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Genetically modified food

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107927/electrochemical-detection-of-magnetically-entrapped-dna-sequences-from-complex-samples-by-multiplexed-enzymatic-labelling-application-to-a-transgenic-food-feed-quantitative-survey
#1
C L Manzanares-Palenzuela, J P Martín-Clemente, M J Lobo-Castañón, B López-Ruiz
Monitoring of genetically modified organisms in food and feed demands molecular techniques that deliver accurate quantitative results. Electrochemical DNA detection has been widely described in this field, yet most reports convey qualitative data and application in processed food and feed samples is limited. Herein, the applicability of an electrochemical multiplex assay for DNA quantification in complex samples is assessed. The method consists of the simultaneous magnetic entrapment via sandwich hybridisation of two DNA sequences (event-specific and taxon-specific) onto the surface of magnetic microparticles, followed by bienzymatic labelling...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088010/challenges-and-opportunities-for-improving-food-quality-and-nutrition-through-plant-biotechnology
#2
REVIEW
David Francis, John J Finer, Erich Grotewold
Plant biotechnology has been around since the advent of humankind, resulting in tremendous improvements in plant cultivation through crop domestication, breeding and selection. The emergence of transgenic approaches involving the introduction of defined DNA sequences into plants by humans has rapidly changed the surface of our planet by further expanding the gene pool used by plant breeders for plant improvement. Transgenic approaches in food plants have raised concerns on the merits, social implications, ecological risks and true benefits of plant biotechnology...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075688/genome-editing-of-crops-a-renewed-opportunity-for-food-security
#3
Fawzy Georges, Heather Ray
Genome editing of crop plants is a rapidly advancing technology whereby targeted mutations can be introduced into a plant genome in a highly specific manner and with great precision. For the most part, the technology does not incorporate transgenic modifications and is far superior to conventional chemical mutagenesis. In this study we bring into focus some of the underlying differences between the three existing technologies: classical plant breeding, genetic modification and genome editing. We discuss some of the main achievements from each area and highlight their common characteristics and individual limitations, while emphasizing the unique capabilities of genome editing...
January 11, 2017: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073471/biochemistry-and-genetics-of-taste-and-odor-producing-cyanobacteria
#4
REVIEW
Susan B Watson, Paul Monis, Peter Baker, Steven Giglio
Cyanobacteria are one of the principal sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which cause offensive taste and odor (T&O) in drinking and recreational water, fish, shellfish and other seafood. Although non-toxic to humans, these T&O compounds severely undermine public trust in these commodities, resulting in substantial costs in treatment, and lost revenue to drinking water, aquaculture, food and beverage and tourist/hospitality industries. Mitigation and control have been hindered by the complexity of the communities and processes which produce and modify T&O events, making it difficult to source-track the major producer(s) and the factors governing VOC production and fate...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071145/bacteriophages-and-their-derivatives-for-the-treatment-and-control-of-food-producing-animal-infections
#5
Carla Carvalho, Ana Rita Costa, Filipe Silva, Ana Oliveira
Nowadays, the world is facing an increasing emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Simultaneously, the banning of some existing antibiotics and the lack of development of new antimicrobials have created an urgent need to find new alternatives against animal infections. Bacteriophages (phages) are naturally occurring predators of bacteria, ubiquitous in the environment, with high host specificity and harmless to animals. For these reasons, phages and their derivatives are being considered valuable antimicrobial alternatives and an opportunity to reduce the current use of antibiotics in agri-food production, increasing animal productivity and providing environmental protection...
January 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070732/the-clinical-and-laboratory-spectrum-of-dedicator-of-cytokinesis-8-immunodeficiency-syndrome-in-patients-with-a-unique-mutation
#6
Arnon Broides, Amarilla B Mandola, Jacov Levy, Baruch Yerushalmi, Vered Pinsk, Michal Eldan, George Shubinsky, Nurit Hadad, Rachel Levy, Amit Nahum, Miriam Ben-Harosh, Atar Lev, Amos Simon, Raz Somech
Mutations in the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) gene cause a combined immunodeficiency usually diagnosed as autosomal recessive hyper IgE syndrome. We sought to reveal the varying manifestations in patients with a unique mutation in DOCK8 gene by a retrospective medical record review. Ten patients from five consanguineous families and three tribes were included. Seven patients were homozygous for the c.C5134A, p.S1711X mutation, and the remaining three patients were their siblings manifesting hyper IgE syndrome features without a genetic diagnosis...
