpG ODNs either used alone or as adjuvant have been initiated. However, delivery of CpG ODNs to target sites still remains a great challenge due to their extreme susceptibility to nuclease degradation in serum and poor cellular uptake...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Juliet Richetto, Renaud Massart, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer, Moshe Szyf, Marco A Riva, Urs Meyer
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to infectious or inflammatory insults increases the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. Using a well-established mouse model of prenatal viral-like immune activation, we examined whether this pathological association involves genome-wide DNA methylation differences at single nucleotide resolution. METHODS: Prenatal immune activation was induced by maternal treatment with the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid in middle or late gestation...
August 12, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Fiona Mactaggart, Liane McDermott, Anna Tynan, Maxine Whittaker
Health and well-being outcomes in communities living in proximity to mining activity may be influenced by a broad spectrum of factors including population growth, economic instability or land degradation. This review aims to synthesise broader outcomes associated with mining activity and in doing so, further explore possible determinants in communities of low- and middle-income countries. Four databases were systematically searched and articles were included if the study targeted adults residing in proximity to mining activity, and measured individual or community-level health or well-being outcomes...
October 17, 2016: Global Public Health
Tobias Svensson, Kristina Lamberg Lundström, Martin Höglund, Honar Cherif
BACKGROUND: Patients treated for hematological malignancies have an increased risk of serious infections. Diagnosis and prompt initiation of therapy are essential. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a well-established investigation for identifying the cause of pulmonary infiltrates in immunocompromised patients. The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic yield of BAL in patients treated for hematological malignancies and how often it contributed to a modification of the anti-infectious therapy...
October 14, 2016: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
D Ayoub, L R Lopetuso, F Chamseddine, A Dajani, K Lahiri, H Mahmoud, M S Miqdady, G Zirizzotti, M A Sultan, F Franceschi, A Gasbarrini
OBJECTIVE: Gastroenteritis represents with respiratory tract infection the most common infectious disease syndrome of humans in developing countries. Gut microbiota regional variation and dysbiosis play a crucial role in triggering and worsening this devastating GI disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With this manuscript, we want to explore and emphasize the critical aspect of acute gastroenteritis in Middle-East Countries and its correlation with the clinical aspect of gut microbiota modification and intestinal homeostasis...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Toshio Tanaka, Masashi Narazaki, Kazuya Masuda, Tadamitsu Kishimoto
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a prototypical cytokine with functional pleiotropy and plays an important role in host defense. When infections or tissue injuries occur, IL-6 is promptly produced by monocytes and macrophages and contributes to removal of infectious agents and restoration of damaged tissues through activation of immune, hematological, and acute-phase responses. Once stress is removed from the host, IL-6 synthesis ends, but uncontrolled excessive or persistent IL-6 production plays a pathological role in the development of various inflammatory diseases and cancers, indicating that IL-6 is a double-edged sword for the host...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yasemin Cag, Hulya Caskurlu, Yanyan Fan, Bin Cao, Haluk Vahaboglu
By definition, the terms sepsis and septic shock refer to a potentially fatal infectious state in which the early administration of an effective antibiotic is the most significant determinant of the outcome. Because of the global spread of resistant bacteria, the efficacy of antibiotics has been severely compromised. S. pneumonia, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas are the predominant pathogens of sepsis and septic shock. It is common for E. coli, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas to be resistant to multiple drugs...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Krzysztof Mikołajczyk, Radosław Kaczmarek, Marcin Czerwiński
Transcription factor EKLF (Erythroid Krüppel-Like Factor) belongs to the group of Krüppellike factors, which regulate proliferation, differentiation, development and apoptosis of mammalian cells. EKLF factor is present in erythroid cells, where it participates in regulation of hematopoiesis, expression of genes encoding transmembrane proteins (including blood group antigens), and heme biosynthesis enzymes. It is also a key factor in downregulation of γ-globins and activation of β-globin gene expression...
October 6, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Gerardo Chowell, Cécile Viboud, Lone Simonsen, Seyed M Moghadas
Early estimates of the transmission potential of emerging and re-emerging infections are increasingly used to inform public health authorities on the level of risk posed by outbreaks. Existing methods to estimate the reproduction number generally assume exponential growth in case incidence in the first few disease generations, before susceptible depletion sets in. In reality, outbreaks can display subexponential (i.e. polynomial) growth in the first few disease generations, owing to clustering in contact patterns, spatial effects, inhomogeneous mixing, reactive behaviour changes or other mechanisms...
