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Jane G Pouzou, Solenne Costard, Francisco J Zagmutt
This probabilistic analysis estimated daily dietary exposures of the US population to heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from meat and some varieties of bread. Mean concentrations for these foods grouped by cooking method and food form were combined with consumption data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES). Mean exposure to HCA2 (PhIP + MeIQx), was 565.3 ng/day (95% CrI: 403.73, 726.88), and to PAH8 (sum of BaP, ChY, BaA, BkF, BbF, DahA, IP, and BghiP), was 634...
February 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Jane G Pouzou, Solenne Costard, Francisco J Zagmutt
Random effect meta-regressions were constructed to estimate concentrations of two heterocyclic amines (HCA) and eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in meat and breads. Eighteen HCA studies and nine PAH studies of food concentration were assembled. Concentration was computed for beef, poultry, pork, and seafood, and bread. Fixed effect predictors included cooking time, form of the food, cooking method, interaction between form and cooking method, temperature at which the food was cooked food, fuel of the flame source, percentage of fat, and other elements...
February 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Michiya Igase, Katsuhiko Kohara, Yoko Okada, Masayuki Ochi, Keiji Igase, Naoki Inoue, Tatsuhiko Kutsuna, Hiromasa Miura, Yasumasa Ohyagi
We examined whether baPWV could be affected by pork collagen peptide (CP) ingestion. Seventy subjects were randomized into two groups (2.5 g/day CP and 2.5 g/day placebo). A significant reduction in baPWV was observed in the CP group compared to the placebo group. This study demonstrated that pork CP may contribute to the prevention of atherosclerosis in elderly.
February 15, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Tangui Barré, Marlène Perignon, Rozenn Gazan, Florent Vieux, Valérie Micard, Marie-Josèphe Amiot, Nicole Darmon
BACKGROUND: Reducing the consumption of meat and other animal-based products is widely advocated to improve the sustainability of diets in high-income countries. However, such reduction may impair nutritional adequacy, since the bioavailability of key nutrients is higher when they come from animal- vs plant-based foods. Meat reduction may also affect the balance between foods co-produced within the same animal production system. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the impact of introducing nutrient bioavailability and co-production links considerations on the dietary changes needed - especially regarding meat ‒ to improve diet sustainability...
2018: PloS One
Jodie A Warren, T D Pulindu Ratnasekera, David A Campbell, Gail S Anderson
Immature Lucilia sericata (Meigen) raised on beef liver, beef heart, pork liver and pork heart at a mean temperature of 20.6°C took a minimum of 20 days to complete development. Minimum development time differences within stages were observed between the meat types (pork/beef), but not the organ types (liver/heart). Daily hyperspectral measurements were conducted and a functional regression was completed to examine the main effects of meat and organ type on daily spectral measurements. The model examined post feeding larval spectral measurements of insects raised on beef liver alone, the effect of those raised on pork compared with those raised on beef, the effect of those raised on heart compared with those raised on liver and the interactional effect of those raised on pork heart compared with those raised on beef liver...
2018: PloS One
Fernando L L Leite, Randall S Singer, Tonya Ward, Connie J Gebhart, Richard E Isaacson
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium continues to be a major cause of foodborne illness worldwide and pork can serve as a source of infection. Co-infection of S. enterica with Lawsonia intracellularis, a common intestinal pathogen of swine, has been found as risk factor for increased S. enterica shedding. The objective of this study was to investigate if vaccination against L. intracellularis could lead to decreased S. Typhimurium shedding. To test this hypothesis, pigs were challenged with either S. Typhimurium or S...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Carla Andrea Alonso, Gerardo Cortés-Cortés, Elaa Maamar, Mariana Massó, Rosa Del Carmen Rocha-Gracia, Carmen Torres, Daniela Centrón, María Paula Quiroga
Integrons are genetic platforms able to excise, integrate and express antibiotic resistance gene cassettes. Here, we investigate the complete genetic organization, genetic environment, location and conjugative transferability of a collection of class 2 integrons carried by E. coli strains from different sources (poultry/pork-meat, animals, and humans). PCR cartography was conducted to determine the genetic arrangement of the integrons, their physical linkage to Tn7 and the chromosomal insertion at attTn7 site...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Hyun-Wook Kim, Ji-Han Kim, Jin-Kyu Seo, Derico Setyabrata, Yuan H Brad Kim
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aging/freezing sequence and freezing rate on quality attributes and oxidative stability of frozen/thawed pork loins (M. longissimus lumborum, n = 6). Six treatments were prepared by combining 3 aging/freezing sequences (FT, freezing/thawing only; AFT, aging prior to freezing/thawing; and FTA, freezing/thawing and aging) with 2 freezing rates (slow- and fast-freezing). The lowest purge/thaw loss and drip loss were found for AFT, in which fast-freezing reduced total exudate loss (P < 0...
