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Antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210463/frequency-of-inducible-clindamycin-resistance-among-gram-positive-cocci-in-a-tertiary-hospital-tehran-iran
#1
Hiva Saffar, Afsaneh Rajabiani, Alireza Abdollahi, Shirin Habibi, Zohreh Baseri
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Accurate designation of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the infecting microorganisms is an important crucial factor in making appropriate therapeutic decisions. Macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B antibiotics are in a family, reserved as an alternative approach in treatment of resistant Gram positive cocci. Amongst them, clindamycin has been considered as the preferred agent due to its excellent pharmacokinetic properties. The inducible resistance to clindamycin in Gram positive staphylococci and streptococci cannot be recognized by routine broth or agar based susceptibility tests and D-zone testing is necessary...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210352/risk-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-among-children-found-to-be-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-usa300-carriers
#2
Lilly Cheng Immergluck, Shabnam Jain, Susan M Ray, Robert Mayberry, Sarah Satola, Trisha Chan Parker, Keming Yuan, Anaam Mohammed, Robert C Jerris
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) carriage and infections and determine risk factors associated specifically with MRSA USA300. METHODS: We conducted a case control study in a pediatric emergency department. Nasal and axillary swabs were collected, and participants were interviewed for risk factors. The primary outcome was the proportion of S. aureus carriers among those presenting with and without a skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI)...
February 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210015/frequency-of-bacterial-samples-from-patients-with-chronic-acquired-nasolacrimal-duct-obstruction
#3
Kourosh Shahraki, Ali Makateb, Keyvan Shirzadi, Keivan Khosravifard
INTRODUCTION: Dacryocystitis is an infection of lacremical sac due to obstruction of nasolacrimal duct which has primary or secondary causes. Idiopathic inflammatory obstruction is the primary cause. Trauma, infection, inflammation, neoplasia, and mechanical obstruction are secondary one. AIM: The objective of this study is determination of bacterial samples from patients with chronic acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was contained 90 patients with dacryocystitis from 2010 to 2011, in Besat hospital...
December 2016: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208722/zunyimycins-b-and-c-new-chloroanthrabenzoxocinones-antibiotics-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-enterococci-from-streptomyces-sp-fjs31-2
#4
Yuhong Lü, Meiyun Shao, Yinyin Wang, Shengyan Qian, Miao Wang, Yingquan Wang, Xiaoqian Li, Yuxin Bao, Chengmin Deng, Changwu Yue, Daishun Liu, Ning Liu, Minghao Liu, Ying Huang, Zehui Chen, Yonglin Hu
This study performed an optimization of the fermentation conditions to activate the expression of the zunyimycin family biosynthesis genes of the zunyimycin-producing streptomycetes strain Streptomyces sp. FJS31-2. Bioassay-guided isolation and purification by varied chromatographic methods yielded two new compounds of the zunyimycin derivatives, namely, 31-2-7 and 31-2-8, accompanied with three known anthrabenzoxocinones family members of zunyimycin A, BE24566B, and chloroanthrabenzoxocinone. Their structures were elucidated by NMR, HRESIMS, IR, UV, and CD...
February 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203096/burden-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia-among-hospitalized-patients-in-lebanon-and-saudi-arabia
#5
Abdulhakeem O Althaqafi, Madonna J Matar, Rima Moghnieh, Adel F Alothman, Thamer H Alenazi, Fayssal Farahat, Shelby Corman, Caitlyn T Solem, Nirvana Raghubir, Cynthia Macahilig, Seema Haider, Jennifer M Stephens
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to describe the real-world treatment patterns and burden of suspected or confirmed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. METHODS: A retrospective chart review study evaluated 2011-2012 data from hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of MRSA pneumonia, which was culture proven or suspected based on clinical criteria...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198727/new-guidelines-for-nosocomial-pneumonia
#6
Mark L Metersky, Andre C Kalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remain important causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. New evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of these entities were released by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society in 2016. This review summarizes the recommendations contained within these guidelines and their supporting rationale. RECENT FINDINGS: With respect to diagnosis of HAP and VAP, the guidelines suggest using semiquantitative cultures of noninvasively obtained respiratory samples instead of quantitative cultures of invasively obtained samples...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198662/changes-in-bacterial-epidemiology-and-antibiotic-resistance-among-veterans-with-spinal-cord-injury-disorder-over-the-past-9-years
#7
Margaret A Fitzpatrick, Katie J Suda, Nasia Safdar, Stephen P Burns, Makoto M Jones, Linda Poggensee, Swetha Ramanathan, Charlesnika T Evans
OBJECTIVE: Patients with spinal cord injury and disorder (SCI/D) have an increased risk of infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. We described bacterial epidemiology and resistance in patients with SCI/D at Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs) for the past 9 years. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort Setting: One hundred thirty VAMCs. PARTICIPANTS: Veterans with SCI/D and bacterial cultures with antibiotic susceptibility testing performed between 1/1/2005-12/31/2013...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198170/antibacterial-effect-of-sevoflurane-and-isoflurane
#8
M Martínez-Serrano, M Gerónimo-Pardo, A Martínez-Monsalve, M D Crespo-Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: Multidrug resistant bacteria are increasing worldwide and therapeutic options are limited. Some anaesthetics have shown antibacterial activity before. In this study, we have investigated the antibacterial effect of the halogenated anaesthetic agents sevoflurane and isoflurane against a range of resistant pathogens. METHODS: Two experiments were conducted. In the first, bacterial suspensions of both ATCC and resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were exposed to liquid sevoflurane and isoflurane during 15, 30 and 60 minutes...