October 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Maria Renata Sales Nogueira, Ana Carla Pereira Latini, Maria Esther Salles Nogueira
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that requires better understanding since it continues to be a significant health problem in many parts of the world. Leprosy reactions are acute inflammatory episodes regarded as the central etiology of nerve damage in the disease. The activation of endothelium is a relevant phenomenon to be investigated in leprosy reactions. The present study evaluated the expression of endothelial factors in skin lesions and serum samples of leprosy patients. Immunohistochemical analysis of skin samples and serum measurements of VCAM-1, VEGF, tissue factor and thrombomodulin were performed in 77 leprosy patients and 12 controls...
October 3, 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Esmeralda Valiente, Laura Bouché, Paul Hitchen, Alexandra Faulds-Pain, Mario Songane, Lisa F Dawson, Elizabeth Donahue, Richard A Stabler, Maria Panico, Howard R Morris, Mona Bajaj-Elliott, Susan M Logan, Anne Dell, Brendan W Wren
Clostridium difficile is the principal cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhoea worldwide. The pathogen modifies its flagellin with either a type A or type B O-linked glycosylation system, which has a contributory role in pathogenesis. We study the functional role of glycosyltransferases modifying type B flagellin in the 023 and 027 hypervirulent C. difficile lineages by mutagenesis of five putative glycosyltransferases and biosynthetic genes. We reveal their roles in the biosynthesis of the flagellin glycan chain and demonstrate that flagellar post-translational modification affects motility and adhesion-related bacterial properties of these strains...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Vikas Singh, Alex P Rodriguez, Badal Thakkar, Nileshkumar J Patel, Abhijit Ghatak, Apurva O Badheka, Carlos E Alfonso, Eduardo de Marchena, Rahul Sakhuja, Ignacio Inglessis-Azuaje, Igor Palacios, Mauricio G Cohen, Sammy Elmariah, William W O'Neill
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has emerged as a less-invasive therapeutic option for high surgical risk patients with aortic stenosis and coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes of TAVR when performed with PCI during the same hospitalization. We identified patients using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample between the years 2011 and 2013...
August 30, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Juan Pablo Huidobro E, Jorge Vega
BACKGROUND: Death with a functioning kidney graft is now the leading cause of graft loss after renal transplantation. AIM: To determine if renal function at the last outpatient visit before the recipient’s death was different according to the following causes of death: infections, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal disorders or cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective cooperative cohort study conducted in two kidney transplant centers...
July 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
Susanna Esposito, Raffaella Pinzani, Genny Raffaeli, Tiziano Lucchi, Carlo Agostoni, Nicola Principi
BACKGROUND: Slight changes in the lipid profile can be observed over the acute phase of infectious diseases. Moreover, some anti-infective drugs can modify serum lipid concentrations, although antibiotics do not seem to have a relevant, direct, or acute effect on the lipid profile. METHODS: A 75-day-old breastfed Caucasian female, born at term after a regular pregnancy, was hospitalized for osteomyelitis. She was immediately treated with intravenous meropenem and vancomycin...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sven O Dahms, Marcelino Arciniega, Torsten Steinmetzer, Robert Huber, Manuel E Than
Proprotein convertases (PCs) are highly specific proteases required for the proteolytic modification of many secreted proteins. An unbalanced activity of these enzymes is connected to pathologies like cancer, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolaemia, and infectious diseases. Novel protein crystallographic structures of the prototypical PC family member furin in different functional states were determined to 1.8-2.0 Å. These, together with biochemical data and modeling by molecular dynamics calculations, suggest essential elements underlying its unusually high substrate specificity...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Zhang Daowei, Zhang Chaofan, Dong Fang, Huang Yanlan, Zhang Ya, Zhou Hong
With the development and improvement of CRISPR/Cas9 system in genomic editing technology, the system has been applied to the prevention and control of animal viral infectious diseases, which has made considerable achievements. It has also been applied to the study of highly efficient gene targeting editing in plant virus genomes. The CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted gene modification has not only achieved the genome editing of plant DNA virus, but also showed the genome editing potential of plant RNA virus. In addition, the CRISPR/Cas9 system functions at the gene transcriptional and post-transcriptional level, indicating that the system could regulate the replication of plant viruses through different ways...
September 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Jung-Rok Lee, D James Haddon, Nidhi Gupta, Jordan V Price, Grace M Credo, Vivian K Diep, Kyunglok Kim, Drew A Hall, Emily C Baechler, Michelle Petri, Madoo Varma, Paul J Utz, Shan X Wang
Autoantibodies are a hallmark of autoimmune diseases such as lupus and have the potential to be used as biomarkers for diverse diseases, including immunodeficiency, infectious disease, and cancer. More precise detection of antibodies to specific targets is needed to improve diagnosis of such diseases. Here, we report the development of reusable peptide microarrays, based on giant magnetoresistive (GMR) nanosensors optimized for sensitively detecting magnetic nanoparticle labels, for the detection of antibodies with a resolution of a single post-translationally modified amino acid...
September 16, 2016: ACS Nano
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