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Antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432878/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-to-vancomycin-daptomycin-linezolid-and-tedizolid
#1
Johanna Marcela Vanegas Múnera, Ana María Ocampo Ríos, Daniela Montoya Urrego, Judy Natalia Jiménez Quiceno
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus remains as a clinical challenge due to emergence of new resistance mechanisms. Tedizolid is a next-generation oxazolidinone, recently approved for skin and soft tissues infections. We conducted a study to determine in vitro susceptibility to vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and tedizolid in MRSA clinical isolates from adult patients with skin and soft tissue infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Methicillin-resistant S...
April 19, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430300/left-ventricular-assist-pump-pocket-infection-conservative-treatment-strategy-for-destination-therapy-candidates
#2
Elie Haddad, François-Xavier Lescure, Walid Ghodhbane, Laurent Lepage, Camille D'humieres, William Vindrios, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Patrick Nataf, Matthias Kirsch
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a major cause of mortality and morbidity, particularly among patients with advanced disease and no access to cardiac transplantation. LVAD implantation is not only a bridge-to-transplantation option for patients awaiting a heart donor, but is often used as bridge-to-destination therapy in patients unsuited for transplantation for various reasons. LVAD infection is considered the second-most common cause of death in patients who survive the initial 6 months on LVAD support...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429505/total-synthesis-of-albocycline
#3
Vijay K Chatare, Rodrigo B Andrade
The macrolactone natural product (-)-albocycline is a promising antibiotic candidate for the treatment of both methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant strains. Herein we report a concise total synthesis of (-)-albocycline in 14 steps from commercially available methyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate. Novel key steps include the highly regio- and stereoselective reactions of chiral N-sulfinyl metallodienamines (NSMDs) with aldehydes and the Davis oxaziridine, in addition to the Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons olefination of N-sulfinyl imines...
April 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427732/endogenous-bacterial-endophthalmitis-a-report-of-2cases
#4
M Cubillas, A Sampedro, B Domínguez, I Carrio, V Bango, J J Barbón
CLINICAL CASES: The cases are presented on 2patients with bacterial endogenous endophthalmitis. The first one was caused by Streptococcus bovis, developed after colonoscopy, which had a poor outcome and resulted in evisceration. The second case was caused by a methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus from an arthrodesis complicated with a para-spinal abscess. It had an excellent visual outcome. DISCUSSION: Bacterial endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare, but serious ocular disease that occurs when bacteria reach the eye via the bloodstream...
April 17, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427133/-effects-of-application-of-vancomycin-in-the-early-stage-of-patients-with-extremely-severe-burn
#5
Z Zhu, G W Cao, J J Bao, Z H Hu, Z Shen, H Tao, B Cao, F Xu
Objective: To evaluate the effects of application of vancomycin in the early stage of patients with extremely severe burn, in order to provide reference to drug for anti-infection treatment in the early stage of patients with extremely severe burn. Methods: Data of 15 patients of Kunshan explosion on August 2nd, 2014, admitted to the Department of Intensive Care in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical efficacy of continuously intravenous dripping of vancomycin (combined with imipenem) in the early stage of burns (before and on post burn day 14) was analyzed...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426977/blue-violet-laser-inactivates-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-by-altering-its-transmembrane-potential
#6
Gabriel Biener, Daniela S Masson-Meyers, Violet V Bumah, Grant Hussey, Michael R Stoneman, Chukuka S Enwemeka, Valerica Raicu
The resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to antibiotics presents serious clinical problems that prompted the need for finding alternative or combination therapies. One such therapy is irradiation with blue light. To determine the alterations in metabolic processes implicated in the observed antimicrobial effects of blue light, we investigated the changes in membrane potential and the presence of free-radical-producing photo-acceptor molecules. Bacterial cultures irradiated with one or two doses of 405nm laser light (each consisting of 121J/cm(2)) were imaged with spectrally resolved laser-scanning microscopes to detect endogenous fluorescent species as well as the voltage sensitive dye 3,3'-Diethyloxacarbocyanine iodide...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423435/-pathogen-spectrum-of-complex-wounds-in-germany-from-war-zones
#7
Hans Joachim Riesner, Benedikt Friemert, Patricia Lang, Hans Georg Palm, Arnold J Suda
Background Treatment of the injured from war zones with wounds with multi-resistant pathogens is becoming more common in Germany, especially in German Armed Forces Hospitals. In most cases, the pre-treatment of these patients has been inadequate and they have a high load of rare pathogens. In Germany, hospitals have to evaluate these pathogens by law. The aim of this study was to review current German guidelines and data on the array of pathogens of complex trauma wounds in Germany and to compare patients with wounds and multi-resistant pathogens from war zones treated in Germany...
