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Infectious modification

Jacek A Koziel, Heekwon Ahn, Thomas D Glanville, Timothy S Frana, J Hans van Leeuwen, Lam T Nguyen
Nearly 55,000 outbreaks of animal disease were reported to the World Animal Health Information Database between 2005 and 2016. To suppress the spread of disease, large numbers of animal mortalities often must be disposed of quickly and are frequently buried on the farm where they were raised. While this method of emergency disposal is fast and relatively inexpensive, it also can have undesirable and lasting impacts (slow decay, concerns about groundwater contamination, pathogens re-emergence, and odor). Following the 2010 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak, the Republic of Korea's National Institute of Animal Science funded research on selected burial alternatives or modifications believed to have potential to reduce undesirable impacts of burial...
March 13, 2018: Waste Management
Sonja Günther, Sandra Felten, Gerhard Wess, Katrin Hartmann, Karin Weber
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease in cats worldwide. The aim of this study was to test two commercially available reaction mixtures in a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect feline Coronavirus (FCoV) in body cavity effusions of cats with and without FIP, in order to minimize the time from sampling to obtaining results. RNA was extracted from body cavity effusion samples of 71 cats, including 34 samples from cats with a definitive diagnosis of FIP, and 37 samples of control cats with similar clinical signs but other confirmed diseases...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Xue Qu, Huan Liu, Chuchu Zhang, Yu Lei, Miao Lei, Miao Xu, Dawei Jin, Peng Li, Meng Yin, Gregory F Payne, Changsheng Liu
Electrical signals can be imposed with exquisite spatiotemporal control and provide exciting opportunities to create structure and confer function. Here, we report the use of electrical signals to program the fabrication of a chloramine wound dressing with high antimicrobial activity. This method involves two electrofabrication steps: (i) a cathodic electrodeposition of an aminopolysaccharide chitosan triggered by a localized region of high pH; and (ii) an anodic chlorination of the deposited film in the presence of chloride...
March 2, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Warren Ky Tan, Kristy Purnamawati, Leroy S Pakkiri, Sock Hwee Tan, Xiaoxun Yang, Mark Y Chan, Chester L Drum
Thymosin beta-4 (TB4) is an endogenous peptide with protective and regenerative effects in models of cellular and organ injury. TB4 is increasingly measured as a potential plasma or serum biomarker in human cardiovascular, liver, infectious, and autoimmune disease. Areas Covered: The focus of this review is the quantification of TB4 in clinical cohort studies and whether reported TB4 concentrations differ with respect to method of sample preparation. We survey current literature for studies measuring TB4 in human serum or plasma and compare reported concentrations in healthy controls...
March 3, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Bruno K Rodiño-Janeiro, María Vicario, Carmen Alonso-Cotoner, Roberto Pascua-García, Javier Santos
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), one of the most frequent digestive disorders, is characterized by chronic and recurrent abdominal pain and altered bowel habit. The origin seems to be multifactorial and is still not well defined for the different subtypes. Genetic, epigenetic and sex-related modifications of the functioning of the nervous and immune-endocrine supersystems and regulation of brain-gut physiology and bile acid production and absorption are certainly involved. Acquired predisposition may act in conjunction with infectious, toxic, dietary and life event-related factors to enhance epithelial permeability and elicit mucosal microinflammation, immune activation and dysbiosis...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Colin D Robertson, Tracy H Hazen, James B Kaper, David A Rasko, Anne-Marie Hansen
Enteric pathogens with low infectious doses rely on the ability to orchestrate the expression of virulence and metabolism-associated genes in response to environmental cues for successful infection. Accordingly, the human pathogen enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) employs a complex multifaceted regulatory network to link the expression of type III secretion system (T3SS) components to nutrient availability. While phosphorylation of histidine and aspartate residues on two-component system response regulators is recognized as an integral part of bacterial signaling, the involvement of phosphotyrosine-mediated control is minimally explored in Gram-negative pathogens...