January 10, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068490/food-analysis-using-organelle-dna-and-the-effects-of-processing-on-assays
#7
Jane M Caldwell
Extrachromosomal DNA such as organelle DNA are increasingly targeted in molecular detection assays where samples have been degraded by physical or chemical means. Owing to multiple organelles per cell and greater copy numbers than nuclear genes, organelle gene targets provide a more robust signal in polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and other emerging molecular technologies. Because of these advantages, direct analysis of organelle DNA in food matrices is used for detection of contaminants and identification and authentication of food ingredients and allergens...
January 4, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064126/on-site-detection-of-stacked-genetically-modified-soybean-based-on-event-specific-tm-lamp-and-a-dnazyme-lateral-flow-biosensor
#8
Nan Cheng, Ying Shang, Yuancong Xu, Li Zhang, Yunbo Luo, Kunlun Huang, Wentao Xu
Stacked genetically modified organisms (GMO) are becoming popular for their enhanced production efficiency and improved functional properties, and on-site detection of stacked GMO is an urgent challenge to be solved. In this study, we developed a cascade system combining event-specific tag-labeled multiplex LAMP with a DNAzyme-lateral flow biosensor for reliable detection of stacked events (DP305423× GTS 40-3-2). Three primer sets, both event-specific and soybean species-specific, were newly designed for the tag-labeled multiplex LAMP system...
December 30, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061428/phytoremediation-strategies-for-soils-contaminated-with-heavy-metals-modifications-and-future-perspectives
#9
REVIEW
Nadeem Sarwar, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Rashid Shaheen, Wajid Ishaque, Muhammad Asif Kamran, Amar Matloob, Abdur Rehim, Saddam Hussain
Presence of heavy metals in agricultural soils is of major environmental concern and a great threat to life on the earth. A number of human health risks are associated with heavy metals regarding their entry into food chain. Various physical, chemical and biological techniques are being used to remove heavy metals and metalloids from soils. Among them, phytoremediation is a good strategy to harvest heavy metals from soils and have been proven as an effective and economical technique. In present review, we discussed various sources and harmful effects of some important heavy metals and metalloids, traditional phytoremediation strategies, mechanisms involved in phytoremediation of these metals, limitations and some recent advances in phytoremediation approaches...
December 23, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060553/determinants-of-willingness-to-consume-genetically-modified-gm-foods-and-the-potential-expenditure-in-nigeria
#10
L A Popoola, M A Otitoju, L Tanko
Consumption decision and likely expenditure are critical fundamentals that may ultimately shape the future of GM crops development and deployment in Nigeria. The present study constituted an attempt to examine factors of significance with bearing influence on these key consumer-led issues. Structured and pre-tested questionnaire were employed to elicit response from consumers. In all, 232 responses were analysed with Heckman two-stage selection model. The socio-economic data shows that majority of respondents (45...
January 6, 2017: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054978/hemoglobin-based-blood-substitutes-and-the-treatment-of-sickle-cell-disease-more-harm-than-help
#11
REVIEW
Abdu I Alayash
Intense efforts have been made by both industry and academia over the last three decades to produce viable hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs), also known as "blood substitutes". Human trials conducted so far by several manufactures in a variety of clinical indications, including trauma, and elective surgeries have failed and no product has gained the Food and Drug Administration approval for human use. Safety concerns due to frequent incidences of hemodynamic, cardiac events, and even death led to the termination of some of these trials...
January 4, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036013/association-between-serum-25-hydroxy-vitamin-d-and-aggressive-prostate-cancer-in-african-american-men
#12
Shakira M Nelson, Ken Batai, Chiledum Ahaghotu, Tanya Agurs-Collins, Rick A Kittles
African American men have higher incidence rates of aggressive prostate cancer, where high levels of calcium and serum vitamin D deficient levels play a role in the racial differences in incidence. In this study, we examined associations of serum vitamin D with aggressive prostate cancer to improve our understanding of higher susceptibility of aggressive disease in this racial cohort. From Howard University Hospital, 155 African American men with clinically-identified prostate cancer were identified; 46 aggressive cases, and 58 non-aggressive cases...
December 28, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024828/gene-and-environment-interaction-is-the-differential-susceptibility-hypothesis-relevant-for-obesity
#13
REVIEW
Roberta Dalle Molle, Hajar Fatemi, Alain Dagher, Robert D Levitan, Patricia P Silveira, Laurette Dubé
The differential susceptibility model states that a given genetic variant is associated with an increased risk of pathology in negative environments but greater than average resilience in enriched ones. While this theory was first implemented in psychiatric-genetic research, it may also help us to unravel the complex ways that genes and environments interact to influence feeding behavior and obesity. We reviewed evidence on gene vs. environment interactions that influence obesity development, aiming to support the applicability of the differential susceptibility model for this condition, and propose that various environmental "layers" relevant for human development should be considered when bearing the differential susceptibility model in mind...