April 19, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422262/rifamorpholines-a-e-potential-antibiotics-from-locust-associated-actinobacteria-amycolatopsis-sp-hca4
#8
Yong Sheng Xiao, Bo Zhang, Mei Zhang, Zhi Kai Guo, Xin Zhao Deng, Jing Shi, Wei Li, Rui Hua Jiao, Ren Xiang Tan, Hui Ming Ge
Cultivation of locust associated rare actinobacteria, Amycolatopsis sp. HCa4, has provided five unusual macrolactams rifamorpholines A-E. Their structures were determined by interpretation of spectroscopic and crystallographic data. Rifamorpholines A-E possess an unprecedented 5/6/6/6 ring chromophore, representing a new subclass of rifamycin antibiotics. The biosynthetic pathway for compounds 1-5 involves a key 1,6-cyclization for the formation of the morpholine ring. Compounds 2 and 4 showed potent activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with MICs of 4...
April 19, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421643/empiric-antibiotic-regimens-for-neonatal-sepsis-in-australian-and-new-zealand-neonatal-intensive-care-units
#9
Jeremy P Carr, David P Burgner, Rohan S Hardikar, Jim P Buttery
AIM: Neonatal sepsis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality, and requires prompt empiric treatment. However, only a minority of babies who receive antibiotics for suspected sepsis have an infection. Antimicrobial exposure in infancy has important short- and long-term consequences. There is no consensus regarding empirical antimicrobial regimens. METHODS: The study included a survey of empiric antimicrobial regimens in all tertiary neonatal intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand in 2013-2014...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420883/leukocidins-staphylococcal-bi-component-pore-forming-toxins-find-their-receptors
#10
REVIEW
András N Spaan, Jos A G van Strijp, Victor J Torres
Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen that causes disease worldwide. The emergence of strains that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics and the failure of vaccine development have resulted in a renewed interest in the pathophysiology of this bacterium. Staphylococcal leukocidins are a family of bi-component pore-forming toxins that are important virulence factors. During the past five years, cellular receptors have been identified for all of the bi-component leukocidins. The identification of the leukocidin receptors explains the cellular tropism and species specificity that is exhibited by these toxins, which has important biological consequences...
April 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420677/tcup-typing-and-characterization-of-bacteria-using-bottom-up-tandem-mass-spectrometry-proteomics
#11
Fredrik Boulund, Roger Karlsson, Lucia Gonzales-Siles, Anna Johnning, Nahid Karami, Omar Al-Bayati, Christina Ahren, Edward R B Moore, Erik Kristiansson
Methods for rapid and reliable microbial identification are essential in modern healthcare. The ability to detect and correctly identify pathogenic species and their resistance phenotype is necessary for accurate diagnosis and efficient treatment of infectious diseases. Bottom-up tandem mass spectrometry (MS) proteomics enables rapid characterization of large parts of the expressed genes of microorganisms. However, the generated data is highly fragmented, making down-stream analyses complex. Here we present TCUP, a new computational method for typing and characterizing bacteria using proteomics data from bottom-up tandem MS...
April 18, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419231/antibiotic-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus-current-status-and-future-prospects
#12
Timothy J Foster
The major targets for antibiotics in staphylococci are (i) the cell envelope, (ii) the ribosome and (iii) nucleic acids. Several novel targets emerged from recent targeted drug discovery programmes including the ClpP protease and FtsZ from the cell division machinery. Resistance can either develop by horizontal transfer of resistance determinants encoded by mobile genetic elements viz plasmids, transposons and the staphylococcal cassette chromosome or by mutations in chromosomal genes. Horizontally acquired resistance can occur by one of the following mechanisms: (i) enzymatic drug modification and inactivation, (ii) enzymatic modification of the drug binding site, (iii) drug efflux, (iv) bypass mechanisms involving acquisition of a novel drug-resistant target, (v) displacement of the drug to protect the target...
