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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919006/assessment-of-the-risk-of-foodborne-transmission-and-burden-of-hepatitis-e-in-switzerland
#1
Alexandra Müller, Lucie Collineau, Roger Stephan, Andrea Müller, Katharina D C Stärk
The objective of this study was i) to quantify the risk of hepatitis E for Swiss consumers by specified pork products and ii) to estimate the total burden of human food-borne hepatitis E in Switzerland. A quantitative risk assessment from slaughter to consumption was carried out according to the Codex Alimentarius framework. In the hazard characterization, assumptions were made due to the lack of a dose-response relationship for oral exposure to hepatitis E virus (HEV). The prevalence of HEV in 160 pig livers of 40 different Swiss fattening farms was examined and determined to be 1...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916928/the-effect-of-lupinus-albus-and-calcium-chloride-on-growth-performance-body-composition-plasma-biochemistry-and-meat-quality-of-male-pigs-immunized-against-gonadotrophin-releasing-factor
#2
Karen Moore, Bruce Mullan, Jae Cheol Kim, Frank Dunshea
Two hundred and ninety-four pigs were used to assess the effect of two ingredients (Lupinus albus (albus lupins) or a combination of calcium chloride and sodium tri-polyphosphate (mineral salts)) on growth performance, body composition and objective meat quality of pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (immunocastrates) and entire male pigs in the late finishing phase. Pigs fed mineral salts ate less feed than those fed the control diet with no effect on growth rate (p > 0.05), backfat (p > 0...
December 1, 2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914322/association-between-pigs-with-high-caecal-salmonella-loads-and-carcass-contamination
#3
M Pesciaroli, L Cucco, S De Luca, F R Massacci, C Maresca, L Medici, M Paniccià, E Scoccia, M Staffolani, G Pezzotti, C F Magistrali
Contaminated pork is a significant source of foodborne Salmonella infections. Pork is contaminated at the slaughterhouse; however, the mechanisms driving Salmonella contamination of carcasses are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the amount of Salmonella carried by slaughtered pigs in their guts has an influence on carcass contamination. On that account, we tested whether the number of carcasses contaminated during a slaughter day was associated with the prevalence of highly contaminated pigs (HCP: Salmonella caecal loads ≥3log/g), or with the prevalence of pigs that simply carry Salmonella spp...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913919/a-critical-overview-on-the-biological-and-molecular-features-of-red-and-processed-meat-in-colorectal-carcinogenesis
#4
REVIEW
Arunan Jeyakumar, Lakal Dissabandara, Vinod Gopalan
A recent investigation by the World Health Organisation (WHO) has found that the consumption of processed meat and potentially red meat promotes carcinogenesis and can increase the risk of colorectal cancer. This literature review aims to summarise both the red and processed meat molecules associated with colorectal carcinogenesis and investigate their relationship with the pathogenic process of colorectal cancer. Literature relating to the carcinogenic effect of red and processed meat molecules was critically reviewed...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911040/retrospective-study-evaluating-seroprevalence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-in-blood-donors-and-in-swine-veterinarians-in-italy-2004
#5
L De Sabato, I Di Bartolo, E Montomoli, C Trombetta, F M Ruggeri, F Ostanello
Hepatitis E is an emerging viral disease in developed countries, with sporadic cases occasionally linked to the consumption of raw or undercooked pork, wild boar or deer meat. Cases due to transfusion or transplantation have also been reported. In developed countries, hepatitis E is considered a zoonosis and pig is the main reservoir. In the last few years, several studies conducted in Europe reported variable seroprevalence rates among the general population, ranging between 0.26% and 52.5%. A higher seroprevalence was described among workers who come in contact with pigs...
December 2, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908781/heme-oxygenase-1-metabolite-biliverdin-not-iron-inhibits-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-replication
#6
Angke Zhang, Hong Duan, Na Li, Lijuan Zhao, Fengxing Pu, Baicheng Huang, Chunyan Wu, Yuchen Nan, Taofeng Du, Yang Mu, Qin Zhao, Yani Sun, Gaiping Zhang, Julian A Hiscox, En-Min Zhou, Shuqi Xiao
Porcinereproductiveandrespiratorysyndromevirus (PRRSV) causes significant economic losses to the pork industry worldwide. Previously, we demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) interferes with PRRSV replication. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, here we assess whether the HO-1 downstream metabolites biliverdin (BV) and/or iron mediate the HO-1 antiviral effect. We demonstrate a BV concentration-dependent suppression of PRRSV replication and show that virions are not directly inactivated by BV. Additionally, BV or N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) significantly reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells; however, because NAC did not reduce viral load, the BV antiviral effect is independent of decreased ROS levels...
November 28, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899125/preventive-measures-aimed-at-minimizing-the-risk-of-african-swine-fever-virus-spread-in-pig-farming-systems
#7
REVIEW
Silvia Bellini, Domenico Rutili, Vittorio Guberti
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most severe diseases of pigs; it has a drastic impact on the pig industry, causing serious socio-economic consequences to pig farmers and pork producers. In Europe, there are currently two main clusters of infection; one in Sardinia caused by strains of African swine fever virus (ASFV) belonging to genotype I and another in Eastern Europe caused by strains of ASFV belonging to genotype II. The latter is inducing an acute form of ASF and it represents a serious threat to the pig sector...