December 23, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997188/natural-variability-of-allergen-levels-in-conventional-soybeans-assessing-variation-across-north-and-south-america-from-five-production-years
#14
Tao Geng, Duška Stojšin, Kang Liu, Bruce Schaalje, Cody Postin, Jason Ward, Yongcheng Wang, Zi Lucy Liu, Bin Li, Kevin Glenn
Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) is one of eight major allergenic foods with endogenous proteins identified as allergens. To better understand the natural variability of five soybean allergens (Gly m 4, Gly m 5, Gly m 6, Gly m Bd 28k, and Gly m Bd 30k), validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed. These ELISAs measured allergens in 604 soybean samples collected from locations in North and South America over five growing seasons (2009-2013/2014) and including 37 conventional varieties...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990349/digital-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-characterisation-of-dna-reference-materials
#15
REVIEW
Somanath Bhat, Kerry R Emslie
Accurate, reliable and reproducible quantification of nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) is important for many diagnostic applications and in routine laboratory testing, for example, for pathogen detection and detection of genetically modified organisms in food. To ensure reliable nucleic acid measurement, reference materials (RM) that are accurately characterised for quantity of target nucleic acid sequences (in copy number or copy number concentration) with a known measurement uncertainty are needed. Recently developed digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) technology allows absolute and accurate quantification of nucleic acid target sequences without need for a reference standard...
December 2016: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988886/naturally-occurring-high-oleic-acid-cottonseed-oil-identification-and-functional-analysis-of-a-mutant-allele-of-gossypium-barbadense-fatty-acid-desaturase-2
#16
Jay Shockey, Michael Dowd, Brian Mack, Matthew Gilbert, Brian Scheffler, Linda Ballard, James Frelichowski, Catherine Mason
Some naturally occurring cotton accessions contain commercially attractive seed oil fatty acid profiles. The likely causal factor for a high-oleate trait in pima cotton ( Gossypium barbadense ) accession GB-713 is described here. Vegetable oils are broadly used in the manufacture of many human and animal nutritional products, and in various industrial applications. Along with other well-known edible plant oils from soybean, corn, and canola, cottonseed oil is a valuable commodity. Cottonseed oil is a co-product derived from the processing of cottonseed fiber...
December 17, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979776/safety-assessment-of-genetically-modified-milk-containing-human-beta-defensin-3-on-rats-by-a-90-day-feeding-study
#17
Xin Chen, Ming-Qing Gao, Dong Liang, Songna Yin, Kezhen Yao, Yong Zhang
In recent years, transgenic technology has been widely applied in many fields. There is concern about the safety of genetically modified (GM) products with the increased prevalence of GM products. In order to prevent mastitis in dairy cows, our group produced transgenic cattle expressing human beta-defensin-3 (HBD3) in their mammary glands, which confers resistance to the bacteria that cause mastitis. The milk derived from these transgenic cattle thus contained HBD3. The objective of the present study was to analyze the nutritional composition of HBD3 milk and conduct a 90-day feeding study on rats...
February 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973536/a-single-subcutaneous-injection-of-cellulose-ethers-administered-long-before-infection-confers-sustained-protection-against-prion-diseases-in-rodents
#18
Kenta Teruya, Ayumi Oguma, Keiko Nishizawa, Maki Kawata, Yuji Sakasegawa, Hiroshi Kamitakahara, Katsumi Doh-Ura
Prion diseases are fatal, progressive, neurodegenerative diseases caused by prion accumulation in the brain and lymphoreticular system. Here we report that a single subcutaneous injection of cellulose ethers (CEs), which are commonly used as inactive ingredients in foods and pharmaceuticals, markedly prolonged the lives of mice and hamsters intracerebrally or intraperitoneally infected with the 263K hamster prion. CEs provided sustained protection even when a single injection was given as long as one year before infection...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959986/genetically-modified-food-labeling-a-right-to-know
#19
Lawrence O Gostin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
13, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928443/pre-and-post-natal-risk-and-determination-of-factors-for-child-obesity
#20
Trandafir Lm, Temneanu Or
Obesity is considered a condition presenting a complex, multi-factorial etiology that implies genetic and non-genetic factors. The way the available information should be efficiently and strategically used in the obesity and overweight prohylaxisprogrammes for children all over the world is still unclear for most of the risk factors. Mothers' pre-conception weight and weight gain during pregnancy are two of the most important prenatal determinants of childhood obesity. Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are associated with foetal macrosomia and childhood obesity, and this effect extends into adulthood...
October 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
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