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Genetically modified food

Bernhard H Monien, Benjamin Sachse, Walter Meinl, Klaus Abraham, Alfonso Lampen, Hansruedi Glatt
Furfuryl alcohol (FFA) is a heat-induced food contaminant. Conversion by sulfotransferases (SULT) yields 2-sulfoxymethylfuran, which is prone to react with DNA and proteins. In order to monitor the internal FFA exposure we developed a technique for the mass spectrometric quantification of the adduct N-((furan-2-yl)methyl)-valine (FFA-Val) after cleavage from the N-termini of hemoglobin. In the current study the method was applied to investigate the influence of different SULT forms on the adduct formation in wild-type mice and three genetically modified mouse models treated with FFA...
June 13, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Jie Zhen, Tong Lin, Xiaochen Huang, Huiqiang Zhang, Shengqi Dong, Yifan Wu, Linlin Song, Rong Xiao, Linhong Yuan
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene polymorphism has been implicated in predisposition to diabetes and dementia in old population, but the results from the different studies were inconclusive. A cross-sectional study was carried out to explore the relationship among ApoE gene polymorphism, diabetes and cognition in non-demented aging Chinese adults. A total number of 1000 community dwellers aged 55 years and above were randomly recruited. Demographic information of the participants was collected using well designed self-administered questionnaires...
June 2018: Aging and Disease
Rozemarijn Dreesen, Annabelle Capt, Regina Oberdoerfer, Isabelle Coats, Kenneth Edward Pallett
By transgenic expression technology, a modified 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase enzyme (HPPD W336) originating from Pseudomonas fluorescens is expressed in MST-FGØ72-2 soybean to confer tolerance to 4-benzoyl isoxazole and triketone type of herbicides1F. Characterization and safety assessment of HPPD W336 were performed. No relevant sequence homologies were found with known allergens or toxins. Although sequence identity to known toxins showed identity to HPPD proteins annotated as hemolysins, the absence of hemolytic activity of HPPD W336 was demonstrated in vitro...
June 9, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Elena E Ferapontova
Sensitive, specific, and fast analysis of nucleic acids (NAs) is strongly needed in medicine, environmental science, biodefence, and agriculture for the study of bacterial contamination of food and beverages and genetically modified organisms. Electrochemistry offers accurate, simple, inexpensive, and robust tools for the development of such analytical platforms that can successfully compete with other approaches for NA detection. Here, electrode reactions of DNA, basic principles of electrochemical NA analysis, and their relevance for practical applications are reviewed and critically discussed...
June 12, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Karla I Santos-Vigil, Damaris Ilhuicatzi-Alvarado, Ana L García-Hernández, Juan S Herrera-García, Leticia Moreno-Fierros
Cry1Ac toxin, from Bacillus thuringiensis, is widely used as a biopesticide and expressed in genetically modified (GM) plants used for human and animal consumption. Since Cry1Ac is also immunogenic and able to activate macrophages, it is crucial to thoroughly evaluate the immunological effects elicited after intra-gastric administration. The allergenic potential of purified Cry1Ac was assessed and compared with that induced in a murine model of food-allergy to ovalbumin (OVA), in which animals are sensitized with the adjuvant Cholera toxin (CT)...
June 7, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Young Ae Cho, Jeonghee Lee, Jae Hwan Oh, Hee Jin Chang, Dae Kyung Sohn, Aesun Shin, Jeongseon Kim
A proinflammatory diet may increase the risk of colorectal cancer, but its role may differ according to individuals' genetic variants. We aimed to examine whether a specific dietary pattern reflecting inflammation was associated with a risk of colorectal cancer and whether IL-17F genetic variant altered this association. In a study of 695 colorectal cancer cases and 1846 controls, we derived a reduced rank regression dietary pattern using 32 food groups as predictors and the plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration as the response...
