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Antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735318/trends-of-bloodstream-infections-in-a-university-greek-hospital-during-a-three-year-period-incidence-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-and-seasonality-in-gram-negative-predominance
#1
Fevronia Kolonitsiou, Matthaios Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, Anastasia Spiliopoulou, Vasiliki Stamouli, Vasileios Papakostas, Eleni Apostolopoulou, Christos Panagiotopoulos, Markos Marangos, Evangelos D Anastassiou, Myrto Christofidou, Iris Spiliopoulou
The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiology, the incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria and bloodstream infections' (BSIs) seasonality in a university hospital. This retrospective study was carried out in the University General Hospital of Patras, Greece, during 2011-13 y. Blood cultures from patients with clinical presentation suggestive of bloodstream infection were performed by the BacT/ALERT System. Isolates were identified by Vitek 2 Advanced Expert System. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method and E-test...
July 6, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735083/incidence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-in-microbial-community-of-cancer-patients-and-evaluation-of-their-resistant-pattern
#2
Mervat Morsy Abbas Ahmed El-Gendy, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed El-Bondkly, Abeer Ali Keera, Amal Mohamed Ali
Cancer patients are prone to MRSA infection due to a number of factors include prolongedhospitalization, intravascular catheterization, compromised host immunity, malignancy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy surgery, prior antibiotic therapy and prolonged operative time. Among 468 Staphylococcus isolates, 283 were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates (MRSA), which indicated the occurrence and prevalence of MRSA isolates among cancer patients. The highest number of MRSA strains were isolated from male (124 isolates), female (90 isolates) followed by children (69 isolates) which represent 43...
July 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735054/linezolid-activity-against-clinical-gram-positive-cocci-with-advanced-antimicrobial-drug-resistance-in-iran
#3
Hamidreza Houri, Hossein Kazemian, Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, Asieh Taji, Zahra Tayebi, Hamid Heidari
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the linezolid activity against clinical Gram-positive cocci with advanced antimicrobial drug resistance. METHODS: A collection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE), penicillin non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (PNSP), and group B streptococci (GBS) were isolated from various clinical samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done using standard methods Subsequently, we investigated linezolid antibacterial activities, the first approved oxazolidinone against isolates by the standard broth microdilution method...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735049/in-vitro-activity-of-daptomycin-combinations-with-rifampicin-gentamicin-fosfomycin-and-fusidic-acid-against-mrsa-strains
#4
Gulseren Aktas, Sengul Derbentli
OBJECTIVES: Although new antimicrobial agents designed to treat infections with limited therapeutic options have been introduced in the past few years, resistant Gram positive cocci have continued to emerge and spread. Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that has rapid bactericidal activity against broad spectrum of Gram positive bacteria, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Antibiotics are sometimes used in combination in an attempt to prevent or delay the in vivo emergence of drug-resistant subpopulations of pathogenic organisms...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733718/antimicrobial-resistance-in-the-next-30%C3%A2-years-humankind-bugs-and-drugs-a-visionary-approach
#5
REVIEW
Matteo Bassetti, Garyphallia Poulakou, Etienne Ruppe, Emilio Bouza, Sebastian J Van Hal, Adrian Brink
PURPOSE: To describe the current standards of care and major recent advances with regard to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and to give a prospective overview for the next 30 years in this field. METHODS: Review of medical literature and expert opinion were used in the development of this review. RESULTS: There is undoubtedly a large clinical and public health burden associated with AMR in ICU, but it is challenging to quantify the associated excess morbidity and mortality...
July 21, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733674/role-of-sccmec-type-in-resistance-to-the-synergistic-activity-of-oxacillin-and-cefoxitin-in-mrsa
#6
Nathalie T Reichmann, Mariana G Pinho
β-lactam antibiotics target penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) preventing peptidoglycan synthesis and this inhibition is circumvented in methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains through the expression of an additional PBP, named PBP2A. This enzyme is encoded by the mecA gene located within the Staphylococcal Chromosome Cassette mec (SCCmec) mobile genetic element, of which there are 12 types described to date. Previous investigations aimed at analysing the synergistic activity of two β-lactams, oxacillin and cefoxitin, found that SCCmec type IV community-acquired MRSA strains exhibited increased susceptibility to oxacillin in the presence of cefoxitin, while hospital-acquired MRSA strains were unaffected...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733571/a-rare-case-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-cerebral-abscess-secondary-to-conjunctivitis
#7
Y K Gan, A Z Azmi, S A Ghani, A Samsudin
This case report discusses the rare association of cerebral abscess related to conjunctivitis in an otherwise healthy child. A 6 year old boy presented with conjunctivitis was treated with topical antibiotics and resolved after a week. Conjunctival swab cultures grew MRSA. A month later he developed status epileptics and CT scans revealed a large cerebral abscess. He was treated with intravenous antibiotics which covered for MRSA, along with an incision and drainage for the cerebral abscess. Pus cultures grew MRSA...