February 15, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197990/a-chlorhexidine-releasing-epoxy-based-coating-on-titanium-implants-prevents-staphylococcus-aureus-experimental-biomaterial-associated-infection
#9
M Riool, A J Dirks, V Jaspers, L de Boer, T J Loontjens, C M van der Loos, S Florquin, I Apachitei, L N Rijk, H A Keul, S A Zaat
Prevention of biomaterial-associated infections (BAI) remains a challenging problem, in particular due to the increased risk of resistance development with the current antibiotic-based strategies. Metallic orthopaedic devices, such as non-cemented implants, are often inserted under high mechanical stress. These non-cemented implants cannot be protected by e.g. antibioticreleasing bone cement or other antimicrobial approaches, such as the use of bioactive glass. Therefore, in order to avoid abrasion during implantation procedures, we developed an antimicrobial coating with great mechanical stability for orthopaedic implants, to prevent Staphylococcus aureus BAI...
February 14, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197738/vaccines-for-staphylococcus-aureus-and-target-populations
#10
Clarissa Pozzi, Reuben Olaniyi, Lassi Liljeroos, Ilaria Galgani, Rino Rappuoli, Fabio Bagnoli
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading pathogen in surgical site, intensive care unit, and skin infections, as well as healthcare-associated pneumonias. These infections are associated with an enormous burden of morbidity, mortality, and increase of hospital length of stay and patient cost. S. aureus is impressively fast in acquiring antibiotic resistance, and multidrug-resistant strains are a serious threat to human health. Due to resistance or insufficient effectiveness, antibiotics and bundle measures leave a tremendous unmet medical need worldwide...
February 15, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197394/antibiogram-of-bacteria-isolated-from-automated-teller-machines-in-hamadan-west-iran
#11
Hassan Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza Arabestani, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani, Iraj Sedighi, Hamed Farhadi Kohan, Mohammad Molavi
Aim: Bacteria are ubiquitous in the environment. In keeping with the continued expansion of urbanization and the growing population, an increasing number of people use automated banking, i.e. automated teller machines (ATMs). The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial contamination and its antibiotic sensitivity on computer keyboards located at ATMs in Hamadan province, Iran. Method: Out of 360 ATMs at four locations in Hamadan, 96 were randomly selected for this study. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of all isolates was determined by the agar disk diffusion method using gentamicin (10 µg), vancomycin (30 µg), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (25 µg), amikacin (30 µg), tobramycin (10 µg), cephalotin (30 µg), norfloxacin (5 µg), and ceftizoxim (30 µg) disks...
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196977/synergistic-effects-of-vancomycin-and-%C3%AE-lactams-against-vancomycin-highly-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#12
Fumiaki Tabuchi, Yasuhiko Matsumoto, Masaki Ishii, Keita Tatsuno, Mitsuhiro Okazaki, Tomoaki Sato, Kyoji Moriya, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
We previously reported isolating vancomycin (VAN) highly resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) strains from clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains by repeating steps of in vitro mutagenesis and VAN selection. Here we describe that the in vitro susceptibility of these VRSA strains to VAN was markedly increased by combined treatment with β-lactams such as ceftriaxone and oxacillin. Furthermore, in an in vivo silkworm infection model with VRSA, a combination of VAN and ceftriaxone exhibited therapeutic effects, whereas a combination of VAN and oxacillin did not...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196974/the-efficacy-of-different-anti-microbial-metals-at-preventing-the-formation-of-and-eradicating-bacterial-biofilms-of-pathogenic-indicator-strains
#13
Natalie Gugala, Joe A Lemire, Raymond J Turner
The emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens and the prevalence of biofilm-related infections have generated a demand for alternative anti-microbial therapies. Metals have not been explored in adequate detail for their capacity to combat infectious disease. Metal compounds can now be found in textiles, medical devices and disinfectants-yet, we know little about their efficacy against specific pathogens. To help fill this knowledge gap, we report on the anti-microbial and antibiofilm activity of seven metals: silver, copper, titanium, gallium, nickel, aluminum and zinc against three bacterial strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195616/clinical-features-and-management-of-subretinal-abscesses-secondary-to-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-endogenous-endophthalmitis
#14
Jorge Fortun, Yasha S Modi, Angela Bessette, Jordan Heffez, Petros Carvounis, Daniel S Petkovsek, Nicholas G Anderson, Daniel Martin, Sunil Srivastava
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical features, management, and immediate outcomes of patients with subretinal abscesses secondary to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) endogenous endophthalmitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eleven eyes of seven patients were identified by retrospective chart review. Demographics, initial presentation, examination findings, imaging, cultures, treatments, and short-term outcomes were reviewed. RESULTS: Eleven eyes of seven patients presented with subretinal abscesses secondary to MRSA endogenous endophthalmitis...