June 5, 2018: Nutrients
Xiang Li, Lei Huang, Jianhua Lu, Yihui Cheng, Qingbo You, Lijun Wang, Xuejiao Song, Xinan Zhou, Yongqing Jiao
Molecular breeding has become an important approach for crop improvement, and a prerequisite for molecular breeding is elucidation of the functions of genetic loci or genes. Soybean is one of the most important food and oil crops worldwide. However, due to the difficulty of genetic transformation in soybean, studies of its functional genomics lag far behind those of other crops such as rice, which severely impairs the progress of molecular improvement in soybean. Here, we describe an effective large-scale strategy to investigate the functions of soybean genes via overexpression of a full-length soybean cDNA library in Arabidopsis ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Giuseppe Bellastella, Lorenzo Scappaticcio, Katherine Esposito, Dario Giugliano, Maria Ida Maiorino
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cancer share many modifiable risk factors including age, genetic factors, obesity, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, alcohol, smoking, endocrine disruptors exposure, circadian clock disturbances, and air pollution. MetS is closely linked to cancer, as it increases cancer risk and cancer-related mortality; moreover, cancer survivors have an increased risk of MetS. Elucidating the mechanisms linking MetS to cancer is important to prevent or delay these two conditions. Possible mechanisms explaining the relationship between MetS and cancer include hyperinsulinemia and alterations of insulin-like growth factor system, chronic subclinical inflammation, abnormalities in sex hormones metabolism and adipokines, hyperglicemia, alterations in both gene expression and hormonal profile by endocrine disruptors and air pollution, desynchronization of circadian clock...
May 26, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Ulrika Ericson, George Hindy, Isabel Drake, Christina-Alexandra Schulz, Louise Brunkwall, Sophie Hellstrand, Peter Almgren, Marju Orho-Melander
Background: Both lifestyle and genetic predisposition determine the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and studies have indicated interactions between specific dietary components and individual genetic variants. However, it is unclear whether the importance of overall dietary habits, including T2D-related food intakes, differs depending on genetic predisposition to T2D. We examined interaction between a genetic risk score for T2D, constructed from 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies, and a diet risk score of four foods consistently associated with T2D in epidemiological studies (processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages, whole grain and coffee)...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Miaomiao Yang, Junhua Yun, Huanhuan Zhang, Tinashe A Magocha, Hossain Zabed, Yanbo Xue, Ernest Fokum, Wenjing Sun, Xianghui Qi
1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PD) is one of the most important chemicals widely used as monomers for synthesis of some commercially valuable products, including cosmetics, foods, lubricants and medicines. Although 1,3-PD can be synthesized both chemically and biosynthetically, the latter offers more merits over chemical approach as it is economically viable, environmentally friendly and easy to carry out. The biosynthesis of 1,3-PD can be done by transforming glycerol or other similar substrates using some bacteria, such as Clostridium butyricum and Klebsiella pneumoniae ...
March 2018: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Nataliya Gutorova, Olena Batyhina, Maryna Trotska
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Science is constantly being developed which leads to both positive and negative changes in public health and the environment. One of the results of scientific progress is introduction of food based on genetically modified organisms whose effects on human health, to date, remain scantily studied and are ambiguous. The aim: to determine how human health can be influenced by food production based on genetically modified organisms. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: international acts, data of international organizations and conclusions of scientists have been examined and used in the study...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Xiang Li, Tiange Wang, Min Zhao, Tao Huang, Dianjianyi Sun, Liyuan Han, Hoirun Nisa, Xiaoyun Shang, Yoriko Heianza, Lu Qi
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence has implicated DNA methylation (DNAm) in the regulation of body adiposity; a recent epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) identified a genetic variant determining DNAm at the SREBF1 gene that affected body mass index (BMI). OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we tested interactions between DNAm variant rs752579 and methylation metabolism-related B-vitamins (folate, vitamin B2 , vitamin B6 , and vitamin B12 ) on longitudinal change in BMI in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS)...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Edoardo Balzani, Matteo Falappa, Fuat Balcà, Valter Tucci
Genetically modified mice are used as models for a variety of human behavioral conditions. However, behavioral phenotyping can be a major bottleneck in mouse genetics because many of the classic protocols are too long and/or are vulnerable to unaccountable sources of variance, leading to inconsistent results between centers. We developed a home-cage approach using a Chora feeder that is controlled by-and sends data to-software. In this approach, mice are tested in the standard cages in which they are held for husbandry, which removes confounding variables such as the stress induced by out-of-cage testing...
