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Infectious modification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297421/tuberculosis-and-diabetes-in-low-and-moderate-tuberculosis-incidence-countries
#1
P-H Lee, H Fu, M-R Lee, M Magee, H-H Lin
In countries with low and moderate incidence of tuberculosis (TB), the disease tends to concentrate in specific high-risk populations such as people with diabetes mellitus (DM). We review the updated evidence on the association between 1) DM and active TB, and 2) DM and latent tuberculous infection (LTBI), and 3) we summarize the findings on the population-level impact of DM on TB epidemiology, with particular focus on low- and moderate-incidence settings. We conducted an updated review of studies on DM and active TB, and found 11 more cohort studies published after the previous systematic review from 2008...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288398/comparison-of-fosfomycin-against-fluoroquinolones-for-transrectal-prostate-biopsy-prophylaxis-an-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Matthew J Roberts, Susan Scott, Patrick N Harris, Kurt Naber, Florian M E Wagenlehner, Suhail A R Doi
PURPOSE: To systematically review and meta-analyse available evidence comparing fosfomycin trometamol (FT) to fluoroquinolone (FQ) prophylaxis to prevent transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUSPB) related infectious complications. METHODS: Electronic databases were queried for studies comparing FT to FQ-based TRUSPB prophylaxis. Studies were assessed for comparable outcomes and methodological quality (ROBINS-I modification). The primary outcome measure was the relative odds of overall infectious complications following TRUSPB according to FT/FQ treatment, which was evaluated with meta-analysis...
December 29, 2017: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286958/chronic-nocardia-cyriacigeorgica-periprosthetic-knee-infection-successfully-treated-with-a-two-stage-revision-a-case-report
#3
Michael M Hadeed, J Ryan MacDonell, Ian J Dempsey, Christopher C Moore, James A Browne
CASE: We report the successful treatment of a Nocardia cyriacigeorgica periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) that occurred at the site of a total knee arthroplasty. To our knowledge, this organism has not previously been reported in the literature as a cause of PJI. Given the need for a prolonged duration of treatment for this organism (a minimum of 6 to 12 months), modifications to the standard 2-stage revision were made in consultation with infectious-disease specialists. CONCLUSION: PJI is a devastating complication that leads to substantial patient morbidity and utilization of health-care resources...
October 2017: JBJS Case Connector
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283327/genetically-modified-aedes-aegypti-to-control-dengue-a-review
#4
Muhammad Qsim, Usman Ali Ashfaq, Muhammad Zubair Yousaf, Muhammad Shareef Masoud, Ijaz Rasul, Namrah Noor, Azfar Hussain
Dengue is an acute infectious disease of viral etiology characterized by lymphadenopathy, leucopenia, headache, biphasic fever, pain in various parts of the body, rashes, and extreme physical weakness. It is a vector-borne disease caused by a positive-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. Dengue inflicts a significant health, economic, and social burden on populations of endemic areas. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans by the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. Vaccines against dengue viruses have been claimed to be developed, but as yet no effective treatment is available...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282898/a-perspective-on-proteomics-of-infectious-diseases
#5
Apoorva Venkatesh, Concha Gil, Manuel Fuentes, Joshua LaBaer, Sanjeeva Srivastava
Pneumonia, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and several other diseases caused by pathogens largely contribute to the enormous burden of infectious diseases. Over the last few decades, the impact of infectious diseases on a population has been drastic and remains a major health concern even today. Despite advances in science and technology in this era of health and development, there is a substantial knowledge gap in our understanding of the molecular basis of these infectious diseases. The availability of valuable genomic information for a number of pathogens and their hosts has improved our understanding of disease pathogenesis but has not always been useful in addressing important biological questions...
December 28, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282597/mathematical-analysis-of-the-transmission-dynamics-of-hiv-syphilis-co-infection-in-the-presence-of-treatment-for-syphilis
#6
A Nwankwo, D Okuonghae
The re-emergence of syphilis has become a global public health issue, and more persons are getting infected, especially in developing countries. This has also led to an increase in the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections as some studies have shown in the recent decade. This paper investigates the synergistic interaction between HIV and syphilis using a mathematical model that assesses the impact of syphilis treatment on the dynamics of syphilis and HIV co-infection in a human population where HIV treatment is not readily available or accessible to HIV-infected individuals...
December 27, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259090/slc6a14-is-a-genetic-modifier-of-cystic-fibrosis-that-regulates-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-attachment-to-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#7
Michelle Di Paola, Amber J Park, Saumel Ahmadi, Elyse J Roach, Yu-Sheng Wu, Michaela Struder-Kypke, Joseph S Lam, Christine E Bear, Cezar M Khursigara
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene and is associated with progressive and ultimately fatal infectious lung disease. There can be considerable variability in disease severity among individuals with the same CFTR mutations, and recent genome-wide association studies have identified secondary genetic factors that contribute to this. One of these modifier genes is SLC6A14, which encodes an amino acid transporter. Importantly, variants of this gene have been associated with age at first acquisition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa In this study, we aimed to determine the function of SLC6A14 in airway epithelia and how it might affect colonization by P...