June 2017: Medical Journal of Malaysia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733486/%C3%AE-toxin-regulates-local-granulocyte-expansion-from-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-in-staphylococcus-aureus-infected-wounds
#8
Patrick C Falahee, Leif S Anderson, Mack B Reynolds, Mauricio Pirir, Bridget E McLaughlin, Carly A Dillen, Ambrose L Cheung, Lloyd S Miller, Scott I Simon
The immune response to Staphylococcus aureus infection in skin involves the recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) from the bone marrow via the circulation and local granulopoiesis from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) that also traffic to infected skin wounds. We focus on regulation of PMN number and function and the role of pore-forming α-toxin (AT), a virulence factor that causes host cell lysis and elicits inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion in wounds. Infection with wild-type S...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731688/the-%C3%AF-configuration-of-the-www-motif-of-a-short-trp-rich-peptide-is-critical-for-targeting-bacterial-membranes-disrupting-preformed-biofilms-and-killing-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#9
D Zarena, Biswajit Mishra, Tamara Lushnikova, Fangyu Wang, Guangshun Wang
Tryptophan-rich peptides, being short and suitable for large-scale chemical synthesis, are attractive candidates for developing a new generation of antimicrobials to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria (superbugs). Although there are numerous pictures for membrane-bound structure of a single tryptophan (W), how multiple Trp amino acids assemble themselves and interact with bacterial membranes are poorly understood. This communication presents the three-dimensional structure for an eight-residue Trp-rich peptide (WWWLRKIW-NH2 with 50% W) determined by the improved 2D NMR method, which includes the measurements of 13C and 15N chemical shifts at natural abundance...
July 21, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731664/-severe-infection-by-methicillin-sensitive-staphylococcus-aureus-producing-panton-valentine-leukocidin-reports-of-two-cases
#10
Martín Brizuela, Guadalupe Pérez, Silvina Ruvinsky, Claudia Sarkis, Romina Romero, Alejandra Mastroianni, Lidia Casimir, María E Venuta, Verónica Gómez Bonduele, Rosa Bologna
Staphylococcus aureus is a major etiologic agent of infections in children from the community and the hospital setting. The severity of these conditions is associated with virulence factors, including the Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Both methicillin resistant and sensitive Staphylococcus aureus produce this leukocidin although with varying frequency. We present two children with severe infection by sensitive Staphylococcus aureus producer of Panton-Valentine leukocidin with musculoskeletal and endovascular complications...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731325/bioinspired-and-biomimetic-agnps-gentamicin-embedded-silk-fibroin-coatings-for-robust-antibacterial-and-osteogenetic-applications
#11
Wenhao Zhou, Zhaojun Jia, Pan Xiong, Jianglong Yan, Yangyang Li, Ming Li, Yan Cheng, Yufeng Zheng
With the progressively increasing demand for orthopedic Ti implants, the balance realization between two primary complications restricting implants applications is imperative needed to be solved that the lack of bone tissue integration and biomedical device-associated infections (BAI), where emergence of multi-resistance bacteria make it worse. Notably, a combination of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and a kind of antibiotic can synergistically inhibit bacterial growth, where low concentration of AgNPs has been confirmed to promote the proliferation and osteogenesis of osteoblasts...
July 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729209/clonal-spread-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-t6065-cc5-sccmecv-agrii-in-a-libyan-hospital
#12
Monia Khemiri, Ali Akrout Alhusain, Mohamed Salah Abbassi, Houyem El Ghaieb, Sofia Santos Costa, Adriana Belas, Constança Pomba, Salah Hammami
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize 32 MRSA isolates recovered from wound specimens of patients in a Hospital in Tripoli, Libya, during 2013. METHODS: MRSA isolates were characterized by determining their antibiotic susceptibilities, genes encoding antibiotic resistance and virulence factors, the SCCmec class, agr type, spa typing, PFGE and MLST. RESULTS: PFGE and MLST revealed that all isolates were clonal and belonged to the Clonal Complex 5 (CC5)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729204/characterization-of-clinical-isolates-oxacillin-susceptible-meca-positive-staphylococcus-aureus-os-mrsa-in-china-from-2009-2014
#13
Yunjia Song, Lanqing Cui, Yuan Lv, Yun Li, Feng Xue
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the prevalence and molecular characteristics of clinical oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive Staphylococcus aureus (OS-MRSA) isolates in China from July 2009 to June 2014. METHODS: A total of 2,068 non-duplicated Staphylococcus aureus isolates were collected from 21 hospitals and the susceptibility test were performed by agar dilution method. All the OS-MRSA strains were screened for the presence of the mecA, mecC and nuc gene as well as Panton-Valentine leucocidin gene(PVL)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727741/antimicrobial-resistance-rates-in-gram-positive-bacteria-do-not-drive-glycopeptides-use
#14
Beryl Primrose Gladstone, Andrea Cona, Parichehr Shamsrizi, Tuba Vilken, Winfred V Kern, Nisar Malek, Evelina Tacconelli
Surveillance data are considered essential to appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy and stewardship. The objective of this study was to determine if a change in the rates of antibiotic resistance impacts antibiotic use in European hospitals. Glycopeptides use was selected to study the correlation between resistance rates and antibiotic use because of the restricted spectrum against resistant gram positive bacteria. PubMed, ECDC databases and national/regional surveillance systems were searched to identify glycopeptides´ consumption in defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitant-days (DID) and rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MRCoNS), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in bloodstream infections (BSIs) in European countries between 1997 and 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727445/an-antibiotic-that-inhibits-the-atpase-activity-of-an-abc-transporter-by-binding-to-a-remote-extracellular-site
#15
Leigh Morgan Matano, Heidi Gabrielle Morris, Anthony R Hesser, Sara E S Martin, Wonsik Lee, Tristan W Owens, Emaline Laney, Hidemasa Nakaminami, David Hooper, Timothy C Meredith, Suzanne Walker
Antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus pose a major threat to human health and there is an ongoing need for new antibiotics to treat resistant infections. In a high throughput screen (HTS) of 230,000 small molecules designed to identify bioactive wall teichoic acid (WTA) inhibitors, we identified one hit, which was expanded through chemical synthesis into a small panel of potent compounds. We showed that these compounds target TarG, the transmembrane component of the two-component ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter TarGH, which exports WTA precursors to the cell surface for attachment to peptidoglycan...
