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Genetically modified food

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666547/use-of-urea-polyacrylamide-electrophoresis-for-discrimination-of-a1-and-a2-beta-casein-variants-in-raw-cow-s-milk
#1
Miguel Angel Duarte-Vázquez, Carlos Raúl García-Ugalde, Blanca Erika Álvarez, Laura Mariana Villegas, Blanca Estela García-Almendárez, Jorge Luis Rosado, Carlos Regalado
Beta-casein (BC) in cow's milk occurs in several genetic variants, where BC A1 (BCA1) and BC A2 (BCA2) are the most frequent. This work deals with a method based on modified polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using urea PAGE to discriminate BCA1 and BCA2 variants from Holstein Friesian (HF) and genetically selected Jersey A2/A2 (JA2) cow's milk. Two well defined bands were obtained from BC fraction of HF milk, while that of JA2 showed a single band. Proteins from these bands were sequenced by HPLC-quadrupole linear ion trap/mass spectrometry, resulting in BCA1 and BCA2 separation from the BC fraction of HF milk, whereas BCA2 was the only constituent of JA2 fraction...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662477/new-genes-involved-in-mild-stress-response-identified-by-transposon-mutagenesis-in-lactobacillus-paracasei
#2
Aurore Palud, Hélène Scornec, Jean-François Cavin, Hélène Licandro
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are associated with various plant, animal, and human niches and are also present in many fermented foods and beverages. Thus, they are subjected to several stress conditions and have developed advanced response mechanisms to resist, adapt, and grow. This work aimed to identify the genes involved in some stress adaptation mechanisms in LAB. For this purpose, global reverse genetics was applied by screening a library of 1287 Lactobacillus paracasei transposon mutants for mild monofactorial stresses...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661588/impact-of-metabolic-diseases-drugs-and-dietary-factors-on-prostate-cancer-risk-recurrence-and-survival-a-systematic-review-by-the-european-association-of-urology-section-of-oncological-urology
#3
REVIEW
Riccardo Campi, Sabine D Brookman-May, Jose Daniel Subiela Henríquez, Bülent Akdoğan, Maurizio Brausi, Tobias Klatte, Johan F Langenhuijsen, Estefania Linares-Espinos, Martin Marszalek, Morgan Roupret, Christian G Stief, Alessandro Volpe, Andrea Minervini, Oscar Rodriguez-Faba
CONTEXT: To date, established risk factors for prostate cancer (PCa) are limited to age, race, family history, and certain genetic polymorphisms. Despite great research efforts, available evidence on potentially modifiable risk factors is conflicting. Moreover, most studies on PCa risk factors did not consider the impact of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing on PCa diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To provide a detailed overview of the latest evidence on the role of metabolic diseases, drugs, and dietary factors for risk of PCa incidence, recurrence, and survival in men exposed to PSA testing...
April 13, 2018: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653113/oral-sensations-and-secretions
#4
Cordelia A Running
Sensations experienced in the mouth influence food choices, both immediately and in the long term. Such sensations are themselves influenced by experience with flavors, the chemical environment of the mouth, genetics of receptors for flavors, and individual behavior in the chewing of food. Gustation, the sense of taste, yields information about nutrients, influences palatability, and feeds into the human body's preparation to receive those nutrients. Olfaction, the sense of smell, contributes enormously to defining and identifying food flavors (and is experienced even after placing food inside the mouth)...
April 10, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649483/redefining-reproductive-dormancy-in-drosophila-as-a-general-stress-response-to-cold-temperatures
#5
Manolis Lirakis, Marlies Dolezal, Christian Schlötterer
Organisms regularly encounter unfavorable conditions and the genetic adaptations facilitating survival have been of long-standing interest to evolutionary biologists. Winter is one particularly stressful condition for insects, during which they encounter low temperatures and scarcity of food. Despite dormancy being a well-studied adaptation to facilitate overwintering, there is still considerable controversy about the distribution of dormancy among natural populations and between species in Drosophila. The current definition of dormancy as developmental arrest of oogenesis at the previtellogenic stage (stage 7) distinguishes dormancy from general stress related block of oogenesis at early vitellogenic stages (stages 8 - 9)...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619642/genome-sequence-and-comparative-analysis-of-bacillus-cereus-bc04-reveals-genetic-diversity-and-alterations-for-antimicrobial-resistance
#6
Vijaya Bharathi Srinivasan, Mahavinod Angrasan, Neha Chandel, Govindan Rajamohan
In this study, we delineated the genome sequence of a Bacillus cereus strain BC04 isolated from a stool sample in India. The draft genome is 5.1 Mb in size and consists of total 109 scaffolds, GC content is 35.2% with 5182 coding genes. The comparative analysis with other completely sequenced genomes highlights the unique presence of genomic islands, hemolysin, capsular synthetic protein, modifying enzymes accC7 and catA15, regulators of antibiotic resistance MarR and LysR with annotated functions related to virulence, stress response, and antimicrobial resistance...