December 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247687/genotypic-variations-between-wild-type-and-small-colony-variants-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-prosthetic-valve-infectious-endocarditis-a-comparative-genomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis
#8
Hongbin Chen, Qi Wang, Yuyao Yin, Shuguang Li, Deng-Ke Niu, Hui Wang
Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants (SCVs) can cause persistent infections. However, the genomes and transcriptomes of S. aureus SCVs remain poorly understood. We isolated a pair of isogenic wild-type and SCV methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains (IE1 and IE2, respectively) from a patient with prosthetic valve infectious endocarditis. The SCV IE2 strain grew more slowly than the wild-type strain, and serum killing and mouse lethality assays revealed that the virulence of the SCV strain IE2 was decreased...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243584/prediction-and-analysis-of-three-dimensional-structure-of-the-p7-transactivated-protein1-of-hepatitis-c-virus
#9
Mahmoud M Elhefnawi, Mohamed E Hasan, Amal Mahmoud, Yehia A Khidr, El-Sayed A El-Absawy, Alaa A Hemeida
BACKGROUND: The p7-transactivated protein of Hepatitis C virus is a small integral membrane protein of 127 amino acids, which is crucial for assembly and release of infectious virions. Ab initio and comparative modelling, is an essential tool to solve the problem of protein structure prediction and to comprehend the physicochemical fundemental of how proteins fold in nature. RESULTS: Only one domain (1-127) of p7 had been predicted using the systematic in silico approach, ThreaDom...
December 15, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240719/pericardial-effusion-as-a-presenting-symptom-of-hashimoto-thyroiditis-a-case-report
#10
Alberto Leonardi, Laura Penta, Marta Cofini, Lucia Lanciotti, Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Background: Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is the most frequent cause of acquired hypothyroidism in paediatrics. HT is usually diagnosed in older children and adolescents, mainly in females and is rare in infants and toddlers with cardiac involvement, including pericardial effusion, that can be found in 10% to 30% of adult HT cases. In this paper, a child with HT and pericardial effusion as the most important sign of HT is described. Case presentation: A four-year-old male child suffering for a few months from recurrent abdominal pain sometimes associated with vomiting underwent an abdominal ultrasound scan outside the hospital...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233768/vaccine-development-targeting-lipopolysaccharide-structure-modification
#11
Yun Zhao, Vilma Arce-Gorvel, Raquel Conde-Álvarez, Ignacio Moriyon, Jean-Pierre Gorvel
Vaccines are one of the most important methods for preventing infectious disease. Structural modification of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provides a strategy for the development of live attenuated vaccines, either by altering the immunogenicity or by attenuating virulence of the bacteria. This review summarizes various approaches that utilize LPS mutants as whole-cell vaccines.
December 9, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233677/alzheimer-s-disease-and-gut-microbiota-modifications-the-long-way-between-preclinical-studies-and-clinical-evidence
#12
REVIEW
Cesare Mancuso, Rosaria Santangelo
Recent studies have suggested the role of an infectious component in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In light of this, research has focused on some bacteria constituting the intestinal microbial flora which can produce amyloid. Once generated, the latter hypothetically triggers a systemic inflammatory response which compromises complex brain functions, such as learning and memory. Clinical studies have shown that, in cognitively impaired elderly patients with brain amyloidosis, there is lower abundance in the gut of E...
December 9, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223307/assessment-of-the-innate-immune-response-in-the-periparturient-cow
#13
REVIEW
Erminio Trevisi, Andrea Minuti
The transition period is the most critical phase in the life of high yielding dairy cows. Within a few weeks, cows are submitted to many challenges (physiological, nutritional, psychological, management) that require prompt and effective adaptive responses. The immune system is involved in this process, and many changes of the cow's immune system components have been observed around calving. Cows are considered to be immunosuppressed in late lactation, and available data suggest that the immune system is dysregulated around parturition...
