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Infectious modification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761399/chromatin-immunoprecipitation-in-macrophages
#1
Germain Rousselet
Macrophages are highly polymorphic depending upon their cellular origin and their tissue environment. The different forms that a macrophage can adopt fundamentally reflect different transcription patterns. In addition, macrophages are exquisitely sensitive to a wide variety of signals coming from either infectious agents or damaged tissues. Most of the responses to these signals involve rapid and massive modifications of transcription. The control of transcription relies on the one hand on the posttranslational modification of histones, and on the other hand on the binding on the chromatin of multiple protein complexes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746884/inhibition-of-cellular-fatty-acid-synthase-impairs-replication-of-budded-virions-of-autographa-californica-multiple-nucleopolyhedrovirus-in-spodoptera-frugiperda-cells
#2
Jingfeng Li, Yu Sun, Yuying Li, Ximeng Liu, Qi Yue, Zhaofei Li
Fatty acid synthase (FASN) catalyzes the synthesis of palmitate, which is required for formation of complex fatty acids and phospholipids that are involved in energy production, membrane remodeling and modification of host and viral proteins. Presently, the roles of cellular fatty acid synthesis pathway in Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) infection is not clear. In this study, we found that the transcripts level of fasn was significantly up-regulated at the early stage of AcMNPV infection...
May 7, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697176/in-vitro-reconstitution-of-oxyc-activity-enables-total-chemo-enzymatic-syntheses-of-vancomycin-aglycone-variants
#3
Clarissa C Forneris, Mohammad R Seyedsayamdost
Since its discovery in 1953, vancomycin has been one of our most important antibiotics in the fight against infectious disease. The bioactivity of vancomycin is potentiated by unusual structural features, including three aromatic crosslinks, the biosynthesis of which has been an active area of investigation for two decades. Two cytochrome P450 enzymes, OxyB and OxyA, have been shown to introduce bisaryl ether linkages with the help of a so-called X-domain. The final crosslink, however, a biaryl bond thought to be installed by OxyC, has remained elusive...
April 26, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697029/effortless-and-effective-methodologies-in-the-discovery-of-novel-drug-targets-in-the-free-living-amoebae
#4
Abdul Mannan Baig
Despite advances in drug discovery and modifications in the chemotherapeutic regimens, human infections caused by free-living amoebae (FLA) have high mortality rates (~95%). The FLA that cause fatal human cerebral infections include Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba spp. Novel drug-target discovery remains the only viable option to tackle these central nervous system (CNS) infection in order to lower the mortality rates caused by the FLA. Of these FLA, N. fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), while the A...
April 25, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662485/our-environment-shapes-us-the-importance-of-environment-and-sex-differences-in-regulation-of-autoantibody-production
#5
REVIEW
Michael Edwards, Rujuan Dai, S Ansar Ahmed
Consequential differences exist between the male and female immune systems' ability to respond to pathogens, environmental insults or self-antigens, and subsequent effects on immunoregulation. In general, females when compared with their male counterparts, respond to pathogenic stimuli and vaccines more robustly, with heightened production of antibodies, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. While the precise reasons for sex differences in immune response to different stimuli are not yet well understood, females are more resistant to infectious diseases and much more likely to develop autoimmune diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643078/-ehrlichia-chaffeensis-trp75-interacts-with-host-cell-targets-involved-in-homeostasis-cytoskeleton-organization-and-apoptosis-regulation-to-promote-infection
#6
Tian Luo, Shubhajit Mitra, Jere W McBride
Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligately intracellular bacterium that exhibits tropism for mononuclear phagocytes. The mechanisms involved in E. chaffeensis infection of the host cell and evasion of host defenses are not fully defined, but a subset of type 1 secreted tandem repeat protein (TRP) effectors play important roles. Recently, we determined molecular interactions of TRP120, TRP47, and TRP32 with the eukaryotic host cell. In this investigation, we used yeast two-hybrid analysis to reveal that another E...
April 25, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624209/withdrawn-grommets-ventilation-tubes-for-recurrent-acute-otitis-media-in-children
#7
REVIEW
Loretta Lau, Paul Mick, Desmond A Nunez
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 4, 2008 and previously updated in 2011.Acute suppurative otitis media is one of the most common infectious diseases in childhood. Recurrent acute otitis media is defined for the purposes of this review as either three or more acute infections of the middle ear cleft in a six-month period, or at least four episodes in a year. Strategies for managing the condition include the assessment and modification of risk factors where possible, repeated courses of antibiotics for each new infection, antibiotic prophylaxis and the insertion of ventilation tubes (grommets)...