February 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194715/does-extracellular-dna-production-vary-in-staphylococcal-biofilms-isolated-from-infected-implants-versus-controls
#15
Beata Zatorska, Marion Groger, Doris Moser, Magda Diab-Elschahawi, Luigi Segagni Lusignani, Elisabeth Presterl
BACKGROUND: Prosthetic implant infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and epidermidis are major challenges for early diagnosis and treatment owing to biofilm formation on the implant surface. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is actively excreted from bacterial cells in biofilms, contributing to biofilm stability, and may offer promise in the detection or treatment of such infections. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Does DNA structure change during biofilm formation? (2) Are there time-dependent differences in eDNA production during biofilm formation? (3) Is there differential eDNA production between clinical and control Staphylococcal isolates? (4) Is eDNA production correlated to biofilm thickness? METHODS: We investigated eDNA presence during biofilm formation in 60 clinical and 30 control isolates of S aureus and S epidermidis...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190396/in-vitro-screening-of-an-fda-approved-library-against-eskape-pathogens
#16
Waleed Younis, Ahmed AbdelKhalek, Abdelrahman S Mayhoub, Mohamed N Seleem
Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics is an increasingly serious threat to public health worldwide that requires immediate exploration and the development of novel antimicrobial compounds. Drug repurposing is an inexpensive and untapped source of new antimicrobial leads, and it holds many attractive features warranting further attention for antimicrobial drug discovery. In an effort to repurpose drugs and explore new leads in the field of antimicrobial drug discovery, we performed a whole-cell screening assay of 1,600 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs against Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae (ESKAPE) pathogens...
February 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188831/lipoteichoic-acid-synthesis-inhibition-in-combination-with-antibiotics-abrogates-growth-of-multidrug-resistant-enterococcus-faecium
#17
Fernanda L Paganelli, Tim van de Kamer, Ellen C Brouwer, Helen L Leavis, Neil Woodford, Marc J M Bonten, Rob J L Willems, Antoni P A Hendrickx
Enterococcus faecium is a multidrug-resistant (MDR) nosocomial pathogen causing significant morbidity in debilitated patients. New antimicrobials are needed to treat antibiotic-resistant E. faecium infections in hospitalised patients. E. faecium incorporates lipoteichoic acid (LTA) (1,3-polyglycerol-phosphate linked to glycolipid) in its cell wall. The small-molecule inhibitor 1771 [2-oxo-2-(5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylamino)ethyl 2-naphtho[2,1-b]furan-1-ylacetate] specifically blocks the activity of Staphylococcus aureus LtaS synthase, which polymerises 1,3-glycerolphosphate into LTA polymers...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187785/longevity-and-gender-as-the-risk-factors-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-in-southern-poland
#18
Monika Pomorska-Wesołowska, Anna Różańska, Joanna Natkaniec, Barbara Gryglewska, Anna Szczypta, Mirosława Dzikowska, Agnieszka Chmielarczyk, Jadwiga Wójkowska-Mach
BACKGROUND: The proportion of older people among the general population has risen. Staphylococcus aureus (SA) constitutes a significant problem. Underlying disease and functional debility, predispose the older adult to staphylococcal carriage and infection, specially bloodstream infection and pneumonia. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of older patients with SA infections. We analyzed a database containing the results of laboratory cultures from patients treated in 2013 for SA infections and selected 613 hospitalized and non-hospitalized people aged ≥60 years...
February 10, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187042/can-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-silently-travel-from-the-gut-to-the-wound-and-cause-postoperative-infection-modeling-the-trojan-horse-hypothesis
#19
Monika A Krezalek, Sanjiv Hyoju, Alexander Zaborin, Emeka Okafor, Laxmi Chandrasekar, Vitas Bindokas, Kristina Guyton, Christopher P Montgomery, Robert S Daum, Olga Zaborina, Susan Boyle-Vavra, John C Alverdy
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether intestinal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can be the source of surgical site infections (SSIs). BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that gut-derived MRSA may cause SSIs via mechanisms in which circulating immune cells scavenge MRSA from the gut, home to surgical wounds, and cause infection (Trojan Horse Hypothesis). METHODS: MRSA gut colonization was achieved by disrupting the microbiota with antibiotics, imposing a period of starvation and introducing MRSA via gavage...
February 9, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186134/virulence-inhibitors-from-brazilian-peppertree-block-quorum-sensing-and-abate-dermonecrosis-in-skin-infection-models
#20
Amelia Muhs, James T Lyles, Corey P Parlet, Kate Nelson, Jeffery S Kavanaugh, Alexander R Horswill, Cassandra L Quave
Widespread antibiotic resistance is on the rise and current therapies are becoming increasingly limited in both scope and efficacy. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) represents a major contributor to this trend. Quorum sensing controlled virulence factors include secreted toxins responsible for extensive damage to host tissues and evasion of the immune system response; they are major contributors to morbidity and mortality. Investigation of botanical folk medicines for wounds and infections led us to study Schinus terebinthifolia (Brazilian Peppertree) as a potential source of virulence inhibitors...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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