April 13, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419033/oral-only-linezolid-rifampin-is-highly-effective-compared-with-other-antibiotics-for-periprosthetic-joint-infection-study-of-a-mouse-model
#13
John M Thompson, Vikram Saini, Alyssa G Ashbaugh, Robert J Miller, Alvaro A Ordonez, Roger V Ortines, Yu Wang, Robert S Sterling, Sanjay K Jain, Lloyd S Miller
BACKGROUND: The medical treatment of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) involves prolonged systemic antibiotic courses, often with suboptimal clinical outcomes including increased morbidity and health-care costs. Oral and intravenous monotherapies and combination antibiotic regimens were evaluated in a mouse model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) PJI. METHODS: Oral linezolid with or without oral rifampin, intravenous vancomycin with oral rifampin, intravenous daptomycin or ceftaroline with or without oral rifampin, oral doxycycline, or sham treatment were administered at human-exposure doses for 6 weeks in a mouse model of PJI...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418301/severe-mrsa-enterocolitis-caused-by-a-strain-harboring-enterotoxins-d-g-and-i
#14
Marco Bergevin, Alain Marion, David Farber, George R Golding, Simon Lévesque
We describe a case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) enterocolitis in a healthy adult with previous antibiotic exposure. Colonoscopy revealed diffuse colitis and mild ileitis without ulceration. Stool cultures demonstrated abundant growth of MRSA and absent normal flora. Oral vancomycin treatment was effective and seems to be the consensus choice for therapy.
May 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417451/prophylactic-anti-staphylococcal-antibiotics-for-cystic-fibrosis
#15
REVIEW
Alan R Smyth, Margaret Rosenfeld
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus causes pulmonary infection in young children with cystic fibrosis. Prophylactic antibiotics are prescribed hoping to prevent such infection and lung damage. Antibiotics have adverse effects and long-term use might lead to infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To assess continuous oral antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent the acquisition of Staphylococcus aureus versus no prophylaxis in people with cystic fibrosis, we tested these hypotheses...
April 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416961/predictive-factors-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-in-elderly-patients-with-community-onset-pneumonia
#16
Hyeyoung Jwa, Jong Wook Beom, Jong Hoo Lee
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is a severe and life-threatening disease in patients with community-onset (CO) pneumonia. However, the current guidelines lack specificity for a screening test for MRSA infection. METHODS: This study was retrospectively conducted in elderly patients aged ≥65 years, who had contracted CO-pneumonia during hospitalization at the Jeju National University Hospital, between January 2012 and December 2014...
April 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416829/-clinical-characteristics-and-prognosis-of-cultured-negative-pyogenic-spondylitis
#17
Y P Cui, C Mi, X D Shi, B Wang, Y X Pan, Y F Lin
OBJECTIVE: There are limited data describing the clinical characteristics and prognosis of culture negative pyogenic spondylitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment, prognosis and clinical characteristics of culture negative pyogenic spondylitis. METHODS: A retrospective study reviewed 74 patients who were diagnosed with spondylitis in Peking University First Hospital from January 2010 to December 2015. A total of 27 patients suffered from pyogenic spondylitis...
April 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413102/-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-healthy-carrier-individuals-in-primary-care-in-barcelona-area
#18
Carles Llor, Albert Boada, Mariona Pons-Vigués, Elisabet Grenzner, Rosa Juvé, Jesús Almeda
INTRODUCTION: The information available on antibiotic resistance patterns are generally based on specimens from hospitalised individuals. This study was aimed at evaluating the antibiotic resistance rate of nasal carriage strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy individuals, in accordance with age and gender, attended in Primary Care Centres (PCC). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Seven PCC in the Barcelona area...
April 13, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412568/first-report-on-mrsa-cc398-recovered-from-wild-boars-in-the-north-of-portugal-are-we-facing-a-problem
#19
Margarida Sousa, Nuno Silva, Vera Manageiro, Sónia Ramos, António Coelho, David Gonçalves, Manuela Caniça, Carmen Torres, Gilberto Igrejas, Patrícia Poeta
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from wild boars, to analyze their genetic lineages, and to investigate the susceptibility to oxacillin. Samples from mouth and nose of 45 wild boars (Sus scrofa) were collected during hunt activity from November 2012 to January 2013 in the North of Portugal. S. aureus isolates were recovered from 30 of these samples (33%); one isolate/sample was further studied. The susceptibility of the isolates was tested by disk-diffusion test against 14 antimicrobial agents and minimal inhibitory concentration was used to test oxacillin according to EUCAST guidelines...
April 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412131/screening-nasal-swabs-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-a-regional-burn-center-s-experience
#20
Shawn Tejiram, Laura S Johnson, Mihriye Mete, Sameer Desale, Kimberly Johnson, Jenny Zhang, Lauren T Moffatt, Jeffrey W Shupp
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen that can result in substantial morbidity and mortality. Early detection of MRSA colonization by screening nasal swabs may be important in the management of burn-injured patients. However, studies examining its use in this population are limited. The aim of this study was to study the utility of admission MRSA screening nasal swabs and determine if being positive for MRSA on admission impacted outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of burn patients who presented to a single regional burn center between June 2012 and December 2014...
April 12, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
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