November 29, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899063/a-simple-sample-preparation-for-simultaneous-determination-of-chloramphenicol-and-its-succinate-esters-in-food-products-using-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#8
Vasiliy Amelin, Anton Korotkov
A simple method is described for determination of chloramphenicol and its succinate esters in food products. Examination of food products using HPLC/high-resolution mass spectrometry showed the presence of not only chloramphenicol but also its succinate forms. A scheme is proposed for determining chloramphenicol and its succinate esters (calculated as chloramphenicol) in meat (beef, pork, poultry), milk, liver, kidney, eggs, fish and honey. Analytes are extracted from a 1.0 g sample with 5 ml acetonitrile. It was found that using the method of standard addition and diluting the extract with water leads to the elimination of matrix effects and also eliminates errors associated with peak splitting due to the separate elution of the differing forms of the analyte...
November 30, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898937/an-evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-freshcase-technology-to-extend-the-storage-life-of-whole-muscle-pork-and-ground-pork-sausage
#9
X Yang, D R Woerner, K R McCullough, J D Hasty, I Geornaras, G C Smith, J N Sofos, K E Belk
The objective of this study was to identify the maximum time of refrigerated storage before aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria grew to a level indicative of spoilage (7 log cfu/g) or other indicators of spoilage were observed for whole-muscle pork and ground pork sausage packaged using FreshCase technology. Pork chops and pork sausage were packaged using conventional vacuum packaging without nitrite in film (Control) or using FreshCase technology and were compared with respect to microbial counts, pH, instrumental color measurements, lipid oxidation level, and sensory properties...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898929/does-heat-stress-alter-the-pig-s-response-to-dietary-fat
#10
T A Kellner, L H Baumgard, K J Prusa, N K Gabler, J F Patience
Heat stress (HS) results in major losses to the pork industry via reduced growth performance and, possibly, carcass fat quality. The experimental objective was to measure the effects of HS on the pig's response to dietary fat in terms of lipid digestion, metabolism, and deposition over a 35-d finishing period. A total of 96 PIC 337 × C22/C29 (PIC, Inc., Hendersonville, TN) barrows (initial BW of 100.4 ± 1.2 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 9 treatments arranged as a 3 × 3 factorial: thermoneutral (TN; constant 24°C; ad libitum access to feed), pair-fed thermoneutral (PFTN; constant 24°C; limit fed based on previous HS daily feed intake), or HS (cyclical 28°C nighttime, 33°C from d 0 to 7, 33...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898928/predicting-pork-loin-chop-yield-using-carcass-and-loin-characteristics
#11
K B Wilson, M F Overholt, E K Hogan, C Schwab, C M Shull, M Ellis, N S Grohmann, A C Dilger, D D Boler
The objective was to determine the predictive ability of carcass length for the number of equal-thickness chops obtained from a boneless pork loin. Longer pork carcasses are assumed to yield longer loins and, therefore, an increased number of chops. Loins were collected from pigs (1,238 total) raised under commercial conditions and marketed when the mean pig weight in a pen reached 138 kg. Pigs were slaughtered over 7 wk in a commercial facility. Carcass length was measured at 1 d postmortem on the left side of each carcass from the anterior edge of the symphysis pubis bone to the anterior edge of the first rib...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898923/growth-and-development-symposium-adenosine-monophosphate-activated-protein-kinase-and-mitochondria-in-rendement-napole-pig-growth
#12
T L Scheffler, D E Gerrard
The Rendement Napole mutation (RN-), which is well known to influence pork quality, also has a profound impact on metabolic characteristics of muscle. Pigs with RN- possess a SNP in the γ3 subunit of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK); AMPK, a key energy sensor in skeletal muscle, modulates energy producing and energy consuming pathways to maintain cellular homeostasis. Importantly, AMPK regulates not only acute response to energy stress but also facilitates long-term adaptation via changes in gene and protein expression...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898922/influence-of-pork-and-pork-by-products-on-macronutrient-and-energy-digestibility-and-palatability-in-large-exotic-felids
#13
C J Iske, C L Morris, K L Kappen
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate digestibility and palatability of a new commercial pork-based raw diet for zoo-managed felids. Currently 2 protein sources (beef or horse) comprise the majority of commercial raw meat diet formulations for exotic carnivores in zoological institutions. Pork-based diets have traditionally not been widely utilized and thus nutrient digestibility of pork has not been adequately evaluated in exotic carnivores. The objectives of this study were 1) to determine if a pork-based diet had similar apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility and fecal scores as standard zoo carnivore diets formulated with either horse or beef, in large exotic felids and 2) evaluate palatability of pork for use in zoos...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898864/comparison-of-variability-in-pork-carcass-composition-and-quality-between-barrows-and-gilts
#14
M F Overholt, E K Arkfeld, D A Mohrhauser, D A King, T L Wheeler, A C Dilger, S D Shackelford, D D Boler
Pigs ( = 8,042) raised in 8 different barns representing 2 seasons (cold and hot) and 2 production focuses (lean growth and meat quality) were used to characterize variability of carcass composition and quality traits between barrows and gilts. Data were collected on 7,684 pigs at the abattoir. Carcass characteristics, subjective loin quality, and fresh ham face color (muscles) were measured on a targeted 100% of carcasses. Fresh belly characteristics, boneless loin weight, instrumental loin color, and ultimate loin pH measurements were collected from 50% of the carcasses each slaughter day...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898378/ag-n-doped-reduced-graphene-oxide-incorporated-with-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-an-advanced-electrochemical-sensing-platform-for-salbutamol-determination
#15
Junhua Li, Zhifeng Xu, Mengqin Liu, Peihong Deng, Siping Tang, Jianbo Jiang, Haibo Feng, Dong Qian, Lingzhi He
In this work, the metallic silver and non-metallic nitrogen co-doped reduced graphene oxide (Ag-N-RGO) was first synthesized by a simple and cost-effective strategy, and then a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was formed in situ at the surface of the prepared composite via electropolymerization of o-phenylenediamine in the presence of salbutamol as the template molecule. The electrochemical characterizations demonstrate that the bifunctional graphene-based composite shows improved catalytic performance than that of pristine graphene doped with one-component or none...