February 27, 2018: MBio
Sen Pei, Sasikiran Kandula, Wan Yang, Jeffrey Shaman
Recurrent outbreaks of seasonal and pandemic influenza create a need for forecasts of the geographic spread of this pathogen. Although it is well established that the spatial progression of infection is largely attributable to human mobility, difficulty obtaining real-time information on human movement has limited its incorporation into existing infectious disease forecasting techniques. In this study, we develop and validate an ensemble forecast system for predicting the spatiotemporal spread of influenza that uses readily accessible human mobility data and a metapopulation model...
February 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Armando Ganoza, Neslihan Celik, George V Mazariegos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The field of intestinal transplantation has shown significant growth and has become the gold standard therapy for patients that suffer from the complications of total parenteral nutrition due to irreversible intestinal failure. In the early years of intestinal transplant, retransplantation was associated with extremely high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent encouraging reports, showing significant improvement in outcomes after intestinal retransplantation...
February 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Ulf Andersson, Huan Yang, Helena Harris
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a ubiquitous nuclear protein that promotes inflammation when released extracellularly after cellular activation, stress, damage or death. HMGB1 operates as one of the most intriguing molecules in inflammatory disorders via recently elucidated signal and molecular transport mechanisms. Treatments based on antagonists specifically targeting extracellular HMGB1 have generated encouraging results in a wide number of experimental models of infectious and sterile inflammation...
February 10, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Yidan Gao, Hengtong Fang, Lu Fang, Dawei Liu, Jinsong Liu, Menghan Su, Zhi Fang, Wenzhi Ren, Huping Jiao
The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a group of unique naturally occurring anti-microbial compounds with around 50 amino acids. It represents promising therapeutic agents to the infectious disease without concerning about drug resistance. However, commercial development of these peptides for even the simplest application has been hindered by the limitations of sources, instability, toxicity and bioavailability. To improve the properties of the artificial synthesized AMPs, the modification and design are the hotspots of the AMPs research...
February 13, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Peng Sun, Chao Pan, Ming Zeng, Bo Liu, Haoyu Liang, Dongshu Wang, Xiankai Liu, Bin Wang, Yufei Lyu, Jun Wu, Li Zhu, Hengliang Wang
Enteric fever, mainly caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, remains a common and serious infectious disease worldwide. As yet, there are no licensed vaccines against S. Paratyphi A. Biosynthesis of conjugate vaccines has become a promising approach against bacterial infection. However, the popular biosynthetic strategy using N-linked glycosylation systems does not recognize the specialized O-polysaccharide structure of S. Paratyphi A. Here, we describe an O-linked glycosylation approach, the only currently available glycosylation system suitable for an S...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
Carolina Sánchez-López, Claudio O Fernández, Liliana Quintanar
The cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a copper binding protein that undergoes post-translational modifications, such as endoproteolytic alpha cleavage, which occurs in the vicinity of the His111 Cu binding site. Alpha cleavage processing of PrPC is considered to be neuroprotective since the cleavage site is located in a region that is key to the conversion of PrPC into the infectious scrapie isoform (PrPSc), yielding a membrane bound C1 fragment of PrPC that still contains His111. In this work, we use hPrP(111-115) fragment as a model peptide to evaluate the impact of alpha cleavage processing of PrPC in its ability to coordinate Cu(ii) ions at His111...
February 8, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Pim van Hooft, Eric R Dougherty, Wayne M Getz, Barend J Greyling, Bas J Zwaan, Armanda D S Bastos
In the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) population of the Kruger National Park (South Africa) a primary sex-ratio distorter and a primary sex-ratio suppressor have been shown to occur on the Y chromosome. A subsequent autosomal microsatellite study indicated that two types of deleterious alleles with a negative effect on male body condition, but a positive effect on relative fitness when averaged across sexes and generations, occur genome-wide and at high frequencies in the same population. One type negatively affects body condition of both sexes, while the other acts antagonistically: it negatively affects male but positively affects female body condition...
2018: PloS One
Susanna Esposito, Nicola Principi
For a long time, hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) was seen as a mild viral infection characterized by typical clinical manifestations that spontaneously resolved in a few days without complications. In the past two decades, HFMD has received new attention because of evidence that this disease could have clinical, epidemiological and aetiological characteristics quite different from those initially thought. In contrast to previous beliefs, it has been clarified that HFMD can be associated with complications, leading to severe neurological sequelae and, rarely, to death...