January 31, 2018: Meat Science
Lingling Zhang, Yakun Luo, Lin Liang, Jinxiang Li, Shangjin Cui
Porcine circovirus 2 causes different clinical syndromes resulting in a significant economic loss in the pork industry and PCV3 infection was mainly distributed in the pig herds exhibiting PDNS and reproductive failure symptoms and was widely prevalent in the swine population in several states of the USA. Subsequently, PCV3 was also detected in the Chinese pig herds in Hubei and Shandong Provinces, etc. In a screening of 265 clinical samples from Beijing, Zhejiang, Guangdong and Hebei in China for PCV2, PCV3 and co-infection of PCV2 and PCV3, 14...
February 7, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Orsolya M Palacios, Indika Edirisinghe, Meredith L Wilcox, Britt Burton-Freeman, Di Xiao, Kevin C Maki
OBJECTIVE: Replacing dietary refined carbohydrates (CHO) with protein may impact appetite and glucose and lipid metabolism in metabolically at-risk individuals. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of consumption of a lean pork-containing, high-protein (pPro) breakfast versus a refined-CHO-rich breakfast for 2 weeks on appetite and cardiometabolic parameters in overweight or obese adults with prediabetes. METHODS: In this crossover study, overweight or obese men and women with prediabetes were provided with either a pPro breakfast meal or a refined-CHO breakfast meal to consume each day (2-week intervention, ≥ 2-week washout)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Wiebke Jansen, Svenja Woudstra, Anja Müller, Nils Grabowski, Gundela Schoo, Bettina Gerulat, Günter Klein, Corinna Kehrenberg
Though imports of products of animal origin into the European Union (EU) have to comply with legal requirements and quality standards of the community, food consignment rejections at external EU borders have been increasing in recent years. This study explored microbiological metrics according to national target and critical values valid for samples at consumer level of 498 fresh poultry meat and 136 fresh pork filets from consignments subjected to physical checks during clearing at the border inspection post Hamburg harbour between January 2014 and December 2015 with ISO standard methods...
2018: PloS One
Maik Hilgarth, Sandra Fuertes-Pèrez, Matthias Ehrmann, Rudi F Vogel
The genus Photobacterium comprises species of marine bacteria, commonly found in open-ocean and deep-sea environments. Some species (e.g. Photobacterium phosphoreum) are associated with fish spoilage. Recently, culture-independent studies have drawn attention to the presence of photobacteria on meat. This study employed a comparative isolation approach of Photobacterium spp. and aimed to develop an adapted isolation procedure for recovery from food samples, as demonstrated for different meats: Marine broth is used for resuspending and dilution of food samples, and cultivation on marine broth agar supplemented with meat extract and vancomycin at 15 °C for 72 hours...
February 8, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Anusak Kerdsin, Yukihiro Akeda, Dan Takeuchi, Surang Dejsirilert, Marcelo Gottschalk, Kazunori Oishi
The purpose of this study is to characterize Streptococcus suis isolates recovered from human infections regarding serotype distribution, genotypic profile, clinical manifestations, and epidemiology. A total of 668 S. suis isolates recovered from human infections in Thailand were characterized based on serotyping by multiplex PCR and co-agglutination, genotypic profiles by multilocus sequence typing, and PCR for virulence-associated genes, as well as review of medical records. Serotype 2 (94.6%) was predominant, followed by serotype 14 (4...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Tim Hülsen, Kent Hsieh, Yang Lu, Stephan Tait, Damien J Batstone
Resource recovery, preferably as high value products, is becoming an integral part of modern wastewater treatment, with conversion to heterotrophic or phototrophic/photosynthetic microbes a key option to minimise dissipation, and maximise recovery. This study compares the treatment capacities of purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) and microalgae of five agri-industrial wastewaters (pork, poultry, red meat, dairy and sugar) to recover carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous as a microbial product. The mediators have different advantages, with PPB offering moderate removals (up to 74% COD, 80% NH4-N, 55% PO4-P) but higher yields (>0...