November 10, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891709/effect-of-dietary-kapok-oil-supplementation-on-growth-performance-carcass-traits-meat-quality-and-sensory-traits-of-pork-in-finishing-pigs
#16
Keisuke Maeda, Kimiko Kohira, Hiroki Kubota, Kousuke Yamanaka, Kaoru Saito, Masakazu Irie
Kapok seed and oil from the tropical zone are widely used as pig feed to harden porcine fat in Japan. This study evaluated the effect of dietary kapok oil supplementation on pork quality and sensory traits. Five Duroc pigs each were assigned to an experimental group supplemented with kapok oil and a control group. Dietary kapok oil supplementation had no effect on growth performance and intramuscular fat content in the Longissimus dorsi muscle (LM). Supplemental kapok oil increased saturated fatty acid contents in subcutaneous and intramuscular fat and decreased monounsaturated fatty acid levels (P < 0...
November 27, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889163/differential-detection-of-pathogenic-yersinia-spp-by-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization
#17
Alexander Rohde, Jens Andre Hammerl, Bernd Appel, Ralf Dieckmann, Sascha Al Dahouk
Yersinia enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis are pathogens of major medical importance, which are responsible for a considerable number of infections every year. The detection of these species still relies on cultural methods, which are slow, labour intensive and often hampered by the presence of high amounts of accompanying flora. In this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to develop a fast, sensitive and reliable alternative to detect viable bacteria in food. For this purpose, highly specific probes targeting the 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA were employed to differentially detect each of the three species...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889161/mrsa-and-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-u-s-retail-meats-2010-2011
#18
Beilei Ge, Sampa Mukherjee, Chih-Hao Hsu, Johnnie A Davis, Thu Thuy T Tran, Qianru Yang, Jason W Abbott, Sherry L Ayers, Shenia R Young, Emily T Crarey, Niketta A Womack, Shaohua Zhao, Patrick F McDermott
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been detected in retail meats, although large-scale studies are scarce. We conducted a one-year survey in 2010-2011 within the framework of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Among 3520 retail meats collected from eight U.S. states, 982 (27.9%) contained S. aureus and 66 (1.9%) were positive for MRSA. Approximately 10.4% (107/1032) of S. aureus isolates, including 37.2% (29/78) of MRSA, were multidrug-resistant (MDRSA). Turkey had the highest MRSA prevalence (3...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889147/biocontrol-of-ochratoxigenic-moulds-aspergillus-ochraceus-and-penicillium-nordicum-by-debaryomyces-hansenii-and-saccharomycopsis-fibuligera-during-speck-production
#19
Lucilla Iacumin, Marisa Manzano, Debbie Andyanto, Giuseppe Comi
Speck is a meat product obtained from the deboned leg of pork that is salted, smoked and seasoned for four to six months. During speck seasoning, Eurotium rubrum and Penicillium solitum grow on the surface and collaborate with other moulds and tissue enzymes to produce the typical aroma. Both of these strains usually predominate over other moulds. However, moulds producing ochratoxins, such as Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium nordicum, can also co-grow on speck and produce ochratoxin A (OTA). Consequently, speck could represent a potential health risk for consumers...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887586/hepatitis-e-virus-seroepidemiology-a-post-earthquake-study-among-blood-donors-in-nepal
#20
Ashish C Shrestha, Robert L P Flower, Clive R Seed, Manita Rajkarnikar, Shrawan K Shrestha, Uru Thapa, Veronica C Hoad, Helen M Faddy
BACKGROUND: As one of the causative agents of viral hepatitis, hepatitis E virus (HEV) has gained public health attention globally. HEV epidemics occur in developing countries, associated with faecal contamination of water and poor sanitation. In industrialised nations, HEV infections are associated with travel to countries endemic for HEV, however, autochthonous infections, mainly through zoonotic transmission, are increasingly being reported. HEV can also be transmitted by blood transfusion...
November 25, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
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