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Genetically modified food

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203875/the-individual-environment-not-the-family-is-the-most-important-influence-on-preferences-for-common-non-alcoholic-beverages-in-adolescence
#1
Andrea D Smith, Alison Fildes, Suzanna Forwood, Lucy Cooke, Clare Llewellyn
Beverage preferences are an important driver of consumption, and strong liking for beverages high in energy (e.g. sugar-sweetened beverages [SSBs]) and dislike for beverages low in energy (e.g. non-nutritive sweetened beverages [NNSBs]) are potentially modifiable risk factors contributing to variation in intake. Twin studies have established that both genes and environment play important roles in shaping food preferences; but the aetiology of variation in non-alcoholic beverage preferences is unknown. 2865 adolescent twins (18-19-years old) from the Twins Early Development Study were used to quantify genetic and environmental influence on variation in liking for seven non-alcoholic beverages: SSBs; NNSBs; fruit cordials, orange juice, milk, coffee, and tea...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192598/personalized-medicine-pharmacogenomic-and-companion-biomarker
#2
Hana Manceau, Kawthar Amrani, Katell Peoc'h
The aim of this review is to provide a brief overview of personalized medicine, pharmacogenetics and companion tests. Personalized or stratified medicine is a new paradigm in the management of patients, aimed at better taking into account inter-individual variability. The response to drugs' intake varies considerably, depending on the transport and metabolism of the drugs, the target and the pathophysiological characteristics of the organism. Each stage is very variable and can be modified by endogenous factors (pathophysiology, age, sex, genetics…) or exogenous (environmental: taking other medicines, food, tobacco, alcohol…)...
December 1, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192561/genetic-engineering-as-a-powerful-tool-to-improve-probiotic-strains
#3
Daniel Bravo, José M Landete
Over the last decade, there has been increasing interest in the use of probiotic microorganisms. However, certain doubts have arisen around probiotics, because of the beneficial effects of these microorganisms are not clear yet, and in many occasions those beneficial effects have not been proven. Therefore, it would be of interest if these probiotic strains were able to acquire new attributes to allow them improve and increase their beneficial characteristics. Genetic engineering can be used for human applications; for instance, the resistance to antibiotics is removed and the probiotic bacteria are modified in its own DNA...
December 1, 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179099/influence-of-fermentation-and-other-processing-steps-on-the-folate-content-of-a-traditional-african-cereal-based-fermented-food
#4
Fabien Saubade, Youna M Hemery, Isabelle Rochette, Jean-Pierre Guyot, Christèle Humblot
Folate deficiency can cause a number of diseases including neural tube defects and megaloblastic anemia, and still occurs in both developed and developing countries. Cereal-based food products are staple foods in many countries, and may therefore be useful sources of folate. The production of folate by microorganisms has been demonstrated in some cereal-based fermented foods, but has never been studied in a traditional African cereal based food spontaneously fermented. The microbiota of ben-saalga, a pearl-millet based fermented porridge frequently consumed in Burkina Faso, has a good genetic potential for the synthesis of folate, but the folate content of ben-saalga is rather low, suggesting that folate is lost during the different processing steps...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176501/phase-iiib-safety-results-from-an-expanded-access-protocol-of-talimogene-laherparepvec-for-patients-with-unresected-stage-iiib-ivm1c-melanoma
#5
Jason Chesney, Sanjay Awasthi, Brendan Curti, Laura Hutchins, Gerald Linette, Pierre Triozzi, Marcus C B Tan, Russell E Brown, John Nemunaitis, Eric Whitman, Christopher Windham, Jose Lutzky, Gerald F Downey, Nicolas Batty, Thomas Amatruda
Talimogene laherparepvec is a genetically modified herpes simplex virus-1-based oncolytic immunotherapy for the local treatment of unresectable cutaneous, subcutaneous, and nodal tumors in patients with melanoma recurrence following surgery. We aim to describe the safety of talimogene laherparepvec. Intralesional talimogene laherparepvec was administered at less than or equal to 4 ml×10 PFU/ml at protocol day 1, then less than or equal to 4 ml×10 PFU/ml 21 days later, and then every 14 days. Treatment continued until complete response, absence of injectable tumors, progressive disease, intolerance, or US Food and Drug Administration approval...