January 29, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Flávia Beatriz Custódio, Milton C Vasconcelos-Neto, Karine H Theodoro, Renan Campos Chisté, Maria Beatriz A Gloria
Pork loin and leg were evaluated 24h after slaughter and during refrigerated (5°C) and frozen storage for microbial counts, pH, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and bioactive amines. Spermine was the prevalent amine in fresh pork loin and leg, followed by spermidine and agmatine. During refrigerated storage, pH, TVB-N, mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts increased and no changes (p<0.05) were observed on polyamines; however putrescine, cadaverine and histamine were produced and accumulated throughout storage...
January 10, 2018: Meat Science
Eun Young Jung, Sang Keun Jin, Sun Jin Hur
The effects of biopolymer encapsulation and sodium replacement combination technology on quality characteristics (i.e., bitter taste) and inhibition of sodium absorption from pork sausage in mice were evaluated. The sausages were divided into three different sodium replacement groups (none, 40%, and 50%) and three different biopolymer encapsulation groups (none, cellulose, and chitosan) in combination. In groups with 50% sodium replacement by KCl and MgCl2, T8 (chitosan encapsulation) showed the highest inhibition of the sodium absorption rate...
June 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Daniel C Shippy, Bradley L Bearson, Devin B Holman, Brian W Brunelle, Heather K Allen, Shawn M D Bearson
Salmonella enterica serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- has emerged as a common nontyphoidal Salmonella serovar to cause human foodborne illness. An interesting trait of serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- is that it only expresses the fliC gene for bacterial motility (i.e., monophasic), while most Salmonella strains alternately express two flagellin genes (fliC and fljB). The goal of this study was to characterize the porcine response following inoculation with a multidrug-resistant (MDR) serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- isolate associated with a multistate pork outbreak to determine if the increased prevalence of serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- in swine is due to enhanced pathogenicity...
February 7, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Hewei Zhang, Qinfang Liu, Weiwei Su, Jianke Wang, Yaru Sun, Junfeng Zhang, Ke Shang, Shipeng Cheng, Zhenhai Chen, Hua Wu
PEDV remains one of the most important swine diseases that infects pigs of all ages. It causes devastating viral enteric disease in piglets with a high mortality rate, leading to significant threats and huge economic loss to the pork industry. In this study, a transcriptomic shotgun sequencing (RNA-Seq) procedure was used to study gene responses against PEDV infection. Genome-wide analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was performed in Vero E6 cells post-PEDV infection. mTOR signaling pathway activator-MHY1485, and inhibitor-PP242 were used to study the antiviral function...
February 2, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Alberto González-Mohino, Teresa Antequera, Sonia Ventanas, Daniel Caballero, Jorge Mir-Bel, Trinidad Pérez-Palacios
During cooking, there are important changes in meat products depending on the cooked method used as well as on the cooking temperature and time (1-3). The automatic control of these changes would allow the attainment of optimal points of cooking without the subjective criterion of who cooks, which supposes an important improvement in restoration and in domestic area.
February 6, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
L Faucitano
At all times prior to slaughter pigs may experience stress from a range of handling practices, such as fasting, loading and transport, mixing, and interaction with humans. These factors can affect the welfare of pigs, and carcass and meat quality both individually and collectively. Preslaughter stress is both an animal welfare and a meat quality issue. Behavioral and physiological studies have revealed that poor handling practices at the farm, during transport and at the slaughter plant have an adverse effect to pigs and may result in loss of profits due to animal losses during transport and in lairage...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
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