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N M Krupnov, A L Shkutenko, A V Fedotov, A V Sashin
The available literature reports only rare cases of injuries inflicted by the speargun shots. The last publication of this sort of which we are aware dates back to 1960. This article describes an example from the expert practice concerning the accident involving a wound caused by the speargun shot to a member of an amateur fishing party. The authors examined the weapon of injury (a 'Zelinka' speargun), the harpoon, its head, and fragments of the skin with the traces of the punctured wound obtained from the corpse of the victim...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Cheng Zou, Long Li, Xiaofang Cheng, Cencen Li, Yuhua Fu, Chengchi Fang, Changchun Li
Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is an important trait that can affect pork quality. Previous studies have identified many genes that can regulate IMF. Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are emerging as key regulators in various biological processes. However, lincRNAs related to IMF in pig are largely unknown, and the mechanisms by which they regulate IMF are yet to be elucidated. Here we reconstructed 105,687 transcripts and identified 1,032 lincRNAs in pig longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) of four stages with different IMF contents based on published RNA-seq...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Li Cheng Sow, Karmaine Kong, Hongshun Yang
Pork gelatin is not suitable for halal and kosher application; however, fish gelatin (FG) can be modified for use as a pork gelatin (PG) mimetic. Herein, low-acyl gellan (GE), κ-carrageenan (KC), and salts (CaCl2 or KCl) were combined with a 180 Bloom tilapia FG. A formulation comprising 5.925% (w/v) FG + 0.025% (w/v) GE + 3mM CaCl2 best matched the physicochemical properties of PG. The modification increased the FG gel strength from 115 ± 2 to 149 ± 2 g (matching the 148 ± 2 of PG), while the Tm increased from 27...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Katarzyna Piórkowska, Kacper Żukowski, Katarzyna Ropka-Molik, Mirosław Tyra, Artur Gurgul
Pork is the most popular meat in the world. Unfortunately, the selection pressure focused on high meat content led to a reduction in pork quality. The present study used RNA-seq technology to identify metabolic process genes related to pork quality traits and fat deposition. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between pigs of Pulawska and Polish Landrace breeds for two the most important muscles (semimembranosus and longissimus dorsi). A total of 71 significant DEGs were reported: 15 for longissimus dorsi and 56 for semimembranosus muscles...
January 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Canan Güvenç, Patrick Dupont, Jan Van den Stock, Laura Seynaeve, Kathleen Porke, Eva Dries, Karen Van Bouwel, Johannes van Loon, Tom Theys, Karolien E Goffin, Wim Van Paesschen
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy surgery often causes changes in cognition and cerebral glucose metabolism. Our aim was to explore relationships between pre- and postoperative cerebral metabolism as measured with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and neuropsychological test scores in patients with left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), who were rendered seizure-free after epilepsy surgery. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were included...
April 12, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Bruna Torres Furtado Martins, Clarisse Vieira Botelho, Danilo Augusto Lopes Silva, Frederico Germano Piscitelli Alvarenga Lanna, Juliana Libero Grossi, Maria Emilene Martino Campos-Galvão, Ricardo Seiti Yamatogi, Juliana Pfrimer Falcão, Luciano Dos Santos Bersot, Luís Augusto Nero
This study aimed to track Yersinia enterocolitica contamination in a pork production chain in Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to characterize the virulence and antibiotic resistance of isolates. Samples were collected from four different steps of the pork production chain (pig farm, carcass, processing environment and end product; n = 870), and tested for the presence of Y. enterocolitica. The pathogen was detected in 8 samples (palatine tonsils = 5; mesenteric lymph nodes = 2; carcass after bleeding = 1), from which 16 isolates were obtained and identified as Y...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Jieyu Wu, Rongfa Guan, Guozhou Cao, Zhenfeng Liu, Zhe Wang, Haitao Shen, Qile Xia
In this study, catechin (CT), catechin liposome (CTL), and α-tocopherol (TP) were added to Chinese dried pork to achieve a healthy lipid composition. Their effectiveness in prevention of lipid oxidation was determined by measuring the values of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and peroxides. The total viable count in samples was used to identify the antimicrobial activities of CT, CTL, and TP, and the pH values of the samples were determined. Chinese dried pork with antioxidants added at 600 mg/kg was subjected to sensory evaluation...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Nan Cheng, Qin Wang, Ying Shang, Yuancong Xu, Kunlun Huang, Zhansen Yang, Dengke Pan, Wentao Xu, Yunbo Luo
Genome editing techniques have been implemented in human daily lives, which has created a high demand for the development of new gene-edited product analysis methods. Conventional assays are time-consuming, labor-intensive, and costly. This paper proposes a rapid and low-cost strategy for detecting genome-editing induced deletion which works by integrating rapid-multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) with a dual-lateral flow nucleic acid biosensor (LFNAB) cascade in a single-copy case. A rapid-MLPA was first introduced to the LFNAB system as a replacement for the conventional PCR for enhanced specificity and accuracy...