April 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600241/a-standardized-needs-assessment-tool-to-inform-the-curriculum-development-process-for-pediatric-resuscitation-simulation-based-education-in-resource-limited-settings
#8
Nicole Shilkofski, Amanda Crichlow, Julie Rice, Leslie Cope, Ye Myint Kyaw, Thazin Mon, Sarah Kiguli, Julianna Jung
Introduction: Under five mortality rates (UFMR) remain high for children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the developing world. Education for practitioners in these environments is a key factor to improve outcomes that will address United Nations Sustainable Development Goals 3 and 10 (good health and well being and reduced inequalities). In order to appropriately contextualize a curriculum using simulation, it is necessary to first conduct a needs assessment of the target learner population...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595864/etiology-of-chronic-skin-lesions-in-subjects-with-peripheral-arterial-disease
#9
G Chisari, E M Chisari, A M Borzì, A Grasso, C G Chisari
INTRODUCTION: Skin lesions can be defined as lesions that result in loss of tissues and their joints, and often this cutaneous skin process is a primary or secondary consequence of the structural changes in the skin itself. Subjects with peripheral arteripathies that develop chronic skin lesions in the lower extremities of the Western world are constantly increasing. We conducted a study on the etiologic incidence of chronic skin lesions in peripheral arterial disease CSLpa subjects in the lower limbs compared to subjects with chronic skin lesions CSL (controls)...
March 2018: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593032/extracellular-conformational-changes-in-the-capsid-of-human-papillomaviruses-contribute-to-asynchronous-uptake-into-host-cells
#10
Miriam Becker, Lilo Greune, M Alexander Schmidt, Mario Schelhaas
The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is the leading cause of cervical cancer. For initial infection, HPV16 utilizes a novel endocytic pathway for host cell entry. Unique amongst viruses, uptake occurs asynchronously over a protracted period of time with half-times between 9-12 h. To trigger endocytic uptake, the virus particles need to undergo a series of structural modifications after initial binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). These changes involve proteolytic cleavage of the major capsid protein L1 by kallikrein-8 (KLK8), exposure of the N-terminus of the minor capsid protein L2 by cyclophilins, and cleavage of this N-terminus by furin...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579063/in-silico-identification-of-micrornas-predicted-to-regulate-n-myristoyltransferase-and-methionine-aminopeptidase-2-functions-in-cancer-and-infectious-diseases
#11
Ranjit Chauhan, David Datzkiw, Shailly Varma Shrivastav, Anuraag Shrivastav
Protein myristoylation is a key protein modification carried out by N-Myristoyltransferase (NMT) after Methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP2) removes methionine from the amino-terminus of the target protein. Protein myristoylation by NMT augments several signaling pathways involved in a myriad of cellular processes, including developmental pathways and pathways that when dysregulated lead to cancer or immune dysfunction. The emerging evidence pointing to NMT-mediated myristoylation as a major cellular regulator underscores the importance of understanding the framework of this type of signaling event...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577037/chylous-ascites-a-review-of-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Richa Bhardwaj, Haleh Vaziri, Arun Gautam, Enrique Ballesteros, David Karimeddini, George Y Wu
Chylous ascites (CA) is a rare form of ascites that results from the leakage of lipid-rich lymph into the peritoneal cavity. This usually occurs due to trauma and rupture of the lymphatics or increased peritoneal lymphatic pressure secondary to obstruction. The underlying etiologies for CA have been classified as traumatic, congenital, infectious, neoplastic, postoperative, cirrhotic or cardiogenic. Since malignancy and cirrhosis account for about two-thirds of all the cases of CA in Western countries, in this article we have attempted to reclassify CA based on portal and non-portal etiologies...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561353/thirty-day-readmissions-after-upper-and-lower-gastrointestinal-hemorrhage-a-national-perspective-in-the-united-states
#13
Smit D Patel, Rupak Desai, Upenkumar Patel, Sandeep Singh, Zinal Patel, Neel Patel, Allan Zhang, Amruta H Panwala, Vinshi N Khan, Gagandeep Singh, Nihar Shah
BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH) and lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage (LGIH) are 2 of the most common reasons for hospital admissions across the United States. The 30-day readmission after index admission poses a major burden on the health care infrastructure, and thus, it is important to assess the causes of 30-day readmission for patients with UGIH and LGIH. METHODS: The study cohort was derived from the 2013 National Readmission Database...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559627/supreme-a-rapid-reverse-genetics-method-to-generate-clonal-populations-of-recombinant-rna-viruses
#14
Jean-Sélim Driouich, Souand Mohamed Ali, Abdennour Amroun, Fabien Aubry, Xavier de Lamballerie, Antoine Nougairède
Reverse genetics systems enable the manipulation of viral genomes and are proving to be essential for studying RNA viruses. Methods for generating clonal virus populations are particularly useful for studying the impact of genomic modifications on viral properties. Here, by exploiting a chikungunya virus model, we compare viral populations and their replicative fitness when generated using either the rapid and user-friendly PCR-based ISA (Infectious Subgenomic Amplicons) method or classical infectious clone technology...
