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Genetically modified food

Petra Rust, Cem Ekmekcioglu
Excessive dietary salt (sodium chloride) intake is associated with an increased risk for hypertension, which in turn is especially a major risk factor for stroke and other cardiovascular pathologies, but also kidney diseases. Besides, high salt intake or preference for salty food is discussed to be positive associated with stomach cancer, and according to recent studies probably also obesity risk. On the other hand a reduction of dietary salt intake leads to a considerable reduction in blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients but to a lesser extent also in normotensives as several meta-analyses of interventional studies have shown...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yoonjin Shin, Yangha Kim
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of CD36, a class B scavenger receptor, rs6969989 polymorphism with the serum lipid profiles in Korean women, together with their modulation by oily fish consumption. Subjects were participants from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES), which was initiated in 2001 as a large-scale. A total of 4,210 women aged 39 to 70 were included in this study. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and blood chemical analysis...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Kerstin Schmidt, Jörg Schmidtke, Paul Schmidt, Christian Kohl, Ralf Wilhelm, Joachim Schiemann, Hilko van der Voet, Pablo Steinberg
The data of four 90-day feeding trials and a 1-year feeding trial with the genetically modified (GM) maize MON810 in Wistar Han RCC rats performed in the frame of EU-funded project GRACE were analysed. Firstly, the data obtained from the groups having been fed the non-GM maize diets were combined to establish a historical control data set for Wistar Han RCC rats at the animal housing facility (Slovak Medical University, Bratislava, Slovakia). The variability of all parameters is described, and the reference values and ranges have been derived...
October 11, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Hans De Steur, Joshua Wesana, Dieter Blancquaert, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Xavier Gellynck
Building upon the growing interest and research on genetically modified (GM) biofortification, its socioeconomic potential has been increasingly examined. We conducted two systematic reviews and meta-analyses to provide comprehensive evidence of consumers' willingness to pay (11 economic valuation studies, 64 estimates) and cost-effectiveness/benefits (five economic evaluation studies, 30 estimates). Worldwide, consumers were willing to pay 23.9% more for GM biofortified food crops. Aside from crop and design-related differences, information provision was deemed crucial...
October 10, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Michelle M Haby, Evelina Chapman, Rachel Clark, Luiz A C Galvão
Objectives To identify the agriculture, food, and nutrition security interventions that facilitate sustainable food production and have a positive impact on health. Methods Systematic review methods were used to synthesize evidence from multiple systematic reviews and economic evaluations through a comprehensive search of 17 databases and 10 websites. The search employed a pre-defined protocol with clear inclusion criteria. Both grey and peer-reviewed literature published in English, Spanish, and Portuguese between 1 January 1997 and November 2013 were included...
August 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Ellis C O'Neill, Steven Kelly
The photosynthetic, autotrophic lifestyle of plants and algae position them as ideal platform organisms for sustainable production of biomolecules. However, their use in industrial biotechnology is limited in comparison to heterotrophic organisms, such as bacteria and yeast. This usage gap is in part due to the challenges in generating genetically modified plants and algae and in part due to the difficulty in the development of synthetic biology tools for manipulating gene expression in these systems. Plant and algal metabolism, pre-installed with multiple biosynthetic modules for precursor compounds, bypasses the requirement to install these pathways in conventional production organisms, and creates new opportunities for the industrial production of complex molecules...
October 4, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Kavaljit H Chhabra, Jessica M Adams, Graham L Jones, Miho Yamashita, Martin Schlapschy, Arne Skerra, Marcelo Rubinstein, Malcolm J Low
OBJECTIVE: A major challenge for obesity treatment is the maintenance of reduced body weight. Diet-induced obese mice are resistant to achieving normoweight once the obesogenic conditions are reversed, in part because lowered circulating leptin leads to a reduction in metabolic rate and a rebound of hyperphagia that defend the previously elevated body weight set point. Because hypothalamic POMC is a central leptin target, we investigated whether changes in circulating leptin modify Pomc expression to maintain normal energy balance in genetically predisposed obese mice...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Xiaoyan Tan, Xiaobing Zhou, Yao Tang, Jianjun Lv, Lin Zhang, Li Sun, Yanwei Yang, Yufa Miao, Hua Jiang, Gaofeng Chen, Zhiying Huang, Xue Wang
The present study was performed to evaluate the food safety of TT51-1, a new type of genetically modified rice that expresses the Cry1Ab/Ac protein (Bt toxin) and is highly resistant to most lepidopteran pests. Sixteen male and 16 female cynomolgus monkeys were randomly divided into four groups: conventional rice (non-genetically modified rice, non-GM rice), positive control, 17.5% genetically modified rice (GM rice) and 70% GM rice. Monkeys in the non-GM rice, positive control, and GM rice groups were fed on diets containing 70% non-GM rice, 17...
2016: PloS One
Ruifeng Mao, Dongli Wu, Yefu Wang
Microbial cell surface display has attracted greater attention than ever and has numerous potential applications in biotechnology. With the safety and probiotic properties, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used widely in food and industrial applications. In order to circumvent using genetically modified microorganisms which face low public acceptance and severe regulatory scrutiny, surface-engineered LAB without genetical modification are more preferred. According to the way used to obtain the fusion protein containing the passenger molecule and anchoring domain, the genetic or chemical approaches can be used to construct these surface-engineered LAB...