August 17, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Ignacio Gisbert Algaba, Bavo Verhaegen, Malgorzata Jennes, Mizanur Rahman, Wim Coucke, Eric Cox, Pierre Dorny, Katelijne Dierick, Stéphane De Craeye
Toxoplasma gondii is an ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite which can infect any warm-blooded animal including humans. Humans and carnivores/omnivores can also become infected by consumption of raw or undercooked infected meat containing muscle cysts. This route of transmission is considered to account for at least 30% of human toxoplasmosis cases. To better assess the role of pork as a source of infection for humans, the parasite burden resulting from experimental infection with different parasite stages and different strains of T...
April 3, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Anna C S Porto-Fett, Stephen G Campano, Marcus Rieker, Laura J Stahler, Lianna McGEARY, Laura E Shane, Bradley A Shoyer, Manuela Osoria, John B Luchansky
All-pork mortadella, an Italian-style deli meat, was produced by a local artisanal meat producer with or without 1.0 or 1.5% liquid buffered vinegar (LBV), 0.4, 0.6, or 1.0% dry buffered vinegar (DBV), or a 2.5% blend of potassium lactate and sodium diacetate (KLac). In each of three trials, mortadella was sliced (ca. 1.5 cm thick, ca. 30 g) and surface inoculated with 250 μL per side of a five-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes (ca. 3.8 log CFU per slice). The packages were vacuum sealed and then stored at 4 or 12°C...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Zaida Herrador, Amalia Fernandez-Martinez, Agustín Benito, Rogelio Lopez-Velez
BACKGROUND: Cysticercosis (CC) is a tissue infection caused by the larval cysts of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. It is usually acquired by eating contaminated food or drinking water. CC Cysts can develop in the muscles, the eyes, the brain, and/or the spinal cord. T. solium is found worldwide, but its prevalence has decreased in developed countries due to stricter meat inspection and better hygiene and sanitation. Nevertheless, CC is still a leading cause of seizures and epilepsy. In Spain, The disease is not nationally reportable and data on CC infected animals are also missing, despite the European Directive 2003/99/EC...
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sha Xie, Xin-Xin Chen, Songlin Qiao, Rui Li, Yangang Sun, Shuangfei Xia, Lin-Jian Wang, Xuegang Luo, Ruiguang Deng, En-Min Zhou, Gai-Ping Zhang
Once infected by viruses, cells can detect pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on viral nucleic acid by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to initiate the antiviral response. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), characterized by reproductive failure in sows and respiratory diseases in pigs of different ages. To date, the sensing mechanism of PRRSV has not been elucidated. Here, we reported that the pseudoknot region residing in the 3' untranslated regions (UTR) of PRRSV genome, which has been proposed to regulate RNA synthesis and virus replication, was sensed as non-self by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and Toll like receptor (TLR3) and strongly induced type I IFNs and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs)...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Virology
Bin Wang, Yan Liu, Chun-Miao Ji, Yong-Le Yang, Qi-Zhang Liang, Pengwei Zhao, Ling-Dong Xu, Xi-Mei Lei, Wen-Ting Luo, Pan Qin, Jiyong Zhou, Yao-Wei Huang
Identification of cellular receptors used by coronavirus (CoV) entry into the host cells is critical to understand pathogenesis and to develop intervention strategies. The fourth CoV genus, Deltacoronavirus , evolutionally related to the Gammacoronavirus , has just been defined recently. In the current study, we demonstrate that porcine aminopeptidase N (pAPN) acts as a cross-genus CoV functional receptor for both enteropathogenic porcine DeltaCoV (PDCoV) and AlphaCoV (transmissible gastroenteritis virus, TGEV) based upon three lines of evidences...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Virology
J T Seibert, K L Graves, B J Hale, A F Keating, L H Baumgard, J W Ross