April 4, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619418/the-role-of-intestinal-c-type-regenerating-islet-derived-3-lectins-for-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#7
Sena Bluemel, Lirui Wang, Cameron Martino, Suhan Lee, Yanhan Wang, Brandon Williams, Angela Horvath, Vanessa Stadlbauer, Karsten Zengler, Bernd Schnabl
C-type regenerating islet derived-3 (Reg3) lectins defend against pathogens and keep commensal bacteria at a distance. Deficiency of Reg3g and Reg3b facilitates alcohol-induced bacterial translocation and alcoholic liver disease. Intestinal Reg3g is down-regulated in animal models of diet-induced obesity, but the functional consequences for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Reg3 lectins in NASH. NASH was induced by a Western-style fast-food diet in mice deficient for Reg3g or Reg3b and in transgenic mice overexpressing Reg3g in intestinal epithelial cells ( Reg3g Tg)...
April 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616889/farmers-prevailing-perception-profiles-regarding-gm-crops-a-classification-proposal
#8
Carla Almeida, Luisa Massarani
Genetically modified organisms have been at the centre of a major public controversy, involving different interests and actors. While much attention has been devoted to consumer views on genetically modified food, there have been few attempts to understand the perceptions of genetically modified technology among farmers. By investigating perceptions of genetically modified organisms among Brazilian farmers, we intend to contribute towards filling this gap and thereby add the views of this stakeholder group to the genetically modified debate...
April 1, 2018: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616888/listened-to-but-not-heard-the-failure-to-represent-the-public-in-genetically-modified-food-policies
#9
Jesper Lassen
'In the mid-1990s, a mismatch was addressed between European genetically modified food policy, which focused primarily on risks and economic prospects, and public anxieties, which also included other concerns, and there was a development in European food policy toward the inclusion of what were referred to as "ethical aspects." Using parliamentary debates in Denmark in 2002 and 2015 as a case, this article examines how three storylines of concern that were visible in public discourse at the time were represented by the decision makers in parliament...
April 1, 2018: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609161/electrochemical-genoassays-on-gold-coated-magnetic-nanoparticles-to-quantify-genetically-modified-organisms-gmos-in-food-and-feed-as-gmo-percentage
#10
Alexandra Plácido, Clara Pereira, Alexandra Guedes, M Fátima Barroso, Rebeca Miranda-Castro, Noemí de-Los-Santos-Álvarez, Cristina Delerue-Matos
The integration of nanomaterials in the field of (bio)sensors has allowed developing strategies with improved analytical performance. In this work, ultrasmall core-shell Fe3 O4 @Au magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used as the platform for the immobilization of event-specific Roundup Ready (RR) soybean and taxon-specific DNA sequences. Firstly, monodisperse Fe3 O4 MNPs were synthesized by thermal decomposition and subsequently coated with a gold shell through reduction of Au(III) precursor on the surface of the MNPs in the presence of an organic capping agent...
March 21, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596977/isoline-use-in-crop-composition-studies-with-genetically-modified-crops-under-efsa-guidance-short-communication
#11
Rod A Herman, Brandon J Fast, Carey Mathesius, Bryan Delaney
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) oversees the safety evaluation of genetically modified (GM) crops in the European Union. EFSA requires inclusion of commercial non-GM reference lines and a non-GM isoline in crop composition studies with GM crops. Reference lines are used to construct equivalence limits for each compositional analyte. Results for the GM line are compared with these equivalence limits to assess compositional equivalence between the GM crop and the non-GM crop. If compositional equivalence cannot be concluded from this comparison, then results for the non-GM isoline can be used to determine if this finding is likely the result of the background non-GM genetics of the GM crop...
March 26, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584422/development-of-certified-matrix-based-reference-material-as-calibrator-for-genetically-modified-rice-g6h1-analysis
#12
Yu Yang, Liang Li, Hui Yang, Xiaying Li, Xiujie Zhang, Junfeng Xu, Dabing Zhang, Wujun Jin, Litao Yang
The accurate monitoring and quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are key points for the implementation of labelling regulations, and a certified reference material (CRM) acts as the scaleplate for quantifying the GM contents of foods/feeds and evaluating a GMO analytical method or equipment. Herein, we developed a series of CRMs for transgenic rice event G6H1, which possesses insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant traits. Three G6H1 CRMs were produced by mixing seed powders obtained from homozygous G6H1 and its recipient cultivar Xiushui 110 at mass ratios of 49...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577941/how-and-why-do-gastrointestinal-peptides-influence-food-intake
#13
Stephen C Woods, Aaron A May-Zhang, Denovan P Begg
Despite the ability of some gastrointestinal hormones to reliably reduce meal size when administered prior to a meal, it is not understood why the repeated administration or genetic knockout of these hormones appear largely ineffective in reducing food intake and body weight. Here, we review evidence that the ability of GI peptides such as cholecystokinin (CCK) to elicit satiation is a consequence of prior learning. Evidence includes first, that the ability of some of these signals to modify food intake depends upon past experience and is malleable with new experience...