November 22, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155358/criticism-of-efsa-s-scientific-on-combinatorial-effects-of-stacked-gm-plants
#6
Thomas Bøhn
Recent genetically modified plants tend to include both insect resistance and herbicide tolerance traits. Some of these 'stacked' GM plants have multiple Cry toxins expressed as well as tolerance to several herbicides. This means that non-target organisms in the environment (biodiversity) will be co-exposed to multiple stressors simultaneously. A similar co-exposure may happen to consumers through chemical residues in the food chain. EFSA, the responsible unit for minimizing risk of harm in European food chains, has expressed its scientific interest in combinatorial effects...
November 16, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150505/cry64ba-and-cry64ca-two-etx-mtx2-bacillus-thuringiensis-insecticidal-proteins-against-hemipteran-pests
#7
Yonglei Liu, Yinglong Wang, Changlong Shu, Kejian Lin, Fuping Song, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón, Jie Zhang
Genetically modified crops that express insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins have become a primary approach for control of lepidopteran (moth) and coleopteran (beetle) pests that feed by chewing the plants. However, the sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera) are not particularly susceptible to Bt toxins. In this study, we describe two Cry toxins (Cry64Ba and Cry64Ca) from a Bt 1012 strain showed toxicity against two important rice hemipteran pests, Laodelphax striatellus and Sogatella furcifera Both of these two proteins contain an ETX/MTX2 domain, and share common sequence features with the β-pore forming toxins...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150381/a-plea-for-the-renewal-of-the-isbr
#8
Giovanni Tagliabue, Marcel Kuntz, Henry I Miller, Klaus Ammann
The recent meeting of the International Society for Biosafety Research (ISBR) focused on so-called genetically modified organisms. For decades, in most regulatory frameworks, recombinant DNA-modified organisms have been the wrong focus of unbalanced agri-food regulations. The ISBR should instead adopt a scientifically defensible and truly risk-based perspective, abandoning a misleading pseudo-category.
November 14, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140275/old-fashioned-vs-ultra-processed-based-current-diets-possible-implication-in-the-increased-susceptibility-to-type-1-diabetes-and-celiac-disease-in-childhood
#9
REVIEW
Sandra V Aguayo-Patrón, Ana M Calderón de la Barca
Ultra-processed foods are ready-to-heat and ready-to-eat products created to replace traditional homemade meals and dishes due to convenience and accessibility. Because of their low-fiber and high-fat and sugar composition, these foodstuffs could induce a negative impact on health. They are partially responsible for obesity and chronic non-transmissible diseases; additionally, they could impact in the prevalence of autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes and celiac disease. The rationale is that the nutritional composition of ultra-processed foodstuffs can induce gut dysbiosis, promoting a pro-inflammatory response and consequently, a "leaky gut"...
November 15, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135687/environmental-and-epigenetic-regulation-of-postprandial-lipemia
#10
Laurence D Parnell, Jose M Ordovas, Chao-Qiang Lai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Postprandial lipemia (PPL), the prolonged increase in plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins following food consumption, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Genetic variation, environment and the interplay between these direct an individual's postprandial lipid response. From such interplay, inducible and reversible epigenetic changes arise. Increasing evidence suggests epigenetic variation contributes to postprandial response in lipids and risk...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131388/saccharomyces-interspecies-hybrids-as-model-organisms-for-studying-yeast-adaptation-to-stressful-environments
#11
Ksenija Lopandic
The strong development of molecular biology techniques and next-generation sequencing technologies in the last two decades has significantly improved our understanding of the evolutionary history of Saccharomyces yeasts. It has been shown that many strains isolated from man-made environments are not pure genetic lines, but contain genetic materials from different species that substantially increase their genome complexity. A number of strains have been described as interspecies hybrids, implying different yeast species that under specific circumstances exchange and recombine their genomes...