March 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Jason Blitz, Mark S Riddle, Chad K Porter
Background: Infectious gastroenteritis (IGE) is caused by numerous bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens. A history of IGE has been shown in previous studies to increase the risk of developing chronic gastrointestinal disorders and other chronic conditions. As bacteria and viruses represent the majority of pathogen-specific causes of IGE, post-infectious studies have primarily focused on these organisms. The objective of this study was to investigate an association between a history of parasite-associated IGE and the subsequent development of chronic post-infectious gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal disorders in a military population...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Thangasamy Saminathan, Marleny García, Bandana Ghimire, Carlos Lopez, Abiodun Bodunrin, Padma Nimmakayala, Venkata L Abburi, Amnon Levi, Nagamani Balagurusamy, Umesh K Reddy
The plant microbiome is a key determinant of plant health and productivity, and changes in the plant microbiome can alter the tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and the quality of end produce. Little is known about the microbial diversity and its effect on carbohydrate metabolism in ripe fruits. In this study, we aimed to understand the diversity and function of microorganisms in relation to carbohydrate metabolism of ripe watermelon fruits. We used 16S metagenomics and RNAseq metatranscriptomics for analysis of red (PI459074, Congo, and SDRose) and yellow fruit-flesh cultivars (PI227202, PI435990, and JBush) of geographically and metabolically diverse watermelon cultivars...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jonas Kjær, Graham J Belsham
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has a positive-sense ssRNA genome that includes a single, large, open reading frame encoding a polyprotein. The co-translational "cleavage" of this polyprotein at the 2A/2B junction is mediated by the 2A peptide (18 residues in length) using a non-proteolytic mechanism termed "ribosome skipping" or "StopGo". Multiple variants of the 2A polypeptide with this property among the picornaviruses share a conserved C-terminal motif (D(V/I)E(S/T)NPG↓P). The impact of 2A modifications within this motif on FMDV protein synthesis, polyprotein processing and virus viability were investigated...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Virology
Bernhard Hennig, Michael C Petriello, Mary V Gamble, Young-Joon Surh, Laura A Kresty, Norbert Frank, Nuchanart Rangkadilok, Mathuros Ruchirawat, William A Suk
Human exposure to environmental contaminants such as persistent chlorinated organics, heavy metals, pesticides, phthalates, flame retardants, electronic waste and airborne pollutants around the world, and especially in Southeast Asian regions, are significant and require urgent attention. Given this widespread contamination and abundance of such toxins as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the ecosystem, it is unlikely that remediation alone will be sufficient to address the health impacts associated with this exposure...
March 28, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Chitra Upadhyay, Roya Feyznezhad, Weiming Yang, Hui Zhang, Susan Zolla-Pazner, Catarina E Hioe
HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) mediates virus attachment and entry into the host cells. Like other membrane-bound and secreted proteins, HIV-1 Env contains at its N terminus a signal peptide (SP) that directs the nascent Env to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where Env synthesis and post-translational modifications take place. SP is cleaved during Env biosynthesis but potentially influences the phenotypic traits of the Env protein. The Env SP sequences of HIV-1 isolates display high sequence variability, and the significance of such variability is unclear...
January 25, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Naghmeh Fouladi, Maria Parker, Vicky Kennedy, Katie Binley, Laura McCloskey, Julie Loader, Michelle Kelleher, Kyriacos Mitrophanous, Jt Timothy Stout, Scott Ellis
Due to both the avascularity of the cornea and the relatively immune-privileged status of the eye corneal transplantation is one of the most successful clinical transplant procedures. However in high risk patients, which account for >20% of the 180,000 transplants carried out worldwide each year, the rejection rate is high due to vascularisation of the recipient cornea. The main reason for graft failure is irreversible immunological rejection and it is therefore unsurprising that neovascularisation (both pre- and post-grafting) is a significant risk factor for subsequent graft failure...
January 23, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
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