March 22, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569843/evaluation-of-the-potential-exposure-of-butterflies-to-genetically-modified-maize-pollen-in-protected-areas-in-italy
#14
Salvatore Arpaia, Ferdinando Baldacchino, Sara Bosi, Giovanni Burgio, Simona Errico, Rosaria Alessandra Magarelli, Antonio Masetti, Salvatore Santorsola
Environmental impacts of genetically modified crops are mandatorily assessed during their pre-market phase. One of the areas of concern is the possible impact on non-target organisms. Crops expressing Cry toxins might affect Lepidoptera larvae living outside cultivated fields, through pollen deposition on wild plants which constitute their food source. While pollen toxicity varies among different events, possible exposure of non-target species depends on the agro-environmental conditions. This study was conducted in two protected areas in Italy, characterized by different climatic conditions, where many Lepidoptera species thrive in proximity to maize cultivations...
March 23, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565638/biosensors-for-gmo-testing-nearly-25-years-of-research
#15
Marta Sánchez-Paniagua López, Carmen Lorena Manzanares-Palenzuela, Beatriz López-Ruiz
In the nearly two decades since genetically modified organisms (GMOs) were first commercialized, genetically engineered crops have gained ground on their conventional counterparts, reaching 185 million hectares worldwide in 2016. The technology has bestowed most of its benefits on enhancing crop productivity with two main traits currently dominating the market: insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant crops. Despite their rapid and vast adoption by farmers worldwide, GMOs have generated heated debates, especially in European countries (EU), driven mostly by consumers concerned about safety of transgenic foods and about the potential impact on the environment...
March 22, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562551/contrasting-effects-of-pre-training-on-acquisition-of-operant-and-radial-arm-maze-tasks-in-rats
#16
V Priya, B N Srikumar, B S Shankaranarayana Rao
Performing multiple tasks either simultaneously, in rapid alternation or in succession, is routine in daily life. Further, testing rodents in a battery of tests is common both in drug discovery and behavioral phenotyping research. However, learning of new tasks can be influenced by prior experience(s). There has been some research on 'switching cost' involved in the transition from one behavior to another. However, there has been no specific assessment of the effect of learning an operant paradigm on performance in a spatial memory task and vice versa...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555073/novel-biosensors-for-the-rapid-detection-of-toxicants-in-foods
#17
Georgia-Paraskevi Nikoleli, Dimitrios P Nikolelis, Christina G Siontorou, Stephanos Karapetis, Theo Varzakas
The modern environmental and food analysis requires sensitive, accurate, and rapid methods. The growing field of biosensors represents an answer to this demand. Unfortunately, most biosensor systems have been tested only on distilled water or buffered solutions, although applications to real samples are increasingly appearing in recent years. In this context, biosensors for potential food applications continue to show advances in areas such as genetic modification of enzymes and microorganisms, improvement of recognition element immobilization, and sensor interfaces...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541880/rna-interference-based-silencing-of-the-alpha-amylase-amy1-gene-in-aspergillus-flavus-decreases-fungal-growth-and-aflatoxin-production-in-maize-kernels
#18
Matthew K Gilbert, Rajtilak Majumdar, Kanniah Rajasekaran, Zhi-Yuan Chen, Qijian Wei, Christine M Sickler, Matthew D Lebar, Jeffrey W Cary, Bronwyn R Frame, Kan Wang
Expressing an RNAi construct in maize kernels that targets the gene for alpha-amylase in Aspergillus flavus resulted in suppression of alpha-amylase (amy1) gene expression and decreased fungal growth during in situ infection resulting in decreased aflatoxin production. Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus and pathogen to several important food and feed crops, including maize. Once the fungus colonizes lipid-rich seed tissues, it has the potential to produce toxic secondary metabolites, the most dangerous of which is aflatoxin...
March 14, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536624/potential-impact-of-genetically-modified-lepidoptera-resistant-brassica-napus-in-biodiversity-hotspots-sicily-as-a-theoretical-model
#19
Barbara Manachini, Giuseppe Bazan, Rosario Schicchi
The general increase of the cultivation and trade of Bt transgenic plants resistant to Lepidoptera pests raises concerns regarding the conservation of animal and plant biodiversity. Demand for biofuels has increased the cultivation and importation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), including transgenic lines. In environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for its potential future cultivation as well as for food and feed uses, the impact on wild Brassicaeae relatives and on non-target Lepidoptera should be assessed...
March 14, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531027/human-diets-drive-range-expansion-of-megafauna-dispersed-fruit-species
#20
Maarten van Zonneveld, Nerea Larranaga, Benjamin Blonder, Lidio Coradin, José I Hormaza, Danny Hunter
Neotropical fruit species once dispersed by Pleistocene megafauna have regained relevance in diversifying human diets to address malnutrition. Little is known about the historic interactions between humans and these fruit species. We quantified the human role in modifying geographic and environmental ranges of Neotropical fruit species by comparing the distribution of megafauna-dispersed fruit species that have been part of both human and megafauna diets with fruit species that were exclusively part of megafauna diets...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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