November 13, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110175/optimization-and-verification-of-droplet-digital-pcr-even-specific-methods-for-the-quantification-of-gm-maize-das1507-and-nk603
#12
Katarzyna Grelewska-Nowotko, Magdalena Żurawska-Zajfert, Ewelina Żmijewska, Sławomir Sowa
In recent years, digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR), a new molecular biology technique, has been gaining in popularity. Among many other applications, this technique can also be used for the detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed. It might replace the currently widely used real-time PCR method (qPCR), by overcoming problems related to the PCR inhibition and the requirement of certified reference materials to be used as a calibrant. In theory, validated qPCR methods can be easily transferred to the dPCR platform...
November 6, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098321/sugar-sweetened-beverage-intake-associations-with-fasting-glucose-and-insulin-concentrations-are-not-modified-by-selected-genetic-variants-in-a-chrebp-fgf21-pathway-a-meta-analysis
#13
Nicola M McKeown, Hassan S Dashti, Jiantao Ma, Danielle E Haslam, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, Caren E Smith, Toshiko Tanaka, Mariaelisa Graff, Rozenn N Lemaitre, Denis Rybin, Emily Sonestedt, Alexis C Frazier-Wood, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Yanping Li, Carol A Wang, Elisabeth T M Leermakers, Vera Mikkilä, Kristin L Young, Kenneth J Mukamal, L Adrienne Cupples, Christina-Alexandra Schulz, Tzu-An Chen, Ruifang Li-Gao, Tao Huang, Wendy H Oddy, Olli Raitakari, Kenneth Rice, James B Meigs, Ulrika Ericson, Lyn M Steffen, Frits R Rosendaal, Albert Hofman, Mika Kähönen, Bruce M Psaty, Louise Brunkwall, Andre G Uitterlinden, Jorma Viikari, David S Siscovick, Ilkka Seppälä, Kari E North, Dariush Mozaffarian, Josée Dupuis, Marju Orho-Melander, Stephen S Rich, Renée de Mutsert, Lu Qi, Craig E Pennell, Oscar H Franco, Terho Lehtimäki, Mark A Herman
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a major dietary contributor to fructose intake. A molecular pathway involving the carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and the metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) may influence sugar metabolism and, thereby, contribute to fructose-induced metabolic disease. We hypothesise that common variants in 11 genes involved in fructose metabolism and the ChREBP-FGF21 pathway may interact with SSB intake to exacerbate positive associations between higher SSB intake and glycaemic traits...
November 2, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093761/a-prospective-study-of-dietary-and-supplemental-zinc-intake-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-depending-on-genetic-variation-in-slc30a8
#14
Isabel Drake, George Hindy, Ulrika Ericson, Marju Orho-Melander
Background: The solute carrier family 30 member 8 gene (SLC30A8) encodes a zinc transporter in the pancreatic beta cells and the major C-allele of a missense variant (rs13266634; C/T; R325W) in SLC30A8 is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that the association between zinc intake and T2D may be modified by the SLC30A8 genotype. Results: We carried out a prospective study among subjects with no history cardio-metabolic diseases in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study cohort (N = 26,132, 38% men; 86% with genotype data)...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077207/a-plug-n-play-modular-metabolic-system-for-the-production-of-apocarotenoids
#15
Congqiang Zhang, Xixian Chen, Nic D Lindley, Heng-Phon Too
Apocarotenoids, such as α-, β-ionone and retinol, have high commercial values in the food and cosmetic industries. The demand for natural ingredients has been increasing dramatically in recent years. However, attempts to overproduce β-ionone in microorganisms have been limited by the complexity of the biosynthetic pathway. Here, an Escherichia coli-based modular system was developed to produce various apocarotenoids. Incorporation of enzyme engineering approaches (N-terminal truncation and protein fusion) into modular metabolic engineering strategy significantly improved α-ionone production from 0...