March 21, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557320/updating-the-epidemiological-transition-model
#15
A J Mercer
The main feature of the epidemiological transition is a shift in the recorded causes of death from infectious diseases to other morbid conditions. This paper outlines modifications made to Omran's original model and stages of transition, and suggests that without a focus on aetiology and morbidity, these have been basically descriptive rather than explanatory, and potentially misleading because infections have been confirmed as causes of various chronic diseases. Common infections and related immune responses or inflammatory processes contribute to the multifactorial aetiology of morbid conditions that together make a substantial contribution to overall mortality, and infectious causation is suspected for many others because of strong evidence of association...
April 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548829/lab-scale-evaluation-of-aerated-burial-concept-for-treatment-and-emergency-disposal-of-infectious-animal-carcasses
#16
Jacek A Koziel, Heekwon Ahn, Thomas D Glanville, Timothy S Frana, J Hans van Leeuwen, Lam T Nguyen
Nearly 55,000 outbreaks of animal disease were reported to the World Animal Health Information Database between 2005 and 2016. To suppress the spread of disease, large numbers of animal mortalities often must be disposed of quickly and are frequently buried on the farm where they were raised. While this method of emergency disposal is fast and relatively inexpensive, it also can have undesirable and lasting impacts (slow decay, concerns about groundwater contamination, pathogens re-emergence, and odor). Following the 2010 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak, the Republic of Korea's National Institute of Animal Science funded research on selected burial alternatives or modifications believed to have potential to reduce undesirable impacts of burial...
March 13, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540320/detection-of-feline-coronavirus-in-effusions-of-cats-with-and-without-feline-infectious-peritonitis-using-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification
#17
Sonja Günther, Sandra Felten, Gerhard Wess, Katrin Hartmann, Karin Weber
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease in cats worldwide. The aim of this study was to test two commercially available reaction mixtures in a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect feline Coronavirus (FCoV) in body cavity effusions of cats with and without FIP, in order to minimize the time from sampling to obtaining results. RNA was extracted from body cavity effusion samples of 71 cats, including 34 samples from cats with a definitive diagnosis of FIP, and 37 samples of control cats with similar clinical signs but other confirmed diseases...
June 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505893/electrofabrication-of-functional-materials-chloramine-based-antimicrobial-film-for-infectious-wound-treatment
#18
Xue Qu, Huan Liu, Chuchu Zhang, Yu Lei, Miao Lei, Miao Xu, Dawei Jin, Peng Li, Meng Yin, Gregory F Payne, Changsheng Liu
Electrical signals can be imposed with exquisite spatiotemporal control and provide exciting opportunities to create structure and confer function. Here, we report the use of electrical signals to program the fabrication of a chloramine wound dressing with high antimicrobial activity. This method involves two electrofabrication steps: (i) a cathodic electrodeposition of an aminopolysaccharide chitosan triggered by a localized region of high pH; and (ii) an anodic chlorination of the deposited film in the presence of chloride...
March 2, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502471/sources-of-variability-in-quantifying-circulating-thymosin-beta-4-literature-review-and-recommendations
#19
Warren K Y Tan, Kristy Purnamawati, Leroy S Pakkiri, Sock Hwee Tan, Xiaoxun Yang, Mark Y Chan, Chester L Drum
Thymosin beta-4 (TB4) is an endogenous peptide with protective and regenerative effects in models of cellular and organ injury. TB4 is increasingly measured as a potential plasma or serum biomarker in human cardiovascular, liver, infectious, and autoimmune disease. Areas covered: The focus of this review is the quantification of TB4 in clinical cohort studies and whether reported TB4 concentrations differ with respect to method of sample preparation. We survey current literature for studies measuring TB4 in human serum or plasma and compare reported concentrations in healthy controls...
March 12, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498019/a-review-of-microbiota-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome-future-in-therapies
#20
REVIEW
Bruno K Rodiño-Janeiro, María Vicario, Carmen Alonso-Cotoner, Roberto Pascua-García, Javier Santos
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), one of the most frequent digestive disorders, is characterized by chronic and recurrent abdominal pain and altered bowel habit. The origin seems to be multifactorial and is still not well defined for the different subtypes. Genetic, epigenetic and sex-related modifications of the functioning of the nervous and immune-endocrine supersystems and regulation of brain-gut physiology and bile acid production and absorption are certainly involved. Acquired predisposition may act in conjunction with infectious, toxic, dietary and life event-related factors to enhance epithelial permeability and elicit mucosal microinflammation, immune activation and dysbiosis...
March 2018: Advances in Therapy
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