December 5, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202408/synthesis-and-antimycobacterial-activity-of-triterpeni%C3%A2-a-ring-azepanes
#14
Natalya I Medvedeva, Oxana B Kazakova, Tatyana V Lopatina, Irina E Smirnova, Gul'nara V Giniyatullina, Irina P Baikova, Vladimir E Kataev
A series of A-ring azepanones and azepanes derived from betulonic, oleanonic and ursonic acids was synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antimycobacterial activities against M. tuberculosis (MTB) H37Rv and SDR-TB in the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Triterpenic A-azepano-28-hydroxy-derivatives were synthesized by the reduction with LiAlH4 of triterpenic azepanones available from the Beckmann rearrangement of the corresponding C3-oximes. Modification of azepanes at NH-group and atoms С12, C20, C28 and C29 of triterpenic core led to the derivatives with oxo, epoxy, aminopropyl, oximino and acyl substituents...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182471/a-model-for-temporal-dynamics-of-brown-rot-spreading-in-fruit-orchards
#15
Daniele Bevacqua, Bénédicte Quilot-Turion, Luca Bolzoni
Brown rot, caused by Monilinia spp., is a major disease of stone fruits and, in favorable environmental conditions and in the absence of fungicide treatments, it causes important economic losses. In the present work, we propose a modification of classical susceptible, exposed, infectious and removed (SEIR) compartmental models to grasp the peculiarities of the progression of brown rot epidemics in stone fruit orchards in the last stage of the fruit growth (i.e. from the end of the pit hardening to harvest time)...
November 28, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176301/a-novel-cold-atmospheric-pressure-air-plasma-jet-for-peri-implantitis-treatment-an-in-vitro-study
#16
Yu Yang, Jinsong Guo, Xuan Zhou, Zhiqiang Liu, Chenbao Wang, Kaile Wang, Jue Zhang, Zuomin Wang
Peri-implantitis is difficult to treat in clinical settings; this is not only because it is a site-specific infectious disease but also because it impedes osseointegration. In this study, a novel cold atmospheric pressure air plasma jet (CAPAJ) was applied to study the treatment of peri-implantitis in vitro. CAPAJ treated the samples for 2, 4 and 6 min, respectively. To evaluate the titanium surface characteristics, the surface elemental composition (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy [XPS]), roughness and hydrophilicity were evaluated in each group...
November 23, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167343/ubiquitination-of-the-cytoplasmic-domain-of-influenza-a-virus-m2-protein-is-crucial-for-production-of-infectious-virus-particles
#17
Wen-Chi Su, Wen-Ya Yu, Shih-Han Huang, Michael M C Lai
Virus replication is mediated by interactions between virus and host. Here, we demonstrate that influenza A virus membrane protein 2 (M2) can be ubiquitinated. The lysine residue at position 78, which is located in the cytoplasmic domain of M2, is essential for M2 ubiquitination. An M2-K78R (Lys78→Arg78) mutant, which produces ubiquitination-deficient M2, showed a severe defect in production of infectious virus particles. M2-K78R mutant progeny contained more HA proteins, less viral RNAs and less internal viral proteins, including M1 and NP, than the wild-type virus...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163408/environmental-nutrient-supply-directly-alters-plant-traits-but-indirectly-determines-virus-growth-rate
#18
Christelle Lacroix, Eric W Seabloom, Elizabeth T Borer
Ecological stoichiometry and resource competition theory both predict that nutrient rates and ratios can alter infectious disease dynamics. Pathogens such as viruses hijack nutrient rich host metabolites to complete multiple steps of their epidemiological cycle. As the synthesis of these molecules requires nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), environmental supply rates, and ratios of N and P to hosts can directly limit disease dynamics. Environmental nutrient supplies also may alter virus epidemiology indirectly by changing host phenotype or the dynamics of coinfecting pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142034/cumulative-burden-of-glucocorticoid-related-adverse-events-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-findings-from-a-12-year-longitudinal-study
#19
Hung-Lin Chen, Li-Jiuan Shen, Ping-Ning Hsu, Chieh-Yu Shen, Susan A Hall, Fei-Yuan Hsiao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this population-based study is to examine the adverse events (AE) associated with longitudinal systemic glucocorticoid (GC) use among an ethnic Chinese systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) cohort. METHODS: Our study subjects were patients with newly diagnosed SLE aged 18 and older who received at least 1 prescription of systemic GC between 2001 and 2012 from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). The earliest prescription date of systemic GC for each subject was defined as the index date...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139548/prospects-from-systems-serology-research
#20
REVIEW
Kelly B Arnold, Amy W Chung
Antibodies are highly functional glycoproteins capable of providing immune protection through multiple mechanisms, including direct pathogen neutralization and the engagement of their Fc portions with surrounding effector immune cells that induce anti-pathogenic responses. Small modifications to multiple antibody biophysical features induced by vaccines can significantly alter functional immune outcomes, though it is difficult to predict which combinations confer protective immunity. In order to give insight into the highly complex and dynamic processes that drive an effective humoral immune response, here we discuss recent applications of 'Systems Serology', a new approach that uses data-driven (also called 'machine learning') computational analysis and high-throughput experimental data to infer networks of important antibody features associated with protective humoral immunity and/or Fc functional activity...
November 15, 2017: Immunology
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