October 27, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074298/variable-cartilage-degradation-in-mice-with-diet-induced-metabolic-dysfunction-food-for-thought
#16
A E Kozijn, L M Gierman, F van der Ham, P Mulder, M C Morrison, S Kühnast, R A van der Heijden, M P Stavro, A van Koppen, E J Pieterman, A M van den Hoek, R Kleemann, H M G Princen, S C Mastbergen, F P J G Lafeber, A-M Zuurmond, I Bobeldijk, H Weinans, R Stoop
OBJECTIVE: Human cohort studies have demonstrated a role for systemic metabolic dysfunction in osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis in obese patients. To explore the mechanisms underlying this metabolic phenotype of OA, we examined cartilage degradation in the knees of mice from different genetic backgrounds in which a metabolic phenotype was established by various dietary approaches. DESIGN: Wild-type C57BL/6J mice and genetically modified mice (hCRP, LDLr(-/-). Leiden and ApoE*3Leiden...
October 24, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061166/toxoplasma-gondii-seroprevalence-and-genotype-diversity-in-select-wildlife-species-from-the-southeastern-united-states
#17
Richard W Gerhold, Pooja Saraf, Alycia Chapman, Xuan Zou, Graham Hickling, William H Stiver, Allan Houston, Marcy Souza, Chunlei Su
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite that infects humans and other animals. Previous studies indicate some genotypes of T. gondii are more frequently isolated in wildlife than agricultural animals, suggesting a wild/feral animal diversity model. To determine seroprevalence and genetic diversity of T. gondii in southeastern US wildlife, we collected sera from 471 wild animals, including 453 mammals and 18 birds, between 2011 and 2014. These serum samples were assayed for T...
October 23, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057328/cancer-prevention-and-treatment-by-wholistic-nutrition
#18
T Colin Campbell
Cancer is traditionally considered a genetic disease. It starts with a gene mutation, often caused by environmental carcinogens that are enzymatically activated to metabolites that covalently bind to DNA. If these now-damaged carcinogen-DNA adducts are not repaired before the cell replicates, they result in a mutation, which is inherited by daughter cells and their subsequent progeny. Still more mutations are added that are thought to advance cellular independence, metastasis, and drug resistance, among other characteristics typically observed for advanced cancer...
October 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045450/the-genetics-and-development-of-mandibles-and-hypopharyngeal-sclerite-and-cornua-in-larvae-of-drosophila-gaucha
#19
Eduardo Alvarez, Francisco Del Pino, Lilian Jara, Raúl Godoy-Herrera
The genetics and epigenetic processes associated with morphological organization are a principal aim of biology, ranging from cohesion between cells to shape and size of organisms. We investigate the post-embryonic development of Hypopharyngeal sclerite and cornua HPC and mandibles M of Drosophila gaucha larva. Integrated functioning of these Cephalopharyngeal skeleton parts of D. gaucha larva is essential for food acquisition, participating in locomotion and microhabitat selection. We examined two isolates by recording the growth of the HPC and M every 24 h for 8 days in parental, F1, F2 and backcross larvae...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044184/zebrafish-aversive-taste-co-receptor-is-expressed-in-both-chemo-and-mechanosensory-cells-and-plays-a-role-in-lateral-line-development
#20
Nazia Mojib, Jin Xu, Zinka Bartolek, Barry Imhoff, Nael A McCarty, Chong Hyun Shin, Julia Kubanek
Fishes rely on both chemical and tactile senses to orient themselves to avoid predators, and to detect and taste food. This is likely achieved by highly coordinated reception of signals by mechano- and chemosensory receptors in fish. A small co-receptor from zebrafish, receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP)-like triterpene glycoside receptor (RL-TGR), was previously found to be involved in recognition of triterpene glycosides, a family of naturally occurring compounds that act as chemical defenses in various prey species...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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