Identifying traits associated with susceptibility or tolerance to heat stress (HS) is a prerequisite for developing strategies to improve efficient pork production during the summer months. Study objectives were to determine the relationship between the thermoregulatory and production responses to acute HS in pigs. Prepubertal gilts (n = 235; 77.9 ± 1.2 kg BW) were exposed to a thermoneutral (TN) period (P1, 24 h; 21.9 ± 0.5 °C, 62 ± 13% RH; fed ad libitum) followed immediately by a subsequent acute HS period (P2, 24 h; 29...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Georgios Pafitanis, Damjan Veljanoski, Ali M Ghanem, Simon Myers
Background: Free tissue transfer has evolved from muscle flaps to fasciocutaneous flaps. Dissection of the intramuscular course of feeding vessels is technically challenging. Simulation-based microsurgery skills acquisition is moving toward nonliving training models. Living porcine model or human cadavers are currently cost-ineffective methods for the early learning curve in teaching intramuscular dissection. The aim of this study was to validate an inexpensive ex vivo porcine model simulating harvest of the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEAP) flap, specifically including perforator intramuscular dissection...
February 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Y Bai, W Wang, L Yan, S R Yang, S F Yan, Y P Dong, B C Zhao, Y Y Zhao, J Xu, Y J Hu, F Q Li
Objective: To analyses the antimicrobial resistance and molecular characterization of 21 MRSA isolates cultured from retail foods from different provinces in China, and evaluate the molecular typing methods. Methods: Twenty-one MRSA isolates were obtained from national foodborne pathogen surveillance network in 2012 (Chinese salad, n= 3; milk, n= 1; cake, n= 2; rice, n= 1; cold noodle, n= 1; spiced beef, n= 1; dumpling, n= 1; packed meal, n= 1; salad, n= 1; raw pork, n= 9). The antimicrobial resistance of 21 strains to 12 antimicrobial agents was tested by broth dilution method...
April 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Mabruka Salem, Mikael Skurnik
Yersinia enterocolitica causes enteric infections in humans and animals. Human infections are often caused by contaminated pork meat. Y. enterocolitica colonizes pig tonsils and pigs secrete both the human pathogen and its specific bacteriophages into the stools. In this work, sixteen Y. enterocolitica -infecting lytic bacteriophages isolated from pig stools originating from several pig farms were characterized. All phages belong to the Podoviridae family and their genomes range between 38,391-40,451 bp in size...
April 3, 2018: Viruses
Gye-Woong Kim, Hack-Youn Kim
Background: The meat quality of Korean native pigs (KNP) and crossbred pigs (LYD; Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) was examined to generate data useful for selecting native pigs for improved pork production. Methods: Fifty Korean native pigs (KNP) and 50 crossbred pigs (LYD) were tested. Loin samples ( M. longissimus dorsi ) of the two breeds were analyzed to determine meat quality and sensory properties. Result: KNP had a higher moisture content than LYD ( p  < 0...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Yang Zhang, Yuexin Guo, Wei-Ning Lee
Ultrafast ultrasound imaging using plane or diverging waves, instead of focused beams, has advanced greatly the development of novel ultrasound imaging methods for evaluating tissue functions beyond anatomical information. However, the sonographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ultrafast imaging remains limited due to the lack of transmission focusing, and thus insufficient acoustic energy delivery. We hereby propose a new ultrafast ultrasound imaging methodology with cascaded dual-polarity waves (CDWs), which consists of a pulse train with positive and negative polarities...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Amin Ghadiri Khozroughi, Lothar W Kroh, Oliver Schlüter, Harshadrai Rawel
The post-mortem accumulation of the heme biosynthesis metabolite zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) in porcine muscle is associated with both a meat-inherent and a bacterial enzymatic reaction during meat storage. To estimate the bacterial impact on ZnPP formation, meat and meat-like media were investigated by HPLC-FLD (and MALDI-TOF-MS) after inoculation with a representative microorganism (P. fluorescens). Results indicate the principal ability of meat-inherent bacteria to form ZnPP in meat extracts and meat-like media, but not on the meat muscle...
August 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
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