September 20, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
J-M Drezen, J Gauthier, T Josse, A Bézier, E Herniou, E Huguet
Recent studies have highlighted that the accidental acquisition of DNA from other species by invertebrate genomes is much more common than originally thought. The transferred DNAs are of bacterial or eukaryote origin and in both cases the receiver species may end up utilising the transferred genes for its own benefit. Frequent contact with prokaryotic DNA from symbiotic endocellular bacteria may predispose invertebrates to incorporate this genetic material into their genomes. Increasing evidence also points to viruses as major players in transferring genes and mobile elements between the species they infect...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Theo W Prins, Ingrid M J Scholtens, Arno W Bak, Jeroen P van Dijk, Marleen M Voorhuijzen, Emile J Laurensse, Esther J Kok
This article contains data related to the research article entitled "A case study to determine the geographical origin of unknown GM papaya in routine food sample analysis, followed by identification of papaya events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4" (Prins et al., 2016) [1]. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) with targets that are putatively present in genetically modified (GM) papaya was used as a first screening to narrow down the vast array of candidates. The combination of elements P-nos and nptII was further confirmed by amplification and subsequent sequencing of the P-nos/nptII construct...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Qing Zhou, Guanghui Li, Yuanjian Zhang, Min Zhu, Yakun Wan, Yanfei Shen
Cry1C is one of the emerging toxin proteins produced by the Bacillus thuringiensis in the genetically modified crops for pest control in agriculture; thus, it is vital to measure the Cry1C level in crops for the healthy and environmental concerns. Current detections of Cry1C mainly rely on instrumental analysis such as high-performance liquid chromatography, which are time-consuming and are generally cost-prohibitive. Herein, a simple nanobodies (Nbs)-based electrochemical immunosensor has been first proposed for highly selective and sensitive detection of Cry1C...
October 4, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Jong-Sik Moon, Yujin Lee, Dong-Myeong Shin, Chuntae Kim, Won-Geun Kim, Minji Park, Jiye Han, Hyerin Song, Kyujung Kim, Jin-Woo Oh
A simple and portable colorimetric sensor based on M13 bacteriophage (phage) was devised to identify a class of endocrine disrupting chemicals, including benzene, phthalate, and chlorobenzene derivatives. Arrays of structurally and genetically modified M13 bacteriophage were fabricated so as to produce a biomimetic colorimetric sensor, and color changes in the phage arrays in response to several benzene derivatives were characterized. The sensor was also used to classify phthalate and chlorobenzene derivatives as representatives of endocrine disrupting chemicals...
September 12, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Keiko Komoto, Sawako Okamoto, Miki Hamada, Naoya Obana, Mami Samori, Tomoaki Imamura
BACKGROUND: Reports of food-related incidents, such as cows infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (2001) and the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), engendered significant fear among Japanese consumers and led to multiple farmer suicides, even when no actual health damage occurred. The growing availability of genetically modified (GM) food is occurring against this backdrop of concern about food safety. Consumers need information to assess risk and make informed purchasing decisions...
August 29, 2016: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
Gabriela Riscuta
The percentage of elderly people with associated age-related health deterioration, including cancer, has been increasing for decades. Among age-related diseases, the incidence of cancer has grown substantially, in part because of the overlap of some molecular pathways between cancer and aging. Studies with model organisms suggest that aging and age-related conditions are manipulable processes that can be modified by both genetic and environmental factors, including dietary habits. Variations in genetic backgrounds likely lead to differential responses to dietary changes and account for some of the inconsistencies found in the literature...
October 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Ji Li, Huijuan Liu, Terri H Beaty, Hua Chen, Benjamin Caballero, Youfa Wang
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence for some genetic control of dietary intake in adults, there is little evidence of how genetic factors influence children's dietary patterns. OBJECTIVE: To estimate heritability of dietary intake in twin children from China and test if genetic effects on dietary intakes vary by the children's socio-economic status (SES). METHODS: A sample of 622 twins (162 monozygotic and 149 dizygotic pairs; 298 boys and 324 girls aged 7-15 years) was recruited in South China...
October 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Omid M Ghoochani, Mansour Ghanian, Masoud Baradaran, Hossein Azadi
Organisms that have been genetically engineered and modified (GM) are referred to as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Bt crops are plants that have been genetically modified to produce certain proteins from the soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which makes these plants resistant to certain lepidopteran and coleopteran species. Genetically Modified (GM) rice was produced in 2006 by Iranian researchers from Tarom Mowla'ii and has since been called 'Bt rice'. As rice is an important source of food for over 3 billion inhabitants on Earth, this study aims to use a correlational survey in order to shed light on the predicting factors relating to the extent of stakeholders' behavioral intentions towards Bt rice...
August 8, 2016: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
Enquebaher K Tarekgne, Taran Skjerdal, Siv Skeie, Knut Rudi, Davide Porcellato, Benjamin Félix, Judith A Narvhus
Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is an important foodborne disease worldwide, and milk and milk products are commonly associated with SFP outbreaks. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of staphylococcal enterotoxin (se) genes in Staphylococcus aureus from raw cow's milk and milk products and to assess their genetic background with the spa typing method. Of the 549 samples (297 bulk milk and 162 milk product samples) collected from Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia, 160 (29.1%) were positive for S...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Akhter Ali, Dil Bahadur Rahut, Muhammad Imtiaz
In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers...
April 2, 2016: GM Crops & Food
Monika Scholz, Dylan J Lynch, Kyung Suk Lee, Erel Levine, David Biron
BACKGROUND: The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is widely used for studying small neural circuits underlying behavior. In particular, the rhythmic feeding motions collectively termed pharyngeal pumping are regulated by a nearly autonomous network of 20 neurons of 14 types. Despite much progress achieved through laser ablation, genetics, electrophysiology, and optogenetics, key questions regarding the regulation of pumping remain open. NEW METHOD: We describe the implementation and application of a scalable automated method for measuring pumping in controlled environments...
July 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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