July 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724830/drug-resistant-coagulase-negative-staphylococcal-endophthalmitis-following-dexamethasone-intravitreal-implant
#16
Prabhushanker Mahalingam, Tasneem Tameem Topiwalla, Geetha Ganesan
A 60-year-old female came to our hospital with defective vision due to persistent diabetic macular edema and was treated with intravitreal ozurdex implant in the right eye. Three days later, the patient presented with diminution of vision, ocular pain, congestion, and hypopyon with no fundus view. B-scan ultrasonography showed vitritis, and diagnosis of endophthalmitis was made. Subsequently, 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed along with intravitreal vancomycin and amikacin and removal of implant...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724393/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-emerged-long-before-the-introduction-of-methicillin-into-clinical-practice
#17
Catriona P Harkins, Bruno Pichon, Michel Doumith, Julian Parkhill, Henrik Westh, Alexander Tomasz, Herminia de Lencastre, Stephen D Bentley, Angela M Kearns, Matthew T G Holden
BACKGROUND: The spread of drug-resistant bacterial pathogens poses a major threat to global health. It is widely recognised that the widespread use of antibiotics has generated selective pressures that have driven the emergence of resistant strains. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was first observed in 1960, less than one year after the introduction of this second generation beta-lactam antibiotic into clinical practice. Epidemiological evidence has always suggested that resistance arose around this period, when the mecA gene encoding methicillin resistance carried on an SCCmec element, was horizontally transferred to an intrinsically sensitive strain of S...
July 20, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722638/antibiotic-resistance-in-young-children-in-kilosa-district-tanzania-4-years-after-mass-distribution-of-azithromycin-for-trachoma-control
#18
Evan M Bloch, Sheila K West, Kasubi Mabula, Jerusha Weaver, Zakayo Mrango, Beatriz Munoz, Thomas Lietman, Christian Coles
Mass administration of azithromycin (MDA) is integral to trachoma control. Recent studies suggest that MDA may increase drug-resistant pathogens, yet findings from prior studies suggest little long-term impact on resistance. This disparity may be linked to differences in pre-MDA community-level resistance patterns. We describe carriage prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns for Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) (nasopharyngeal swab collection), Staphylococcus aureus (SA) (nasopharyngeal swabs), and Escherichia coli (EC) (rectal swabs) in 1,047 children ages 1-59 months in a district with MDA cessation 4 years ago...
July 3, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722566/molecular-epidemiology-of-staphylococcus-aureus-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-the-lao-people-s-democratic-republic
#19
Alicia D Yeap, Kate Woods, David A B Dance, Bruno Pichon, Sayaphet Rattanavong, Viengmon Davong, Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh, Paul N Newton, Nandini Shetty, Angela M Kearns
This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in Laos. We selected a random sample of 96 S. aureus SSTI isolates received by the Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, between July 2012 and June 2014, including representation from seven referral hospitals. Isolates underwent susceptibility testing by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods, spa typing and DNA microarray analysis, with whole genome sequencing for rare lineages...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722231/bacteria-antibiotic-resistance-new-challenges-and-opportunities-for-implant-associated-orthopaedic-infections
#20
Bingyun Li, Thomas J Webster
There has been a dramatic increase in the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains, which has made antibiotic choices for infection control increasingly limited and more expensive. In the U.S. alone, antibiotic resistant bacteria cause at least 2 million infections and 23,000 deaths a year resulting in a $55-70 billion per year economic impact. Antibiotics are critical to the success of surgical procedures including orthopaedic prosthetic surgeries, and antibiotic resistance is occurring in nearly all bacteria that infect people, including the most common bacteria that cause orthopaedic infections, such as Staphylococcus aureus (S...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
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