June 2018: Nature Protocols
Sophie Carter, Stéphanie Miard, Louise Boivin, Sandrine Sallé-Lefort, Frédéric Picard
Several studies have suggested that signals emerging from white adipose tissue can contribute to the control of longevity. In turn, aging is associated with perturbed regulation and partitioning of fat depots and insulin resistance. However, the exact mechanisms involved in these relationships remain undetermined. Using RAP-PCR on adipose tissue of young and old male mice coupled with qPCR validation, we have uncovered the long non-coding RNA Malat1 as a gene robustly downregulated in visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT) during normal aging in male mice and men...
2018: PloS One
Veer Pal Singh
Bio-preservation is a technique of extending the shelf life of food by using natural or controlled microbiota or antimicrobials. The fermentation products as well as beneficial bacteria are generally selected in this process to control spoilage and render pathogen inactive. The special interest organism or central organism used for this purpose is lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their metabolites. They are capable to exhibit antimicrobial properties and helpful in imparting unique flavour and texture to the food products...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
Eve G Lowenstein, Norma A Velazquez-Ulloa
Animals encounter multiple stimuli each day. Some of these stimuli are innately appetitive or aversive, while others are assigned valence based on experience. Drugs like ethanol can elicit aversion in the short term and attraction in the long term. The reward system encodes the predictive value for different stimuli, mediating anticipation for attractive or punishing stimuli and driving animal behavior to approach or avoid conditioned stimuli. The neurochemistry and neurocircuitry of the reward system is partly evolutionarily conserved...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Zhi-Yong Qian, Shu-Jing Zhang, Li Zhang, Jing Zhang, Ying-Hua Liu, Qing-Hong Zhou, Shu-Qing Jiang, Shu-Fei Li
A 90-day feeding study in rats was conducted to evaluate the subchronic oral toxicity of genetically modified (GM) DAS-81419-2 soybean. Wistar rats were fed with diets containing toasted soybean meal produced from DAS-81419-2 soybean grain that expresses the Cry1F, Cry1Ac, and Pat proteins or containing conventional soybean at doses of 30.0%, 15.0%, 7.5%, or 0% (control group) for 90 consecutive days. The general behavior, body weight and food consumption were observed. At the middle and end of the experiment, blood, serum, and urine samples were collected for biochemical assays...
April 28, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Tanja V E Kral, Reneé H Moore, Jesse Chittams, Elizabeth Jones, Lauren O'Malley, Jennifer O Fisher
Existing programs which aim to prevent and treat childhood obesity often do not take into account individual variation and the underlying mechanisms that impact child eating behavior. Individual differences in children's appetitive traits have been shown to appear as early as during infancy and become more pronounced as children grow older and become more exposed to the obesogenic food environment. Differences in genetic predispositions interacting with factors in children's early environment account in part for individual differences in appetitive traits...
April 27, 2018: Appetite
Peadar Lawlor, Michelle M Epstein, Gijs A Kleter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Edgar Chambers, Edgar Chambers, Mauricio Castro
Interest in “natural” food has grown enormously over the last decade. Because the United States government has not set a legal definition for the term “natural”, customers have formed their own sensory perceptions and opinions on what constitutes natural. In this study, we examined 20 ingredients to determine what consumers consider to be natural. Using a national database, 630 consumers were sampled (50% male and 50% female) online, and the results were analyzed using percentages and chi-square tests...
April 23, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
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